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XenSource and Symantec to bring Unified Server and Storage Virtualization | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

XenSource, Inc., provider of the open-source Xen virtualization project, and a provider of business virtualization solutions, introduced that it has signed an aftermarket settlement with Symantec to embed Veritas Storage basis, Symantec's trade-usual storage administration software into XenEnterprise, and collaborate on offering commercial enterprise-type HA/DR and backup expertise to XenSource purchasers.

by using unifying Symantec's storage virtualization application with the XenSource hypervisor, clients can enforce a scalable, excessive-efficiency virtualization platform that leverages their current storage investments, approaches and environments. The combination of those two main items will help to supply XenSource an answer to combat VMware's current offerings.

through working with Symantec, XenSource will increase XenEnterprise to handle key client wants in three areas:

  • Unified Server and Storage Virtualization - XenSource will embed Veritas Storage foundation inside XenEnterprise to give valued clientele seamless storage administration for important server and storage array and enable superior storage performance, together with utilization optimization, dynamic multi-pathing and factor-in-time copies.

  • Resiliency and company Continuity - XenSource will develop XenEnterprise HighAvailability, a brand new product which will be verified for certification by using each Symantec and XenSource, to supply failover of virtual machines, guaranteeing business continuity for enterprise purposes.

  • records insurance plan and Backup - To provide insurance policy for vital purposes operating within XenEnterprise virtual servers, Veritas NetBackup will be collectively established for certification.
  • "Symantec is the world leader in storage administration, facts insurance policy, and backup software for large firms", noted John Bara, vice chairman marketing, XenSource. He added, "XenSource is very blissful to announce the OEM settlement and partnership with Symantec. consumers will now be capable of buy a unified server and storage virtualization solution with the virtualization vigour and efficiency of XenSource, combined with the relied on storage administration, records insurance plan, and backup utility from Symantec."

    XenSource items will consist of key storage management products from Symantec, beginning as early as q4.

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    Information Security Bookshelf: Part 1 (2011 Edition) | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    In this first part of a two-part series on information security books, Ed Tittel compiles a collection of pointers to useful and informative books on information security. Though this list was originally compiled to prep for the CISSP exam, interested IT professionals from all areas in this field should find it helpful.

    by Ed Tittel

    Although the first draft of this article appeared in 2003, recent IT employment surveys, certification studies, and polls of IT professionals and system and network security continue to represent core technical competencies worthy of cultivation. To help you explore this fascinating field and appreciate its breadth and depth, Ed Tittel has put together a pair of articles that together cover information security (or InfoSec, as it's sometimes called) books as completely as possible. All the books in here are worth owning, although you may not need to acquire all books on identical or related topics from these lists. Together this compilation documents the best-loved and respected titles in the field. This is the first of two parts, so be sure to check out its successor story as well.

    In this article, I present the first installment of a two-part story on computer security books, in which I recommend titles that are bound to be noteworthy for those with an interest in this field. In my particular case, I'm updating materials relevant to the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) exam and digging my way through the most useful elements of a very large body of work on this subject matter. And of course, I also like to make sure that current "hot" titles show up in this list as well.

    This list and its companion emerged from the following research:

  • I draw upon my own reading in this field since the early 1990s. Currently, my bookcases already include five shelves of security books.
  • I consulted every expert security reading list I could find, including recommended reading for a broad range of security certifications, where available.
  • I asked my friends and colleagues who work in this field to provide feedback on my initial findings and to suggest additional entries.
  • Expert and ordinary reader reviews[md]and just under half the items mentioned here, my own personal experience[md]show me that there are amazing numbers of truly outstanding books in this field. If you find yourself reading something you don't like or can't understand in this arena, don't be afraid to investigate alternatives. There are plenty of them!

    To avoid the potential unpleasantness involved in ranking these titles, I present them in alphabetical order indexed by the primary author's last name.

    Adams, Carlisle and Steve Lloyd: Understanding PKI: Concepts, Standards, and Deployment Considerations, 2e, Addison-Wesley, 2010, ISBN-13: 978-0321743091.

    This book covers the basic principles needed to understand, design, deploy, and manage safe and secure PKI installations and information related to the issuance, use, and management of digital certificates. It provides special emphasis on certificates and certification, operational considerations related to deployment and use of PKI, and relevant standards and interoperability issues. It's a great overall introduction to the topic of PKI that's not too deeply technical.

    Allen, Julia H.: The CERT Guide to System and Network Security Practices, Addison-Wesley, 2001, ISBN-13: 978-0201737233.

    Here, the author distills numerous best practices and recommendations from the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) and its vast body of experience with computer security incidents, exploits, and attacks. Advice is couched generically rather than in terms of particular platforms or applications, so some translation will be necessary to implement that advice. Topics covered include hardening systems and networks, detecting and handling break-ins or other types of attack, and designing effective security policies.

    Bishop, Matt: Computer Security: Art and Science, Addison-Wesley, 2003, ISBN-13: 978-0201440997.

    Professor Matt Bishop packs his security expertise into this well-written, comprehensive computer security tome. This book has been successfully tested at advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate levels, and can be a useful addition to security certification courses. Topics covered include the theoretical and practical aspects of security policies; models, cryptography, and key management; authentication, biometrics, access control, information flow and analysis, and assurance and trust.

    Bosworth, Seymour, M.E. Kabay, and Eric Whyne: Computer Security Handbook, 5e, Wiley, February 2009, ISBN-13: 978-0471716525.

    An expensive but extremely popular graduate level and certification preparation textbook, this is one of the best general all-around references on information security topics available anywhere. It also includes a CD with tools for checklists, audits, and compliance checks.

    Bott, Ed, Carl Siechert, and Craig Stinson: Windows 7 Inside Out, MS Press, September 2009, ISBN-13: 978-0735626652.

    Though this book is a general, across-the-board Windows 7 tips-and-tricks tome, its coverage and intense focus on security topics makes it all the more valuable. It's an excellent book for those seeking to make the most of Windows 7 computing, including on the information security front.

    Bradley, Tony: Essential Computer Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security, Syngress, 2007, ISBN-13: 978-1597491143.

    Tony Bradley is's expert on information security (which they call Internet Network Security), and has been writing broadly in this field for more than a decade. This book aims at SOHO and SMB users, and provides excellent coverage for most essential security topics without digging overly deeply into technical details and underpinnings. A great book to start into the InfoSec field; or to recommend to friends, co-workers, or family members who just want to understand and apply fundamental principles for safe computing.

    Bragg, Roberta: Hardening Windows Systems, McGraw-Hill/Osborne Media, May 2004, ISBN-13: 978-0072253542.

    Bragg is simply one of the very best writers and teachers on Windows security topics, and this book does an excellent job of explaining and exploring system lockdown and hardening techniques for Windows. Although it predates Windows 7 and even Vista, much of this book's advice is still pertinent.

    Cache, Johnny, Joshua Wright, and Vincent Liu: Hacking Exposed Wireless, 2e, McGraw-Hill, July 2010, ISBN-13: 978-0071666619.

    This latest edition focuses on wireless network security vulnerabilities and the tools and techniques that attackers use to hack into Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and DECT connections. The authors cover many attacker tools in depth, including Aircrack-ng, coWPAtty, FreeRADIUS-WPE, IPPON, KillerBee, and Pyrit. In addition to learning how attackers can infiltrate your computers and networks, you'll pick up tips to lock down connections and mop up after a successful attack (if you're caught with your defenses down).

    Calder, Alan and Steve Watkins: IT Governance: A Manager's Guide to Data Security and ISO 27001/ISO 27002, Kogan Page, June 2008, ISBN-13: 978-0749452711.

    This book examines best-practices standards and procedures for data security and protection in light of Sarbanes-Oxley (U.S.) and the Turnbull Report and the Combined Code (UK) requirements. It is chock full of information and advice to help managers and IT professionals ensure that IT security strategies are coordinated, compliant, comprehensive, and cost-appropriate.

