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P2090-040 exam Dumps Source : IBM Information Management Optim(R) Technical Mastery v3
Test Code : P2090-040
Test Name : IBM Information Management Optim(R) Technical Mastery v3
Vendor Name : IBM
: 40 Real Questions
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July 05, 2007 12:00 ET
New Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 to permit fast Adoption of IDS 11 "Cheetah"
ARMONK, the big apple and ny, big apple--(Marketwire - July 5, 2007) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) and AGS Ltd., a privately held purveyor of management options for facts servers, nowadays announced that the brand new Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 -- the primary suite of integrated device administration equipment for IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) -- is now accessible, with variations provided via each IBM and AGS.
The IDS records server is a strategic point of IBM's assistance administration software portfolio and the currently introduced IDS 11 -- code named Cheetah -- can provide improved efficiency, reliability and scalability, together with the capability to address big volumes of advanced facts at very excessive speeds. IDS eleven is also the industry's first records server to give clustered statistics centers with continuous facts availability and disaster recuperation despite the geographic place or distance between backup data core sites.
Server Studio and Sentinel collectively kind a powerful infrastructure of multi-platform equipment that aid both professional database gurus and beginners alike manipulate IBM Informix statistics server environments with an unparalleled ease and productiveness. Native aid of IDS eleven new performance in the liberate 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel additional enhances capacity to convey finest efficiency, availability and maintainability of Informix databases during their total operational life cycle.
"Our long-term partnership with AGS underscores IBM's steadfast dedication to presenting IDS purchasers with the efficiency optimization, availability and compliance administration options they want," said Bernie Spang, director IBM facts servers. "the brand new release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel will aid protect the funding that their shoppers have made in their Informix statistics server infrastructures."
the flexibility, rich functionality and ease-of-use offered through Server Studio and Sentinel build on the legendary reliability and simple administration of IDS. the new tool set provided by using AGS helps groups and groups ensure that vital database functions remain up and operate at top levels, allowing them to effortlessly manipulate alternate, deal with regulatory compliance and assure availability of vital business assistance.
bank of america recently chosen Server Studio and Sentinel for its IDS environment -- one of the most world's biggest distributed data centers processing online monetary transactions.
"The newest unencumber of Server Studio and Sentinel give a collection of built-in, tremendously productive equipment management equipment that developers and DBAs working with IBM's Informix statistics servers were worrying and awaiting. Informix now has very powerful graphical equipment that exceed the capabilities of native and third celebration choices attainable for some other database platform. Couple this with awesome technical support and you get products with outstanding cost and a short ROI," stated Kevin Kleinhomer, vice chairman at bank of america. "In their gigantic allotted ambiance, Server Studio and Sentinel have simplified and automated many DBA tasks. With these additions, IBM's Informix data servers were made vastly less demanding to administer and display screen."
Server Studio provides a comprehensive collection of convenient-to-use, confirmed equipment for DBAs and developers that enrich effectivity of performing regular database projects comparable to: SQL construction and debugging, schema administration, configuration auditing and alter management, performance tuning, information storage administration and reorganization, security administration and more -- all from an integrated graphical console that unites construction, administration and preservation actions for a whole Informix infrastructure at a critical aspect of manage.
Sentinel offers 24 × 7 operational monitoring, alerting, situation discovery, evaluation and autonomic response automation infrastructure for IBM Informix statistics servers' ambiance. or not it's effortless to set up agent-much less structure equips DBAs with refined diagnostics and remediation facilities which support pinpoint and resolve the underlying factors of performance bottlenecks and materials competition concerns that adversely have an effect on databases' availability and impact end clients.
Smaller corporations and agencies that wouldn't have large IT staffs to manipulate tremendous records servers infrastructure have also benefited from the strong application construction and administration capabilities offered via IDS and Server Studio.
"As a utility developer and DBA, Server Studio is a device that i use daily, and it is exactly what I demand from my tools -- stable, reputable, and powerful," referred to Sean Durity, supervisor of IT for CornerCap investment tips. "Even the 'small' features of Server Studio are big timesavers. I cannot think about working with Informix and never the use of Server Studio. I might not work with anything else much less."
the relationship between AGS and IBM begun in 2000 when IBM all started distributing AGS' Server Studio as the primary database construction and administration equipment suite with Informix statistics servers. Product administration, engineering and QA groups of each corporations work closely on product path, technology development and QA testing of Server Studio and Sentinel.
"we are happy with and tremendously value their strategic partnership with IBM. preference of AGS records servers' management solutions via IBM is a testament to their business-main know-how," said Anatole Vishon, CEO of AGS Ltd. "We bear in mind the vital value of Informix, mainly within the retail, fiscal, telecommunications, healthcare, government and SMB sectors. AGS is dedicated to aiding current capabilities and setting up new applied sciences for Informix statistics servers to add cost for IBM consumers."
Pricing and Availability
The unencumber 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel can be found now via IBM and AGS worldwide. The Core edition of Server Studio is supplied via IBM to Informix valued clientele at no extra can charge. Its basic functionality can also be extended with the aid of purchase of quite a few top rate versions obtainable at once from AGS.
additional information about Server Studio is purchasable at: http://www.ibm.com/application/records/informix/serverstudio/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/items/serverstudio/
additional information about Sentinel is accessible at: http://www.ibm.com/application/statistics/informix/sentinel/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/sentinel/
more information about Informix Dynamic Server is attainable at: http://www.ibm.com/utility/information/informix/ids/
AGS, Server Studio and Sentinel are emblems or registered emblems of advanced international methods, Ltd. For a list of extra AGS logos, please see http://www.ags.com
IBM, Informix Dynamic Server and the IBM e-enterprise brand are logos or registered emblems of overseas company Machines agency. For an inventory of extra IBM trademarks, please see www.ibm.com/felony/copytrade.shtml
All different business, product or carrier names may well be emblems or registered emblems of others. Statements concerning IBM's future development plans and schedules are made for planning functions handiest, and are area to alternate or withdrawal with out notice. Reseller fees may also vary.
subsequent month, IBM will unencumber a beta version of a application software designed to hold tune of how tips flows throughout different methods, sending signals when supply statistics has been altered or is never adequately ingested into some target device or document.
"lots of their consumers have had challenges monitoring the pleasant of suggestions," stated Steven Adler, IBM's software director for guidance governance. This new product will "aid govern the use of suggestions by using americans, which is absolutely dependent on operational recognition."
Marketed below the business's InfoSphere line of records management software, the InfoSphere business suggestions computer screen is designed to music how smartly data moves from databases to company intelligence or different business software. It sends out RSS or email signals when whatever thing goes awry, pointed out Michael Curry, IBM's director of method for assistance management.
