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Test Code : MOS-W2E
Test Name : MOUS 2000 Word 2000 Expert
Vendor Name : Microsoft
: 23 Real Questions

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Microsoft MOUS 2000 Word 2000

a short background Of IT administration: How SaaS Has modified every little thing | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

while many people can’t imagine a world with out computers at work, some can bear in mind a time when landlines and faxes had been the killer productivity apps. these days, it’s complicated to believe, on account that thousands of aim-constructed utility-as-service (SaaS) apps are straight available for pretty much every position in a firm.

With the rise of SaaS and cloud-based infrastructure has come a brand new set of challenges for IT administration. Let’s take a look on the heritage of IT use at work, who’s managed IT and the way the SaaS explosion has ushered in a brand new period of collaborative IT administration.

Flipping The switch: A Timeline Of Tech within the place of work

while the cyber web was accountable for the proliferation of networked very own computer systems (computing device) and instruments within the workplace for all, the early days of notebook adoption within the Nineteen Eighties set the wheels in action for IT’s broader usage across the company.

Early notebook Magic (1980s)

a look at the laptop historical past Museum’s timeline suggests that the very own computing device was born in the 1980s, with the first branded “notebook” from Microsoft in 1981, adopted by way of the Commodore 64 in 1982 and Apple’s Lisa and Macintosh in 1983 and 1984. every yr represented greater magical leaps in innovation, from graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to the mouse to CD-ROMs and the C++ programming language.

In time, it grew to become clear that computer systems had been right here to reside, as their performance and operating techniques bought greater refined.

operating programs And Storage Improves (1989-Nineties)

while Eighties computing device users can also have been regarded early adopters, the creation and continual improvements upon the Microsoft windows, Mac and Linux operating techniques made them more extensively purposeful for the workplace. Microsoft office’s release in 1989 packaged up be aware, Excel and PowerPoint and served as the groundwork of these days’s cloud-based mostly productiveness suites.

in the meantime, new traits in local storage -- from tape libraries to zip drives -- helped americans really retain the statistics they have been generating on their PCs.

Networking the area: The web Takes Flight (1996-current)

whereas the earliest iterations of the cyber web had been born within the 80s, it wasn’t unless the mid-to-late 90s that widespread information superhighway adoption hit many groups (and households). In 1996, cyber web clients reached 36 million. by way of the conclusion of the last decade, that number improved tenfold to 360 million, and through 2010, it reached 2 billion, in keeping with the computing device historical past Museum.

This adoption ended in the dot-com bubble, where investments surged in cyber web-based businesses, spiking public company valuations to astronomical levels except the inventory market crashed in 2000. businesses either shut down fully or lost the monstrous majority of their market price (Cisco’s stock declined with the aid of 86%!) As a facet note, most of the early adopter information superhighway enterprise ideas like net-primarily based groceries and e-commerce outlets for pets are seeing an immense renaissance nowadays.

regardless of naysayers’ predictions -- like this now-infamous Newsweek article from 1995 on the cyber web’s forthcoming failure -- the cyber web rebounded and got much more ubiquitous.

Cloud Mania And BYOD (2000-latest)

Arguably two major shifts -- cloud computing and mobile gadgets -- ended in even more know-how availability throughout all roles in the workplace. In 2000, Salesforce’s now famous “No application” advertising and marketing crusade signaled a loss of life-knell for high priced business software licensing models and the upward thrust of SaaS as a enterprise model.

meanwhile, key activities in cloud computing have been occurring at the back of the scenes, with the advent of Amazon web functions, Google App Engine and windows Azure within the late 2000s. Google Apps for Work (now referred to as G Suite) launched in 2006, giving organizations a productiveness suite with a buyer-pleasant part and easy-to-use cloud storage.

quickly after, the first iPhone would come along in 2007, revolutionizing the theory that work may be completed from anywhere. From there, a proliferation of new buyer cell devices, capsules and decrease-charge computer systems gave upward thrust to the convey-your-personal-equipment (BYOD) vogue, the place IT groups have been expected to embrace the newest client expertise for use within the office.

proper SaaS Explosion (2008-present)

whereas the first SaaS products tune returned to the Salesforce “No application” days, the actual proliferation and explosion of SaaS products for just about every line of company tracks lower back a couple of decade or so.

