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ST0-149 exam Dumps Source : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

Test Code : ST0-149
Test cognomen : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment
Vendor cognomen : Symantec
: 171 true Questions

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Symantec Symantec Storage Foundation and

Symantec Veritas Storage foundation V5.1 has solid-state drive auto-discovery, skinny extent reclaim | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Symantec Corp. is beefing up its storage useful resource management utility via enhancing visibility for solid-state drives (SSDs), strengthening its thin provisioning capabilities, including integration with Microsoft Corp.'s Hyper-V and improving utility restoration within the Veritas Cluster File device.

The enhancements to Veritas Storage foundation, Cluster File gadget and Cluster File Server are included in version 5.1 of its Veritas Storage basis platform for Unix, Linux and Microsoft home windows.

Bob Laliberte, a senior analyst at Milford, Mass.-based mostly commercial enterprise routine community (ESG), talked about nothing of the individual advancements are huge information, but taken together the free up "provides some much capabilities to an already fairly comprehensive suite of storage management and excessive-availability offerings."

more advantageous storage tiering for SSDs

Symantec is tackling intellectual storage tiering capabilities for SSDs, some thing records storage directors beget been waiting for before taking the soar into tenacious situation in storage arrays, and different companies are scrambling to bring. EMC Corp. has pledged to carry the primary edition of its completely automatic Storage Tiering (speedy) software through the conclusion of the year, and IBM is engaged on establishing intellectual administration application for strong-state drives throughout its storage and server product strains.

in further of present day unlock, Veritas Storage basis could recognize Fibre Channel (FC), iSCSI or SATA facts storage tiers, however could not respect SSD elements on storage arrays or servers.

Sean Derrington, Symantec's director of storage and availability administration neighborhood, observed Veritas Storage foundation can now instantly find any SSD device and instantly movement information on and off strong-state drive instruments in response to administrator-created guidelines.

"administrators can identify storage array volumes that are tenacious situation and people which are mechanical," Derrington observed. "there may live loads of issues which you could sequel when you assume into account the multipathing, file device and volume administration layer."

Derrington referred to Veritas Storage groundwork's dynamic storage tiering technology will set statistics the set it is most low-cost. elevated I/O-elegant statistics corresponding to database, email and on-line-processed transactions may likewise live saved on SSDs, whereas much less-accessed records corresponding to database log entries will likewise live moved to lower-charge supplies.

For now, Veritas Storage basis's more advantageous solid-state power visibility works only on Unix and Linux programs. nonetheless, ESG's Laliberte spoke of the extended SSD visibility is a welcome growth. "It enables organizations to enhanced utilize enterprise Flash, and exercise it over a wider latitude of applications because it automates a few of that know-how," he referred to.

Veritas Storage groundwork moves facts to applicable tiers however does not alternate the facts's namespace. "That skill that your applications and databases wouldn't beget to live re-written," Symantec's Derrington spoke of. "It likewise aptitude that your backup and recuperation guidelines would not beget to change and, in every bit of probability most significantly, the conclusion users sequel not know that the comfort modified, however you beget attach the arrogate file on the arrogate tier of storage."

Making thin provisioning slimmer

Symantec extended Veritas' skinny Reclamation API, which helps companies using skinny provisioning to preserve its volumes skinny over time.

shoppers with storage techniques that support skinny provisioning can now exercise Veritas Storage basis's SmartMove and Veritas extent Replicator to allow thick to skinny migration over distance. 3PAR and IBM beget introduced aid for the skinny Reclamation API, and Derrington referred to Hitachi records programs and different main storage carriers are adding support for the API.

"Veritas Storage basis does not provide thin provisioning; they simply obtain hardware-based mostly skinny provisioning work stronger," Derrington stated.

"there's lots of application so that it will travel out and inform you here's the information you beget got and here's the statistics that will likewise live reclaimed, but most commonly nothing goes and reclaims the statistics since it's too hard," ESG's Laliberte stated.

Souping up Microsoft Hyper-V

Symantec additionally printed improved integration with Microsoft Hyper-V to permit shoppers to dynamically grow and shrink volumes whereas adding snapshot and replication capabilities for virtual machines.

Veritas Storage basis delivered host-degree information protection for every baby partition on Hyper-V; this means users can snapshot a complete newborn partition, whereas Veritas volume Replicator can replicate any sole virtual laptop or every bit of digital machines.

"because we're in the mother or father, that gives us advanced visibility into how that information is managed," Symantec's Derrington talked about. "Dynamic multipathing is natively integrated, and we're able to sequel the entire identical issues with load balancing and failover, and enhance visibility into thin volumes and skinny-reclaimable volumes."

Veritas additionally improved its Cluster File device by using granting each the energetic and passive cluster servers concurrent read/write facts access. This potential that failover restoration best requires an application restart to reconnect shoppers as an alternative of importing disk groups and mounting file programs.

all of the Veritas Storage foundation enhancements are available these days as downloads for latest Veritas Storage foundation and Cluster File device renovation consumers.


Symantec declares original models of Veritas Storage groundwork and elevated Availability solutions for home windows | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduces assist for home windows Server 2008, multiplied Operational Effectiveness, stronger user journey

Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) these days announced Veritas Storage groundwork and Veritas Cluster Server 5.1 for windows, the industry main heterogeneous storage management and elevated availability solution proposing records and utility availability for windows environments. A key component of the Symantec options for home windows portfolio scheduled to live obtainable in June 2008, Veritas Storage foundation 5.1 extravagant Availability for home windows introduces steer for windows Server 2008 and supplies tremendous advancements to operational effectiveness and ease of exercise including more advantageous availability and catastrophe restoration, centralized storage visibility and SmartMove for efficient array migrations.

“customers nowadays physiognomy overwhelming demands in managing disparate islands of storage and meeting strict provider stage agreements for prime availability,” stated Aaron Aubrecht, senior director of product administration, Symantec. “Veritas Storage foundation for home windows and Veritas Cluster Server supply businesses with a yardstick set of convenient-to-use tools that work across just about every server and storage platform to give online quantity administration, storage and application availability, utility integrated quick healing and storage enviornment network direction management. Enabling IT groups to exercise a sole software retort to maneuver their storage infrastructure and salvage better purposes in the experience of a local failure or catastrophe can tremendously in the reduction of both capital and operational costs, whereas concurrently making inescapable aplomb that present carrier stage agreements are met.”

multiplied working device, application and Storage aid

Veritas Storage foundation for windows and Veritas Cluster Server are extending aid for home windows Server 2008 and home windows Server 2008 Server Core environments, with support for ordinary, enterprise, and Datacenter versions across x86, x64, and IA64 platforms. additionally, this free up provides elevated steer for home windows Vista, Microsoft exchange 2007 carrier Pack 1, Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server 2007, Symantec enterprise Vault 2007 and Blackberry commercial enterprise Server.

Veritas Storage foundation for windows Dynamic Multi-pathing continues to augment steer for main storage systems — enabling consumers to beget a sole multi-pathing solution with out compromising a heterogeneous tiered storage infrastructure. apart from the 40+ array families already supported — support for Pillar, 3PAR, and more recent IBM and HDS arrays has been delivered.

improved Availability and Recoverability

Veritas Storage groundwork for home windows presents a guided, step-with the aid of-step wizard to live positive Microsoft trade and other applications may likewise live at once recovered from a degree-in-time quantity copy. IT corporations can now simplify the storage administration complexity of recuperating consistent trade statistics to an alternate vicinity with this original aptitude — automatic image healing to alternate recuperation Storage businesses. furthermore, for groups requiring a multi-site cataclysm restoration infrastructure for change or different functions, Veritas Cluster Server has added aid for EMC Symmetrix faraway facts Facility (SRDF)/big name.

more desirable Operations, administration, and performance

proposing visibility throughout distinctive hosts from a single, cozy, web-based mostly console can drastically in the reduction of operational fees and hazards to software downtime. Veritas Storage foundation supervisor will assist Veritas Storage groundwork for windows and up to 3,000 hosts enabling businesses to profit insight into storage objects including volumes, storage subsystems, and storage district network paths. Complementing the storage infrastructure visibility, Veritas Cluster Server management Console has been superior to dynamically learn physical and virtual (e.g., VMware) clusters throughout Unix, Linux and home windows in a sole international operation, and dramatically simplify operations. for instance, clustered functions will likewise live without rigor identified by geographical website or enterprise unit, thereby making it more convenient to manage, act and report on the analytic agencies of Veritas Cluster Server deployments.

Configuration Checker mitigates desultory to software downtime through presenting a simple and powerful means for corporations to proactively and simply identify configuration-connected installation blunders, departures from most beneficial practices, and incompatible hardware and/or application. SmartMove is a original feature in Veritas Storage basis 5.1 for home windows that enormously enhances the effectivity of data-intensive operations by using examining the statistics and guaranteeing that only the vital blocks of statistics are moved. This tremendously enhances the effectivity of records movement operations, equivalent to developing or synchronizing mirrors or snapshots.

About Symantec

Symantec is a worldwide leader in presenting protection, storage and techniques administration solutions to aid companies and consumers restful and maneuver their suggestions. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in more than forty nations. more information is accessible at www.symantec.com.

Contact:

Jerry Gowen

Symantec Corp.

+1 (503) 690 4714

jerry_gowen@symantec.com

Amanda Jones

connect Public relations

+1 (252) 637 7923


Symantec upgrades Storage basis, supports SSDs | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

via Kevin Komiega

-- Symantec announced a slew of product enhancements for Veritas Storage groundwork, Cluster File gear and Cluster Server today with its points of interest set on boosting the efficiency and management of strong-state disk (SSD) drives, enhancing failover tactics, and rounding out its skinny provisioning method.

Veritas Storage groundwork, the business's storage management platform, bought the majority of the upgrades. Sean Derrington, director of Symantec's storage and availability administration group, says Storage foundation can now automatically learn SSD devices from array and server vendors and attach facts where it belongs in a way it really is transparent to clients.

Storage basis's SSD optimization elements encompass pre-defined policies that automate the file migration system based upon a number of attributes, together with file measurement, classification, or recreation. The software can now immediately movement files from a mechanical volume to a excessive-efficiency SSD-primarily based volume.

"as an instance, they are able to assume two volumes in an array – one on common tough disk drives [HDDs] and one on SSDs – and provides an administrator visibility into each because of their dynamic multipathing software," says Derrington.

On the skinny provisioning entrance, Storage basis's SmartMove technology, which works in tandem with Veritas quantity Replicator to migrate from "thick" to "thin" storage over distances, can now peer into legacy storage volumes and automate the storage reclamation procedure.

Symantec has likewise prolonged its skinny provisioning expertise to home windows-based digital server environments by means of including steer for Microsoft Hyper-V to its Storage groundwork for home windows product.

Derrington says the Veritas skinny Reclamation API, introduced terminal year, is now utterly supported by means of Symantec partners IBM (XIV) and 3PAR (InServ), with extra hardware companions planning assist in the coming months.

the skinny Reclamation API allows for automatic house reclamation for thin provisioning storage arrays.

in addition, Symantec has tightened the combination between Veritas Cluster File gear and Oracle, Sybase and IBM DB2 to provide "close instantaneous" restoration of applications.

Symantec has enhanced Cluster File device and Cluster Server for better degrees of availability in Oracle environments. consequently, consumers can now failover purposes working single-illustration Oracle or single-example DB2 in seconds, in keeping with Derrington.

Symantec is likewise providing a Storage assessment service to assist shoppers of their efforts to deploy Symantec products, together with Veritas Storage foundation, Veritas Cluster File gadget and Veritas Cluster Server.

related articles:Symantec unveils FileStore cloud storage platform3PAR places a original twist on thin provisioningSymantec updates Storage basis for home windows


ST0-149 Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

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ST0-149 exam Dumps Source : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment

Test Code : ST0-149
Test cognomen : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment
Vendor cognomen : Symantec
: 171 true Questions

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I wanted to beget certification in test ST0-149 and i salvage it with killexams. flawless pattern of original modules facilitate me to attempt every bit of the 38 questions inside the given time-body. I score more than 87. I actually beget to mention that I may want to in no way ever beget carried out it on my own what i used which will accumulate with killexams.Com . Killexams.Com tender the ultra-present day module of questions and cover the associated subjects. Thanks to killexams.Com .


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13. References | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Annala J H (1996) original Zealand’s ITQ system: beget the first eight years been a success or a failure? Rev in Fish biol. and Fisheries vol. 6 (1) - 1996 pp 43-62

Anon (1997) - Statement of conclusions, 5th International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea - Intermediate Ministerial Meeting on the Integration of Fisheries and Environmental Issues - Bergen, Norway 13/14 March 1997

Bailey K, Williams P G and Itano D - (1996) By-catch and discards in Western Pacific tuna fisheries: A review of SPC data holdings and literature. SPC Oceanic Fisheries Programme Technical Report No 34. Noumea, original Caledonia 1996.

Barratt F A (1986). A study on the feasibility of utilizing prawn by-catch for human consumption. Report to South Pacific Regional Fisheries progress Programme - RAS/85/004. FAO Oct. 1986

Bejei A (1980) Observations on the trash fish from catches of a prawn trawler in coastal waters of Sarawak. Paper presented at Workshop on the biology and resources of penaeid shrimp in the South China Sea area. 30 June - 5 July 1980 Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. SCS/GEN/80/26

Bligh E G and R Duclos (1982) - Salting of minced fish. From: Fish By-catch...Bonus from the Sea: report of a technical consultation on shrimp by-catch utilisation held in Georgetown, Guyana, 28-30 October 1981. Ottawa, Ont., IDRC, 1982.