"as an example, if there become a quality concern with a data feed that became obtained from upstream, [the software] would be certain the enterprise adult searching on the report basically understood that fine considerations had been there and that the suggestions may no longer be as trustworthy as they concept," Curry mentioned. "it is mindful that the records in a document or process is really linked back to loads of aspects in an suggestions deliver chain."
The software is primarily based off of precise-time enterprise database-monitoring application developed by Waltham, Massachusetts-based Guardium, a company that IBM got closing November. IBM research labs additionally contributed some code to the final product.
establishing the software involves putting brokers on database servers and other originating elements of information. The utility displays these platforms for adjustments both to the information itself or to the underlying statistics structure. If a desk is dropped, for example, the utility can alert the clients of that database. An administrator predefines the metrics for measuring exceptional and for constructing signals.
The software can monitor most relational databases, including IBM's DB2, Oracle, SQL Server and Sybase databases. it will possibly display screen for records first-class concerns in facts warehouses corresponding to Teradata's, or any database obtainable in the course of the ODBC (Open Database Connectivity). it can additionally work with ERP (business aid planning) utility such as SAP's and Oracle's, in addition to with many enterprise intelligence platforms, including IBM's personal Cognos, SAP's enterprise Objects, Oracle's Hyperion and other company intelligence applications.
IBM also plans to offer a utility building package that may also be used to create customized agents.
A preview of InfoSphere company assistance video display may be obtainable in March, though IBM would no longer touch upon when the last product can be accessible.
also in response to its growing to be good of advice governance tools, IBM will unlock a 2nd product subsequent month, called Optim information Redaction, that may automatically copy a group of documents and redact sensitive advice, in accordance with pre-chosen keyword phrases. it will work on most standard workplace formats. IBM's analysis arm created the software.
IBM will liberate Optim records Redaction in March. IBM did not deliver the price for this utility.
To assist clients deploy counsel governance-pushed methods, IBM has set up a virtual support group of consultants, known as the IBM international enterprise features' information Governance middle of Excellence.be a part of the publication!
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via James W. Cortada
The Ferranti Mark 1: World’s First Commercially available regular-intention computing device
What Does It Take to retain a basic Mainframe Alive?
How the IBM 1403 Printer Hammered Out 1,a hundred lines Per Minutephoto: Mark Richards/laptop background Museum IBM spent US $5 billion to build the gadget/360, added in 1964. These 9-song magnetic tape drives have been among the many S/360’s one hundred fifty-product line.
a short record of the most transformative items of the previous century and a half would include the lightbulb, Ford’s model T—and the IBM system/360. This mainframe series continually changed the computing device trade and revolutionized how organizations and governments worked, improving productivity and making countless new tasks feasible.
in the years leading up to its 7 April 1964 launch, however, the 360 became one of the crucial scariest dramas in American company. It took a nearly fanatical dedication in any respect tiers of IBM to bring forth this striking assortment of machines and utility. while the technological improvements that went into the S/360 have been critical, how they have been created and deployed bordered on catastrophe. The business experienced what science coverage knowledgeable Keith Pavitt called “tribal war”: individuals clashing and collaborating in a swiftly growing to be business with unstable, and in some circumstances unknown, applied sciences, as uncertainty and ambiguity dogged the entire protagonists.
finally, IBM was large and diverse adequate in skill, staffing, financing, and materiel to prevail. In an almost entrepreneurial fashion, it took knowledge of rising applied sciences, no count number the place they had been discovered in the enterprise. In hindsight, it appeared a sloppy and ill-counseled activity, chaotic in execution and yet brilliantly successful. They reside in an age that celebrates innovation, so examining situations of how innovation is executed can most effective illuminate their knowing of the procedure.
by the conclusion of the 1950s, desktop users faced a reputedly intractable problem. Had it no longer been solved, it would have avoided computers from fitting common, and any strategies of living in an counsel Age would have been fiction.image: IBM The S/360 was designed to exchange IBM’s 1401 mainframe, which became time-honored however couldn’t be extended or upgraded.
corporations were acquiring computers in superb numbers, automating lots of the historic punch card operations and doing more with statistics processing. The recognition of the IBM 1401 illustrates the quick adoption of computing. Over 12,000 of those programs had been sold from their introduction in 1959 to 1971, when IBM retired the road.
With the 1401 so dominating the computing device enterprise, any problems with it were severe. one in every of them turned into that the 1401 changed into too small.
users found these machines so positive that they stored piling more work on them, attaining the system’s capability. They then had three alternatives: move to a bigger IBM gadget, akin to an IBM 7000, installation a competitor’s gadget, or purchase more 1401s. None of those alternatives become pleasing. To change to a bigger system required rewriting application, on the grounds that the historical utility would now not work on a special classification of desktop. The can charge of rewriting may effortlessly exceed the fiscal benefits of relocating to a much bigger laptop. Such a transformation also referred to as for retraining personnel or hiring new group of workers well-known with the new device. adding more gadgets of the identical equipment turned into equally unattractive because each and every unit required reproduction team of workers, equipment, and maintenance of hardware and utility. clients desired techniques that were “upgradable” or “compatible,” such that as their wants grew, they might bring in larger machines however nonetheless run the equal software and peripheral equipment. within the 1950s and early 1960s, it turned into a desire, and for companies an aspiration.
IBM had worse complications than its shoppers did. The 1401s had been proving so general that engineers in Endicott, N.Y., which had developed the gadget, resisted attempts by way of their counterparts in Poughkeepsie to build bigger computer systems, resulting in transforming into competition between the two corporations. As one engineer recalled, “So extreme was it that once in a while it seemed to exceed the rivalry with exterior rivals.” methods made through Poughkeepsie would now not run courses written for the 1400 collection. shoppers desperate to circulate from the smaller 1400s to the better Poughkeepsie machines put increasing drive on IBM to deliver compatibility. Senior administration had to cope with the costs of sustaining R&D for a half-dozen incompatible product traces and training IBMers to sell and preserve so many programs.
Consensus grew that IBM obligatory to get right down to one gadget to simplify creation, reduce the charge of R&D, and be greater competitive in opposition t a turning out to be array of opponents. If customers had to upgrade within the early 1960s, they could just as effectively flow to a competitor’s machine, considering they might have to rewrite their application anyway.
The energy of compatibility became validated in the fall of 1960, when IBM introduced the greater effective 1410 to replace the 1401. utility and peripheral gadget for the 1401 worked with the newer computer. consumers and IBM earnings adored that fact. Poughkeepsie’s engineers had been close to finishing work on a collection of four computer systems frequent as the 8000s that were compatible with the 7000s.picture: IBM To get the S/360 off the floor, T. Vincent Learson compelled engineering factions within IBM to cooperate.