Our records, aggregated from a whole lot of companies of all sizes, indicates that SaaS spending is anticipated to double via 2020, with the average mid-sized business spending $20,000 per 30 days on SaaS subscriptions. The ordinary business pays 20 instances more for SaaS subscriptions nowadays than 5 years ago and uses 30-plus free SaaS products. This vogue indicates no indications of slowing down, with app adoption increasing throughout every branch.

stay tuned for part two of this sequence, that allows you to delve into how these tendencies democratized IT administration across the complete organization and forced a shift in technology adoption patterns across the place of work.

Bowdlerized by way of Microsoft | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

I turned into tough at the grindstone, crusading in opposition t hypocrisy and chaos, armed with my computing device and Microsoft word 2000. i'd simply typed: ''only a fool would trust.'' but ''idiot'' did not appear appropriate. So I hit Shift-F7 to call up the thesaurus. The lone synonym that notice offered became a verb: trick.

where had been the nouns? the place turned into idiot? I typed ''fool,'' hit Shift-F7, and acquired the message ''no longer found.'' Then i tried goon. again, no longer discovered. No good fortune with ninny, nincompoop or numbskull. Or with nitwit, halfwit, dimwit or twit. Or dullard, dunce or dolt.

''Jerk'' known as up yank, jolt, tug and twitch. ''Dummy'' produced model and duplicate -- still not what i used to be attempting to find.

So I phoned a friend who also makes use of observe and requested him to verify the phenomenon. He typed ''fool,'' hit Shift-F7 -- and turned into offered a hearty menu of synonyms that blanketed no longer simply idiot and ninny, but such exotics as dunderhead and ignoramus. They realized the difference: He was working with notice ninety seven, now not the note 2000 i used to be the usage of.

Concluding that I had discovered a glitch within the up to date edition of Microsoft be aware, I decided to inform Microsoft. I known as and requested to talk to invoice Gates, but turned into directed to a cheerful person named Tim.

Tim transferred me to Kate, also cheerful, who promised to seem into the rely. several days later, Kate despatched me an e-mail message with a proof: ''Microsoft's method concerning the spell checker dictionary and thesaurus is to not suggest words that can also have offensive makes use of or provide offensive definitions for any words. The dictionary and spell checker is up-to-date with every unencumber of workplace to make certain that the equipment reflect existing social and cultural environments.''

proceed reading the main story

Microsoft confirms note 2000 flaw | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

After a nil-day attack earlier this week wherein prone home windows 2000 techniques running word 2000 had been uncovered to Trojan horses, Microsoft has proven the existence of a new flaw in observe 2000, even though it continues to be beneath investigation. In Microsoft safety Advisory #925059, the software huge suggests one attack scenario where victims are lured to an internet site internet hosting an contaminated observe 2000 document for download. As a workaround, Microsoft suggests opening unsolicited word files with the Microsoft word Viewer 2003 instead. The free viewer, accessible here, isn't inclined.

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How Bill and Melinda Gates Are Transforming Life for Billions in the 21st Century | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

The staff of Fortune recently assembled their 2019 list of the World’s 50 Greatest Leaders. This story is part of that coverage.

It was March 2018, and once more Bill Gates found himself behind a podium. In the previous few months, he had given one keynote address after another—in San Francisco, he’d urged drugmakers to focus on diseases that affect the poor as well as the rich; in Andhra Pradesh, India, he had preached the value of smallholder farms; in Abu Dhabi, he’d enjoined the Crown Prince and other princelings to continue their financial support for global health initiatives; in Cleveland, he’d promoted investment in better schools.

Now the world’s second-richest man and foremost itinerant advocate for the poor was in Abuja, Nigeria, talking about the same theme that had underlain all of these speeches: the need to invest in “human capital.” Among those gathered at the conference center, in the shadow of the Aso Rock Presidential Villa, was the Nigerian President himself, Muhammadu Buhari, and what seemed like the entire seat of government, from legislative mandarins to a full house of governors and business leaders—all primed to hear from a man who had, so far, lavished the country with $1.6 billion in grants through his eponymous foundation.