Bostock T (1987) Marine fisheries of Gujarat: post harvest losses: possibilities for development. Report of the Tropical progress and Research Institute, No L25. UK 1987

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DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND REMOTE SENSING | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

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This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. gratify remark their original website at http://lib.berkeley.edu/EART

DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND REMOTE SENSING By Philip Hoehn and Mary Lynette Larsgaard (Map & Imagery Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara Library).  Designed by John Creaser

A Army A IN B Auto in basement AA Antiaircraft artillery; Automobile Assn. AAA Agricultural Adjustment Administration; American Automobile Assn. AACR Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules AACR2 Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules 2d. ed. AACCCM Anglo-American Cataloguing Committee for Cartographic Materials AAES American Assn. of Engineering Societies AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAGS American Assn. for Geodetic Surveying AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAPG American Assn. of Petroleum Geologists AARLS Arkansas Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors AARS Asian Assn. on Remote Sensing AARSE African Association for the Remote Sensing of the Environment AASG Assn. of American situation Geologists AASP American Assn. of Stratigraphic Palynologists AB Air base ABAG Assn. of Bay district Governments (California) ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. ABN American Bank Note Company ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics ABSM Alberta Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Abzw Abzweigstelle AC Aerospace Center; Air Corps; American Cartographer (journal) A.C. Antonio Castro A/C Aircraft ACA American Cartographic Assn.; American Conservation Assn.; Automovil Club Argentino; Aerial Cartographics of America (Firm) ACACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives cartographiques du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACAPS Automated Chart Production System (C&GS) ACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives; Academia de Ciencias de Cuba ACC Association canadienne de cartographie AC&C Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography (U.S.) ACCDTS Advisory Committee on Canadian Digital Toponymic Services AccuDEM High-accuracy DEM Accu-DRAPE High-accuracy DEM Draped Images ACD Aeronautical Charting Division (C&GS) ACDDS Advanced Cartographic Data Digitizing System ACE Advanced Cartographic Equipment; Advanced Cartographic Environment (PCI Carto Inc.) ACEC American Consulting Engineers Council ACG Association canadienne des geographes; Address Coding Guides ACI Assn. Cartographique Internationale = International Cartographic Assn. ACIC Aeronautical Chart and Information heart (U.S.); Automated Cartographic Information heart (Univ. of Minnesota Library) ACIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, much Britain) ACLS Assn. of Canadian Lands Surveyors ACM Assn. for Computing Machinery ACMGIS Assn. for Computing Machinery Geographic Information Systems ACML Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries ACMLA Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACMS Automated Census Mapping System ACM- SIGGRAPH Assn. for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics ACOE Army Corps of Engineers (U.S.) ACRES Australian Centre for Remote Sensing ACRS Asian Conference on Remote Sensing ACS Advanced Cartographic Systems; Agricultural Cooperative Service; Automated Cartographic Systems; Automatic chemical sprinklers; Attitude Control Subsystem (Landsat); American Community Survey (USBC) ACSAD Arab heart for the Studies of Arid Zones and dry Lands ACSC Automobile Club of Southern California ACSM American Congress on Surveying and Mapping ACSTTO Assn. of Certified Survey Technicians and Technologists of Ontario ACT Administration du Cadastre et de la Topographie (Luxembourg); Australian Capital Territory AD Administrative Division (USGS); Aeronautical data A/D Analog to digital ADAC Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club ADAR Airborne Data Acquisition and Registration (Positive Systems, Inc.) ADC Alexandria Drafting Company; American Digital Cartography Inc A-DCS Advanced/Data Collection System ADDA American Design Drafting Assn. ADE AutoCAD Data Extension ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite ADEPT Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype ADF Application progress Facility (GeoVision Corp.) ADFG Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game ADI Areas of Dominent Influence (USBC TIGER) ADK Arealdatakontoret (Denmark) ADL Alexandria Digital Library Adm. Admiral; Admiralty ADM1 First-order administrative division ADM2 Second-order administrative division ADNR Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources ADOT Arizona Dept. of Transportation ADOTPF Alaska Dept. of Transportation and Public Facilities ADP Automated data processing ADPDP Alaska Division of Policy progress and Planning ADR Aerial Data Reduction Associates Inc. ADRG ARC-digitized raster graphics (USDMA) ADRGs Arc digitized raster graphics(USDMA) ADS Aerial Data Service (firm) ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Ad. St. Aldolf Stieler ADT Advanced Data Technologies, Inc.; Abstract Data Type AdV Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Lander der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ADW Agricultural drainage well ADWR Arizona Dept. of Water Resources A/E Architectural/engineering A&E Architect and Engineering AEC Architecture, engineering and construction AED Analysis and Evaluation Div. AEF Alliance for Environmental Education; Accurate Environmental Forecasting, Inc. AEG Association of Engineering Geologists AEI Aerial Exposure Index AEIDC Arctic Environmental Information Data Center AEM Atmospheric Explorer Mission AERS Advanced Earth Resources Satellite AES Analysis and Evaluation Staff AESE Association of Earth Science Editors Aest. Aestuarium = Estuary AE2S Advanced Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc. AFA American Forestry Assn.; Automatic fire alarm AFB Air force base; Aerial FotoBank (Firm) AFCEA Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Assn. AFE Automated feature extraction AFF American Fact Finder (DADSO) AFFRC Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research heart (Japan) AFI American Forest Inst. AFLAG Asean Federation of Land Surveying and Geomatics AFREF African Geodetic Reference Frame AfRL Akademie fur Raumforschung und Landesplanung (Germany) AFS Air force station AFT Ambiguity office technique AFWA Air force Weather Agency (U.S.) AG Attorney General AGC Army Geospatial heart (US); Assn. Geologique du Canada; Arkansas Geological Commission AGCHO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office AGCO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Office AGDS Automated Graphics Digitizing System AGI American Geological Inst.; Assn. for Geographic Information (London); Analytical Graphics, Inc. AGIC Alabama Geographic Information Council; Arizona Geographic Information Council AGILE Association of Geographic Information Laboratories AGIO Arkansas Geographic Information Office AGIS Automated Geographic Information System AgRI- STARS Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing AGS American Geographical Society; Alberta Geological Survey AGSL American Geographical Society Library AGSO Australian Geological Survey Organisation AGSS American Geographical and Statistical Society AGU American Geophysical Union AHAP Alaska High-altitude Aerial Photography (program) AHCPR U.S. Agency for Health custody and Policy Research AHDAS Adaptable Hydrologic Data Acquisition System AHDS Arts and Humanities Data Service AHRS Attitude and Heading Reference System AHS Automated Highway System AI Artificial intelligence; Appraisal Inst. AIA American Inst. of Architects AI/ANA American Indian/Alaska endemic Area AIC Australian Institute of Cartographers AICP American Inst. of Certified Planners AID Agency for International Development; Aeronautical information data AIH American Inst. of Hydrology AILESP American Indian Lands Environmental support Project AIMS Airborne Integrated Mapping System; Automated Investigation Measurement System (Nikon) AIPG American Inst. of Professional Geologists AIPP Ambroziak eternal Perspective Projection AIR American Indian reservation AIRB Alabama Inspection and Rating Bureau AIRS Atomspheric Infrared Sounder AIREA American Inst. of true Estate Appraisers AIRS Atmospheric infrared sounder AISH Assn. Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques = International Assn. of Hydrological Sciences AJG African Journal of Geoinformation AK Alaska AL Alabama Ala. Alabama ALA American Library Assn. ALAE Atmospheric LymanAlpha Emissions ALARS Alaska Land and Resources System ALI Advanced Land Imager ALIS Automated Land Information System (TVA) ALMRS Automated Land and Mineral Record System (US BLM) ALOHA Aerial Locations of hazardous Atmospheres (model) ALP Automated Lands Project ALSA Alberta Land Surveyors Association Alt. Altitude ALTA American Land Title Assn. ALTM Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper (Optech) ALTMS Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping System AM Automated Mapping AMA Associacion Mexicana Automovilistica AMAD Airborne Missions and Applications Division (NASA-Ames Research Center) AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program AMC Assn. Mineralogique du Canada; Australian Map set Inc. AME Aero-Metric Engineering Inc. AM/FM Automated mapping/facilities management AMG Australian Map Grid; Automated machine guidance AMI Applied Mapping Inc. AMIE Airglow Measurements of Infrared Measurements Emissions AMIS Aviation Management Information System AMISAR Active Microwave ImagerSynthetic Aperture Radar AML ARC Macro Language AMPR American Map charge Record AMPS Automatic Mapping and Planning System AMS Army Map Service; American Meteorological Society; Attitude Measurement Sensor; Automated Mapping System AMSD Adjusted Mapping support Data AMSR Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (JPL) An. Anno = year A.N.A. Asociacion Nacional Automovilistica (Mexico) ANA Area Navigation Approach ANAE Atlas of North American English ANARE Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions ANGEL Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ITT) ANTGS Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System ANMS Automated Notice to Mariners System ANOVA Analyses of variance ANRC Alaska endemic Regional Corp. ANSI American National Standards Inst. ANV Alaska endemic village ANVSA Alaska endemic village statistical area ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANZLIC Australia original Zealand Land Information Council ANZMapS Australian and original Zealand Map Society AO Area of Operations AOA Allen Osborne Associates, Inc. AODC Australian Oceanographic Data Centre AOI Area of Interest AOIPS Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System AOL America On Line AOLS Assn. of Ontario Land Surveyors AOML Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory AOO American Oceanographic Organization AOSS Ashtech Office Suite for Survey AP Analytical Plotter APA American Planning Assn. APCA Air Pollution Control Assn. APBEL Atlantic Provinces Board of Examiners for Land Surveyors APCM Aerial Photography constrict Management System APD Automated Plat Design (ConneXt, Inc.) A.P.D.R. Avec privilege du Roi = By license of the King APE Allen Precision Equipment APEGGA Assn. of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta APFO Aerial Photography territory Office (USDA) API American Petroleum Inst.; Application programming interface APIS Aerial Photography Information System APMI Aerial Photography Micrographic Index System (USGS) Apo. Apogee APPSR Aerial Photography Progress Summary Report APQF Aerial Photography Quad File APR Airborne Profile Recorder APS Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor APSR Aerial Photography Summary Record APSRS Aerial Photography Summary Record System (USGS) APT Automatic picture transmission; district proportional to APTS Aerial Profiling of Terrain System APWA American Public Works Assn. APWWA American Public Water Works Assn. AR Arkansas ARA Address Register Area; Algemeen Rijksarchief (Netherlands) ARAMCO Arabian American Oil Company Arb. Arbeiter ARC Ames Research heart (NASA); Appalachian Regional Commission ARCC American Rivers Conservation Council ArcFM Arc Facilities Manager (ESRI) Arch. Architect; Architecture Arc-SDE Arc Spatial Data Engine ARG American Resources Group ARIA Arizona Regional Image Archive ARIS Alabama Resource Information System; Arizona Resources Information System Ark. Arkansas ARM Administracion de Recursos Minerales (Panama); Airborne Remote Mapping ARMIS Arkansas Resource Management Information System ARMS Agricultural Resource Management System (Canada) Arr. Arrondissement ARRSTC Asian Regional Remote Sensing Training Centre ARS Agricultural Research Service (USDA) ARSC Australian Remote Sensing Conference ARSP Applied Remote Sensing Program (Univ. of Arizona) Artil. Artillery ARZ AutoRestricted Zone AS Anti-spoofing; district source; automatic sprinklers A-S Anti-spoofing ASA American Standards Assn. ASAP Advanced Scientific Array Processor; Agricultural Sciences Advisory Panel ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASB. CL. Asbestos-covered frame building ASC American Society of Cartographers ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE SMD American Society of Civil Engineers Surveying and Mapping Division ASCF Ames Satellite Communications Facility ASCIE American yardstick Code for Information Exchange ASCII American yardstick Code for Information Interchange ASCLA Assn. of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ALA) ASCP America Society of Consulting Planners ASCS Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (USDA) ASDD Australian Spatial Data Directory ASDI Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure ASEE American Society for Engineering Education ASF Alaska SAR Facility ASFE Assn. of Soil and Foundation Engineers ASFPM Assn. of situation Floodplain Managers ASGA Assn. des Services Geologiques Africains ASGC Australian Statistical Geographical Classification ASGS Australian Statistical Geography Standard ASHTD American Assn. of situation Highway and Transportation Officials ASI Analytical Surveys, Inc. ASLA American Society of Landscape Architects ASLO American Society of Limnology and Oceanography ASMC Alaska Surveying and Mapping Conference ASO Australian Survey Office ASP American Society of Photogrammetry; Application service provider ASPG American Society for Professional Geographers ASPLS Alabama Society of Professional Land Surveyors; Alaska Society of Professional Land Surveyors ASPRS American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ASPS Arkansas Society of Professional Surveyors ASRL Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory Ass. Association Assn. Association AST Atlantic yardstick Time; Automated Summary Tables ASTER Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTM American Society for Testing Materials AT Aero-Triangulation ATC Air Target Chart; further Technology Corp. ATID Attribute ID ATISRoads Arizona Transportation Information System (ADOT) ATKIS Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches Informationssystem ATM Adaptive triangular mesh ATMET Atmospheric, Meteorological and Environmental Technologies, LLC ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder ATON Aids to Navigation ATR1 Automatic Target Recognition module (Leica) ATS Advanced Technology Satellite; Applications Technology Satellite; Automated Technical Systems (Firm) AU Astronomical unit AURISA Australasian Urban and Regional Information Systems Assn. AUSDEC Australasian Data Exchange Centre AUSLIG Australian Surveying and Land Information Group AUV Autonomous underwater vehicle AUVSI Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International Av. Avenue AV Audio-visual; AmericaView AVCA Audio-visual and Cartographic Archives Div., National Archives of Canada Ave. Avenue AVHRR Advanced Very elevated Resolution Radiometer AVI Audio Visual Interleave AVIRIS Advanced Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer AVL Automatic Vehicle Location AVNIR Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer AVO Alaska Volcano Observatory; Audio/visual object; Amplitude Versus Offset; AVRI Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory AVS Application Visualization System (Visual Systems, Inc.) AWAR Area weighted medium resolution AWG Association for Women Geoscientists AWIPS Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System AWLS American West Land Surveying (Firm) AWMC Ancient World Mapping Center AWMSAS ArcView Marine Spill Analysis System AWRA American Water Resources Assn. AWS Air Weather Service AWWA American Water Works Assn. AZ Arizona A.Z. Alexander Zakreski AzMAP Arizona Mapping Advisory Council b Battalion B Brigade; Bulletin B&L Boggs and Lewis BA Booksellers Assn. of much Britain & Ireland BAAMA Bay district Automated Mapping Assn. BADGER Bay district Digital GeoResource BAKOSUR- TANAL Badan Koordinasi Survey dan Pemetaan Nasional (Indonesia) = National Coordination Agency for Surveying and Mapping (Indonesia) Banobras Banco Nacional de Obras y Servicios Publicos (Mexico) BAOR British Army of the Rhine BAOSC Bay district Open Space Council BARCIS BARCode Information System BARD San Francisco Bay district Regional Database BARP Bundesamt fur Raumplanung (Switzerland) BART Bay district Rapid Transit District (California) BAS British Antarctic Survey BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; Bay district Shared Information Consortium BASINS Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Systems (USEPA) BATCO Boulder district Trails Coalition BB Band-by-band; Blattbereich BBS Bulletin board system BC British Columbia; Ballistic camera; Bureau of the Census (U.S.) BCC Bibliographic Control Committee (ACMLA) BCDC Bay Conservation and progress Commission BCGS Board of Coast and Geodetic Survey (Philippines) BCH Beach BCSS Battlefield Command support System (Australian Army) BDC Base de donnees sur les collectivities (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) BDET Bengston, DeBell, Elkin & Titus Ltd. BDG Bridge Bdy Boundary BE Brick enclosed elevator BEA Bernhard, Eisenbraun and Associates; Bureau of Economic Analysis (US) B.E.F. British Expeditionary Force BEG Bureau of Economic Geology (Texas) BEICIP Bureau d'Etudes Industrielles et de Cooperation de l'Institut Francais du Petrole bes. besonders BES Bureau of Environmental Service (Portland, Oregon) Betrbf Betriebsbahnhof BETS Brunson Electronic Triangulation System BEV Bundesamt fur Eich- und Vermessungswesen (Austria) BFE Base flood elevation BfGR Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Germany) BfLR Bundesanstalt fur Landeskunde und Raumentwicklung (Germany) BG Block group BGC Business Geographics Conference BGHT Bight BGN Board on Geographic Names (U.S.) bgs Below ground surface BGS British Geological Survey Bgw. Bergwerk = mine Bhf. Bahnhof = Railway station BHIC Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum = Brabant Historical Information Centre BHS Boston Harbor Software, Inc. BI Big thought (NIMA); commerce intelligence BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs (U.S.) BIC Borderlands Information heart (Texas) BICI Book particular contribution identifier BIG Brunei Institution of Geomatics BIL Band Interleaved by Line BIM Building information modeling BIMCC Brussels International Map Collectors' Circle BIOMAPS Biodiversity Mapping for Protection and Sustainable exercise of Natural Resources BIOTROP Regional heart for Tropical Biology (Indonesia) BIP Band Interleaved by Pixel Bl. Boulevard BLDG Building BLG Binary line generalization BLIS Brownfields Location Information System (Wisconsin Dept. of Commerce) BLM Bureau of Land Management (U.S.) BLOB Binary great object BLPU Basic land and property unit BLS Bahamas Lands and Surveys Dept. BLT Bundesamt fur Landestopographie (Switzerland) BLVA Bayerisches Landesvermessungsamt Blvd. Boulevard BM Bench mark; Bureau of Mines BMA Botswana Ministry of Agriculture BMAC Bactria Margiana Archaeology Complex BMDO Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (U.S.) BMG Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (Philippines) .BMP Bitmapped image format (Microsoft Corp.) BMR Bureau of Mineral Resources (Australia, Papua original Guinea) BMW Barclay Mapworks, Inc. BN Biblioth`eque Nationale BNA Block numbering area BND Stream bend BNDT Base nationale de donnees topographiques (Canada) BnF Bibliotheque national de France BNPC Bathymetric navigation planning chart BNPD Bivariate regular Probability Density BNSC British National Space Centre BOA Building omission area BOC Bureau of the Census BOFRS Books and Open-File Report Section (USGS) BOLS BADGER On-line Service BOM Bureau of Mines BOP Bureau of Printing BOR Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.) BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study BORPELS Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors (Calif.) BOSS Behavior of Offshore Structures, Conference on BOTUS Best of the U.S. (Space Imaging) BP Boundary marker (USDMA) BPA Bonneville Power Administration BPI Bits per Inch BPPT Badan Pembinaan dan Penerapan Teknologi (Indonesia) BPR Bureau of Public Roads BPS Bits per Second BR Bureau of Reclamation br. breit Br. Breite Brck. Brucke = bridge BRFD Bidirectional reflectance distribution function BRGM Bureau de recherches geologique et minieres (France) BRICMICS British and Irish Committee for Map Information and Catalogue Systems BRH Bush, Roed & Hitchings (Firm) BRS Bibliographic Retrieval Service BS Bureau of Statistics (Japan) Bs. As. Buenos Aires BSB Bayerische Staatsbibliothek BSC Boston Survey Consultants BSE Base flood elevation BSNH Headwater basin BSQ Band Sequential BSR Bibliographic yardstick Record BSU Base Spatial Unit BT Base Topo BTA Basic Trading Areas (FCC) BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics (US) BUIS Beihai Urban Information Center BUPMIS Beihai Urban Planning Management Information System BUPNIS Beijing Underground-Network Information System BUTE Butte BVG Berliner Verkehrs Gesellschaft BVU Brightness Value Unit B/W Black and white BWC Bandwidth Compression BWE Bandwidth Expansion c Company C Cartography; Celsius (degrees) ca. Circa CA California; Cartographic and architectural; Census agglomeration (Canada) C/A Coarse-Acquisition (code) CAA Civil Aeronautics Administration (U.S.); Civil Aviation Authority (Great Britain) CAAD Cartographic and Architectural Archives Div., National Archives of Canada CAC Center for Advanced Computation (Univ. of Illinois); Compressed Aeronautical Chart (U.S. government) CACS Canadian vigorous Control System CAD Computer-aided drafting; Computer assisted design CADD Computer-aided design and drafting CADMAP Computer-aided drafting, mapping, and photogrammetry CADRG Compressed ADRG CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna CAFM Computer-aided facility management CAG Canadian Association of Geographers CaGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Science (journal)); Cartography and Geographic Information Systems (journal) CAGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Society Cal. California Calif. California CALMIT Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln) CALS Connecticut Assn. of Land Surveyors; Computer-aided acquisition and logistic support; Computer Assisted Land Survey System (SPDK) CALTRANS California Dept. of Transportation CAM Computer aided mapping CAMA Computer-aided mass appraisal system (Montana) CAMEO Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations System (U.S.) CAMFER Center for the Assessment & Monitoring of Forest & Environmental Resources (Univ. of Calif., Berkeley) CAN Controlled district Network CANRI Community Access to Natural Resources Information CanSIS Canadian Soil Information System CANSPACE Canadian Space Geodesy Forum CanVec Canadian Vector Data CAP Cooperative Agreements Program (FGDC) CAPCO Capital district Planning Council (Texas) CAPDU Canadian Assn. of Public Data Users CAR Curriculum, Accreditation and Registration Committee (ACSM); Central African Republic CARES Center for Agricultural, Resource, and Environmental Systems (Univ. of Missouri) CARL Canadian Assn. of Research Libraries CARS Computer-Assisted Reproduction; heart for Applications of Remote Sensing (Oklahoma situation Univ.) CASA Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (Univ. College, London) CASE Computer-Aided Software Engineering CASI Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager CaSIL California Spatial Information Library CASS Coding and Accuracy support System (USPS) CAST Center for Advanced and Spatial Technologies (Univ. of Arkansas) CAT Computer Assisted Thermography CATS Consequences Assessment implement Set (FEMA) CAVA Cartographic and Audio-Visual Archives Div. = Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles (DACA), National Archives of Canada CAZRI Central Arid Zone Research Institute CB Column builder C.B. Hollow concrete or cement obstruct construction CBD Central commerce district CBEP Community-Based Environmental Protection (USEPA program) CBEPS Canadian Board of Examiners for Professional Surveyors CBET Concrete obstruct enclosed elevator CBF Cartographic circumscribe file CBI China Burma India Theatre of Operations (WW II) CBL Centraal Bureau Luchtkartering (Suriname); Calibration (or calibrated) ground line cbm Kubikmeter (cubic meter) CBM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming situation Geological Survey) CBN Cooperative ground Network CBP Chesapeake Bay Project C. BR Concrete, lime, cinder or cement brick CBS Community ground Station CBWE Corn Blight Watch Experiment CC Cartographic Catalog C.C. Chain carrier CCA Canadian Cartographic Assn. CCAFS Cape Canaveral Air force Station (Florida) CCAP Competative Cooperative Agreements Program (U.S.) CCBCCM Canadian Committee for the Bibliographic Control of Cartographic Materials CCC Canadian Committee on Cataloging; Cataloging and Classification Committee (MAGERT) CCCELS California Council of Civil Engineers and Land Surveyors CCD Census county division; Computer heart Div. (USGS); Charged couple device; Charged-coupled device; Charge-coupled device CCDM Core Cadastral Domain Model CCELC Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification CCGE Canadian Council on Geographic Education CCGM Center for Computing Graphics (Delft Univ. of Technology) CCIG Centre canadien d'information sur la geoscience CCID Chain component ID CCISA Congress of Cartographic Information Specialist Associations CCITT International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee CCK Centrale Catalogus Kartografie (National Library of the Netherlands) CCLS Canadian Council of Land Surveyors CCM Canada Centre for Mapping; Compressed County Mosaic (USDA) CCNS4 Computer Controlled Navigation System (E. Coyote Enterprises, Inc.) CCPS Central Colorado Professional Surveyors CCPR California heart for Population Research CCRS Canada Centre for Remote Sensing CCS Census consolidated subdivision (Canada) CCT Computer Compatible Tape; Centro de Ciencia Tropical CD Compact disc; Conservation Div. (USGS); Committee Draft (ISO) CDA Colorado Dept. of Agriculture CDC California Dept. of Conservation; Control Data Corporation CD-CINC CD-ROM Consistent Interface Committee (U.S.) CDED Canadian Digital height Data CDF Cumulative distribution function; California Dept. of Forestry (and Fire Protection) CDFG California Dept. of Fish and Game CDFS Cloud Depiction and Forecast System CDH Communications and data handling CDi Compact Disk interactive CDIS Coordinated Design and Information System CDL Cropland data layers (USDA NASS) CDMG California Div. of Mines and Geology CDN Coordinates, definitions and notations CDOT Colorado Dept. of Transportation CDOW Colorado Division of Wildlife CDOWG CD-ROM Data Origination Working Group (U.S.) CDP Cartographer progress Program; Census designated place; Colorado Division of Planning .CDR CorelDraw format CD-R Compact disk-recordable CD-ROM Compact disk-read only memory CDRS Collaborative Digital Reference Service CDS Catalogue of Data Sources CDT Computer pomp terminal; Central Daylight Time; Constrained Delaunay triangulation CDTED Compressed digital terrain height data CDV Cartographic data visualizer CD-W Compact disk-- re-writable CDWR California Dept. of Water Resources CE Corps of Engineers C.E. Civil Engineer CEAL Centro Editor de America Latina CEAO County Engineers Association of Ohio CEBAF Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility CECO Consulting Engineers Council of Ohio CECSVB Comit pour l'Etablissement de la Carte des Sols et de la Vegetation de la Belgique CECW Consulting Engineers Council of Washington CEDAC Comprehensive Economic Data Atlas of China CEDARE Centre for Environment and progress for the Arab Region and Europe CEDD Committee on the Exchange of Digital Data CEE Comite Estatal de Estadisticas (Cuba) CEGET Centre d'Etudes de Geographie Tropical (Bordeaux) CEGIS Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (USGS) CELSOC Consulting Engineers and Land Surveyors of California Cem. Cemetery CEMA Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Assn. CEMAR Centro de Estudos sequel Mar CEN Comite europeen de normalization electronique CENREN Centro de Recursos Naturales (El Salvador) CENTA Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (El Salvador) CENTAUR Civil Engineering Technologies for Automatic Roadmaking (DSNP) CEO European Centre for Earth Observation CEONet Canadian Earth Observation Network CEP Celestial Ephemeris Pole CERCLIS Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (US EPA) CERCO Comite Europeen de Responsibles de la Cartographie Officielle CERD Catalog of Environmental Resource Data CERES California Environmental Resource Evaluation System CERCG Centre d'Etudes et de Realisations Cartographiques Geographiques (France) CERR Centre d'Ecologie des Ressources Renouvelables (France) CES Committee on Earth Sciences CET Commission on Education and Training (IGA) CETENAL Comision de Estudios del Territorio Nacional (Mexico) CEU Continuing education unit CFC Comite francais de cartographie CFCC Census Feature Class Code CFF Cartographic Feature File CFUA Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association C.G. Coast Guard CGA Color Graphics Adaptor CGC Commission geologique du Canada CGDB Central Geographic Data Base CGDI Canadian Geomatics Digital Initiative ; Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure CGE Comision Geografico-Exploradora (Mexico) CGI Computer Graphics Interface; Common gateway interface; heart for Geographic Information CGIC Canadian Geoscience Information Centre CGIS Center for GIS (Qatar) .CGM Computer graphics metafile CGMW Commission for the Geological Map of the World CGNHS Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey CGNS Canadian Geographical Names Service GCN1 Canadian Geographical Names, flush 1 CGPM Conference common des Poids et Mesures CGPS Continuous global positioning system CGRG Canadian Geomorphology Research Group CGS California Geological Survey; Civil GPS Service; Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Colorado Geological Survey C&GS Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Commercial & Government Systems (Kodak) CGSB Canadian common Standards Board CGSB-COG Canadian common Standards Board Committee on Geomatics CGSIC Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGSICO Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGTP Cartographic and Geospatial Technology Programs CGU Canadian Geophysical Union CGW Computer Graphics World (journal) CH; Ch. Chief Hydrologist; Church; Chapel CHA Canadian Hydrographic Association CHEEC Center for the Health Effects of Environmental Contamination (Univ. of Iowa) CHEST Combined Higher Education Software Team (UK) CHGIS China Historical Geographic Information System (Harvard University) CHIA Cumulative Hydrologic repercussion Assessment CHNM Marine channel CHS Canadian Hydrographic Service CI Compass and inclinometer; Coal Investigations Map (USGS) CIA Central Intelligence Agency (U.S.) CIAF Centro de Investigaciones en Percepcion Remota CIAS CD-ROM Index Architecture Specification Working Group (U.S.) CIACER Centro de Investigacion y Aplicacion de Sensores Remotos (Bolivia) CIB Controlled image base CIBESA Cartografica Iberica S.A. CICAEDAS Committee Investigating Cartographic Entity, Definitions, and Standards CICLOPS Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations CID Community Information Database (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) CIDAMM Centro de Informacion y Documentacion del district Metropolitana de Madrid CIE Iompair Eireann Coras; Classified image editor CIESIN Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network CIG Canadian Inst. of Geomatics; Climate Interest Group; Centro de Investigaciones Geotecnicas (El Salvador) CIGF Centre d'Information Geographique et Fonci`ere Ministre de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec) CIGNET Cooperative International GPS Network CIKM Conference on Information erudition Management CIM Collection insertion map; Council on Information Management (Virginia) CIMIS California Irrigation Management Information System CINDI Center for Integration of Natural cataclysm Information (USGS) CIO Central Imagery Office (U.S.) CIP Contour Interpolation Program; Canadian Institute of Planners CIR Color infrared CIRSS California Integrated Remote Sensing System CIS Canadian Inst. of Surveying; Color Imaging Systems (Barneyscan Corp.) CISD Cook Islands Dept. of Survey CISIG Conservational International GIS CISM Canadian Inst. of Surveying and Mapping CIST Centre d'information sur les sciences de la Terre (Canada) CITYG City Graphic CIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, much Britain) CK-PL Check plotter CLA Canadian Library Association CLD Center line data CLDB Common Land Data Base CLDS Canada Land Data System(s) CLI Canada Land Inventory CLICK Center for LiDAR Information Coordination (USGS) CLID Class identifier CLIRSEN Remote Sensing heart (Ecuador) Clk. Clerk CLL Corrected line length CLOMA Confidential letters of map amendment CLS Canada Lands Surveyor CLSA California Land Surveyors Assn. CLSR Canada Lands Surveys Records CLU Common land units CLUMP Canada Land exercise Monitoring Program cm Centimeter CM Cartographic material; Configuration management CMA Census Metropolitan district (Statistics Canada); Central Mapping Agency (New South Wales) CMAP Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning CMAS Circular intend Accuracy Standard CMCC California Mapping Coordinating Committee CMD Current meter digitizer; Command CMEDS Comprehensive Mapping and Engineering Data System (LES) CMI Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. CMIB Controlled multispectral image base CMIS Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder CMM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming situation Geological Survey) CMO Canada Map Office CMOTS Cartographic Material Order and Tracking System (USGS) CMP Coastal Mapping Program; Camp CMS California Map Society; Cavity Monitoring System (Optech); Clay Minerals Society CMSA Consolidated metropolitan statistical area CMSDU Commission on Map exercise and Spatial Data exercise (ICA) CMSM Committee on Marine Surveying and Mapping CMT Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. C&MT Communication & Measurement Technologies Ltd. CMYK Cyan-magenta-yellow-black CNA Comiss~ao Nacional sequel Ambiente (Portugal) CNIDR Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (USA) CNES Centre national d'etudes spatiales (France) CNEXO Centre National pour l'Exploitation des Oceans (France) CNFL Confluence CNI Coalition for Networked Information CNIG Centro Nacional de Informac~ao Geografica = Portuguese National heart for Geographic Information CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche (Italy); Canadian National Railway CNRA Commission on National and Regional Atlases (ICA) CNRG Centre National de Recherches Geomorphologiques (Belgium) CNROA Centro Nacional de Reconhecimento e Ordenamento Agrario (Portugal) CNRS Centre National de Recherches Scientifique (France) CNRST Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (Burkina Faso) CNSTAT Committee on National Statistics (U.S.) Co. Company; County CO Cartometric operations; Colorado COBOL Common commerce Oriented Language COBRIG Council of British Geography COE Corps of Engineers (US Army) COEB Coastal and Estuarine Oceanography branch (US NOS) COFPAES Committee on the Federal Procurement of Architect and Engineer Services COFRS Chinese Operational Earth Resources Satellite COG Council of Governments COGNA Council of Geographic Names Authorities COGO Coordinate geometry; Coalition of Geospatial Organizations C.O.I. Office of Coordinator of Information (U.S.) col. Color; colored Col. Colonel; Colorado COL Agricultural colony COLD Computer Output to Laser (optical) Disc Com. Committee; Commission; Commodore COM Component protest Model (Microsoft) COMAP Continuous district pattern mapping Comdg. Commanding COMIS Cartographic Operations Management Information System COMPAS Coastal Ocean Management, Planning and AssessmentSystem COMSAT Communications Satellite (Corp.) CONAE Comision nacional de actividades espaciales (Argentina) CONC. Concrete or reinforced concrete construction Cong. Congress Conn. Connecticut CONRIM Committee on Natural Resource Information Management(Alaska) CONUS Continental United States CO-COPS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (NOAA) COP/BOP City of Portland Bureau of Planning CORBA Common protest Request Broker Architecture CORC Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (OCLC) Corp. Corporal; Corporation CORS Continuously operated reference station(s); Continuously operating GPS reference stations CORSE Conference on Remote Sensing Education COS Central Office of Statistics (Malta) COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information Center COSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries COSPAR Committee on Space Research COTS Commercial-off-the-shelf COVIS Commonwealth of Virginia Information Systems CP Cartographic Perspectives (journal); color printer CPFS Colorado Plateau territory Station (USGS) CPH Cartographic Publishing House (China) CPID Composite ID CPLAR Community Perspectives on Land and Agrarian Reform (South Africa) CPLC Court of Private Land Claims CPS Characters per second; Contour plotting system; Cartographic production system C.P.S.C.R.A.M. Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Regiaeque Apostolicae Majestatis = With the privilege of the Holy Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty CPSO Cataloging Policy and support Office (Library of Congress) CPU Central processing unit CR Central Region; Coordinate reader CRA Common Resource Area CRADA Cooperative Research and progress Agreement (U.S) CRAG Columbia Region Association of Governments CRAIGES Cartographic Reproduction and Interactive lifelike Editing System CRBT Centre de Recherches Biologiques Tropicales (Algeria) CREPUQ Conference des recteurs et des principaux des universites du Quebec CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (U.S.) CRG Centre de Recherche en Geomatique (Universite Laval) CRIB Computerized Resources Information Bank CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (US) CRISTA Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere CRKT Tidal creek CRL Cartographic research laboratory CrlMSS Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite CrlS Cross-track Infrared Sounder CSD Census subdivision (Canada) CRM Consejo de Recursos Minerales (Mexico); Customer relationship management CRN Canadian Road Network CRPD City true Property Database CRREL Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratories CRTR Crater CRSA Canadian Regional Science Association CRSC California Remote Sensing Council CRSS Canadian Remote Sensing Society CRT Cathode ray tube CRV Cloth, rolled, varnished CS Color scanner; Cubic splines C.S. Charles Simonneau CSA Canadian Space Agency CSAA California situation Automobile Association CSAC Census Statistical district Committee (U.S.) CSAV Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences CSC Computer Sciences Corporation; Commercial Space heart (NASA); Coastal Services heart (NOAA); California Surveying Corporation CSDGM Content yardstick for Digital Geospatial Metadata CSDMS Centre for Spatial Database Management and Solutions CSDS California Surveying and Drafting Supply CSFS Colorado situation Forest Service CSG Cartography Special Group, Assn. of American Geographers; Council of situation Governments CSIG Cyberinfrastrucure Summer Institute for Geoscientists CSIN Computer Systems Information Network CSIP Continental Scale International Project CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain) CSISS Center for Spatially Integrated social Sciences (UCSB) CSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries CSOC Consolidated Space Operations Center CSP Conformal Space projection CSPA Council of situation Planning Agencies CSPG Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists CSR Center for Space Research (Univ. of Texas at Austin) CSRS Canadian Spatial Reference System CSUF California situation University, Fresno CSUN California situation University, Northridge CST Central yardstick Time; Chicago Steel Tape Co.; Coast; Certified Survey Technician CSVNS California Surveying Virtual Survey Network (California Surveying and Drafting Supply Ct. Court CT Census tract; Connecticut CTA Crafton, Tull & Associates CTC Cartoteca de Catalunya; Cooperating Technical Communities CTCUQ Commission de transport de la Communaute urbaine de Quebec CTD Chief, Topographic Division; Conductivity-temperature-depth CTI Critical Technologies Inst. (RAND Corp.) CTI-S Centre for Topographic Information - Sherbrooke CTL Cartographic Technology Lab. CTOG Contour to Grid CTS Communications Technology Satellite (Canadian); Conventional terrestrial system CUA Canadian Underwriters' Association CUAC Cartographic Users Advisory Council (U.S.) CUBE Combined mistrust and Bathymetry Estimator CUET Cuesta CUGiK Centralny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) CUR Council on Undergraduate Research CUSEC Central United States Earthquake Consortium CUSMAP Conterminous United States Minerals Assessment Plan CVO Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS) CWHR Califoria Wildlife Habitat Relationships CWRA Canadian Water Resources Program CWS Cartographic workstation CYP Cape York Peninsula CYPLUS Cape York Peninsula Land exercise Strategy CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner CZM Coastal Zone Management (U.S. federal act of 1972) C4G Center for GeoInformatics (Louisiana situation University) D Division; Dwelling DA Data Acquisition; Dept. of the Army; Dissemination district (Canada) D/A Digital to Analog (converter) DAAC Div. des archives audiovisuelles et cartographiques, Archives nationales du Canada; Distributed vigorous Archive Center DAAS Defense Automatic Addressing System (USDMA) DAASC Defense Automated Addressing System heart (USDMA) DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter DACA Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles, Archives nationales du Canada DACH Deputy lieutenant Chief Hydrologist DADS Digital Assisted Data ground System DADSO Data Access and Dissemination System Office (USBC) DAESA Dual Axis Fourier Shape Analysis DAFIF Digital Aeronautical Flight Information Files (NGA) DAG Directorate of Geographic Affairs (Lebanon) DAIS-1 Digital Airborne Imagery System (Space Imaging (Firm)) DAISIDS Distributed Ad-hoc intellectual Sensor-Intrusion Detection System DAL Data Analysis Laboratory DAM Detection and mapping DAMES Defense Automated Message Exchange Service (USDMA) DANE Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (Colombia) DAR Data acquisition request DARDC Device for Automatic Remote Data Collection DARO Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (U.S.) DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (U.S.) DAS Delaware Assn. of Surveyors; Digial Aerial Solutions, LLC DA&SM Data Acquisitions & Systems Maintenance DAT Digital audio tape DATIS Digital Airborne Topographic Imaging System DATPE Direction de l'Amernagement du Territoire et de la Protection de l'Environnement (Haiti) D.A.V. Deutscher Alpenverein DAVE-G Dialogue Assisted Virtual Environment for Geoinformation DB Data base; Dissemination obstruct (Canada) DBB Deutsche Bundesbahn DBDB Digital Bathymetry Data ground (U.S. government) DBH Diameter at breast height DBI Database Indexing; Database Interface DBMS Database management system DBPPWG Data ground Population Planning Working Group DBPWG Data ground Population Working Group DBR Dienst Bodemkartering (Suriname) DBS Data ground Specifications; Direct broadcast satellites DC District Chief; District of Columbia; Div. Chief; Dublin Core D.C. District of Columbia DCA Dept. of Community Affairs (Montana) DC&A Data Collection and Analysis DCASS Digital Cartographic Software System DCDB Digital Cartographic Data Base DCDSTF Digital Cartographic Data Standards stint force (U.S.) DCE Data Communication Equipment; Distributed Computing Environment DCF Digital Cartographic File DCHUM Digital Chart Update Manual (USDMA) DCI Differential Corrections, Inc.; Director of Central Intelligence DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Initiative DCN Direccion de Cartografia Nacional (Venezuela); Document control number DCP Dept. of city planning; Digital Cartographic Production; Data collection platform DCPS Digital Cartographic Production Segment DCR Design Concept Review DCRM Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials DCRM(C) Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Cartographic) DCS Digital Cartography Section; Digital color separate; Directorate of Colonial Surveys (U.K.); Data collection system; Digital Cartographic Studio DCSE Diba Consulting Software Engineers DCS/RSE Data collection system receiving site equipment DCST Data collection system tape DCT Direction Topographique et du Cadastre (Congo) DCW Digital Chart of the World (USDMA) DD Data dictionary; Dewey Decimal; Decimal degrees DDA Data descriptive area DDAC Deutscher Automobil-Club DDC Dewey Decimal classification; Digital data conversion DDCMP Digital Data Communication Message Protocol DDE DOE Data Explorer (US Dept. of Energy) DDES Digital Data Editing System DDF Data descriptive file DDG La direction des documents gouvernementaux (La Bibliotheque et des Archives du Canada) DDI Design Data Inc. DDIS Depository Distribution Information System (USGPO) DDL Data Definition Language DDM Documents Data Miner; Digital Distance Model; Dynamic Digital Map DDN Defense Data Network DDPO Defense Dissemination Program Office (U.S.) DDPS Desktop Digital Photogrammetry System (3D Mapper Pty. Ltd.) DDR Data descriptive record DDS Digital Data Storage DDTI Digital Data Technologies, Inc. DE Data extraction; Delaware DEA David Evans and Associates, Inc. dec. Declination DEC Digital gear Corp. DED Data constituent Dictionary DE-DEM Drainage-Enforced DEM DEIS Draft environmental repercussion statement del. Delineation; delineator Del. Delaware delt. Delineator DEM Digital height Model; Digital height matrix DEM-G Digital height Model--Graphic (coordinates) DEM-P Digital height Model--Planar (coordinates) DEMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada DEMVFY Digital height Model Verify (verification software) Dep. Deputy; Departement DEP Dept. of Environmental Protection Dept. Department DES Digital Editing Station DE/S Data Extraction Segment DESI Diversified Energy Services, Inc. DEW Distant Early Warning Line DFAD Digital Feature Analysis Data (U.S. government) DFC Digital Futures Coalition DFG Dept. of Fish and Game DFLIP Digital Flight Information Publication DFIRM Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map DFO Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada) DFW Dept. of Fish and Wildlife DGC Direct Geodetic Constraint (software) DGCM Direct Geodetic Constraint Method DGDF Digital Geospatial Data Files DGEC Direccion common de Estadistica y Censos (Costa Rica) DGF Dept. of Game and Fish DGG Direccion common de Geografia (Mexico) DGGM Direccion common de Geologia y Minas (Colombia) DGGS Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (Alaska); Directorate common of Geological Surveys (Iraq) DGI Direktorat Geologi (Indonesia) DGIAI Direccion common de Integracion y Analisis de la Informacion (Mexico) DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard DGIWG Digital Geographic Information Working Group DGfK Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kartographie DGK 5 Deutsche Grundkarte 1:5 000 DGM Div. des Gites Mineraux de l'Assn. Geologique du Canada; Direction de la Geologie et des Mines (Burkina Faso); Direccion common de Mineria (Dominican Republic) DGMG Direccion common de Minas y Geologia (Venezuela) DGMP Direccion de Geologia, Minas y Petrolio (Costa Rica) DGN Domestic geographic name DGNR Domestic Geographic Names Report (U.S.) DGO Direccion common de Oceanografia (Mexico) DGP Digital lifelike Product DGPA Direccion common de la Produccion Agraria (Spain) DGPS Differential Global Positioning System; Differential Global Positioning Satellite DGRM Direccion common de Recursos Minerales (Panama) DGS Dept. of Geological Survey (Botswana); Delaware Geological Survey DGSE Dept. of Geological Survey and Exploration (Burma) DGU Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse DH Drill hole D.H. Double hydrant DHI Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut; Defense Hydrographic Initiative (USDMA) DHN Directoria de Hidrografia e Navegac~ao (Brazil) DI Data Integration; Digital image DIA Defence Intelligence Agency (U.S.); Dept. of Indian Affairs; Dept. of International Affairs DIAL Digital Image Analysis Laboratory (Univ. of Arizona); Differential Absorption LiDAR (Optech) diam. Diameter DIAM Defense Intelligence Agency Manual DiAP Digital Image Analytical Plotter (ISM) DID Data information delivery; Data information description; Digital Image Data DIDS Digital Information pomp System (U.S.) DIELOG DAASC Integrated E-Mail Logistics System (USDMA) DIES Digital Image Enhancement System DIF Data Integration Function; Data Interchange Format; pomp Information Facility; Document Interchange Format (U.S. Navy) difSAR Differential SAR DIGCAT Digital Catalog DIGEST Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard DIGIT Digitally Integrated Geographic Information Technologies (laboratory, Univ. of Utah Geography Dept.) DILIGENT Digital Library Infrastructure on Grid Enabled Technology (EC) DIM Digital Image Matching DIME Dual Independent Map Encoding (U.S. Bureau of the Census) DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung Dinageca Direcc~ao Nacional de Geografia e Cadastro (Mozambique) DINO Data in Ontario (organization) DIP Data Integration Program DIPS Digital Image Processing System DIRS Digital Image Rectification/Registration System DIS Distributed Information System; Draft International yardstick (ISO) DISGIS Distributed Geographical Information Systems DISHIDROS Dinas Hidro Oceanografi (Indonesia) Dist. District DISTDAHS Distributed Satellite Telemetry Data Handling System Div. Division DKDGS Det Kongelige Danske Geografiske Selskab DL Data logging DLA Diffusion-limited aggregation DLCW Department of Land and Water Conservation (NSW) DLG Digital Line Graph DLG-E Digital Line Graph--Enhanced DLGF Digital Line Graph--Framework DLG-O Digital Line Graph--Optional DLG2DEM Digital Line Graph to Digital height Model (production software) DLG-3 Digital Line Graph--level 3 DLI Digital Library Initiative (U.S.); Data Liberation Initiative (Canada); Dept. of Land Information DLL Windows Dynamic Link Library DLMS Digital Landmass System DLNR Dept. of Land and Natural Resources DLO Document-like object DLR Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. DLS Dominion Land Survey (Canada); Dept. of Lands and Survey (Guyana); Dept. of Lands and Surveys (Cyprus) DLT Digital linear tape DLWC Dept. of Land and Water Conservation (Australia) DM Departamento de Minas (Honduras); Data mining DMA Defense Mapping Agency (U.S.); Designated Market Areas (USBC TIGER) DMAAC Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center DMAFF Defense Mapping Agency Feature File; Defense Mapping Agency Feature Format DMAHTC Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Topographic Center DMAIAGS Defense Mapping Agency Inter-American Geodetic Survey DMAODS Defense Mapping Agency Office of Distribution Services DMASPOEM Defense Mapping Agency Special Program Office for Exploitation Modernization DMA TC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic heart (U.S.) DMATC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic heart (U.S.) DMAUSE DMA Utility Software Environment (USDMA) DMC Disaster Monitoring Constellation (BNSC) DMCA Digital Millenium Copyright Act DME Distance measuring equipment; Dept. of Mines and Energy (Nova Scotia) DMGIS Data, Map and Government Information Services (Univ. of Toronto Library) DMI Digital Mapping, Inc. DMMG Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia (Uruguay) DMMR Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources (Saudi Arabia) DMP Digital Map Products (Firm) DMR Dept. of Mineral Resources (New South Wales) DMRS Data Management and Retrieval System DMRT Dept. of Mineral Resources of Thailand DMS Data Management System; Desktop Mapping System (R-WEL, Inc.); Drawing Management System; Defense Mapping School (USDMA); Defense Message System (USDoD); Distribution Management System; Degrees, minutes, seconds DMSI Data Management Segment Interface Control Document DMSO Defense Mapping School Operations Office (USDMA) DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DMT Digital Mapping Techniques DMTI Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. DMU Defense Mapping Unit (Singapore); Distance measuring unit DMW Daft, McCune, Walker DN Digital Number DNC Digital marine Chart DNPM Departamento Nacional de Produc~ao Mineral (Brazil) DNPCT Direction National de Production Cartographique et Topographique (Mali) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources DNRC Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation (Montana) DNREP Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (Kentucky) DNT Direccion Nacional de Topografia (Uruguay) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources Do. Ditto (the same) DO Digital Ortho; District office DOA Dept. of Agriculture Doc. Document DOC Dept. of Commerce DOD Dept. of Defense DOE Dept. of Energy DOGAMI Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries (Oregon) DOH Dept. of Health DOI Dept. of the Interior; Digital protest identifier; Document protest identifier DOM Document protest Model DOMSAT Domestic Communications Satellite System DOQ Digital orthophoto quadrangle DOQQ Digital orthophoto quarter quadrangle DORIS Decision-Oriented Resource Information System (Ventura County, Calif.); Doppler obitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite DOS Directorate of Overseas Surveys (U.K.); Dept. of State; Digital Orthophoto System; Disc Operating System DOSLI Dept. of Survey and Land Information (New Zealand) DOT Dept. of Transportation DP Data production; Digital Photogrammetry DPE Data processing environment; data processing equipment DPED Dept. of Planning and Economic Development dpi Dots per inch DPI Dots per inch DPIE Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy (Australia) DPL Data Programming Language; Designated place DPMA Data Processing Management Assn. DPPDB Digital Point Positioning Data Base DPS DEM Production System; Digital Production System (USDMA) Dpt. Department DPW Dept. of public works DPWS Digital Photogrammetric work Station DQDB Distributed-Queue Dual Buses DQQ Digital Quarter Quadrangle Dr. Drive DR Data record(s); Direct Reflex (Trimble) DRAPE Digital Raster Acquisition Project for the East DRAPP Denver Regional Aerial Photography Program DRBC Delaware River Basin Commission DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DRCOG Denver Regional Council of Governments DRF Digital Raster File DRG Digital Raster Graphic; Davey Resource Group DRGM Direction des Recherches gologiques et minires (Niger) DRGP Digital Representation of lifelike Products DRGS Direct Readout Ground Station DRIS Digital Research and Instructional Services (Univ. of Virginia) DRO Digital Revision Overlay DS Digital subsystem D.S. District Surveyor DSD Digital Sailing Directions DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project DSF Delivery sequence file (U.S. Postal Service) DSGM Direcc~ao de Servicos de Geologia e Minas (Angola); Direccion del Servicio Geografico Militar (Paraguay) DSGZ Dept. of the Surveyor common (Zimbabwe) DSIR Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research (Australia, original Zealand) DSL Dept. of Surveys and Lands (Botswana); Data Service Laboratory DSM Directorate of Surveys and Mapping (South Africa); Dept. of Surveys and Mapping (Botswana); Digital stereo model; Digital surface model DSN Deep Space Network; Dataset Name; Data source name DSNP Dassault-Sercel NP DSP Dept. of situation Planning; Depository Services Program (Canada) DSPW Digital Photogrammetric Workstation (USCE) DSS Digital Sensor System (Applanix or EMERGE ) DS/S Data Services Segment DSSSL Document Style Semantic and Specification Language DSU Digital yardstick Update DTAD Digital Terrain Analysis Data DTD Digital Terrain Data; Digital Topographic Data (Natural Resources Canada); Document type Definition DTED Digital Terrain height Data (U.S. government) DTG Digital tape generation DTM Digital Terrain Model (or Modeling) DTOP Digital Topographic Data DTS Digital transmission system DTSS-P Digital Topographic support System Prototype DTW Desk-top Workstation DUMC Dutch Union Map Catalogue DV Daily Value DVD Digital video disc; Digital all-around disc DVNP Death Valley National Park DVP Digital Video Plotter DW Data warehousing DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst DWF Drawing Web Format DWM Digital Web Map (Idaho Geological Survey) DWR Dept. of Water Resources DXF Drawing Interchange File; Digital Exchange Format DXM Data eXchange Manager DySIS Dynamic Software and Integrated Solutions, Inc. D-2 National Interest Lands, Section D-2, Alaska endemic Claims Settlement Act D3 Digital Design Data E East; Electronic; Elevator (open); Einwohner = inhabitant EA Environmental assessment EAC Engineering Accreditation Commission (ABET) EAF East African force (UK) EAFS Effective Aerial Film Speed EAOS Environment Australia Online Service EAP Environmental Affairs Program Earthsat Earth Satellite Corp. EAS-E Engineering and Survey-Exchange EBAMCO Electronic bespeak and Map Company EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EBR Electron Beam Recorder EBRPD East Bay Regional Park District (California) EBX Electronic bespeak exchange EC Electronic control; European Community; European Commission ECAI Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative ECDIS Electronic Chart pomp and Information System (U.S.) ECE E. Coyote Enterprises ECEF EarthCentered EarthFixed ECEY Every City, Every Year (Aerials Express) ECI Election Commission of India ECPD Engineering Council for Professional Development ECRF Earth Centered Reference Frame ECS Electronic Charting Systems (NOAA) Ed. Editor; edition ED Elevation data; Enumeration district E.D. Eastern District EDA Electronic design automation; Exploratory data analysis EDC EROS Data heart (LIA); Electronic digital computer; Environmental Data heart (California) EDD Environmental Data Directory (Australia) EDGE Energy Data Geographical Explorer (Petroconsultants, Inc.) EDI Electronic Data Interchange; Electronic Devices Inc. EDIES EROS Digital Image Enhancement Systems EDIFACT Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport EDINA Edinburgh Data and Information Access EDIPS EROS Digital Image Processing System EDIS Environmental Data and Information Service; Electrical Distribution Information System (Santee Cooper) EDITOR ERTS Data Interpretation and Tenex Operations Recorder EDM Electronic distance measurement; Electronic distance meter EDMAS Environmental Dose Modeling and Analysis System EDMI Electronic distance measuring instrument(s) EDMS Electronic document management system(s) EDP Electronic data processing EDS Electronic Data Systems Corp.; Engineering Design System; Environmental Data Service (NOAA) EDT Eastern Daylight Time EdUC Education User Conference (ESRI) EEC European Economic Community EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone E.F. Eisenbahnfaehre EFFIS European Forest Fire Information System EGA Enhanced Graphics Adaptor EGII European Geographic Information Infrastructure EGIS European GIS EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service EGS European Geophysical Society; Economic geology series EGSMA Geological Survey and Mining Authority (Egypt) EHS Extremely hazardous materials EIGS Ethiopian Inst. of Geological Survey EIM Environmental information management eingesch. eingeschossig eis. eisern = iron EIS Environmental repercussion Statement; Environmental information system Eisb. Brck. Eisenbahnbrucke = Railroad bridge EIWG Earth Imaging Working Group ELC End of line code ELMO Electronic Map Ordering El.W. Elektrizitatswerk = electric power station EM Electromagnetic E.M. Mining Engineer EMA Environmental Management Agency; Ethopian Mapping Authority EMAIL Electronic Mail EMAP Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (U.S. EPA) EMC Eastern Mapping heart (USGS) EMF Enhanced Meta Files (Windows) EMIP European Market for Infrastructural Projects EMMMA Environmental Mercury Mapping, Modeling and Analysis EMPS Elevation Matrix Processing System EMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada; Electromagnetic radiation EMS Electromagnetic spectrum; Engineering Mapping Solutions (Firm) ENC Electronic Navigational Charts (NOAA) E.N.E. East-northeast Eng. Dept. Engineering Dept.; Dept. of Engineers Engr. Bn. Engineer Battalion ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ENID Endnote ID E-N&N Electronic tidings and Notes (WAML) ENSG Ecole Nationale des Sciences Geographiques ENTR Entrance entw. Entworfen = Drawn entworf. Entworfen = Drawn ENVISAT Environmental Satellite EO Earth observation EOCAP Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program EODMS Earth Observations Data Management Systems EOF End of File EOS Earth Observing System; Greek National Mountaineering Assn. EOSAT Earth Observation Satellite (Company) EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System EOT End of Text EOTD Enhanced observed time difference EP End Point EPA Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.) EPB Earth Physics branch (Canada) EPI Electronic Position Indicator EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon EPP Educational Partnership Program (Topcon) EPS Encapsulated PostScript ER Economic region (Canada) ERA Electric Records Archives (NARA) ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (or Sensor) ERCE Groupe d'Etudes de Recherches Critiques d'Espace (Universite du Quebec, Montreal) ERDAS Earth Resources Data Analysis System ERDC Earth Resources Data heart (ERIM); Engineer Research and progress heart (USACE) ERDL Engineer Research and progress Laboratories EREP Earth Resources Experiment Package (Skylab) ERIM Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan ERIN Earth Resources Information Network; Environmental Resource Information Network (Australia) ERIS Earth Resources Inventory System; Earth Resources Infomation System ERL Environmental Research Laboratories (NOAA); Earth Resources Laboratory (NASA) ERLAS Earth Resources Laboratory Application Software ERM Earth Resource Mapping (Firm) EROS Earth Resources Observation Satellite; Earth Resources Observation System ERP Enterprise resource planning ERPANET Electronic Resource Preservation and Access Network ERR Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg fur die Besetzten Gebiete ERRSAC Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications heart (NASA) ERS Earth Remote