    Caloyannides, Michael A.: Privacy Protection and Computer Forensics, 2e, Artech House, October 2004, ISBN-13: 978-1580538305.

    This technical yet readable title addresses privacy rights for individuals who seek to protect personal or confidential information from unauthorized access. It includes coverage of computer forensic tools and techniques, as well as methods individuals might use to combat them. It also covers use of disk-wiping software; methods to achieve anonymity online; techniques for managing security; and confidentiality, encryption, wireless security, and legal issues.

    Carvey, Harlan (author) and Dave Kleiman (technical editor): Windows Forensic Analysis Including DVD Toolkit, Syngress, May 2007, ISBN-13: 978-159749156.

    An in-depth excursion into computer forensics on Windows systems that includes a reasonably comprehensive forensics toolkit on DVD as part of the package. It's not unreasonable to view the book as the background and instructions for use of the on-DVD toolkit, and the toolkit itself as the means whereby readers can learn about and gain experience in performing all kinds of computer forensics tasks. An excellent addition to any InfoSec bookshelf, thanks to its in-depth and competent analyses and explanations.

    Cheswick, William R, Steven M. Bellovin, and Aviel D. Rubin: Firewalls and Internet Security: Repelling the Wily Hacker, 2e, Addison-Wesley, 2003, ISBN-13: 978-0201634662.

    A very welcome second edition of a great first edition book, this tome includes great coverage of IP security topics and its excellent analysis of a computer attack and its handling. The firewall coverage is superb, but the authors' coverage of Internet security topics and techniques is also timely, interesting, and informative. It is an outstanding update to an already terrific book.

    Cooper, Mark et al.: Intrusion Signatures and Analysis, New Riders, 2001, ISBN-13: 978-0735710635.

    In this book, numerous network and system attacks are documented and described, along with methods that administrators can use to recognize ("identify a signature," as it were) and deal with such attacks. Aimed in part at helping individuals seeking the GIAC Certified Intrusion Analyst (GCIA) certification, the book explores a large catalogue of attacks, documents the tools that intruders use to mount them, and explains how to handle or prevent them. By working from protocol traces, or intrusion detection or firewall logs, the book also teaches skills for recognizing, analyzing, and responding to attacks.

    Crothers, Tim: Implementing Intrusion Detection Systems: A Hands-On Guide for Securing the Network, Wiley, 2002, ISBN-13: 978-0764549496.

    Though many books talk about intrusion detection systems, this one stands out for several reasons. First, it's short, concise, and direct: a great introduction to the topic. Second, it's leavened with good advice and best practices on deploying and using IDS technology, and includes great diagrams and explanations. It's probably not the only book you'll want on this topic, but it's a great place to start digging in.

    Dhanjani, Nitesh, Billy Rios, and Brett Hardin: Hacking: The Next Generation (Animal Guide), O'Reilly, September 2009, ISBN-13: 978-0596154578.

    Coming in at a trim 309 pages, this O'Reilly guide is chockfull of perspectives from the attacker's point of view. The authors provide concise, practical information on attack vectors (several even seasoned techies might not have considered) focused not only on computers and networks but also on mobile devices and cloud services. Written in plain English and liberally sprinkled with interesting, real-world examples, Hacking: The Next Generation is a good read and excellent addition to your library.

    Ferguson, Niels, Bruce Schneier, and Tadayoshi Kohno: Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications, Wiley, 2010, ISBN-13: 978-0470474242.

    An outstanding update to Schneier's previous second edition of Applied Cryptography, this book includes much of the same information and coverage, but aims more at laying out the principles of strong, secure cryptographic design and implementation. Among other things, it's often used as a graduate textbook for students in computer science or engineering, to help them understand issues involved in using and implementing cryptography within various software systems. It's probably the best and most up-to-date introduction to cryptography within the "let's use cryptography to do something" context around.

    Garfinkel, Simson, Alan Schwartz, and Gene Spafford: Practical UNIX and Internet Security, 3e, O'Reilly, 2003, ISBN-13: 978-0596003234.

    Several editions later, this book remains one of the best general security administration books around. It starts with the fundamentals of security and UNIX, works its way through security administration topics and techniques clearly and systematically, and includes lots of great supplementary information that's still quite useful today. While it's focused on a particular operating system and its inner workings, this book will be useful even for those who may not rub shoulders with UNIX every day.

    Garfinkel, Simson: Web Security, Privacy, and Commerce, 2e, O'Reilly, 2002, ISBN-13: 978-0596000455.

    This book tackles the real root causes behind well-publicized attacks and exploits on websites and servers right from the front lines. Explains the sources of risk and how those risks can be managed, mitigated, or sidestepped. Topics covered include user safety, digital certificates, cryptography, web server security and security protocols, and e-commerce topics and technologies. It's a great title for those interested in Web security matters.

    Gollman, Dieter: Computer Security, 2e, John Wiley Sons, December 2006, ISBN-13: 978-0470862933.

    This book surveys computer security topics and issues from a broad perspective starting with the notion of security models. It also covers what's involved in security operating and database systems, as well as networks. This book is widely adopted as an upper-division undergraduate or introductory graduate level textbook in computer science curricula, and also includes a comprehensive bibliography.

    Gregg, Michael: Build Your Own Security Lab: A Field Guide for Network Testing, Wiley, April 2008, ISBN-13: 978-0470179864.

    This book contains a complete set of guidelines for acquiring, assembling, installing, and operating an information security laboratory. It gives excellent coverage of attack tools and techniques, and how to counter them on Windows systems and networks.

    Harris, Shon: CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 5e, Osborne McGraw-Hill, January 2010, ISBN-13: 978-0071602174.

    Numerous other titles cover the CISSP exam (including a book of my own), but this is the only one that earns high ratings from both security professionals and ordinary book buyers. It covers all 10 domains in the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) that is the focus of the CISSP exam, but also includes lots of examples, case studies, and scenarios. Where other books summarize, digest, and condense the information into almost unrecognizable forms, this book is well written, explains most key topics, and explores the landscape that the CISSP covers very well. Those with InfoSec training or backgrounds may be able to use this as their only study tool, but those who lack such background must read more widely. Value-adds to this book include the accompanying simulated practice exams and video training on the CD.

    The Honeynet Project: Know Your Enemy: Learning About Security Threats, 2e, Addison-Wesley, 2004, ISBN-13: 978-0321166463.

    In computer security jargon, a honeypot is a system designed to lure and snare would-be intruders; by extension, a honeynet is a network designed to do the same thing. The original Honeynet Project involved two years of effort from security professionals who set up and monitored a set of production systems and networks designed to be compromised. The pedigree of the group involved is stellar, and so are their results in this second edition, which shares the results of their continuing and detailed observations of attacks and exploits, and their recommendations on how to deal with such phenomena.

    Kahn, David: The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet, Scribner, 1996, ISBN-13: 978-0684831305.

    If you're looking for a single, comprehensive, and exhaustive treatment of cryptography, this is the book for you. Kahn starts with simple substitution ciphers that go all the way back to the invention of writing in the Tigris/Euphrates cultures to techniques used in the present day. Be warned that this book is rather more historical and descriptive in its coverage than it is a how-to book, but it is absolutely the right place to start for those who are interested in this topic and who want to get the best possible background before diving into more technical detail.

    Komar, Brian: Windows Server 2008 PKI and Certificate Security, Microsoft Press, April 2008, ISBN-13: 978-0735625167.

    A wealth of information and practical advice on using Windows Server 2008 to design and deploy certificate-based security solutions, including coverage of wireless networks, smart card authentication, VPNs, secure e-mail, Web SSL, EFS, and code-signing applications.

    Kruse, Warren G. and Jay Heiser: Computer Forensics: Incident Response Essentials, Addison-Wesley, 2001, ISBN-13: 978-0201707199.