Two months earlier, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation had taken the unusual step of absorbing a $76 million IOU Nigeria owed to Japan, for money Nigeria had borrowed to fund a polio eradication effort. The progress there had been striking. In 2012 the country had more than half of the worldwide cases of this paralyzing disease; that number had since been cut to zero.

But Gates wasn’t there to deliver a keep-up-the-good-work speech. He was there to say the opposite: to tell his hosts that their nation—Africa’s richest and most populous, with 190 million residents—was on a knife’s edge. The country was facing an “epidemic of chronic malnutrition,” with one in three Nigerian children chronically malnourished, Gates told his audience. Nigeria had the fourth-worst maternal mortality rate on the planet, making it “one of the most dangerous places in the world to give birth.” More than half of rural Nigerian children could not adequately read or write. The primary health care system was “broken.”

The harsh litany went on. On the basis of per capita GDP, oil-rich Nigeria was “rapidly approaching upper-middle-income status, like Brazil, China, and Mexico,” Gates said. But by every meaningful measure, it still resembled an impoverished nation: Life expectancy was a meager 53 years—nine years lower, on average, than its low-income neighbors in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria was headed for a perilous future—unless it changed course, that is, and began to substantially invest in the health, education, and economic opportunity of its people.

“It may not be polite to speak so bluntly when you’ve always been so gracious to me,” Gates told the gathering, veering a bit from his prepared remarks. But, he explained, he was “applying a lesson” he’d learned from Nigerian businessman and fellow billionaire Aliko Dangote, who told him: “ ‘I didn’t get successful by pretending to sell bags of cement I didn’t have.’ I took from that, that while it may be easier to be polite, it’s important to face facts so that you can make progress.”

It was a speech that “rattled” the government, according to the next day’s headlines. And it could have been given only by Bill Gates, says Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, chair of GAVI, the international vaccine alliance, who twice served as Nigeria’s finance minister. Years earlier, when Gates was CEO of Microsoft, the company he cofounded with Paul Allen in 1975, he’d had no trouble speaking bluntly to government leaders—vigorously challenging, for one notable example, the U.S. government’s antitrust case against the company during the 1990s.

The post-Microsoft Gates was still unabashedly candid—“He did that in Nigeria, and he didn’t mince words,” says Okonjo-Iweala—but the frankness was now infused with something else: a driving sense of purpose. A more tender kind of, well, passion.

That’s a word that’s used quite a bit these days to describe Bill Gates, 63, who in the waning decades of the 20th century was often pilloried as a brash—and sometimes soulless—corporate predator.

In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the government went all out to welcome the Gateses, recalls a friend. The couple just wanted to spend time listening to the people.

Courtesy of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation/Prashant Panijar

Ray Chambers, an influential American philanthropist who is now the World Health Organization’s Ambassador for Global Strategy and who for several years served as a UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Malaria, says Gates’ “passion for the subject”—whatever that might be in global health—“and his compassion for the victim” are equally striking. Physician Helene Gayle, who spent five years with the Gates Foundation, overseeing its HIV, TB, and reproductive health programs and who is now CEO of The Chicago Community Trust, singles out the word “determined” before saying, “that’s not quite right—that’s too pedestrian. It’s somewhere between determined and passionate. I mean this guy is on a mission, and he is—the word is ‘undeterred.’ ”

And if you’re wondering what drives this perpetually refueling zeal, a big part of the answer can be found on the other side of the ampersand in his foundation’s name: ­Melinda Gates.

If Bill’s superpower is speaking truth to the mighty, Melinda’s may well be hearing the truth of the unmighty—and then internalizing and sharing that secret, often brutally repressed wisdom. For a generally soft-toned speaker, her voice has the command of a church bell. But those who know her say her truly uncanny talent is simply the ability to listen.

Gayle recalls one trip with Melinda, now 54, and Bill in the early 2000s to India, meeting with a group that was particularly hard-hit by HIV, women in the commercial sex industry. Melinda—as was often the case—sat on the floor with the women and listened. “Many of them were despised and stigmatized in their own communities,” recalls Gayle, “and having her listen to these women’s stories and hear the lives that they led—why they ended up having to trade sex for basically survival, and what it meant to them to have people from outside come and listen to them, listen to their stories, be willing to hug and embrace them, and treat them like human beings with equal value—was a very, very moving moment,” she says.