T. Vincent Learson—called Vin or T.V.—become in cost of future product building because the vp of manufacturing and construction. A gifted problem solver, he knew he had to flow at once to destroy down the competition between Endicott and Poughkeepsie. IBM’s CEO at the time, Thomas J. Watson Jr., later described what came about: “He did it by way of applying a management method called ‘abrasive interplay.’ This skill forcing individuals to swap aspects: taking the appropriate engineer from the small-laptop division and making him boss of the most useful building group within the tremendous-desktop division. lots of people concept this made about as much feel as electing Khrushchev president.”
Learson replaced the Poughkeepsie manager in can charge of the 8000 undertaking with Bob O. Evans, who had served because the engineering supervisor for the 1401 and 1410. Evans preferred compatibility across all future items. After 90 days in his new position, Evans counseled that work on the 8000s be stopped and that both sites begin working “to develop a complete cohesive product line.” He also proposed a bold new base expertise for all future techniques, referred to as solid logic expertise (SLT), to make IBM’s machines more aggressive.
Frederick P. Brooks Jr., who led the design team for the 8000, fought back. Evans and Brooks had been ambitious opponents. both engineers both had years of journey operating engineering and product construction activities at IBM, and they have been articulate and enormously respected with the aid of their staffs and senior administration. Brooks turned into now not as high ranking as Evans, so Learson brought in Jerrier A. Haddad, who had spent the previous two years in charge of the advanced Engineering development Division, to analyze the proposed techniques of Evans and Brooks. Haddad recommended going with Evans’s ideas, and Learson killed the 8000 project in may additionally 1961.
Bob Evans instantly requested Brooks to improve the plan for a compatible household of computer systems. Brooks became flabbergasted, but he accepted, and with that the two engineering communities stopped feuding and commenced taking part. there were nonetheless opponents within the company, but no count number—the trajectory towards a standard device had been set.pictures: IBM Bob O. Evans [left] counseled killing IBM’s larger 8000 mainframe in favor of a new line of compatible computer systems. Frederick P. Brooks Jr. [middle], who led the 8000’s design, objected, however Jerrier A. Haddad [right] sided with Evans. Evans then asked Brooks to work on the new line, which grew to be the S/360.
Learson additionally assigned John W. Haanstra, president of the regular products Division, which produced the 1400s, to chair an internal assignment force known as spread (for systems Programming, research, Engineering, and development), with Evans as vice chair. Brooks later joined the assignment force. In December 1961, the group offered its technical options.
Their report known as for five appropriate computer systems, labeled processors (described as the laptop, its memory, and channels to connect to peripheral machine). The utility and peripherals for one processor were to work with all different processors. The plan known as for using usual hardware and utility interfaces between computer systems and peripherals, equivalent to between disk drives and tape drives connecting to computers, so that the peripherals did not need to be swapped out when a new processor turned into put in. The thoughts grew to become the groundwork for the device/360.
as a result of so tons would be new, the processors would now not be suitable with IBM’s latest products. That was an highly crucial point. clients relocating to the new IBM machines would ought to rewrite existing application only once to get on the path of the new device.
Then, IBM obtained a fortunate wreck. As one engineer wrote, “virtually miraculously [Evans’s] vision of the new product line turned into saved with the aid of a last-minute technical accomplishment. In mid-1963, engineers within the Poughkeepsie and Endicott laboratories had begun exploring the opportunity of including special microcode to the manage shops of computer systems to improve their performance when simulating prior IBM computer systems.” This feature would permit 1401 application to run in the two smaller models of the proposed new equipment, only sooner. revenue got on board, and its executives all started pressuring R&D and manufacturing administration for early introduction of the new processors.
Watson recognized what became at stake, as he recalled in his memoirs:
From the beginning they faced two dangers, both of which was adequate to maintain us awake at night. First there became the task of coordinating the hardware and utility design work for the new line. They had engineering groups in all places the usa and Europe working concurrently on six new processors and dozens of recent peripherals…however within the conclusion all of this hardware would must plug together. The application was an even bigger hurdle nevertheless. to ensure that gadget/360 to have a standard character, a whole bunch of programmers needed to write millions of lines of computing device code. no one had ever tackled that advanced a programming job, and the engineers were under superb force to get it achieved.
A 2d set of problems concerned manufacturing the electronic add-ons for the new systems. The electronics business was beginning to work on integrated circuits, and the brand new computer systems had been going to be crammed with these new components. To be independent, IBM needed to make its personal. It proved to be a pricey proposition.
eventually, the company management committee, including Watson and the board of administrators, sucked in a deep breath and approved the spread innovations. IBM became off to the races in the wildest experience of its background.
IBM couldn't hide what turned into happening. New personnel flocked to Endicott, Poughkeepsie, and other labs and vegetation. consumers heard rumors, the laptop press turned into speculating, and executives at GE, Honeywell, Sperry Univac, and somewhere else have been making an attempt to anticipate what IBM would do.
At IBM, nobody gave the impression convinced with development on the brand new equipment. Engineering, manufacturing, sales, and company group of workers had been in many circumstances working a hundred-hour weeks. Engineers moved cots into their places of work. When Watson stopped in to peer how programming was going, an engineer yelled at him to get out so he could work. The chairman of IBM beat a hasty retreat.pictures: IBM On 7 April 1964, a instruct from new york metropolis’s Grand crucial Terminal shuttled newshounds to Poughkeepsie, where IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. officially unveiled the equipment/360.
all of it grew to be public at midday eastern time in the u.s. on 7 April 1964. Over 100,000 consumers, reporters, and technologists met in 165 U.S. cities, whereas others gathered around the world over the following few days to hear the news. As Watson declared at a press convention in Poughkeepsie, it become “essentially the most essential product announcement within the enterprise’s historical past.”picture: Mark Richards/laptop historical past Museum among the many equipment/360’s 44 peripherals changed into the 2311 disk storage force. each removable disk pack saved 7.25 megabytes.
On that day, IBM brought a intellect-boggling a hundred and fifty new products: 6 computer systems; forty four peripherals, together with tape drives, disk drives, printers, and control contraptions; and a promise to give the application indispensable to make every thing work collectively. the clicking packet became an inch thick, and manuals describing the entire machines, accessories, software, and their installing and operation stuffed more than 50 linear feet.