    A perennial computer security buzzword is "incident response" or "incident handling," meaning the activities involved in detecting and responding to attacks or security breaches. This book describes a systematic approach to implementing incident responses, and focuses on intruder detection, analysis of compromises or damages, and identification of possible culprits involved. The emphasis is as much on preparing the "paper trail" necessary for successful prosecution of malefactors as it is in exploring the principles involved in formulating incident response teams, strategies, security enhancements, and so forth. Coverage extends to analyses of attack tools and strategies, as well as monitoring and detecting tools and techniques. It's an interesting read, and a very useful book.

    Malin, Cameron H., Eoghan Casey, and James M. Aquilina: Malware Forensics: Investigating and Analyzing Malicious Code, Syngress, June 2008, ISBN-13: 978-1597492683.

    Written by a team of practicing and heavily experienced professionals in the malware forensics field (Malin is with the FBI, Casey is a full-time forensics writer and teacher, and Aquilina is a senior attorney who investigates and litigates computer forensics related cases), this book is a tour-de-force exploration into the hows, whys, and wherefores of malware forensics analysis. The authors are every bit as strong on technical forensics as they are on malware, and that double coverage plays well throughout this entire book. Those looking for a learning tool and a practical handbook could do a lot worse than buying this book.

    McClure, Stuart, Joel Scambray, and George Kurtz: Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets & Solutions, 6e, Osborne McGraw-Hill, January 2009, ISBN-13: 979-0071613743.

    One of the best-selling computer security books of all time, this latest edition updates the authors' catalogue of hacker tools, attacks, and techniques with a keen eye on taking the right defensive posture. By operating system and type of attack, readers learn about what tools are used for attacks, how they work, what they can reveal or allow, and how to defend systems and networks from their illicit use. The sixth edition includes only Windows Vista and Server 2008 security issues and answers. A companion CD-ROM includes tools, Web pointers, and other text supplements.

    Melber, Derek: Auditing Security and Controls of Windows Active Directory Domains, Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) Research Foundation, May 2005, ISBN-13: 978-0894135637.

    This is one of the few really detailed and useful references that explain how the Windows Active Directory environment maps to security and controls auditing requirements, for the IIA in particular, and for more general auditing principles and practices. Melber is an accomplished and talented Windows internals expert and shows off his skills to good effect in this short but useful book. (See also his excellent Web site.)

    Mitnick, Kevin D. and William L. Simon: The Art of Intrusion: The Real Stories Behind the Exploits of Hackers, Intruders and Deceivers, Wiley, December 2005, ISBN-13: 978-0471782667.

    As an uberhacker himself, Mitnick is well-placed to draw on his own knowledge and experience in reporting on hack attacks and exploits. Bill Simon is an award-winning and highly accomplished writer who also collaborated with Mitnick on a previous book, The Art of Deception, wherein he recounts his own exploits. This time, rather than being fictionalized, this book reports on and analyzes attacks and exploits lifted from the news pages. Well worth reading for anyone interested in incident response, and in understanding the mentality and mindset of those who might attack or attempt to penetrate system security.

    Moeller, Robert: IT Audit, Control, and Security, Wiley, November 2010, ISBN-13: 978-0471406761.

    Just coming off the presses as this article was updated, this book covers auditing concepts, controls, and regulations, and then dives into step-by-step instructions on auditing processes. From CobiT and COSO to ITIL to Val IT, consider this a good general reference as well as a practical guide.

    Moskowitz, Jeremy: Group Policy: Fundamentals, Security, and Troubleshooting, Sybex, May 2008, ISBN-13: 978-0470275894.

    In no other way does Windows offer as close to a comprehensive and remotely manageable toolset for Windows security and behavior as through Group Policy objects and settings. Moskowitz provides a wealth of useful information on using Group Policy to establish, manage, and maintain security on Windows networks. It's an invaluable reference and learning tool.

    Northcutt, Stephen and Judy Novak: Network Intrusion Detection, 3e, New Riders, September 2002, ISBN-13: 978-0735712652.

    This short but information-packed book works its way through numerous real, documented system attacks to teach about tools, techniques, and practices that will aid in the recognition and handling of so-called "security incidents." The authors make extensive use of protocol traces and logs to explain what kind of attack took place, how it worked, and how to detect and deflect or foil such attacks. Those who work through this book's recommendations should be able to foil the attacks it documents, as they learn how to recognize, document, and respond to potential future attacks. It's one of the best books around for those who must configure router filters and responses, monitor networks for signs of potential attack, or assess possible countermeasures for deployment and use.

    Northcutt, Stephen et al.: Inside Network Perimeter Security, 2e, New Riders, March 2005, ISBN-13: 978-0672327377.

    Readers will enjoy the broad yet deep coverage this book offers regarding all aspects of network perimeter protection. The authors skillfully teach the reader how to "think" about security issues―threats, hack attacks, exploits, trends, and so on―rather than handhold the reader with step-by-step solutions to specific problems. This approach helps network security professionals learn how to use a variety of tools, analyze the results, and make effective decisions. Topics covered include designing and monitoring network perimeters for maximum security, firewalls, packet filtering, access lists, and expanding or improving the security of existing networks. Because the book was developed jointly with SANS Institute staff, it can be used as a study aid for individuals preparing for GIAC Certified Firewall Analyst (GCFW) certification.

    Pfleeger, Charles P. and Shari Lawrence Pfleeger: Security in Computing, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, October 2006, ISBN-13: 978-0132390774.

    Often selected as an upper-division undergraduate or graduate textbook but useful to the practitioner, Security in Computing provides general-purpose coverage of the computer security landscape. The authors focus more on the "why" and "how" of security topics rather than the "how to."

    Peltier, Thomas R.: Information Security Risk Analysis, 3e, March 2010, Auerbach, ISBN-13: 978-1439839560.

    The techniques introduced in this book permit its readers to recognize and put price tags on potential threats to an organization's computer systems, be they malicious or accidental in nature. It covers the well-known FRAAP (facilitated risk analysis and assessment process) as it takes a step-by-step approach to identifying, assessing, and handling potential sources of risk.

    Rada, Roy: HIPAA @ IT Essentials, 2003 Edition: Health Information Transactions, Privacy, and Security, Hypermedia Solutions, October 2002, ISBN-13: 978-1901857191.

    HIPAA stands for the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, a maze of U.S. government regulations that surround the electronic packaging, storage, use, and exchange of medical records. Because HIPAA has a surprising reach into the private sector (it affects any business that handles medical records in any way), this topic receives coverage on most security certification exams and is of concern to IT professionals in general. This book is designed as a reference for such professionals and succeeds admirably in its purpose; basically, it condenses and explains what it takes the U.S. government thousands of pages to document in fewer than 300 pages.

    Raina, Kapil: PKI Security Solutions for the Enterprise: Solving HIPAA, E-Paper Act, and Other Compliance Issues, Wiley, April 2003, ISBN-13: 978-0471314292.

    This book is a relatively brief (336 pages) but cogent introduction to the public key infrastructure standards, along with best practices for their use and application.

    Russell, Deborah and G. T. Gangemi: Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly, 1991, ISBN: 0937175714.

    In a clear sign that this book lives up to its title, it's still around (and in print) nearly 20 years after its initial release. It's an excellent primer on basic security concepts, terminology, and tools. This book covers key elements of the U.S. government's security requirements and regulations as well. Although dated, it also provides useful coverage of security devices, as well as communications and network security topics. Many experts recommend this title as an ideal "my first computer security book."

    Schneier, Bruce: Applied Cryptography, Wiley, 1996, ISBN-13: 978-0471117094.

    Although many good books on cryptography are available (others appear in this list), none of the others approaches this one for readability and insight into the subject matter. This book covers the entire topic as completely as possible in a single volume, and includes working code examples for most encryption algorithms and techniques (which makes an interesting alternative to more common mathematical formulae and proofs so common to this subject). Even so, the book is informative, useful, and interesting even for those who do not read the code.

    Schneier, Bruce: Schneier on Security, Wiley, September 2008, ISBN-13: 9798-0470495356.