In Mozambique, it was the same. The ­Gateses would travel to a remote rural area, talking with women about their desires for their children—“and their fears that they wouldn’t be able to provide for their children and care for them,” says Gayle. “And Melinda would sit on the ground, talking woman to woman about the things that mothers care about. She has this remarkable ability to connect with everybody.”

Raj Shah, the CEO of the Rockefeller Foundation, has likewise worked at the Gates Foundation and traveled frequently with its founders, but there is one trip that stands out: Bangladesh, December 2005. The government had pulled out all the stops in welcoming the famous couple to Dhaka, putting their giant faces on billboards lining the highway from the airport. The Gateses, however, just wanted to visit the famous International Center on Diarrheal Disease Research—or, as everyone called it, the “Cholera Hospital.”

Established in the 1960s, the hospital had long been a pinnacle of research on ways to help children with diarrhea survive. “At the time,” recalls Shah, “there was a cholera outbreak, and they were walking through. And I don’t know if you’ve ever seen a cholera cot, but basically it’s a raised cot with a hole in the middle, and they have a blue tarp over it, for obvious reasons.” On each cot was a child. “And the kids just have constant diarrhea,” says Shah. “There are buckets under the cot to capture all that. And the mothers sit next to their kids and constantly give them a combination of oral rehydration, salts mixed with purified water and some other electrolytes.” That ORS, as it’s called, keeps the child from dehydrating and dying during the diarrheal episode.

Melinda sat down beside one mother and began helping to spoon-feed her child, as the two women—one born in Dhaka; the other, in a middle-class home in Dallas—talked through a translator about what they ate for dinner. It was a moment when Shah realized that Melinda could bond with anyone. He pauses for a moment in the conversation: “I could be wrong in all my recollections. But I just remember her saying that ‘Oh, my family ate rice and beans also!’ It’s just who she is: People connect with her in a very special way.”

For evidence of what happens when an unstoppable force meets a profoundly movable human being, one has simply to measure the impact of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

From January 1995 through the end of 2017, their namesake philanthropy (along with earlier Gates family foundations that were merged into the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2000) has deployed an extraordinary, barely countable $45.5 billion. (When I asked the foundation, partly as a hypothetical, if they could send me an accounting of every single grant they’d doled out since inception, I got back a spreadsheet with 41,487 line items.)

That $45 billion has launched, and then continually supported, what global health experts widely acknowledge to be two of the most successful international, private-public partnerships ever formed. The first is the aforementioned GAVI, which has helped developing countries immunize 700 million children against preventable diseases. The second is The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The fund, through its own community partnerships, has put more than 17 million people on retroviral therapy for HIV, cared for 5 million people with TB, and treated more than 100 million cases of malaria in 2017 alone—even as it helped prevent an untold number of infections in all three diseases. (Apart from national governments, the foundation is also the largest donor to the World Health Organization.)

The Gates money, put to work through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, has helped bring that horrific paralyzing disease to the brink of elimination, leaving only two places on the earth, Afghanistan and Pakistan, where the wild poliovirus remains active. In 1988, the disease could be found in 125 countries.

The eradication quest is, as nearly all foundation efforts are, sophisticated and data-driven. Gates-funded disease hunters have plumbed sewage systems in hotspot regions to check for lurking poliovirus and used digital satellite data to understand how many kids were in a given area—and, therefore, how many houses inoculation teams needed to visit.

The foundation has spent more than a billion dollars to date to reduce the burden of ancient, and long neglected, tropical diseases (NTDs) that can cause everything from blindness to anemia to an elephantine swelling of limbs—and that, despite the progress made, continue to debilitate one-seventh of the earth’s population. It has fortified health systems in developing countries and brought new innovations to agriculture. (As Bill begins one of his wonkily upbeat GatesNotes blogs, “I’ve never been shy about my passion for fertilizer.”)