Sensing (satellite) ERSAC Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Centre (United Arab Emirates) ERSAL Environmental Remote Sensing Analysis Laboratory (Oregon situation Univ.) ERSAR Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar ERSC Egyptian Remote Sensing Center ERSP Epipolar Rectified Stereo Pair ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERSUN Environmental Remote Sensing Unit (British Aerospace Space Systems, Ltd.) ESA Egyptian Survey Authority; European Space Agency; Earth Sciences Associates ESC European Seismological Commission ESCAP Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESD Engineering Services Dept. (Qatar) ESDA Earth Sciences Data Standards (council); Exploratory spatial data analysis ESDD Earth Science Data Directory (USGS) ESDI Earth Science Data Interface ESE Earth Science Enterprise E.S.E. East-southeast ESEM Earth Systems Engineering and Management ESI EagleScan Inc.; Enironmental Sensitivity Index ESIC Earth Science Information heart (USGS); Earth Sciences Information Centre (Canada) ESIG Exemplary Systems in Government award (URISA) ESIM Earth Science Information Manager ESIN Earth Science Information Network ESIO Earth Science Information Office ESIP Earth Science Information Partners ESIS Earth Science Information System ESL Electromagnetic Systems Laboratories, Inc. ESMI European Spatial Metadata Infrastructure ESR Engineering Surveys Reproduction Ltd. ESRI Environmental Systems Research Inst., Inc. ESSA Environmental Science Service Administration ESSC Earth System Science heart (Pennsylvania situation Univ.) ESSHC European social Science History Conference ESSI Earth Search Sciences Inc. ESSIC Earth System Science Interdisciplinary heart (Univ. of Maryland) E. St. Eisenbahn Station = railway station EST Eastern yardstick Time ES&T Environmental Science and Technology ESV EarthSystemsVisualizer ET Frame enclosed elevator with self-closing traps ETF European Transfer Format ETL Engineer Topographic Laboratories (USCE); Extract, transform, load ETM Enhanced Thematic Mapper ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus EU European Union EUB Alberta Energy and Utilities Board EUROGI European Umbrella Organisation for Geographic Information EVC East View Cartographic (Firm) EVI Enhanced vegetation index EVO Ernst Volker (Oldenburg, Germany) EWP Executive Wilderness Programmes Ex. doc. Executive document EXIF Extensible Image File Format F Fahrenheit; Flat FA Fire alarm box FAA Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.) FAAT Fully Analytical Aerotriangulation FAC Feature analysis code(s) FACC Feature and refer Coding Catalog FACE Field Ancillary Computer Effort FACM Florida Assn. of Cadastral Mappers FACS Feature refer Coding Standard; Feature refer Coding System Fahrb. Fahrbahn = roadway FAO Food and Agricultural Organization (United Nations) FAPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically vigorous Radiation FAQ Frequently Asked Question(s) FARC Federal Archives and Record Center FAS Foreign Agricultural Service(USDA) FAST Faceted Application of subject Terminology Fb. Fabrik = Factory FB Freytag-Berndt und Artaria FBN Federal ground network (U.S.) FC Field component; territory completion FCC False color composite; Federal Communications Commission (U.S.) FCM Feature change map FCT Forestry Commission Tasmania FCW Federal Computer Week (journal) FDDI Fiber Digital Data Interface FDEP Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection FDIS Formal Draft International yardstick (ISO) FDLP Federal Depository Library Program (US GPO) FDLS Fiji Dept. of Lands and Survey FDPP Framework Demonstration Projects Program (FGDC) FE Feature extraction; territory engineer; Frame enclosed elevator F.E. Forest Engineer fe. Fecit (maker) FEAT Alternate Feature Identification Code fec. Fecit (maker) FED Federal electoral district (Canada); Field-emission displays FedUC Federal User Conference (ESRI) FEE Feature Extraction Environment FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.) FEP Feature Extraction Processor FES Feature Extraction Segment FESWMS Finite constituent Surface Water Model System FEWS Feature Extraction Workstation FGCC Federal Geodetic Control Committee (U.S.) FGCS Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (U.S.) FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee (U.S.) FGEF Federal Geographic Exchange Format (U.S.) FGI Free Government Information (US) F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society FGS Florida Geological Survey FGT Federal Geographic Technology (U.S.) FH Field headquarters FHA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FHWA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FICCDC Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography (U.S.) FIG Federation Internationale des Geom`etres = International Federation of Surveyors FII Fundacion Instituto de Ingeneiria FILS Federal Government Information Locator System FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard(s); Flagstaff Image Processing System FIRM Flood Rate Insurance Map FIRMS Flood Rate Insurance Maps FL Florida; Focal length; office libraries Fla. Florida FLHO Federal Lands Highway Office (U.S.) FLI-IWG Future of Land Imaging Interagency Working Group (US) FLIMAP Fast Laser Imaging Mapping and Profiling (system) FLIP Flight Information Publication (NGA) FLIR Forward-looking Infrared FLL Waterfall FLOPS Floating Point Operations per Second FM Facilities management; territory manual F.M. Field Marshall FMC Federal Maritime Commission (U.S.) FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (US) FME Feature Manipulation Engine (Safe Software Inc.) FMGIS Flight management geographic information system FMLIS Federal Mineral Lands Information System FMP Field Pack Mobile Professional (All Points Software) FMS Facility Mapping Systems Inc.; Flight Managing System FMS/AC Facility Mapping System for AutoCAD FNC Foreign Names Committee (USBGN) FNESA Federation of original England Surveyors Assn.s FNIB Foreign Names Information Bulletin FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography heart (U.S.) FO Field office F.O. Field Officer; peculiar Office FOC Full operational capability FOF Filtering optical fiber FOGs Fiber Optic Gyros FOM Field Operations Manual FORTRAN Formula Translation (computer language) FOUO For official exercise only FOV Field of view fPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically vigorous Radiation FPC Federal Power Commission; Federal Publishers Committee FPT Full production training FPU Floating point unit FRA Federal Railroad Administration (U.S.) FRAP Fire and Resource Assessment Program (Calif. Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection) FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (IFLA) FRC Federal Records heart (U.S.) F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society FRI Forest Resource Inventory Map (Ontario) FRM Farm FRP Federal Radio-navigation Plan F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society FS Fire station; Forest Service (U.S.); Federal Survey Div. (Nigeria) FSA Farm Service Agency (USDA) FSLUPC Federal/State Land exercise Planning Commission for Alaska FSMS Florida Surveying and Mapping Society FSO Field support Office (U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories) FSPLS Florida Society of Professional Land Surveyors FSR Flight Summary Report FSRAMIS Forest Service purview Management Information System FT Field terminator FTA Federal Transit Administration (US) Fth. Fathom FTL Future Temporal Logic FTM Foiben Taosarintanin' i Madagasikara FTP File Transfer Protocol FU Field unit Fur. Furlong Fw. Fussweg = Footpath FWPCA Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (U.S.) FWS Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S.) FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia FZDS Flood Zone Determination Services G Geometry; Imperial guards G&M Geography and Map; geography and Map Div. G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara Inc. Ga. Georgia GA Georgia; Geographic access; Geographical Association GAC Geological Assn. of Canada; Global district Composite; Geospatial Advisory Committee (USFS) GAF Gesellschaft fur Angewandte Fernerkundung GAMS GIS azimuth measuring system GANS Geomatics Association of Nova Scotia GAP Gap Analysis Program (USNBS); Geographic Application Program; Google Ancient Places GAT Geography Assn. of Thailand GB Gigabyte; Geologische Bundesanstalt (Austria) GBA GeoBusiness Assn.; George Butler Associates, Inc. GBAMS GBS Master Series, Inc. GBAUG Greater Boston Autodesk User Group GBf Guterbahnhof = freight depot GBF Geographic ground File GBFP Georgia Basin Futures Project (Digital Library) GBI Green biomass index GBIS Geo-Based Information System; Global commerce Intelligence Solutions (IBM) Gbo. Grabador = engraver GBS Geograpic ground System GCCS Global Command, Control System (USDMA) GCDB Geographic Coordinate Data ground (U.S.) GCDIS Global Change Data and Information System GCG Geocartographics Subdivison (Canada) GCHC Gulf Coast Hydroscience heart (U.S.) GCLI GIS in Canadian Libraries Initiative GCM General circulation model; Global climate model; common Command of Mapping (Turkey) GCMC Geospatial heart and Map Collection (Ball situation University) GCP Ground control point(s); Geodetic control point(s) GCRA Geographic and Cartographic Research and Applications Section GCRS Gulf Centre for Remote Sensing (Firm) GCSS Global Combat support System GCT Greenwich Civil Time GCTP General Coordinate Transformation Package (software); Geographic Coordinate Transformation Package (software) GD Geologic Div. (USGS); Geospatial data; lifelike digitization GDA Geographic Data Analysis System GDAL Geospatial Data Abstraction Library GDC Geographic Data Council GDD Graphics Data pomp Manager; GIS Data Depot GDDD Geographical Data Description Directory GDE Graphic Developer's Engine (FCAD Software, Inc.) GDF Geographic data file GDHS Ground Data Handling System (GFSC) GDM Geospatial data management GDN Geography Discipline Network GDS Graphic Data Systems Corp; Grumman Data Systems; Geo-Data System; Geographic Data Service (U.S.) GDT Geographic Data Technology Inc.; Geophysical diffraction tomography GDTA Groupement pour le Developpement de la Teledetection Aerospatiale (France) GE General Electric; Geographic equivalent; Google Earth GEBCO General bathymetric chart of the oceans = Carte generale bathymetrique des oceans GECCo Geospatially Enabling Community Collaboration (program, GITA) GEDS General Environmental Data ground System (Florida) GEGMR General Establishment of Geology and Mineral Resources (Syria) GEHC Grup d'Estudia d'Historia de la Cartografia GEM Graphical Environment Manager GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System; GeoMap Society GEO Geospatial Metadata Application Profile (USA); Geostationary Earth orbit; Global Environment Outlook GEOBAL Servicio Geologico de Bolivia GEO-CAT Geographic catalog of political and statistical areas Geocorr Geographic Correspondence Engine GEODESY Geospatial Data and Exploration System (Harvard Univ.) Geog. Geography GEOINT Geographical intelligence Geol. Geology GEOLAN Geological (survey) local district network GeoLoB Geospatial Line of Business GEOREF Geological Reference (system) GEOS Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite GEOSAT Geodesy Satellite GEOSEC Geographic Security GeoTMS Geographic Town Management System (Des Lauriers & Assoc. Inc.) GEOZAVOD Zavod za Geoloska i Geofizicksa Istrazivanja (Yugoslavia) GEP Google Earth Pro Ges. Gesamt- GES Geographic Entry System gest. Gestechen = Engraved gez. Gezeichnet = Designed GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (U.S.) GFOSS Geospatial Free and Open Source Software GGBR Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve (Calif.) GGMC Guyana Geology and Mines Commission GGNRA Golden Gate National Recreation district (Calif.) GGRF Galileo Geodetic Reference Frame GGS Georgia Geologic Survey GGU Gronlands Geologiske Undersogelse GI Geographic information; Geospatial information GIA Geographic information analysis; Geographic information and analysis; GPS International Assn.; Geomatics Industry Association GIAA Geometrics Industry Assn. of America GIAC Geomatics Industry Assn. of Canada; Geographic Information Advisory Council (Kentucky) GIAL Geographic Information and Analysis Laboratory (State Univ. of original York, Buffalo) GIB Geographic Information Board (Florida); Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin; G.I. Barnett & Son GICC Geographic Information Coordinating Committee (Colorado) GICS Geographic Identification Code Scheme GID Geodaetisk Institut (Denmark) GIDW General inverse-distance weighted interpolation model .GIF Graphics Interchange File; Graphics Interchange Format GIFTS Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer GIG Geologic Inquiries Group GILS Government Information Locator Service GIMS Geographic Information Management Systems Committee (ASCM/ASPRS) GINIE Geographic Information Network in Europe GIO Geographic Information Officer; Geographic Investigations Office (USGS); Geospatial Information Office (USGS) GIPS Generalized Image Processing Sytstem GIR Geographic information retrieval GIRAS Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (USGS) GIS Geographic(al) information system(s); Geohydrologic Information System; Geoscience Information Society; Global Indexing System GISCI GIS Certification Institute GISCO Geographic Information System of the European Commission GISDEX Federal Geographic Information and Spatial Data Exposition and Conference (U.S.) GIScience Geographic information science GISIC Geographical Information Systems International Group GISMO GIS MOdeling (ERDAS) GISOM Generating Information and Scanning Ohio Maps (Ohio situation Univ. heart for Mapping) GISP GIS professional GISS Goddard Institude of Space Studies GISS-SG Geographic Information Systems and Science Specialty Group (AAG) GIST Geographic Information System for Transportation GIT Geomatics information technology; common Information Technology; Global Imaging Technologies (Firm) GITA Geospatial Information & Technology Assn. GITC Geomatics Information Trading Center GITCO Government Information Technology Committee (GODORT) GIU Geographic Information Unit (US Dept. of State) GIV Geologic Information Visualization (software) GKP Geodeticky a Kartograficky Podnik v Praze GKS Graphics Kernal System Gl. Gleis GLAB Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt GLAB-W Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Wurttemberg GLAI Green leaf district index GLAN-W Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System; Geologisches Landesamt des Saarlandes GLAS-H Geologisches Landesamt Schleswig-Holstein GLCF Global Land Cover Facility GLDAS Global Land Data Assimilation System (NASA) GLI Global Imager GLIS Geographic Land Information System (USGS); Geographic and Land Information Society GLM General linear model; GEO Lightning Mapper GLO General Land Office (U.S.) GLOBE Global Learning and Observations to capitalize the Environment GLONASS Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (Russia) GLOSS Global Observation Surveillance System GLR-P Geologisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz GLRS Geoscience Laser Ranging System GLT Geospatial Light Table (ERDAS IMAGINE) GLTN Global Land implement Network GM Geography and Map; Geologic map GMAT Greenwich intend Astronomical Time G.M. Grist mill GMD Geologisch Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van Suriname GMDC Geospatial Map and Data Centre (Ryerson University) GME Geohydrologic Map Editor GML Geography Markup Language GMR Government Micro Resources Inc. GMS Geostationary meteorological satellite(s); Geographic Measurement Systems (Firm) G.M.S.I. Ground Modeling Systems Inc.; Gandalf Mobile Systems Incorporated; GMSI Inc. is a difficult (not an abbreviation) GMT Greenwich intend Time; Generic Mapping Tools G.M.T. Giuseppi Maria Terreni GN Grid north GNC Geologic Names Committee; Global navigation chart GNDB Geographic Names Data ground (US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) GNIAG Geomatics Niagara Information Advisory Group GNIS Geographic Names Information System (U.S.) GNMP Gettysburg National Military Park GNS GEOnet Names Server (USNIMA) GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GNU Geologic Names Unit (USGS) GNULEX Geologic Names Unit Lexicon (USGS) GO Geometric Operations G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc. GoC Government of Canada GODORT Government Documents Round Table (ALA) GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NASA) GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOMS Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite(s) GoMMapP Gulf of Maine Mapping Portal GOS Geospatial One-Stop GOS-PI Geospatial One-Stop Portal Initiative (Open GIS Consortium) Gov. Governor Gov. Gen. Governor General GP Graphic production; Graphics processor; Geography Program (USGS) GPF Geospatial Prototype Facility GPG Graphic Product Generation GPH Geological Publishing House (China) GPI Graphics Programming Interface; Greenman Pedersen Inc. GPIP General Purpose Image Processor GPM Gestalt Photo Mapper GP.MC Geoprocessing Map Call GP.MCD Geoprocessing Map muster Deamon program GPO Government Printing Office GPOS Government Printing Office Style Manual GPPU Graphic Polygon Processing Utilities GPR Ground-Penetrating Radar GPS Global positioning system(s) GPSDR Global positioning system demonstration receiver GPSIC Global Positioning System Information heart (U.S. Coast Guard); GPS Industry Council GPSOS Global Positioning System Occultation Sensor GPST Global positioning system time GPT GIS Portal Toolkit (ESRI) GPW2 Gridded Population of the World (dataset) GQ Geologic quadrangle GQL Graphical Query Language gr. gross Gr. Grosse GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAMPS Graphic Map Production System GRASS Geographic Resource Analysis support System GRB Government Records branch (Library and Archives of Canada; National Archives of Canada) GRC Generation of reproducible copy; Geoscience Research Corp. GRD Ground Resolved Distance GRDL Geodetic Research and progress Laboratory GRE Geologic Resources Evaluaion (program, US NPS) GRF-N Geographic Reference File-Names GRIDS Grid Referenced Information pomp System; Gridded Resource Inventory Data System GRS Geodetic Reference System GRS 80 Geodetic Reference System of 1980 GRSU Geography Remote Sensing Unit (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara) GS Geological Survey (U.S.); Gray scale GSA General Services Administration (U.S.); Geological Society of America; Geological Survey of Alabama GSC Geological Survey of Canada; Geographic Systems Corp.; Geotronics Service Center; Geocode Service heart (HUD) GSD Ground sample distance; Geological Survey Dept. (Malawi); Geological Survey Div. (Jamaica); Geodetic Survey Div. (Natural Resources Canada) GSDI Global Spatial Data Infrastructure GSDM Global Spatial Data Model GSDS Global spatial data system GSF Generic Sensor Format GSFC Goddard Space Flight heart (NASA) GSGS Geographical Section, common Staff (U.K.) GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program GSI Geographical Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of India; Geological Survey of Iran; Geological Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of Ireland; Geophysical Services Inc.; Geospatial Systems, Inc. GSJ Geological Survey of Japan GSK Geological Survey of Kenya GSL Geographic Sciences Laboratory (USCE) GSM Graphic yardstick Metafile GSMD Geological Survey and Mines Dept. (Swaziland) GSN Geological Survey of Namibia GSNI Geological Survey of Northern Ireland GSP Geological Survey of Pakistan; Geographical statistics program GSPB Geodetic Satellite Policy Board GSPNG Geological Survey Papua original Guinea GSRC Geological Survey Research Committee GSS Geographic support system GSSA Geological Survey South Africa GST Galileo System Time GSTC Geospatial Service and Technology heart (USFS) GSW Geological Survey of Wyoming; GeoScienceWorld GSWA Geological Survey of Western Australia GSZ Geological Survey of Zambia GT Geometry and topology; Greater than; Geologian Tutkimuskeskus = Geological Survey of Finland G.T. Gas tank GTA Greater Toronto Area GTCM Geospatial Technology Competency Model (US Dept. of Labor) GTE Greater than or equal GTI GIS Technology Inc. GTS GPS Timing Simulator (NovAtel Inc.); much Trigonometrical Survey of India GTUB Geographic tabulation unit base GU Government unit; Guam GUDS Geologicky ustav Dionyz Stur GUGiK Glowny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) GUGK Glavnoe Upravlenie Geodezii i Kartografii (USSR) GUGKK Glavno Upravlenie po Geodezia I Kartografia y Kadaster (Bulgaria) GUI Graphical User Interface GUID Globally unique identifier GUIDE Geomatics Utilization Inventory and Design Environment GUNI Goteborgs Universitet Naturgeografiska Institutionen GUNO Glavnoe Upravlenie Navigatsii i Okeanografii (USSR) GVF Goodness of variance fit GVI Green vegetation index GVis Geographic Visualization GVIS Geographic Visualization GW Gas well (natural); Ground water GWE Global Weather Experiment GWEN Ground Wave Emergency Network (U.S.) GWSI Groundwater site inventory GXL-A GeoImaging Accelerator Aerial (PCI Geomatics and Vexcel Imaging GmbH) GZD Grid Zone Designation h. hoch = high H. Hohe = height; Howitzer ha. 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High-Flux Solar-Driven Thermochemical Dissociation of CO | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Abstract