    Now touted as the "world's most famous security expert," Schneier once again presents a collection of his recent security musings and essays in book form. Here he takes on passports, voting machines, airplanes and airport security, ID cards, Internet banking, and a whole lot more, for a thought-provoking and interesting take on topical security subjects.

    Schneier, Bruce: Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World, Wiley, 2004, ISBN-13: 978-0471453802.

    A well-known and respected figure in the field of computer and network security, Schneier brings his unique perspective to the broad topic of digital security matters in this book. He manages to be informative and interesting, often funny, on topics normally known for their soporific value. He also presents an interesting philosophy on "security as a perspective or a state of mind" rather than as a recipe for locking intruders, malefactors, or others out of systems and networks. Along the way, he also presents a useful exposition of the tools, techniques, and mind games hackers use to penetrate systems and networks around the world. One of the best possible choices on this list for "my first computer security book―except that other titles (even those on this list) will have a mighty tough act to follow!

    Solomon, Michael G., K. Rudolph, Diane Barrett, and Neil Broom: Computer Forensics JumpStart, 2e, Sybex, January 2011, ISBN-13: 9780470931660.

    The upcoming revision to this popular introductory book on Computer Forensics might have been written with CISSP exam preparation in mind. It covers all the basic principles, practices, and procedures related to this field, and provides a nice overview of the items in a professional's forensics toolkit as well.

    Whitman, Michael E., Herbert J. Mattord, Richard Austin, and Greg Holden: Guide to Firewalls and Network Security, Course Technology, June 2008, ISBN-13: 978-1435420168.

    This second-edition textbook provides a good foundation for people new to network security and firewalls. You're first introduced to InfoSec and network security concepts, and then dive into firewall planning, policies, implementation, configuration, and filtering. The authors include detailed chapters on encryption, authentication, VPNs, and intrusion detection, and then wind down with a look at digital forensics.

    Here are some additional interesting InfoSec bibliographies, if you'd like to see other takes on this subject matter (you'll find more in the second part of this story as well):

    The Security section of the Informit bookstore has more than 100 security-related titles to choose from.

    If you use the Search utility in the books area at (, in addition to producing hundreds of books in response to a title search on "computer security," it will produce more than a dozen book lists on the topic as well.

    You can also find security-related titles at Barnes and Noble (

    Please send me feedback on my selections, including your recommendations for possible additions or deletions. I can't say I'll act on all such input, but I will consider all of it carefully.

    And be sure to read part 2 of this two-part series.

    Global warming and forests: An overview of current knowledge | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Unasylva - No. 163 - Forestry and environment - Global warming and forests: An overview of current knowledge

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    K. Andrasko

    Kenneth Andrasko is senior forestry analyst for the United States Environmental Protection Agency in Washington, D.C., and a US delegate to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

    This article summarizes what the forest and climate research and policy communities currently know and do not know - about global warming, its potential effects on forests, and possible measures within the forestry sector to mitigate global warming. It is based on a paper prepared for an FAO Expert Consultation on climate change and forests, held in Rome from 5 to 7 March 1990.

    The average temperature of the earth's surface, currently 15°C, is kept relatively constant by naturally occurring radiative or "greenhouse" gases present in the atmosphere. Most of the short wavelength radiation in sunlight passes through these gases and warms the earth's surface. Long-wave thermal radiation is then emitted by the earth and heats the atmosphere. In turn, the atmosphere re-emits long-wave radiation outwards to space and downwards to further heat the earth's surface.

    Greenhouse gases (abbreviated here as GHGs) include water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides NOx), stratospheric ozone (O3, the high-altitude ozone derived from fossil fuel combustion, as opposed to the tropospheric ozone near the ground that causes smog), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC).

    The burning of fossil fuel is the leading source of greenhouse gases

    Descriptions of greenhouse gases

    Water vapour (H2O). Water vapour is the most abundant and significant infrared absorbing gas in the atmosphere, and the major constituent of clouds. Clouds play a critical though uncertain role in the general circulation models used to simulate atmospheric-surface interactions and the greenhouse effect.

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is by far the most abundant greenhouse gas other than water vapour. Over 90 percent of the carbon lost from conversion of forest to other land uses is released to the atmosphere as CO2, immediately through burning, and over time through decay of dead vegetation in the soil.

    Methane (CH4). Major sources of methane are anaerobic decomposition in biological systems, including rice paddies, cattle and other livestock whose digestive systems | rely on enteric fermentation, termites I (present in huge quantities in tropical forest systems, especially on disturbed sites), biomass burning, landfills and wetlands. Forest fires emit one unit of CH4 for every 100 units of CO2.

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a biogenic gas emitted by deforestation, biomass burning, nitrogenous fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion. Little is known about the N2O cycle, current N2O fluxes, and processes and rates of release of N2O from soils in natural and altered ecosystems, I and from biomass burning.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), while not considered a GHG, does influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, thereby contributing to increased concentrations of CH4 and N2O. Periodic burning of savannah in Africa and other continents, as a form of livestock pasture management to stimulate growth of nutritious grass shoots may be the largest single source, as significant quantities of CO are emitted during incomplete combustion and smouldering rather than hot, rapid burning.

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and chlorofluorocarbons (e.g. CFC-11 and CFC-12) derive from non-biotic, industrial anthropogenic sources (fossil fuel burning and chemical manufacturing) and are not considered here.

    Sources of greenhouse gases

    Greenhouse gases are produced both by natural phenomena and through human actions. Major natural sources of greenhouse gases related to forest ecosystems include wetlands (CH4), wild ruminants and small herbivores (CH4), termites (CH4), wildfires (CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO) and natural land ecosystems including forests, savannah and pastures (N2O). Natural emissions of greenhouse gases have been relatively in balance for thousands of years.

    The activities of people, on the other hand, are causing significant increases in the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Major human-made sources of greenhouse gas emissions include the burning of fossil fuels (CO2), deforestation (:mostly by burning) to make land available for agriculture and grazing (CO2), and the burning of wood and charcoal for fuel (CO2). An estimated 5600-6000 million tonnes - 6 gigatonnes (Gt) were released into the atmosphere in 1988 in the form of CO2 from anthropogenic (human-made) sources. The industrialized countries contributed about 75 percent of this release, and the developing countries about 25 percent The measurement record for atmospheric concentration of CO2 shows observed increases of 25 percent over the historical period.

    Scientists have suggested for more than 100 years, and increasingly during the past decade, that these increasing emissions may affect the atmosphere's radiative balance (i.e. the percentage of the sun's radiation allowed to pass through the earth's atmosphere directly from the sun or reflected from the earth's surface), leading to a significant and long-term increase in the earth's average temperature.

    Global annual emissions of major greenhouse gases: relative importance in greenhouse forcing, and contribution from forest systems


    Annual emission

    Radiative forcing relative to CO2

    Contribution to greenhouse effect in 1980s

    Carbon dioxide (CO2)


    50 percent


    5.6 Pg C

    Biotic (natural)

    0.4-2.6 Pg C

    Tropical forest conversion

    0.4-2.6 Pg C

    Methane (CH4)


    20 percent


    50-100 Tg C

    Biotic (natural)

    20-875 Tg C

    Tropical forest conversion to other land uses

    140-320 Tg C

    Nitrous oxide (N2O)



    circa 6 percent

    Note: 1 Pg (pentagram) = 109 tonnes

    1 Tg (teragram) = 106 tonnes

    Residence times and global warming potential of gases

    GHGs vary greatly, both in their active residence time in the atmosphere before they are decomposed and also in their radiative forcing relative to CO2, the benchmark gas. In order to compare gases, the concept of relative Global Warming Potential has emerged as a means of accounting for the varying residence times and radiative forcing potency of gases (IPCC Work Group 1, 1990).

    The table presents rough estimates of annual emissions of GHGs and their contribution to greenhouse forcing in the 1980s. Emphasis is given to the contribution from tropical forest conversion, which accounts for about 25-33 percent of total current CO2 emissions, 35 percent of CH4, and perhaps 25-30 percent of N2O.