The foundation jump-started a national conversation in the U.S. on education reform: one backed by data, as well as dollars—though there have been many of those, too. (It spends $300 million annually on K-12 learning, and on learning about learning.) The Gateses have even changed the nature and scale of family philanthropy—partnering with Warren Buffett in 2010 to convince other billionaires to give half or more of their money away during their lifetime or in their will. Today, nearly 200 families have joined the aptly named “Giving Pledge.”

“Every one of their actions has a multiplier effect,” says Warren Buffett in a phone interview about the pair, with whom he has been close friends for decades. His own fortune became part of that multiplication as well, when he donated 500,000 Berkshire Hathaway B shares to the Gates Foundation—a gift then worth about $1.6 billion.

“Every one of their actions has a multiplier effect. They act with a unity of purpose.” – Warren Buffett, Chairman and CEO, Berkshire Hathaway

But the impact of Bill and Melinda Gates is due to more than money. Buffett returns to his earlier thought: “The two of them have a multiplier effect—the two of them together. They act with a unity of purpose and with a difference of style,” he says, chuckling at the truth of his own line: “That just came to me—and it’s really true.”

“They are so results-orientated that most people have no idea all the things that would not be happening without them,” says Bono, who, like the Gateses, has been a tireless champion for global health, and whose own (RED) and ONE campaigns have received funding from the couple. “For as long as I’ve known them, their only interest in their income is the outcomes it can generate for others in terms of changing lives,” he adds. “They don’t ask for acknowledgment; they just get on with it. They set up the scene, hire the photographer, but are so focused on results, they sometimes forget to be in their own photograph.”

Their work over the past 20 years has helped transform the lives of hundreds of millions of people—and will surely affect billions more if the research they’re funding now helps prevent and cure AIDS, multidrug-resistant TB, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, and the flu. It will help immeasurably more if the work they’re doing now to empower women, provide sanitation, boost agriculture, and improve education (as well access to education) comes to full fruition.

For all that, Fortune has chosen Bill and Melinda Gates as their 2019 World’s Greatest Leader. The pick, pointedly, is a singular one; the power of their leadership is definitely double-barreled.

To understand how the Gateses lead, it helps to think of toilets.

This is just a guess, mind you, but it’s likely that there are few people on the planet who get more excited talking about commodes than Bill Gates does. In a world where as many as 4.5 billion don’t have “safely managed sanitation,” according to the World Health Organization—and of whom nearly 900 million (mostly rural) people still defecate in the open—a safe, affordable, self-contained waste treatment apparatus that requires neither running water nor sewers is the sine qua non of public health interventions.

To make the point, Bill again took to the podium, flying to Beijing this past November for the Reinvented Toilet Expo. Next to him, for their shared keynote—and resting on its own, shorter podium—was a jar of human excrement. “This small amount of feces,” said Gates, “could contain as many as 200 trillion rotavirus cells, 20 billion shigella bacteria, and 100,000 parasitic worm eggs.”

Despite the laughter in the audience, the container was filled with deadly stuff: In much of the developing world, in fact, it is a weapon of mass destruction, as proven by history’s seemingly unbroken epidemics of cholera, typhoid, dysentery, hepatitis, and diarrheal disease.

The toilet expo showcased a number of ingenious prototypes—the “most significant advances in sanitation in nearly 200 years,” Bill called them—and the Gates Foundation has put some $200 million into the effort so far.

But as Bill and Melinda explained in a joint interview in Seattle in late March, the reinvented commodes represented something potentially more liberating still. The toilets were a direct link to girls’ and women’s health and, ultimately, their economic empowerment. In sub-Saharan Africa, one in 10 school-age girls don’t go to school during their menstrual period, according to UNICEF, and many drop out after menstruation begins. “Think about what it’s like for a child to miss five or six days and how far behind they get,” says Melinda. Sometimes it is the threat of violence that keeps a woman or a girl from a public latrine—and because it’s usually women who take their children to the bathroom, that has a cascading effect.

In The Moment of Lift, which debuted in April, Melinda Gates shares stories that capture the interplay between gender, global health, and opportunity.