The vital characteristic of the gadget/360 was, of route, its compatibility. A turning out to be facts core might set up a small 360 desktop and later upgrade to a bigger one devoid of rewriting software or replacing peripheral machine. once common with the gadget, one didn't must be trained an excellent deal extra to tackle an improve. The name 360 turned into chosen to suggest the idea of 360 degrees, overlaying every thing.
within the first month following the S/360 announcement, purchasers international ordered over one hundred,000 techniques. to position that number in point of view, in that equal yr within the uk, all of Western Europe, the USA, and Japan, there have been slightly more than 20,000 computers of any kind put in. the primary deliveries of the smaller machines have been promised for the third quarter of 1965, and deliveries of the higher ones within the first quarter of 1966. The extend between announcement and delivery date gave purchasers time to decide which models to acquire, get them authorized and budgeted, plan on the place to condo them, instruct staff, finished application remediation, and so on. With the April announcement, IBM purchased itself two years to make decent on its guarantees and knock rivals returned on their heels.
From 7 April to when the company begun offering machines to shoppers, IBM entered essentially the most bad, intense, and difficult era of its heritage. The business spent US $5 billion (about $forty billion nowadays) to develop the device/360, which on the time become greater than IBM made in a year, and it would finally rent more than 70,000 new laborers. each IBMer believed that failure meant the loss of life of IBM.
As Watson later recalled, “no longer all the device on reveal [on 7 April] was true; some contraptions have been just mockups made from timber. They defined that to their guests, so there turned into no deception. however it was a perilous cutting of corners—now not the manner I suppose business ought to be finished—and an uncomfortable reminder to me of how far they needed to go before they could name the application successful.”
Watson assigned his brother, Arthur, to control engineering and manufacturing going ahead. Learson would run sales for the brand new gadget, “twisting the tails of their salesmen.” Tom Watson Jr. concept Learson had the greater intricate task. The possibility of valued clientele changing to a person else’s machines in place of to the S/360 drastically concerned Watson.photo: IBM IBM promised to start providing the primary S/360 machines in the third quarter of 1965. production issues emerged shortly.
as the number of orders for the S/360 saved increasing, manufacturing changed into asked in 1965 to double creation. One construction supervisor referred to it could not be carried out and become changed. high-quality declined. one of the most electronic circuits inside an SLT, as an instance, were no longer complete, so electrons could not go where they were presupposed to. by the conclusion of the 12 months, the best manage branch had impounded 25 % of all SLT modules, bringing creation to a halt.photograph: IBM With the S/360, IBM introduced its strong good judgment know-how (SLT), a precursor to built-in circuits. Doubling the construction of the S/360 in 1965 resulted in defects in 1 / 4 of the SLT modules.
After the problems have been solved, manufacturing proceeded in 1966, resulting in 90 million SLT modules convey produced, compared to simply 36 million the old 12 months. IBM opened a brand new plant in East Fishkill, just south of Poughkeepsie, which made more semiconductor contraptions than all other producers worldwide combined. creation also accelerated to new amenities in Burlington, Vt., and in Corbeil-Essonnes, France.
To unravel manufacturing complications with the ferrite-core reminiscences, IBM deploy a plant in Boulder, Colo., in 1965. however it took the craftsmanship of laborers in Japan to get the production of recollections up to the necessary quantities and great.photo: Mark Richards/computing device heritage Museum The S/360’s ferrite-core memory also proved extraordinarily difficult to fabricate. This aircraft contains 1,536 reminiscence cores.
As manufacturing grew to be a global effort, new issues arose in coordinating actions and fabricating machines. Arthur Watson had some event managing IBM’s small factories backyard the U.S. but none with resolving engineering issues, not to mention big international problems in development and manufacturing. He was out of his league, and his brother challenged him to unravel the issues. meanwhile, Learson and his revenue teams wanted further improvements to the product line. family members between Learson and Arthur completely deteriorated. In October 1964, IBM introduced huge delays in delivery products.
Tom eliminated Arthur from his job and turned over his duties to Learson, who in turn brought in 4 engineering managers to punch in the course of the issues. Nicknamed the “4 horsemen,” that they had full authority worldwide for getting the S/360 manufactured and delivered to valued clientele. Their assortment of complications, one of the managers mentioned later, changed into “an absolute nightmare,” “a grey blur of 24-hour days, seven days every week—certainly not being domestic.” And yet, in five months, they had worked out sufficient of the issues to start meeting delivery dates. In January 1966, Learson became president of IBM.photographs: IBM dealing with unacceptable production delays, Learson brought in [left to right] Henry E. Cooley, Clarence E. Frizzell, John W. Gibson, and John Haanstra, who sorted out manufacturing problems global and acquired the S/360 again not off course.
Arthur changed into shunted into the function of vice chairman. His career turned into damaged, and he retired in 1970. In his memoirs, Tom Watson Jr. admitted to being in a nearly continuous panic from 1964 to 1966 and deeply regretted his medicine of Arthur. “I felt nothing however shame and frustrations on the way I’d treated him…. as it was, they remade the computer trade with the equipment/360, and objectively it changed into the surest triumph of my company profession. however on every occasion I look back on it, I feel about my brother I injured.”
application issues additionally slowed construction of the 360. The application development staff was described as being in “disarray” as early as 1963. The operating device, called OS/360, struggled to run multiple job at a time, which changed into elementary to creating the S/360 fast and productive. different issues surfaced with telecommunications and with utility programs. Programming assist grew to be yet another contentious concern.
Fred Brooks volunteered to support, and IBM brought 1,000 people to the operating gadget project, costing the enterprise greater for software in three hundred and sixty five days than had been planned for the whole construction of the S/360 system. but throwing more programmers on the undertaking did not assist. in accordance with the S/360 event, Brooks would later expand on that theme within the mythical Man-Month (Addison-Wesley, 1975), nevertheless some of the most widely examine books on computing. The utility would take years to comprehensive, but in the conclusion it labored smartly adequate to hold the shipping delay to 1 month.photo: IBM A system/360 arrives at Tokai financial institution in Japan. Demand for computing grew particularly in the years following the S/360’s launch.
despite the expenses and nervousness, in 1965—the year IBM had dedicated to transport the first devices to purchasers—it managed “with the aid of some miracle” (Watson’s phrases) to convey hundreds of medium-measurement S/360s. Their satisfactory didn't at all times suit the usual design requirements. Shortages of constituents, other parts that did not work, and software stuffed with bugs spread to many countries. almost every preliminary consumer encountered problems.
branch places of work have been hiring programs engineers to help. SEs were faculty graduates, constantly with technical levels, who knew how to debug software and assisted the earnings force in selling and aiding computers. The SEs heroically tackled S/360’s software complications, whereas box engineers, who put in equipment, mounted hardware complications. Salesmen calmed their shoppers, whereas branch managers worked to maintain their staffs stimulated and concentrated.