    Some 17 million ho of tropical forest are cleared annually, almost exclusively by burning

    Greenhouse gas emissions from different forest ecosystems

    Overall, forest ecosystems store 20 to 100 times more carbon per unit area than croplands and play a critical role in reducing ambient CO2 levels, by sequestering atmospheric carbon in the growth of woody biomass through the process of photosynthesis. However, uncertainties still exist with regard to carbon storage in forest cover and emissions associated with changes in or removal of forest cover for various land uses. For example, emissions of greenhouse gases from cropping practices in swidden (i.e. shifting, or slash-and-burn cycle) agriculture have not been quantified. Neither do they have reliable estimates of biomass, carbon content, and trace gas emissions in a truly representative sample of natural and disturbed tropical forests and carbon fluxes in disturbed tropical soils (which may account for one-third of carbon flux from deforestation).

    Boreal forest. Recent investigations of boreal (northern largely coniferous) forest in North America suggest that the carbon content and biomass estimates commonly utilized in calculations of global carbon cycle fluxes may be seriously flawed. Botkin and Simpson (1990) estimated North American boreal forest biomass carbon content at about 9700 million tonnes only a portion of previous estimates of 13800-40000 million tonnes of carbon used routinely to balance the global carbon budget.

    Temperate forest. Forests in temperate regions are now essentially in balance in terms of carbon cycling, with annual incremental growth rates roughly equal to timber harvest and deforestation for urban growth and other land uses. However, it is noteworthy that historically they have contributed heavily to global carbon emissions, as forests were cleared (and burnt) in Europe and North America to clear land for agricultural production.

    Tropical forest. According to Brown (1988), tropical moist forest averages about 155160 tonnes of carbon per hectare (t C/ha) of standing biomass in Latin America and Asia and ranges up to 187 t C/ha in Africa. Dry tropical forest averages 27 t C/ha in Latin America and Asia and 63 t C/ha in Africa. Some 17 million hectares of tropical forest are estimated by FAO to be cleared annually, almost exclusively by burning.

    Most studies of possible climate-induced perturbations of forests have used standard atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) of global climate. These highly complex three-dimensional models of atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial interactions predict global climate change (variations in regional temperature and moisture) under a scenario of doubled atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (abbreviated as 2xCO2). Their generalized predictions vary widely, and range from increases in global mean temperature of 2.85.2°C increases of 7.1-15.8 percent in precipitation.

    Major uncertainties of several orders of magnitude exist in modelling feedbacks in GCMs. GCMs currently only crudely model ocean circulation, clouds, snow and ice coverage, water vapour, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Furthermore, poor spatial resolution of the current GCMs severely limits their ability to forecast reliably the effects of climate change on specific forests. Nonetheless, on the basis of the GCMs, possible climate responses to large increases in greenhouse gas concentrations (doubled CO2 or its equivalent in other gases) are summarized below. The qualifiers in parentheses use the following scale: very probable = greater than 90 percent probability; probable = greater than 67 percent probability; uncertain = hypothesized effect, with little observational data or appropriate modelling.

    Global - mean surface warming (very probable): Scientific consensus remains, despite recent studies and press reports stressing less projected warming (see opposing view by Windelius, p. 15), that by the middle of the next century surface warming is likely to occur in the range 1.54.5°C, for a 2xCO2 scenario.

    Global - mean precipitation increase (very probable): Increased heating of the surface will lead to increased evaporation and, as a result, to greater global mean precipitation. However, some individual regions may experience decreases in rainfall.

    Global - rise in mean sea-level (probable): Thermal expansion of water associated with surface and oceanic warming is predicted. Rate and extent of melting of glacial and continental ice are far less certain. Predictions of changes in mean sea-level remain uncertain and difficult.

    Northern high-latitude precipitation increase (probable): High latitudes are expected to experience increased poleward penetration of warm, moist air, leading to increased annual precipitation and river runoff.

    Decreases in summer soil moisture in mid-latitude interior regions are anticipated by several global warming models

    Summer continental dryness/warming (probable): A significant decrease in soil moisture for some mid-latitude interior continental regions in summer is anticipated by several models. This results from earlier snow melt and earlier than normal spring and summer reductions of soil moisture.

    Regional vegetation changes(uncertain): Long-term changes in surface vegetation cover are considered an inevitable outcome of the potential climate changes reviewed above. However, major uncertainties remain about the patterns, scale, rate and feedbacks (e.g. changes in surface albedo or reflectivity, and in precipitation) of vegetative changes.

    Tropical storm increases (uncertain): Increased frequency and intensity of tropical storms, such as hurricanes (which play a major role in gap-phase dynamics in Caribbean forests, for example), may be associated with trends toward warmer, wetter climate, according to several studies.

    It is noteworthy that little work has been done thus far on applying GCM results to the tropics. Most modellers contend that climate changes are likely to be small in the tropics. However, comparison of model results shows that temperature ranges of 2.5-6.0°C are postulated for Southeast Asia and West Africa, and significant seasonal variations in rainfall are foreseen for West Africa (Andrasko, 1990a).

    Studies on the potential impact of changes in temperature and precipitation in a scenario of doubled CO2 suggest a wide range of effects both on forests and on individual trees (e.g. Shands and Hoffman, 1987; Smith end Tirpak, 1989; Meo, 1987).

    Potential effects of rapid warming on temperate forest ecosystems (North America and elsewhere)


    · Southern ranges of many eastern United States forest species and boreal forest in Canada and Scandinavia may shift northward 200-1000 km.

    · Northern ranges of eastern North American Species could shift up to 700 km northward, although actual migration could be as low as 100 km, owing to problems with seed dispersal and survival.

    · Forest health and survival in the long term may depend on how fast climate stabilizes, and weather large scale-forest declines result from pests, stress from air pollution, fires, and drought.

    · Forest composition (predominance of species) may change significantly, as species less water-dependent and in the northern-part of their range tend to become dominant.


    · Productivity declines of 46-100 percent, beginning 30-80 years from the present, could result along the southern edges of species ranges, depending on levels of soil moisture.

    · Boreal forests in Scandinavia may respond very favourable to heightened temperatures and moisture and improve productivity and biomass (AFOS, 1990).

    · Boreal forests and hardy gods-boreal transition areas in Canada and elsewhere may, however, decline if moisture and temperature rate changes are too fast and nutrients are limited.


    · Increased stand decline and tree mortality are likely from insect pest population and tree disease responses to raised temperature and moisture.

    · Natural regeneration changes are uncertain and difficult to predict, hut may be enhanced for some species and provenances in Scandinavia (AFOS, 1990), and for species that use both seed and vegetative propagation methods for reproduction.

    · Fire incidence and damage to forests generally will be more severe, especially in stands and in vegetative zones (e.g. semi-arid tropics) becoming drier and warmer.

    This hypothesis of climate change effects on forest ecosystems has been summarized by Botkin and Nisbet (1990):

    Recent research suggests that global warning will have severe and rapid effects on forest over wide areas, all other factors being equal... Projections suggest that effects might be so great that forest production and species composition will change over large regions, and forests in many regions may be no longer sustainable. Such responses would lead to major impacts on commercial forestry, timber supply, recreation and wildlife that depend on forest habitats, as well as water supply and erosion rates.

    Sedjo and Solomon (1989), building on the work by Emanuel et al. (1985) using the Holdridge Life Zone classification, forecast a forest life zone area decrease of 6 percent, a loss of 444 million ha of forest. Boreal forest declined 37 percent in area and lost 60.4 Gt in biomass, while tropical forests increased 28 percent in area and 57.8 Gt in biomass. Total global forest and non-forest were expected to decline 14.1 Gt in carbon overall under 2xCO2.