Because solar energy is available in great excess relative to current rates of energy consumption, efficacious conversion of this renewable yet intermittent resource into a transportable and dispatchable chemical fuel may ensure the goal of a sustainable energy future. However, low conversion efficiencies, particularly with CO2 reduction, as well as utilization of precious materials beget limited the practical generation of solar fuels. By using a solar cavity-receiver reactor, they combined the oxygen uptake and release capacity of cerium oxide and facile catalysis at elevated temperatures to thermochemically dissociate CO2 and H2O, yielding CO and H2, respectively. Stable and rapid generation of fuel was demonstrated over 500 cycles. Solar-to-fuel efficiencies of 0.7 to 0.8% were achieved and shown to live largely limited by the system scale and design rather than by chemistry.

Long-term storage and long-range transport of the vast, yet intermittent and unevenly distributed, solar energy resource is essential for a transition away from fossil energy (1). Chemical fuels, derived from CO2 and/or H2O, tender exceptional energy density and convenience for transportation, but their production using solar energy input has remained a majestic challenge (2–9). Solar-driven thermochemical approaches to CO2 and H2O dissociation inherently operate at elevated temperatures and exercise the entire solar spectrum; as such, they provide an attractive path to solar fuel production at elevated rates and efficiencies in the absence of precious metal catalysts (10). In contrast to direct thermolysis of CO2 and H2O, two-step thermochemical cycles using metal oxide redox reactions further bypass the CO-O2 or H2-O2 separation problem (11). Among candidate redox materials, ferrite-based oxides exhibit relatively gradual reaction rates, degradation in rates because of sintering, and losses because of uncontrolled volatilization, whereas ZnO, SnO2, and analogous volatile oxides that sublime during decomposition require rapid quenching of gaseous products to avoid recombination (10–18). Cerium oxide (ceria) has emerged as a highly attractive redox vigorous material selection for two-step thermochemical cycling because it displays rapid fuel production kinetics and elevated selectivity (17, 19–24), where such features result, in part, from the absence of discrete oxidized and reduced phases. However, ceria-based thermochemical studies to date beget largely been limited to bench-top demonstrations of components or individual steps of the solar fuel production cycle; assessment of cyclability has been limited, and the energy conversion efficiency has remained uncertain because of the relatively low gravimetric fuel productivity inherent to the nonstoichiometric process. Here, they demonstrate high-rate solar fuel production from both CO2 and H2O using a solar reactor subjected directly to concentrated radiation under realistic operating conditions pertinent to large-scale industrial implementation, without the necessity for involved material microstructures and/or system design (e.g., additional quench or separation steps). The results provide compelling evidence for the viability of thermochemical approaches to solar fuel generation while clarifying the efforts required to transform the concept into a central technology in a sustainable energy future.