“We have to draw the line” between all of these connecting data points, she says. “Because if people don’t draw the lines—if they just talk about the importance of sanitation in terms of people’s health,” they fail to fully comprehend the missed opportunities and challenges. “What we’ve learned in their work is that you have to talk about the gender pieces, too, because they are specific.”

Indeed, as Melinda discovered in her two-decade journey through the developing world, for virtually everything that tends to limit human capital, there is a line connecting it to gender in some way. The boldest of these lines, certainly, concern the rights of women to decide if and when they get married, and if and when they have children. Both of these choices, in much of the world, have been taken away from women, with devastating and transgenerational consequence.

Melinda, a practicing Catholic who attended an all-girls Catholic high school in Dallas (where she graduated as valedictorian), has met resistance from some quarters on some of her family planning efforts, which involve offering women access to contraception. But as Geeta Rao Gupta, a senior fellow at the UN Foundation in Washington, D.C., explains, the Gates Foundation stance on family planning has been, as with everything else it does, about “meeting unmet need.”

The effort isn’t about telling women in the developing world to have fewer kids, says Rao Gupta: “It’s that women want to control their fertility. They’re asking for contraception. They don’t want this many children or too many children, and they don’t have the ability, the tools that are available to the world, to be able to make that choice.”

Filling that gap is not just about understanding social, cultural, or religious barriers, as important as they are. “What Melinda found was that there were supply barriers and logistical barriers in getting contraceptives into the hands of women. So then even when societies were open to that idea, there were challenges,” says Rao Gupta, who also founded the 3D Program for Girls and Women, which focuses on economic empowerment.

There were other gender lines, too—like those connecting birth choices to education, and then to child mortality. When it comes to the survival of kids under 5 years old, says Gates Foundation CEO Sue Desmond-­Hellmann, who is both a physician scientist and former chancellor of the University of California, San Francisco, “one of the best determinants of a child’s health is the educational status of the mom.”

In Manhiça, Mozambique in 2003. “Melinda would sit on the ground, talking woman to woman about the things that mothers care about,” recalls one ally who joined the trip. “She has this remarkable ability to connect.”

Courtesy of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation/Barbara Kinney

“And so when you invest in education for both boys and girls, which most of the world happily does now, you’re investing in the future of those women as mothers—and in the health of their children.”

Melinda, who earned a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Duke University and an MBA from Duke’s Fuqua School—and who spent the next nine years at Microsoft—has carefully studied the data on gender-based barriers. And the data that wasn’t already available, she has commissioned through her foundation. But mostly she has learned through in-person absorption—through a kind of human osmosis: from listening to women in self-help groups in India; from talking to girls and mothers everywhere from Bangladesh to Indonesia. The insights came when she and her then 17-year-old daughter Jenn spent the night in the “goat hut” of a Maasai couple in the Tanzanian village of Mbuyuni, as they did in her homestay with son Rory in Malawi.

“It’s not at all where they started as a foundation,” Melinda says. “But I would say in the last six, seven years, we’ve really started to talk about this gender piece and have put specific investments down to make sure they address it.”

The complex interplay between gender and global health and opportunity is also the subject of Melinda’s book, The Moment of Lift, which debuted in April. The stories within are often raw and moving.

But the real theme of the book—as it is with all things Gates, it seems—is optimism: what Bill and Melinda see as the endless opportunities to fix what’s dragging us down and to “summon the moment of lift for human beings,” as Melinda writes in her book.

“The enormously impressive thing is that Bill and Melinda both bring a kind of infectious optimism that these are problems that can be solved,” says Peter Sands, the former CEO of Standard Chartered who is now executive director of The Global Fund. “Humanity has enormous capacity to innovate and think through and find ways of doing things. And when you spend any time with them, they’re constantly in the mode of saying, ‘What do they do next?’ And I think that’s a fantastically catalytic and inspiring turn to have.”

Both Gateses acknowledge how central this bright-side view is to the mission—and seem to wield it in nearly every public speech and presentation. “Optimism is fundamental to their work,” Melinda tells me in their March interview in Seattle. “We have to be able to see the reality of what’s going on in the world, and to know that and to listen to that. But they have to believe in the world getting better. And they do believe in the world getting better because it is getting better.”