    Potential effects on forms range and composition

    Boreal forest. Growth may be enhanced for boreal forests in Scandinavia (AFOS, 1990), although significant shifts in northern and southern ranges and in species composition may occur. However, Solomon, at IIASA's Biosphere Project, suggests that up to 40 percent of current boreal forest would no longer support boreal species under 2xCO2. Very rapid warming might produce conditions changing too rapidly for replacement species to invade from the south and boreal species to migrate northwards. Seedlings capable of survival in the conditions at the time of planting might not be able to reach maturity before conditions changed, awl seedlings capable of survival later might not survive today.

    Wheaton et al. (1987) concluded that the southern boundary of the Canadian boreal forest zone is likely to move north 250-900 km, while the northern boundary would shift only 80-700 km, indicating a loss of area of boreal forest. Harrington (1987) suggests that, since pioneer species advance only 100-150 km a century et the northern edge of the boreal forest, the southern margin is likely to be replaced by grassland (steppe).

    Temperate forests. An overview of potential effects of doubled CO2 on selected forest systems and species in temperate North America and elsewhere is presented below in the box.

    Tropical and subtropical forests (humid and dry). Apparently no effects studies have been performed for tropical forests. Solomon and Leemans (in IIASA, 1989) have extended the Holdridge Life Zone vegetation mapping globally, though They conclude that areas in the tropics where existing vegetation is unlikely to survive in a warmed world include northern and central Amazonia, northwestern South America West Africa' dry forest in Ethiopia and Somalia, southern Philippines, Indonesia, Sarawak, Papua New Guinea and northern Australia.

    An increase of 12 percent in total forested area in tropical ecosystems under 2xCO2 has been forecast by Emanuel et al. (1985) largely as a result of increases in precipitation in marginal sites, with increases in area of tropical wet, moist and especially tropical dry forest, and declines in area of subtropical wet and especially subtropical moist.

    Panich (1989) offers an overview of potential impacts on forestry in Southeast Asia, focusing on Thailand, by reviewing general GCM results. He notes Salati's finding that indicates that about 50 percent of the rainfall in tropical forest in Amazonia results from the forest's own transpiration; thus, declines in precipitation under climate change might greatly alter precipitation and hydrologic regimes in tropical forests. This might increase fire danger and inhibit recovery of forests after logging or natural disturbance. The impacts of altered seasonal distribution patterns of rainfall (even if the total amounts change little) might include delay of the growing season, increased flooding in the rainy season, an elongated dry season, changes in cyclone numbers and intensity, and increased vulnerability of coastal forests.

    Speculation about the effects of climate change on 4.5 million km2 of mesic savannah vegetation in semi-arid tropical areas is offered by Mabbutt (1989). Latitudinal shifts of about 200 km in current boundaries of climate zones are suggested. Two competing scenarios are explored: enhanced precipitation in the tropical latitudes, but reduced rainfall in the semiarid tropics, due to diminished soil-moisture availability, versus a contrasting scenario of 10-20 percent increases in semi-arid area rainfall.

    Potential effects of climate change on tree growth and yield

    The implications of CO2 enrichment on tree growth and yield remain unclear. Harrington (1987) summarizes current knowledge by quoting the conclusions of Occhel and Strain with respect to perennial plants, that "increases may be accumulated from year to year and carbon may be sequestered in larger plants. However, in ecologically balanced ecosystems with animals feeding on plants, disease organisms operating, and plants competing for light, water, and nutrients, it is uncertain whether ecosystem production will increase".

    Laboratory studies of the effects of elevated CO2 levels on plants have documented increased rates of photosynthesis, lowered plant water use requirements, increased carbon sequestering and increased soil microbial activity fixing nitrogen for fertilizer, thereby stimulating growth (Hardy and Havelka, 1975; Drake et al., 1988). Therefore, CO2 increases could theoretically provide significant benefits for plants and trees undergoing water stress in drier climates.

    However, very little work has been done in situ on forest or other natural communities over extended time frames (Drake e! al., 1988). The net effect of CO2 enrichment combined with forest decline from climate change and air pollution remains uncertain. Sedjo and Solomon (1989) conclude that " the phenomenon of CO2 fertilization has not been detected in trees, despite extensive searches for it in the field... and in growth chambers".

    Secondary effects

    One of the few confident predictions about the effect of global warming is that wildland fire activity will significantly respond to regional climate change and that the magnitude of the response will be roughly proportional (within a factor of 2) to the magnitude of the change'' (Main, 1987).

    Raised temperatures may produce more generations a year of some insects, since they have high reproductivity potential, making them likely to adapt and evolve at least an order of magnitude more quickly than the c. 30- 100-year life cycle of forest tree species serving as their hosts (Hedden, 1987). In the semi-arid tropics, changes in rainfall and the location of the savannah zone could alter locust invasion patterns in West and East Africa and the semi-arid zone in the Indian subcontinent, with deleterious effects on vegetation (Mabbutt, 1989).

    Mitigation measures or technical control options involving forestry have been widely proposed to sequester carbon through the growth of woody plants and the slow loss of forested areas (especially in the tropics) and to reduce anthropogenic production of GHGs from forest and agricultural land use practices. The implementation of forestry response options alone is, in general, not likely to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases or balance countries' total CO2 emissions budgets (AFOS, 1990). Nonetheless, all options for reduction of atmospheric CO2, including those involving the forestry sector, should be given full consideration.

    Major forestry sector mitigation strategies


    · Substitute sustainable agricultural technologies for slash-and-burn deforestation.

    · Reduce the frequency and amount of forest and savannah consumed by biomass burning to create or maintain pasture and grassland.

    · Decrease consumption of forest for cash crops and development projects, through environmental planning and management.

    · Improve the efficiency of biomass (fuelwood) combustion in cookstoves and industrial uses.

    · Decrease the production of disposable forest products by substituting durable wood or other goods, and by recycling wood products.


    · Conserve standing primary and old-growth forests as stocks of biomass

    · Introduce natural forest management systems utilizing sustainable harvesting methods to replace destructive logging.

    · Substitute extractive reserves producing timber and non-timber products sustainably, through integrated resource management and development schemes

    · Increase harvest efficiency in forests, by harvesting more species with methods that damage fewer standing trees and utilize a higher percentage of total biomass.

    · Expand fuelwood plantations to provide energy and reduce pressure on natural forests.


    · Improve forest productivity on existing forests, through management and biotechnology.

    · Establish plantations on surplus cropland in industrialized temperate zones and abandoned lands in the tropics.

    · Restore degraded forest and savannah ecosystems through natural regeneration and reforestation.

    · Increase soil carbon storage by leaving slash after harvest and expanding agroforestry.

    Source: Andrasko, 1990a, b.

    Forestry sector mitigation strategies can be grouped into three classes: those that reduce sources of greenhouse gases; those that maintain existing sinks of greenhouse gases; and those that expand sinks of greenhouse gases (Andrasko, 1990b).

    Regardless of which of the three groups they fall into, all strategies should to the extent feasible be ecologically sustainable overtime; capable of addressing the direct and indirect causes of forest loss by providing an equivalent spectrum of forest products and jobs comparable to current forest use patterns; economically viable, preferably with low start-up costs; socially integrative, building on local needs and traditions; technologically simple; and relatively adaptable to changing economic, political, social, ecological and climatic conditions. Before any strategy or combination of strategies is adopted on a wide scale, however, to accurately determine their relative benefits true net GHG balance analyses will be necessary, incorporating consideration of all fluxes of multiple gases associated with all phases of growth, harvest, and final disposition of biomass and carbon.

    A number of potential options to address climate change in the forestry sector are set out in the box and in the accompanying short article by Kyrklund. More detailed descriptions appear in Andrasko (1990a).

    The concept of the greenhouse effect has been widely if not universally accepted. However, because of the still-crude capabilities of current global circulation models to model complex terrestrial-ocean-atmospheric interactions, debate remains about how much future climates are likely to warm, and when.