And regardless of the many problems, “shoppers had been nonetheless ordering 360s sooner than they may construct them,” Watson recalled, forcing start dates out as a whole lot as three years. with the aid of the end of 1966, shoppers had taken delivery of 9 fashions of the S/360, for a complete of 7,700.
IBM’s competitors replied. Burroughs, GE, Honeywell, NCR, and Sperry Rand, working mostly in the u.s., CII in France, and ICT (later ICI) in top notch Britain brought methods suitable with one an extra’s machines, but now not appropriate with IBM’s. A 2d, smaller community selected to manufacture machines that were suitable with IBM’s, including RCA and others in Europe and Japan, counting on RCA’s licenses.image: IBM NASA purchased a few S/360s, including this one at Goddard area Flight middle. several others at mission handle in Houston have been used to video display Apollo eleven.
5 years later, the global stock of put in IBM computer systems had grown to $24 billion, while that of competitors had reached $9 billion. In different words, IBM’s S/360 increased typical demand for computing so vastly that it raised all boats. The trade’s annual increase in the 2d half of the Sixties turned into in double digits 12 months over yr, as many heaps of companies expanded their use of computers. Demand for computing grew because of the technological innovations brought forth by way of IBM, however also because clients have been collecting sufficient experience to consider a pc’s price in riding down prices and performing new capabilities.
IBM additionally grew, more than doubling from 127,000 employees international in 1962 to 265,000 by way of the end of 1971. income rose from $3.2 billion in 1964 to $eight.2 billion in 1971.image: IBM The S/360 strengthened IBM’s domination of the international computing device company. One executive, requested whether the company would ever take on another such challenge, responded, “Hell no, in no way once again.”
because the S/360 was the coronary heart of a lot computing by means of the conclusion of the Sixties, its users constituted an international of their own. thousands of programmers only knew how to use utility that ran on S/360s. additional lots of information-processing personnel had worked simplest with IBM device, together with keypunch machines, printers, tape drives, disk drives, and software, which in many instances took years to grasp. by the early 1970s the computing house became mostly an IBM world on either side of the Atlantic, in the emerging markets in Latin the united states, and in Japan.
Years later, when requested even if IBM would ever have interaction in such a large project once again, one govt barked out, “Hell no, in no way once again.” Watson tilted toward an analogous response. Commenting in 1966, he observed, “At their dimension, they are able to’t go 100 percent with anything new once again,” that means anything else that large. After the 360, Watson made it a policy “never to announce a brand new know-how so that you can require us to devote greater than 25 % of their construction to that technology.”
The era that brought out the S/360 remained enjoyable in the enterprise, a unique clan bonded ferociously to IBM. Careers had been made and damaged, own lives and marriages upended. IBMers did not comprehend at the time how extensively their items would change the realm, however they do.
this article is in accordance with excerpts from IBM: the upward push and Fall and Reinvention of a global Icon (MIT Press, 2019).
James W. Cortada is a senior analysis fellow at the institution of Minnesota’s Charles Babbage Institute. He labored at IBM for 38 years in income, consulting, managerial, and research positions.
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1Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, 2C3 Centre for Connected Care, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Background: Rising life expectancy means an increase in the number of elderly people with hearing loss in the population. Many elderly people live in nursing homes, with varying care needs. A substantial proportion of these people will need help with their hearing aids and other hearing devices.Objective: The objective of the study has been to assess the knowledge, experience, skills, competence, and need for information of staff at nursing homes in relation to residents’ hearing loss and hearing aids.Materials and methods: One hundred and ninety-five employees at seven nursing homes participated in the study. The main approach was a descriptive study, using questionnaires.Results: The main findings are that 73% of informants found that many residents need help with their hearing aids. Only one-tenth report that they know enough about the residents’ hearing aids. Almost four out of five informants find that the residents become socially isolated as a result of hearing loss. Seventy-eight percent agree to some extent that more residents would benefit from hearing aids.Conclusion: Staff at nursing homes have insufficient knowledge about hearing loss and hearing aids. Increased focus on the elderly with hearing impairment in nursing homes is needed. Contact between nursing homes and audiological specialists should be improved to best follow-up hearing loss and hearing aids.
Keywords: hearing aids, nursing staff, hearing impairment, institutionalized elderly
Hearing loss is among the most frequent chronic health problems in the elderly.1 A Norwegian survey (HUNT [Nord-Trondelag Health Study]) found that 60% of the population aged 60–79 and 90% of people aged ≥80 had acquired hearing loss. Almost half of the group experienced problems associated with this loss.2 The rise in life expectancy of populations in the Western world is leading to a considerable increase in the number of elderly people with hearing impairment.3 However, the findings show that hearing loss among the elderly is often ignored by health care workers, as other diagnoses and types of sensory loss receive more attention and higher priority.4–6
Studies have shown a significant link between hearing loss and deteriorated quality of life among the elderly.7–11 Greater incidences of loneliness, lower level of mastery, and a smaller social network have also been reported.12–15 Hearing loss among the elderly is also associated with incidence of depression.16–19 Studies have indicated that this link fully or partly attenuates after fitting hearing aids.20–22 However, the predominantly technological focus on audiological rehabilitation has also been criticized.23 It has been pointed out that the incidence of depression cannot necessarily be solely attributed to the hearing loss, but that it can also be related to circumstances of a psychosocial nature, like a person’s relationship with their close relatives and social networks.24–26 Additionally, there are older people who are regular hearing aid users who still experience communication difficulties and continue to report difficulties in everyday life.23,27 The importance of addressing nonaudiological factors in order to assist older adults achieve success with hearing aids has been highlighted.28
Many elderly people are in a particularly difficult situation because they often experience hearing loss as an extra burden, in addition to generally reduced capacity and health.29,30 A considerable number of elderly people will have trouble with their hearing and vision. This is referred to as double trouble.31 A significant link has been shown between sensory loss and the need for help in relation to activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living,32–35 as well as a higher incidence of sensory loss among elderly people in retirement and nursing homes.36–38 Hearing loss is presumed to be among the most frequently underdiagnosed conditions in people suffering from Alzheimers.39
The presumed level of hearing aid use varies widely. Studies have shown that 3%–25% of hearing aids distributed are not in use.29,40–45 The ability to handle tasks that require fine motor skills deteriorates with age, and is considered to partly account for the fact that many hearing aids are not used.42,44 Problem-oriented preconceptions to hearing aids may explain the lack of hearing aid use.46 Senile dementia may also result in the forgetting of knowledge acquired in the past, and a weakening of the ability to acquire new knowledge.5,47 Background noise is found to be a key factor for the low uptake of hearing aids among people in residential care settings.48,49 Discomfort and pain attached to wearing hearing aids are also frequently mentioned reasons for nonuse.50,51 These factors may both individually and jointly have a considerable impact on the mastery of hearing aids, as well as their use and utility value. Out of Norway’s population of about 5.2 million people, at present, 148,000 people receive health care at home every year (home nursing care) and 90,000 receive assisted services in their homes by health care providers. About 40,000 elderly people (aged 67 and over) are in full-time nursing care.52 Elderly people in nursing homes often rely on care workers to help them with their hearing aids and other hearing devices. Studies have revealed that many nursing home residents have hearing aids that do not work adequately or are not in use.5,6,53–55
The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, experience, skills, competence, and need for information of staff at nursing homes in relation to the residents’ hearing loss and hearing aids.