Thermochemical H2O-CO2-splitting cycles over a nonstoichiometric oxide are described by the following pairs of reactions:

Higher temperature, TH

1δMO2→1δMO2-δ + 12O2(g)(1)

Lower temperature, TL

H2O(g)+​1δMO2-δ→1δMO2 + H2(g)(2a)

Lower temperature, TL

CO2(g) + ​1δMO2-δ→1δMO2 + CO(g) (2b)

Net H2O dissociation

H2O(g)→12O2(g)+H2(g)(3a)

Net CO2 dissociation

CO2(g)→12O2(g)+CO(g)(3b)

where M in the present case is Ce or a combination of Ce and a dopant element. At the relatively elevated temperatures of the present study (>800°C), equilibria of reaction (2b) involving carbonaceous species can live neglected (21).

The solar reactor constructed for the purposes of demonstrating these cycles is schematically shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a cavity receiver with a windowed aperture through which concentrated solar radiation enters. The selected dimensions ensure multiple internal reflections and efficient capture of incoming solar energy; the pellucid absorptivity exceeds 0.94, approaching the model blackbody circumscribe (25). Porous, monolithic ceria, assembled from quarter-circular-arc pieces in the configuration of a cylinder (325 g in mass, 35 mm in outer diameter, 102 mm in height, and 80% in porosity as fabricated), is placed inside the cavity and subjected to multiple heat-cool cycles under arrogate gases to induce fuel production (Fig. 2). No additional support or absorber was used. With this arrangement, the porous ceria cylinder is directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation impinging on its inner walls. An annular gap between the ceria cylinder and the alumina insulation tiles suppresses undesired reactions between the two components. Reacting gases are injected into this annular gap and directed to tide radially across the porous ceria cylinder toward the cavity inside, whereas product gases exit the cavity through an axial outlet port at the bottom. Complete experimental details, including procedures for estimating uncertainty, are given in (25). Post situ x-ray diffraction showed that, with the exception of the portion in direct contact with the insulation material, the ceria remained phase-pure and free of detectable alumina incorporation (fig. S1).