    International political interest is beginning to focus on the need to identify appropriate options for forest sector policy response to potential climate change. The final report of the forestry subgroup of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of UNEP and WMO, a science assessment and policy process begun in 1988, has recommended early negotiations on a Global Forestry Protocol to address climate change, along with a broader energy protocol (AFOS, 1990). Policy and programmatic responses to climate change are already under way by FAO and other local, national and international development organizations.

    To date, most of the considerable research into potential effects of and responses to climate change on forests has taken place in North America, Europe and Australia. Investigations into potential effects on tropical forests are only now beginning.

    The threat of climate change confronts the forestry sector in all regions and at all levels with both biophysical and policy challenges of a far larger scale, longer time-frame, and shorter policy decision-making horizon than other recent forest sector concerns.

    AFOS. 1990. Final report of agriculture, forestry and other subgroup of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WMO and UNEP). Geneva, WMO and UNEP.

    Andrasko, K. 1989. "Forestry" chapter, for D. Lashof & D. Tirpak, eds. Policy options for stabilizing global climate. Report to US Congress. Washington, D.C., Environmental Protection Agency. (Unpublished first draft)

    Andrasko, K. 1990a. "Forestry" chapter, for D. Lashof & D. Tirpak. eds. Policy options for stabilizing global climate. Report to US Congress. Washington, D.C., Environmental Protection Agency. (Unpublished revised draft)

    Andrasko, K. 1990b. Climate change and the global forest sector. Rome, FAO. (Unpublished draft)

    Botkin, D. & Nisbet, R. 1990. The response of forests to global warming and CO2fertilization. Interim report to US Environmental Protection Agency. January 1990. (Unpublished)

    Botkin, D. & Simpson, P. 1990. Biomass of the North American boreal forest: a step toward accurate global measures. Paper submitted to Biogeochemistry, January 1990.

    Brown, L., ed. 1988. State of the world 1988. New York, Norton.

    Drake, B. et al. 1988. Effects of elevated CO2on Chesapeake Bay wetlands. Third progress report to Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division. Washington, D.C., Office of Energy Research.

    Emanuel, W., Shugart, H. & Stevenson, M. 1985. Climative change and the broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Climatic Change, 7: 29-43.

    Hardy, R. & Havelka, U. 1975. Nitrogen fixation research. Food Science, 188: 633-43.

    Harrington, J. 1987. Climate change: a review of causes. In Can. J. Forest Res., 17: 1313-39.

    Hedden, T. 1987. Potential effects of climate change on insect populations. In G. Pearlman, ed. Greenhouse: planning for climate change. Sydney, Australia, CSIRO.

    IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis). 1989. Forest dieback inevitable if climate changes. Options, September 1989.

    IPCC Work Group I. 1990. Draft final report of Working Group on Scientific Assessment of Climatic Change. Bracknell, United Kingdom, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WMO and UNEP). (Unpublished)

    Houghton, R. 1988. The flux of CO2between atmosphere and land as result of deforestation and reforestation from 1850 to 2100. Washington, D.C., US Environmental Protection Agency. (Unpublished paper)

    Kramer, P. & Sionit, N. 1987. Effects of increasing carbon dioxide concentration on the physiology and growth of forest trees, in stands. In W. Shands & J. Hoffman. The greenhouse effect, climate change, and US forests. Washington, D.C., The Conservation Foundation.

    Lanly, J. 1982. Tropical forest resources. FAO Forestry Paper No. 30. FAO, Rome.

    Lashof, D. & Tirpak, D., eds. 1989. Policy options for stabilizing global climate. Report to US Congress. Washington, D.C., Environmental Protection Agency.

    Mabbutt, S. 1987. Impacts on semi-arid tropical systems. In G. Pearlman, ed. Greenhouse: planning for climate change. Sydney, Australia, CSIRO.

    Main, A. 1987. Climatic change and its impact on nature conservation in Australia. In G. Pearlman, ed. Greenhouse: planning for climate change. Sydney, Australia, CSIRO.

    Marland, G. 1988. The prospect of solving the CO2problem through global reforestation. Washington, D.C., Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research.

    Meo, M., ed. 1987. Proc. Symposium on Climate Change in the Southern United States: future impacts and present policy issues, 28-29 May 1987, New Orleans. Washington, D.C., Environmental Protection Agency.

    Panich, S. 1989. Assessment of climate change's impacts on agriculture and forestry in the Southeast Asian countries. Paper presented at the Task Force Meeting, East Asian Seas Programme (May 1989, Singapore).

    Postel, S. & Heise, L. 1988. Reforesting the earth. In L. Brown et al. State of the world 1988. New York, Norton.

    Sedjo, R. & Solomon, A. 1989. Climate and forests. Paper for Workshop on Controlling and Adapting to Greenhouse Forcing, held by Environmental Protection Agency and National Academy of Sciences 14-15 June, 1988, Washington, D.C. In N. Rosenberg et al., eds. Greenhouse warming: abatement and adaptation. Washington, D.C., Resources for the Future.

    Shands, W. & Hoffman, J. 1987. The greenhouse effect, climate change, and US forests. Washington, D.C., The Conservation Foundation.

    Smith, J. & Tirpak, D. 1989. The potential effects of global climate change on the United States. Report to US Congress. Washington, D.C., Environmental Protection Agency.

    USFS/EPA. 1989. Tree planting and improvement to reduce global warming. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service and Environmental Protection Agency, Task Force on Tree Planting Initiative, option paper. Washington, D.C.

    Wheaton, E. et al. 1987. An exploration and assessment of the implications of climate change for the boreal forest and forestry economics of the Prairie provinces and Northwest Territories. Phase I in S.R.C. Technical Report No. 211. Saskatoon, Canada, Saskatchewan Research Council.

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    Enzyme-Replacement Therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis I | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    All patients received weekly infusions of recombinant human α-L-iduronidase for 52 weeks. The mean activity of α-L-iduronidase in leukocytes was 0.04 U per milligram before treatment and 4.98 U per milligram, or 15 percent of normal, an average of seven days after an infusion of α-L-iduronidase (i.e., immediately before the next infusion). Enzyme activity was not detectable in brushings of buccal mucosa before treatment, but seven days after an infusion, it reached a level of 1 percent of normal.

    Five patients (Patients 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7) had transient urticaria on the trunk, face, arms, and legs during an infusion given during week 4 or later, and in four patients (Patients 1, 5, 6, and 7) it recurred during subsequent infusions beginning at or after week 20. During these episodes, urticaria began midway through an infusion but resolved soon after the infusion was completed. In the four patients with recurrent urticaria, the episodes eventually became less frequent and less severe and finally stopped. In three patients (Patients 1, 5, and 6), the urticaria was accompanied by angioedema (thickening of the tongue and tightening of the throat) on a total of nine occasions and by moderate transient hypoxemia on three occasions. Patient 8 had one episode of facial swelling without urticaria during the infusion at week 47. These symptoms usually resolved about one hour after the infusion was stopped. In patients with recurrent urticaria, the rate of enzyme infusion was decreased or the dose temporarily reduced, and they were given increased medications such as diphenhydramine before, and in some cases during, an infusion.

    Four patients (Patients 2, 7, 8, and 9) had biochemical evidence of complement activation during infusions given at weeks 6 and 12, as evidenced by decreased serum total complement activity (i.e., decreased CH100) and decreased C3 or C4 concentrations after infusions. Although these patients were usually asymptomatic, Patient 8 had fever, chills, and “fussy behavior” on three occasions. By week 26, there was no complement activation during infusion in any patient. In the four patients who had transient complement activation, serum α-L-iduronidase antibodies were detected by week 8, but the antibody levels subsequently declined or became undetectable. The antibodies did not immunoprecipitate native enzyme and did not inhibit enzyme activity in vitro (Anand VA, Kakkis ED: unpublished data), nor did they alter efficacy in vivo on the basis of urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion. In all 10 patients IgG antibodies developed to Chinese-hamster-ovary cell proteins that were present as a trace impurity in the enzyme preparation, but clinically important adverse events were not correlated with the presence or titer of these antibodies. There were no abnormalities in blood counts, serum chemical values, or urinalysis during treatment. Other mucopolysaccharidosis-related complications during treatment consisted of cervical subluxation requiring cervical fusion, mitral-valve replacement with coronary bypass grafting, repeated lumbar fusion, and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, each in one patient.