Materials and methods
The study’s informants were recruited from seven nursing homes. Questionnaires were delivered to 228 employees, and 201 forms were returned (response rate 89%). Six forms were excluded as a result of inadequate data entry. A total of 169 females and 26 males, aged 18–69, participated. The average age was 40.9 (standard deviation 12.31). The informants worked in the rehabilitation department (5%), short-term care department (10%), long-term care department (51%), dementia department (22%), and other (12%) (Table 1).
There is limited research focusing on skills, knowledge, and experiences held by employees in residential homes toward their residents’ hearing loss and hearing aids. The current questionnaire was constructed based on previous research on elderly hearing impaired people in residential care settings, primarily applying the current project members’ academic background and work experience. Each member of the project group had practical experience from the field, as either nurse, technical audiologist, auxiliary nurse, doctor, or educational audiologist. Subsequently other health and audiological professionals were consulted, and their opinions were taken into consideration. Two pilot surveys were carried out and reviewed prior to the finalization of the present questionnaire version. The questionnaire began with a presentation of the objective of the survey, and was divided into the following sections: 1) personal details; 2) knowledge and experience; 3) skills and competence; and 4) information needs. The response options were strongly agree, slightly agree, neutral, slightly disagree, and strongly disagree.
The general managers of seven nursing homes in Oslo and Bergen (Norway) were contacted, and written and verbal information was provided about the objective of the survey, as well as information that participation was voluntary, and that the questionnaire did not contain any personal data that would allow the respondent to be identified. The survey was conducted on the same date at each institution, in order to ensure that the sample was random. All employees (no exclusion criteria) at work on the day in question were asked to complete the survey, regardless of age, sex, percentage of a full-time position, or occupational background.
The survey was exempt from the obligation to seek approval from the The Norwegian Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics because it was conducted anonymously with no identifying information. The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
All the analyses were conducted using SPSS version 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) and numbers (percent) were used to summarize sample characteristics and questionnaire responses. Chi-square tests were used for group comparisons on categorical variables. All tests were two-sided. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant for all analyses.
The informants’ ages were split into the following four age groups: 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, and 50–59, with informants aged <20 (n=2) and ≥60 (n=6) being sorted into adjacent age groups. The percentage of a full-time position was classified as ≈75% if the informants reported >50% and <100%. Informants with an occupational background that was classified as “Other” (n=3) were excluded from the analysis. In descriptive analyses, statements about the staff’s knowledge, experience, and need for information were dichotomized as agreement (strongly agree or slightly agree) or disagreement (neutral, slightly disagree, or strongly disagree).
A total of 195 informants participated in the project. The average informant was a female aged 40, with lower-level health education, who worked full-time at a long-term care department at a nursing home. The following results all refer to Figure 1, based on the questionnaire options strongly agree and slightly agree. A complete overview of the results can be found in Table S1.
Figure 1 Agreement on knowledge, experiences, skills, and expressed need for information on hearing loss and HA use (n=192).
Abbreviation: HA, hearing aid.
Knowledge and experience
While only 23% of the informants stated that they had received training in the use and care of hearing aids, 83% agreed that many residents need help with their hearing aids. Twenty-nine percent believed they had adequate knowledge about the residents’ hearing aids, and 78% reported that the residents became socially isolated because of hearing loss. Seventy-eight percent agreed that more residents would probably benefit from hearing aids.
Skills and competence
While 64% of the informants regularly checked the battery’s + side before inserting it into the hearing aid, only 29% were familiar with the approximate lifetime of a hearing aid battery. The informants considered themselves able to provide hearing aid assistance to varying degrees; 35% were unable to provide the necessary assistance. Half of the informants believed that hearing aids were not in use because residents do not master their use. Almost one-third were of the impression that residents were satisfied with their hearing aids. When asked whether hearing aid users were checked regularly for earwax, 34% agreed. Additionally, earwax was not cleared from earmolds regularly; only 30% stated that this was done routinely.
Need for information
Eighty percent stated that they needed information about hearing loss among the elderly, and 88% were in need of more information about different types of hearing aids.
Age, employment, and occupational background
The oldest group of informants (aged ≥50) reported more knowledge on hearing aid batteries (P=0.004), more frequently noted whistling of the residents’ hearing aids (P=0.01), and stated that the residents did not master the use of hearing aids (P=0.03). They also had the higher score on requested need for knowledge about different hearing aid models (P=0.006). On average, the age group 20–29 had the lowest score. The percentage of a full-time position held by the individual informants did not reflect significant differences between those who worked full-time and those who had part-time positions.
Overall, the group of activity therapists, health care workers, auxiliary nurses, and assistant occupational therapists believed that they had adequate information about the residents’ hearing aids (P=0.002). They reported more often that hearing aids whistled (P=0.03), and took the initiative more frequently to replace the tubes on hearing aids (P=0.03) than other occupational groups. The group of nurses/social educators/occupational therapists reviewed the residents’ need for assistance with the use of hearing aids more frequently than other occupational groups (P=0.02).
Our results show that nursing home staff report insufficient knowledge, information, and practical skills regarding elderly residents’ hearing aids.