Fig. 1

Schematic of the solar reactor for the two-step, solar-driven thermochemical production of fuels. It consists of a thermally insulated cavity receiver containing a porous monolithic ceria cylinder. Concentrated solar radiation enters through a windowed aperture and impinges on the ceria inner walls. Reacting gases tide radially across the porous ceria toward the cavity inside, whereas product gases exit the cavity through an axial outlet port at the bottom. (Inset) The scanning electron micrograph of the porous ceria tube after 23 cycles. Blue arrows bespeak ceria reduction (Eq. 1); red arrows bespeak oxidation (Eqs. 2a and 2b).

Fig. 2

Thermochemical cycling of ceria (325 g) using the solar reactor with (A) CO2 and (B) H2O as oxidant. The oxygen and fuel evolution rates as well as the total volume of gas evolved are shown. Temperatures were measured at three positions along the height of the ceria tube. Maximum temperatures (Tmax) attained in the reactor are shown. Conditions for (A) were as follows: Ar sweep gas at a tide rate of 0.0062 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria reduction half-cycle, and CO2/Ar at pco2 = 0.78 atm and a tide rate of 0.035 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria oxidation half-cycle. Conditions for (B) were as follows: Ar sweep gas at a tide rate of 0.023 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria reduction half-cycle, and H2O/Ar at ph2o = 0.78 atm and a tide rate of 0.035 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria during the ceria oxidation half-cycle.

To drive oxygen evolution (Eq. 1), they purged the solar reactor with flowing argon [partial pressure of O2 (po2) = 10–5 atm] and ramped the incident radiation power to about 1.9 kW at a intend solar flux intensity over the aperture of 1500 suns (1 sun = 1 kW m−2), typical of a commercial solar dish or a tower concentration system. The temperature of the ceria tube rose to values between 1420° and 1640°C, with the exact temperature dependent on the position within the reactor and on the cycle (Fig. 2A). The soar in temperature was rapid below 1250°C, averaging 140°C min−1, but slowed to about 8°C min−1 as the temperature approached a steady-state value because of increasing heat dissipation by re-radiation through the aperture and conduction heat transfer through the insulation. Oxygen evolution from ceria was observed at an onset temperature of about 900°C, consistent with equilibrium thermogravimetry measurements (fig. S2). The rate of evolution increased with temperature, reaching a peak value of 34 ± 2 ml min−1 (STP, yardstick temperature and pressure) and an medium value of 16 ± 1 ml min−1 (averaged over the time required to achieve 90% of the extent of reaction) on the first cycle (Fig. 2A). When the rate dropped to 20% of the peak value, the evolution reaction was terminated by decreasing the intensity of the incident radiation flux. Upon cooling to ~900°C, CO2 was injected into the solar reactor. Production of CO was immediately observed, reaching a remarkable peak rate of 1.5 × 103 ± 0.1 × 103 ml min−1 (STP) and an medium rate of 5.9 × 102 ± 0.4 × 102 ml min−1 (STP) (Fig. 2A). Consistent with the fact that there was no water present in the reactant stream, no gas-phase C1, C2, or C3 hydrocarbons were detected by the gas chromatograph. Carbon-neutral equipoise (<3% C unaccounted for, well within error) was achieved by summing the tide rates of CO2 in the reactant stream and CO2 and CO in the product steam. As verification, temperature-programmed oxidation was performed on the ceria after the CO2 dissociation reaction by flowing oxygen into the solar reactor while ramping the temperature to 1000°C (26). Both CO and CO2 levels were below the detection limit, confirming that no appreciable amount of carbonaceous species was deposited onto ceria during CO2 dissociation and that a 100% selectivity toward CO production was achieved. Upon the termination of CO production, the radiation flux was increased and the entire cycle repeated. A slight decline over the four cycles in the nominal reactor temperature attained during the O2 release step (from 1624° to 1581°C) is responsible for the observed slight decline in O2 release and CO yield. An analogous set of experiments was likewise performed for H2O dissociation, with H2 production rate reaching a peak value of 7.6 × 102 ± 0.8 × 102 ml min−1 (STP) and a maximum medium value of 3.1 × 102 ± 0.3 × 102 ml min−1 (STP) (Fig. 2B). A total of 23 cycles were performed. An experimental elope performed without the ceria confirmed the absence of O2, CO, or H2 evolution under corresponding reaction conditions.

The characteristics of solar-thermochemical fuel production from ceria reveal several valuable features of the cycling process. Although the conduct is generally reproducible between cycles, some run-to-run variations are evident. The oxygen evolution reaches a peak value between 17 and 34 ml min−1, whereas the total amount evolved ranges from 0.54 to 0.94 liter for 325 g of ceria. As noted, these differences are correlated with the peak reactor temperature obtained (Fig. 2), variations in which are attributed to unsteady heat transfer. Taking this temperature variability into account, the total oxygen evolution is establish to live generally consistent with thermodynamic expectations (fig. S2). Mass equipoise considerations further dictate a 2-to-1 molar (and hence volumetric) ratio of fuel produced to oxygen released for full utilization of the ceria nonstoichiometry. For CO2 dissociation, the CO:O2 ratio ranged from 1.6 ± 0.2:1 to 2.0 ± 0.2:1, whereas for H2O dissociation, the H2:O2 ratio was 1.6 ± 0.2:1. The slight deviation from the model value is attributed to wee leaks in the system and to the accuracies of the electronic mass tide controller and measured gas composition.

Perhaps the most obvious feature of the cycling conduct in Fig. 2 is the much faster rate of fuel production than that of O2 release. It was observed that lowering the purge gas tide rate during ceria reduction by a factor of 4 had negligible repercussion on the oxygen evolution rate (Fig. 2), indicating that the convective transport of oxygen gas in the reactor is not likely the rate-limiting step. Furthermore, the substantial inequity in the O2 evolution and CO2 dissociation rate suggests that gas-phase transport through the pores of ceria is probably not rate-limiting. They considered, as an alternative, that the oxygen evolution kinetics in the solar reactor are limited by the heating rate, a factor that does not affect fuel production because this step occurs isothermally. If the heating rate is gradual relative to the surface reaction and solid-state diffusion steps involved in oxygen release, they can express the oxygen evolution rate as dδ/dt≈(dδ/dT)T=T(t)(dT/dt), where δ is ceria oxygen nonstoichiometry (Eq. 1), T is temperature, and t is time. By using the spatially averaged temperature profile in the first cycle in Fig. 2A, they compute a maximum oxygen evolution rate of 65 ml min−1, which, given the approximate nature of the calculation, is comparable to the observed rate.

To purge the sequel of gas-phase mass and heat transfer, they carried out thermochemical cycling of ceria by using identically prepared monolithic porous samples (annealed for 50 hours to simulate cycling conditions) in a smaller-scale infrared imaging furnace that uses only a 0.4-g sample. Such an experimental setup permitted thermochemical cycling under high-flow, differential reactor conditions, in which the sample temperature could live changed rapidly (average ramp rate of 1700°C min−1) and the gas composition approached uniformity. Under these model conditions in which only surface chemical reactions and solid-state oxygen diffusion in ceria circumscribe the overall reaction rate, oxygen evolution (Fig. 3) attained a peak instantaneous rate ~80 times faster than in the solar reactor and an associated medium rate of 2.2 ± 0.2 ml min−1 g−1 of ceria; CO2 and H2O dissociation reactions were about two and four times faster (although the reactant partial pressures, temperatures, and initial extents of reduction differ slightly between the differential and solar reactor), with rates of 5.1 ± 0.4 and 5.3 ± 0.4 ml min−1 g−1 of ceria, respectively. These rates support the proposition that oxygen evolution kinetics in the solar reactor are limited predominantly by the heating rate.

Fig. 3

Comparison of (A) O2, (B) H2, and (C) CO evolution between the solar reactor (dotted lines) and the differential reactor (solid lines). Experimental conditions for the solar reactor are the very as those for Fig. 2. In the differential reactor, 0.429 g of CeO2 was cycled between 1500°C (Ar sweep gas tide rate = 2.3 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 20 min) and 800°C (for CO2 splitting, pco2 = 0.50 atm, tide rate = 1.2 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min; for H2O splitting, ph2o = 0.44 to 0.52 atm, tide rate = 2.1 to 2.5 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min).

The solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency is defined asη=rfuelΔHfuelPsolar+rinertEinert(4)where rfuel is the molar fuel production rate, ΔHfuel is the higher heating value of the fuel, Psolar is the incident solar radiation power, rinert is the tide rate of the inert gas during oxygen evolution, and Einert is the energy required to divide the inert sweep gas from air (usually N2; Ar was used in this work entirely for reasons of experimental convenience). Based on the experimental data, the peak instantaneous efficiencies for CO2 and H2O dissociations reached 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively [for particular calculation procedures, remark (25)]. No heat recuperation strategy was used. Upon averaging the efficiencies over the time required to yield 80% of the fuel, the efficiencies become 0.4% (for both CO2 and H2O dissociations). These experimentally measured efficiencies reflect the cycle irreversibilities resulting from intrinsic material properties as well as solar reactor design and operation. An energy-balance analysis (25) reveals that 50% of the energy loss resulted from heat conduction through the reactor wall and 41% resulted from reradiation through the aperture. The former energy penalty can live dramatically reduced by improving thermal insulation and by scaling up to augment the volume-to-area ratio. The latter can live minimized by augmenting the solar flux such that the aperture size can live reduced. Decreasing heat loss likewise has the added capitalize of increasing the temperature ramp rate. As shown in the earlier comparison of the oxygen evolution kinetics under gradual and rapid heating rates, the oxygen evolution kinetics and conversion efficiency are closely coupled to the rates at which the vigorous ceria materials can live heated and cooled.

Beyond efficiency, material stability is an essential criterion for a viable thermochemical process. With exercise of the differential reactor system, which enables rapid access to multiple cycles, 500 cycles of water dissociation were performed without interruption. The results (Fig. 4), reported in fraction in an earlier work (21), bespeak that, after an initial stabilization age of ~100 cycles, both the oxygen and hydrogen evolution rates remain essentially constant for a subsequent 400 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy examination of samples of porous ceria that underwent heat treatment under similar conditions (fig. S3) revealed that the diminish in reaction rate is accompanied by an augment in particle size. The morphology stabilized after 24 hours of heat treatment at 1500°C, much as the fuel production rate stabilized after an initial period. That ceria can live cycled between two oxidation states without substantial loss of activity can live attributed to its sufficiently great change in oxygen nonstoichiometry at temper homologous temperatures (<0.6×Tm).

Fig. 4

O2 (black) and H2 (red) evolution rates for 500 water-splitting cycles. CeO2 was cycled between 1500°C (po2 =10−5 atm, tide rate = 3.2 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min, ramp rate = 100°C min−1) and 800°C (ph2o = 0.13 to 0.15 atm, tide rate = 0.75 to 0.76 liter min−1 g−1 of ceria, 10 min). The gas evolution rate is calculated by averaging the instantaneous rate over the time required to achieve 90% of the gas produced.

In sum, the feasibility of a solar-driven thermochemical cycle for dissociating H2O and CO2 using nonstoichiometric ceria has been demonstrated in terms of materials, reaction rates, cyclability, reactor technology, and energy conversion efficiency. Essential to this demonstration is a simple and scalable reactor design using porous ceria directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation that enables high-temperature heat transfer to the reaction sites, as required for performing both steps of the cycle. The solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency obtained in this work for CO2 dissociation is about two orders of magnitude greater than that observed with state-of-the-art photocatalytic approaches (3, 9).The gravimetric hydrogen production rate exceeds that of other solar-driven thermochemical processes by more than an order of magnitude (27, 28). Both the efficiency and the cycling rates in the reactor were limited largely by thermal losses, resulting from conductive and radiative heat transfer. A thermodynamic analysis of efficiency based solely on the material properties of CeO2 indicates that values in the purview of 16 to 19% are attainable, even in the absence of sensible heat recovery (21). Thus, with reactor optimization and system integration substantial increases in both efficiency and fuel production rates are anticipated. The material stability, showing stable fuel production over 500 thermochemical cycles, is already suitable for realistic applications. Furthermore, the abundance of cerium, which is comparable to that of copper (29), is such that the approach is applicable at scales pertinent to global energy consumption (21).

References and Notes
  • S. M. Haile, W. C. Chueh, U.S. Patent application 20,090,107,044 (2009).

  • ↵ Materials and methods are particular in supporting material at Science Online.
  • ↵ Fuel production rate is compared with other thermochemical processes by normalizing the medium fuel production rate (as defined in the text) by the mass of the material, including idle support used to prevent material sintering. The rate for oxygen evolution is not included.
  • G. B. Haxel, J. B. Hedrick, G. J. Orris, “Rare earth elements—Critical resources for elevated technology” (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 087-02, Reston, VA, 2002).

  • This work was funded in fraction by NSF (CBET-0829114), the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (under subcontract from the University of Minnesota), and the Swiss National Science Foundation (contract no. 200021-126512). Additional travel support was provided by the International Materials Institutes program of NSF under award no. DMR 08-43934. They thank the technical staff of the Solar Technology Laboratory of the Paul Scherrer Institute for supporting the experimental activities at the High-Flux Solar Simulator. W.C.C. designed the experiments, and C.F. designed the solar reactor. Samples were prepared by M.A. and D.S. W.C.C, C.F., P.F., and D.S. executed the experiments. S.M.H. and A.S. supervised the project.


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