    Reduction in Lysosomal Storage Figure 1. Figure 1. Changes in Liver Size in Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis I during α-l-Iduronidase Therapy.

    Liver size was measured in terms of volume and expressed as the percentage of body weight, given a density of 1 g per milliliter of tissue. Patient 9 had an episode of hepatitis at 26 weeks that was believed to be due to a concomitantly taken medication and that resolved by week 30. This episode was thought to account for the transient increase in the size of her liver. The upper bounds of the 95 percent confidence interval of normal values (i.e., within the normal range for age, as adapted from the data of Stocker and Dehner23) are 3.5 percent for boys 5 to 12 years of age, 3.2 percent for girls 5 to 12 years of age, 2.2 percent for boys 13 to 17 years of age, 2.7 percent for girls 13 to 17 years of age, 2.6 percent for men 18 years of age or older, and 2.9 percent for women 18 years of age or older.

    Liver volume decreased by 19 to 37 percent from base line in nine patients and by 5 percent in one patient at 52 weeks; the mean decrease was 25 percent (P<0.001). By 26 weeks, the size of the liver was normal for body weight and age in eight patients (Figure 1). In the two patients (Patients 6 and 9) who had the largest liver size relative to body weight at base line, the size of the liver was close to normal at 52 weeks (3.2 and 3.3 percent of body weight, respectively).

    In eight patients the size of the spleen decreased by 13 to 42 percent from base line. The mean decrease was 20 percent among all 10 patients (P<0.001).

    Urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion declined rapidly after 3 to 4 weeks of treatment, and by 8 to 12 weeks it was 60 to 80 percent below the base-line values. At 52 weeks, the mean reduction was 63 percent (range, 53 to 74 percent; P<0.001). The excess urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion (that above the upper limit of the normal value for age) was reduced by a mean of 80 percent in these patients. The results were confirmed by an assay of uronic acids and N-sulfate (a test specific for heparan sulfate). Electrophoretic studies of urine revealed a significant reduction in the excretion of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, but the excretion of dermatan sulfate was still greater than normal in all patients.

    Clinical Studies Increases in Height and Weight Table 2. Table 2. Height and Weight of Six Prepubertal Patients before Enzyme-Replacement Therapy and after One Year of Therapy.

    The height increased by a mean of 6.0 cm (5 percent) in the six prepubertal patients, and their mean rate of growth in height increased from 2.80 cm per year to 5.17 cm per year during treatment (P=0.01) (Table 2). For all 10 patients, body weight increased by a mean of 3.2 kg (9 percent), and the mean increase was 4.2 kg (17 percent) among the 6 prepubertal patients. In these six patients, the mean rate of growth in weight increased from 1.66 kg per year before treatment to 3.83 kg per year during treatment (P=0.04) (Table 2).

    Range of Motion Figure 2. Figure 2. Mean Changes in the Restriction of Range of Motion of Shoulder Flexion (Panel A), Elbow Extension (Panel B), and Knee Extension (Panel C) in Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis I during α-l-Iduronidase Therapy.

    The mean degrees of restriction in the range of motion of right- and left-shoulder flexion are not shown for two patients, because shoulder flexion was not evaluated in these two patients at base line. The values represent the difference between the normal maximal range of motion for age and the measured value.

    Restriction of shoulder flexion decreased during treatment in six of the eight patients in whom it was evaluated at base line. The mean decrease in joint restriction was 28 degrees in the right shoulder (P< 0.001) and 26 degrees in the left shoulder (P=0.002) (Figure 2A). Among all 10 patients, the degree of restriction of elbow extension decreased by a mean of 7.0 degrees in the right elbow (P=0.03) and 7.0 degrees in the left elbow (P=0.007) (Figure 2B). The degree of restriction of knee extension decreased by a mean of 3.2 degrees on the right (P=0.10) and 3.0 degrees on the left (P=0.09) in the 10 patients (Figure 2C).

    Analysis in individual patients revealed that the joints with the greatest degree of restriction before treatment had the greatest improvement. For example, at base line, Patients 5, 9, and 10 could not flex their shoulders beyond 100 degrees, and the range of motion increased by 21 to 51 degrees after treatment. The improvements in the range of motion were accompanied by patient-reported increases in physical activities, such as being able to wash their hair, hold a hamburger normally, hang from monkey bars, and play sports better.

    Airway Function

    Seven of the 10 patients had apnea, and these 7 had a decrease in the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea during treatment, from 155 per night to 60 per night (a 61 percent decrease), with a change in the mean apnea–hypopnea index from 2.1 to 1.0 event per hour. Three of these seven (Patients 2, 6, and 9) had clinically important sleep apnea, and in all three this disorder improved during treatment. In Patient 2, the apnea–hypopnea index decreased from 4.5 events per hour at base line to 0.4 event per hour at 26 weeks, and the total length of time during sleep in which oxygen desaturation fell below 89 percent decreased from 48 minutes to 1 minute per night. At base line, Patient 6 required continuous positive airway pressure at night because of severe desaturation (with continuous positive airway pressure, the oxygen saturation was below 89 percent during 61 of 368 minutes of sleep). After 52 weeks of treatment, oxygen saturation was less than 89 percent for only 8 of 332 minutes of sleep, and continuous positive airway pressure was not used. Patient 9 had an apnea–hypopnea index of 9.5 events per hour before treatment and 4.0 events per hour after 26 weeks of treatment. In Patient 8, the initial apnea–hypopnea index of 0.1 event per hour increased to 3.1 events per hour at 26 weeks and to 9.3 events per hour at 52 weeks for reasons that were unclear. Eight of 10 patients or their families reported that their breathing had improved, and 5 of 7 reported quieter nighttime breathing, an improved quality of sleep, and decreased daytime somnolence.

    Cardiac Function Figure 3. Figure 3. Changes in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class in Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis I during α-l-Iduronidase Therapy.

    The changes in scores were based on information obtained from serial interviews with the patients. New York Heart Association class I indicates no symptoms with ordinary activity; class II, symptoms with ordinary activity and a slight limitation of activity; class III, symptoms with less-than-ordinary activity and marked limitation of activity; and class IV, symptoms with any type of activity or at rest. The difference between pretreatment scores and scores at 52 weeks was significant (P=0.002).

    The New York Heart Association functional classification was determined by serial interviews with the patients. All 10 patients reported an improvement by one or two classes (Figure 3), but there was no objective data from echocardiographic studies to verify direct cardiac benefit. The improved functional scores may reflect improvements in aspects of the disease other than cardiac function. When base-line echocardiograms were compared with those obtained after 52 weeks of treatment, tricuspid regurgitation or pulmonic regurgitation was decreased in four patients, but mitral regurgitation worsened in two patients (Patients 2 and 7). At base line, Patient 6 had atrial flutter and clinical signs of cardiac failure, including dyspnea at rest and pitting edema. After 12 weeks of treatment, he had sinus rhythm with first-degree block and his dyspnea at rest and pitting edema had resolved.

    Symptomatic Changes

    Before treatment, all 10 patients reported a lack of endurance and limitations in their ability to perform daily activities, but exercise tolerance was not formally tested. During treatment, all patients had improved endurance and fewer limitations in their ability to perform daily activities, and after 26 weeks of treatment, many were able to walk farther, run, and play sports. Patients 3, 4, and 5 reported the resolution of severe, incapacitating headaches after 6 to 12 weeks of treatment.

    Ophthalmic Changes

    The extent of corneal clouding did not change in any of the eight patients with this problem. Several patients reported decreased photophobia or conjunctival irritation. Visual acuity improved from 20/1000 to 20/200 (in one eye) in one patient and slightly in two others.

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