Knowledge and experiences
Our study found that a minority of staff at nursing homes have received training on the use and care of hearing aids, and that a correspondingly low proportion believes that they have enough knowledge about the residents’ hearing aids. This represents a challenge for hearing aid users at nursing homes dependent on assisted care. However, care workers cannot be expected to have comprehensive knowledge on hearing aids and other hearing devices. There is a large selection of hearing aids on the market, different manufacturers, models, specifications, and functions. At the same time, new models keep being launched. This calls for a closer collaboration between audiological professionals and health care workers. As the latter represents the connecting link to the hearing aid user, they should be provided with sufficient knowledge to contact audiological professionals for follow-up support when problems arise. However, some basic knowledge about the use and maintenance of hearing aids is needed – both to provide simple “first aid” and to perform necessary maintenance. For example, problems associated with earwax are frequently reported causes of reduced auditory function and lack of hearing aids use among the elderly in nursing homes.6,56 The need for care workers to have some basic knowledge about the use and care of hearing aids is reflected in a large share of the informants believing that the residents need help with their hearing aids.
Considering the current knowledge on the relationship between hearing loss and health-related quality of life,12–14 it is worrying that the informants report that social isolation may be due to hearing loss. A great majority believe that their residents would benefit from a hearing aid. Communication and social interaction are important throughout a person’s life. Functional hearing provides a sense of safety and predictability, and allows for conversation and social interaction.57 Additionally, functional hearing may be critical to navigate in a society in which the ability to hear is essential.58 The ability to hear also serves an important function in cognitive stimulation and is of great importance to mental health.57
Skills and competence
The uncertainty associated with telling the difference between the right and the left hearing aid suggests that some residents’ hearing aids are placed in the wrong ear, which can have implications for hearing. These include: physical discomfort, risk of pressure sores, a programming profile that is not adapted to the specific type of hearing loss, earmolds that do not fit the ear canal, feedback problems (“squealing”), and increase in the probability of the hearing aid dropping out of the user’s ear – all resulting in discomfort and frustration.
As very few employees at nursing homes check the battery’s +/- side before they insert it into the hearing aid, this can result in batteries being inserted incorrectly. In practice, this means that the hearing aid shuts out sound instead of allowing sound in. There is also little knowledge about the lifetime of hearing aid batteries. After the battery has worn out, the hearing aid will literally act as a protection against hearing.
Inadequate knowledge and practical skills among care workers may have major consequences for the elderly hearing aid users who are dependent on care. Many users experience hearing aid whistling; a nuisance to themselves, other residents, and the staff at the institution. The feedback problem is often due to earwax, but it may also be that hearing aids are inserted into the wrong ear. One out of three informants ensures that residents’ ears are regularly checked for earwax and that earmolds are cleaned. This indicates a lack of regular cleaning procedures. It is important that earwax is removed regularly in order to optimize the transfer of sound from the hearing aid to the ear. In the worst case, the sound outlet of the earmolds will be clogged with earwax, and in practice obstructs hearing. Consequently, a person’s ability to hear will deteriorate.
Hearing aids may not be used due to insufficient mastery among the residents. The majority of health care workers do not find themselves competent to provide necessary help. This may reduce the elderly’s opportunities for necessary contact with other people. Only one-third believe that the residents are satisfied with their hearing aids. This provides an indication that elderly hearing aid users should receive greater follow-up than is the current practice. On the other hand, hearing aids should not be regarded as the panacea for all elderly who are hearing impaired, as other hearing devices may be more useful to some. The elderly do not necessarily consider themselves to be hearing impaired, and reject using their aids.46,59,60 Supplemental and alternative forms of interventions should be considered to ensure individual needs as well as autonomy.
Need for information
Overall, informants report a high need for general information about hearing loss and hearing aids; the staff want to meet the residents’ hearing needs. When health care workers express a great need for information about hearing loss regardless of their occupational background, sex, age, and percentage of a full-time position, this needs to be addressed. In practice, they handle their residents’ care, provide practical assistance, and the best possible quality of life. As previously emphasized, closer collaboration between audiological professionals and health workers is needed, ie, by establishing regular follow-up-instruction series in nursing homes, or offering a personalized hearing aid handbook with essential hearing aid information (brand/model, serial number, batteries, date/year of hearing aid assignment, information on audiological professionals etc) to the hearing aid user. The latter is routinely offered to all hearing aid users referred to Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, an Oslo community hospital.61
Results by age, employment, and occupational background
The oldest group of informants (aged ≥50) appears to focus the most on the residents’ hearing aids. This is hardly surprising, considering they have most working experience. The same group also wanted more knowledge about different types of hearing aids. This group often has acquired practical skills that enable them to support the elderly in handling their hearing aids. It is important that the knowledge and experience held by the oldest and most experienced staff are transferred to younger staff. However, there is still a risk that the above-mentioned knowledge may become outdated as hearing aid technology progresses.62,63 This makes contact with audiological specialists even more important in order for people to update their knowledge and competence.
Despite a high response rate (89%), their study may have some limitations. Lack of a validated questionnaire appropriate for their target group of nursing home employees made it necessary to design a questionnaire covering essential aspects of the subject targeted. After the completion of two pilots with subsequent review, they found the questionnaire appropriate for their study. It needs to be validated for the use in other settings. Subjective assumptions and preconceptions may have influenced the preparation of the questionnaire in the direction of sidedness and a less well-balanced questionnaire. Therefore, they anticipate further research focusing on the elderly hearing impaired in residential homes, and their need for follow-up support.
Hearing loss primarily represents a communication handicap that may affect individuals’ opportunities to interact with their surroundings. Their findings show that there is a need for more knowledge about hearing loss and better follow-up of hearing aid users in nursing homes, in order to improve their auditory function and ability to communicate. The number of elderly people will increase in the years ahead, as will the need for audiological rehabilitation. Many elderly people will be dependent on practical help with hearing aids and other hearing devices.
Audiological rehabilitation is of great importance in order to prevent problems and improve the quality of life of the elderly. Contact between nursing homes and audiological specialists must be improved to address health care workers’ need for knowledge. It is obvious that elderly hearing aid users should be checked regularly, and the need for earwax removal is addressed. Regular checking of hearing aids is required to ensure that the devices are functioning properly and are being used correctly.
This project has been made possible by the Norwegian ExtraFoundation for Health and Rehabilitation. They would also like to thank the Norwegian Association of the Hearing Impaired, and Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital for practical and financial support.
The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.
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Mulrow CD, Aguilar C, Endicott JE, et al. Quality-of-life changes and hearing impairment. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(3):188–194.
Hickson L, Worrall L. Beyond hearing aid fitting: improving communication for older adults. Int J Audiol. 2003;42(Suppl 2):2S84–2S91.
Chew HS, Yeak S. Quality of life in patients with untreated age-related hearing loss. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124(8):835–841.
Chou KL, Chi I. Combined effect of vision and hearing impairment on depression in elderly Chinese. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004;19(9):825–832.
Tambs K. Moderate effects of hearing loss on mental health and subjective well-being: results from the Nord-Trondelag Hearing Loss Study. Psychosom Med. 2004;66(5):776–782.
Dawes P, Maslin M, Munro KJ. ‘Getting used to’ hearing aids from the perspective of adult hearing-aid users. Int J Audiol. 2014;53(12):861–870.
Hickson L, Meyer C, Lovelock K, Lampert M, Khan A. Factors associated with success with hearing aids in older adults. Int J Audiol. 2014;53 Suppl 1:S18–S27.
Lupsakko TA, Kautiainen HJ, Sulkava R. The non-use of hearing aids in people aged 75 years and over in the city of Kuopio in Finland. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262(3):165–169.
Grue EV, Kirkevold M, Mowinchel P, Ranhoff AH. Sensory impairment in hip-fracture patients 65 years or older and effects of hearing/vision interventions on fall frequency. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2008;2:1–11.
Berry P, Mascia J, Steinman BA. Vision and hearing loss in older adults: “Double trouble”. Care Manag J. 2004;5(1):35–40.
Grue EV, Ranhoff AH, Noro A, et al. Vision and hearing impairments and their associations with falling and loss of instrumental activities in daily living in acute hospitalized older persons in five Nordic hospitals. Scand J Caring Sci. 2009;23(4):635–643.
Yamada M, Nishiwaki Y, Michikawa T, Takebayashi T. Impact of hearing difficulty on dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality: a 3-year cohort study of community-dwelling Japanese older adults. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2011;52(3):245–249.
Haanes GG, Kirkevold M, Horgen G, Hofoss D, Eilertsen G. Sensory impairments in community health care: a descriptive study of hearing and vision among elderly Norwegians living at home. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2014;7:217–225.
Eklund K, Dahlin-Ivanoff S. Low vision, ADL and hearing assistive device use among older persons with visual impairments. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2007;2(6):326–334.
Cohen-Mansfield J, Taylor JW. Hearing aid use in nursing homes. Part 1: prevalence rates of hearing impairment and hearing aid use. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2004;5(5):283–288.
van der Pols JC, Bates CJ, McGraw PV, Thompson JR, Reacher M, Prentice A, Finch S. Visual acuity measurements in a national sample of British elderly people. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84(2):165–170.
Owsley C, McGwin G, Scilley K, Meek GC, Dyer A, Seker D. The visual status of older persons residing in nursing homes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125(7):925–230.
Bakhos D, Villeuneuve A, Kim S, Hammoudi K, Hommet C. Hearing loss and Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2015;13(2):195–204.
Chia EM, Mitchell P, Rochtchina E, Foran S, Golding M, Wang JJ. Association between vision and hearing impairments and their combined effects on quality of life. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124(10):1465–1470.
Parving A, Philip B. Use and benefit of hearing aids in the tenth decade – and beyond. Audiology. 1991;30(2):61–69.
Gimsing S. [Use of hearing aids five years after issue]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2008;170(43):3407–3411. Danish.
Smeeth L, Fletcher AE, Ng ES, et al. Reduced hearing, ownership, and use of hearing aids in elderly people in the UK – the MRC Trial of the Assessment and Management of Older People in the Community: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet. 2002;359(9316):1466–1470.
Vuorialho A, Sorri M, Nuojua I, Muhli A. Changes in hearing aid use over the past 20 years. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263(4):355–360.
Solheim J, Kvaerner KJ, Sandvik L, Falkenberg E-S. Factors affecting older adults’ hearing-aid use. Scand J Disabil Res. 2012;14(4):300–312.
Solheim J. Preconceptions and expectations of older adults about getting hearing aids. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2011;4:1–8.
Kravitz E, Schmeidler J, Beeri MS. Cognitive decline and dementia in the oldest-old. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2012;3(4):e0026.
Tolson D. Age-related hearing loss: a case for nursing intervention. J Adv Nurs. 1997;26(6):1150–1157.
Pryce H, Gooberman-Hill R. ‘There’s a hell of a noise’: living with a hearing loss in residential care. Age Ageing. 2012;41(1):40–46.
McCormack A, Fortnum H. Why do people fitted with hearing aids not wear them? Int J Audiol. 2013;52(5):360–368.
Liston R, Solomon S, Banerjee AK. Prevalence of hearing problems, and use of hearing aids among a sample of elderly patients. Br J Gen Pract. 1995;45(396):369–370.
Statistics Norway. Nursing and care services, 2015. Available from: www.ssb.no/en/helse/statistikker/pleie. Accessed August 26, 2016.
Keller BK, Morton JL, Thomas VS, Potter JF. The effect of visual and hearing impairments on functional status. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47(11):1319–1325.
Stumer J, Hickson L, Worrall L. Hearing impairment, disability and handicap in elderly people living in residential care and in the community. Disabil Rehabil. 1996;18(2):76–82.
Tsuruoka H, Masuda S, Ukai K, Sakakura Y, Harada T, Majima Y. Hearing impairment and quality of life for the elderly in nursing homes. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28(1):45–54.
Lim JK, Yap KB. Screening for hearing impairment in hospitalised elderly. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000;29(2):237–241.
Palmer AD, Newsom JT, Rook KS. How does difficulty communicating affect the social relationships of older adults? An exploration using data from a national survey. J Commun Disord. 2016;62:131–146.
Lopez-Torres HidalgoJ, Boix Gras C, Tellez Lapeira J, Lopez Verdejo MA, del Campo del Campo JM, Escobar Rabadan F. Functional status of elderly people with hearing loss. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49(1):88–92.
Gussekloo J, de Bont LE, von FM, et al. Auditory rehabilitation of older people from the general population – the Leiden 85-plus study. Br J Gen Pract. 2003;53(492):536–540.
Chang NC, Dai CY, Lin WY, Chien CY, Hsieh MH, Ho KY. Perception of hearing impairment and the willingness to use hearing aids in an elderly population in southern Taiwan: a community-based study. Int J Audiol. 2016;55(9):491–498.
Solheim J. Listen! A Handbook for Hearing Aid Users; 2016. Available from: https://www.hlf.no/globalassets/prosjekter/prosjektdokumenter/hor-her-boken.pdf. Accessed August 26, 2016. Norwegian.
Cox RM, Johnson JA, Xu J. Impact of hearing aid technology on outcomes in daily life I: the patients’ perspective. Ear Hear. 2016;37(4):e224–e237.
Paglialonga A, Tognola G, Pinciroli F. Apps for hearing science and care. Am J Audiol. 2015;24(3):293–298.
Table S1 Knowledge, skills and information needs on residents hearing loss and hearing aids
Notes: n=192. Data shown as %.
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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