“Bill and Melinda both bring a kind of infectious optimism that these are problems that can be solved.” – Peter Sands, The Global Fund

A child born today is half as likely to die before the age of 5, compared to a child born in the year 2000, she says. The poorest parts of the world are less poor than they were. “And they have to hold that belief in progress and help others hold that belief so they’ll come along on the journey with us. Because look, the journey we’re on is not a solo journey. Many, many, many partners need to be at the table to create, for instance, a new vaccine or a new technology that’ll benefit everybody.”

Bill chimes in, “I’d say that kind of optimism is particularly important now where there’s a kind of turning inward [politically speaking], and the trust in various institutions is down a lot.

“A lot of the things they do take a long time,” he says. “I mean, we’ve been working on an HIV vaccine for over 15 years, and it’ll probably be 10 more years before they get there—so 25 years in total. Malaria eradication, if things go well, is 20 years away. The polio effort started in 1988; they didn’t get engaged until 2000. You know, it’s a long journey.” That’s challenging, he says, when it comes to getting people to commit—especially when the initial impact of the effort, as in malaria reduction, is far away from many of the donors’ front yards. “Optimism,” he says, “is a key part of it to engage people.”

“Yes, they have to believe in what’s possible,” adds Melinda. “It’s not at all a naive optimism. It’s a realistic optimism. We’re trying to envision the future—as leaders envision the future of where their company or their mission will go. And for us it’s a mission that all lives have equal value.”

The argument for optimism has some awfully good evidence in Rwanda. A quarter-century after a genocide tore the already poor East African country apart, Rwanda is a case study in what’s possible. Led by physician Agnes ­Binagwaho, the nation’s former health minister, and others, Rwanda has steadily invested in health infrastructure, primary care, massive childhood vaccination, and maternal health.

Groups like the Gates Foundation, GAVI, The Global Fund, and Partners in Health—cofounded by Paul Farmer, who lived in Rwanda for years—have financed the effort substantially. But much of the innovation and footwork has been homegrown. Child mortality, meanwhile, has dropped from one of the highest rates in sub-Saharan Africa to one of the lowest.

The turnaround is so extraordinary that Farmer, a Harvard professor of global health and social medicine and a celebrated pioneer in treating tuberculosis, has launched an academic center to study it: the University of Global Health Equity. (Binagwaho has been named vice chancellor.

“We see it in lots of places: real examples of governments making investments—working with UN agencies, with NGOs, with others, but really driving their own future by investing in their young people,” says Desmond-Hellmann. “It’s happening not just in Rwanda, but also in Ethiopia, Bangladesh, and elsewhere.”

“We have to be able to see the reality of what’s going on in the world … But they [also] have to believe in the world getting better.” – Melinda Gates

But it’s work that has to be sustained, say the Gateses—and virtually every other global health expert. The sobering truth is that Rwanda, like Nigeria, is on a knife’s edge: If efforts to combat malaria, TB, AIDS, and tropical diseases slow or even remain static, the cases of disease don’t stabilize, they go up. And the next generation of kids loses ground.

It’s why the Gateses are so focused now on replenishing contributions for The Global Fund, a triennial fundraising push that takes place in October—and the financial refueling of GAVI after that. These two institutions are the outstretched limbs of the Gates Foundation, and the couple have spent more of their philanthropic dollars supporting health delivery programs like these than anything else.

“They could have elected to do anything with their lives,” says Warren Buffett, “and both of them are not only spending money but huge amounts of their time and energy around the world to make life better for people. Think about that.”

Correction, April 18, 2019: An earlier version of this article misstated a statistic about the prevalence of polio. It could be found in 125 countries in 1988, not 1998.

This article is part of the World’s 50 Greatest Leaders feature, their annual list of world-changing leaders in business, government, philanthropy, and beyond. Click here to see the entire package.

A version of this article appears in the May 2019 issue of Fortune.

The Joseph M. Gallagher Middle School Chess Squad is the Cleveland Team They Should All Be Rooting For | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

"Chess is a challenging game. It's fun planning moves in your mind and attacking your opponent. This was the strategy of the Middle Ages. It is ... it is a mental war." — Nouh Shaikh, 14

* * *

The highest-ranked high school chess team in the state of Ohio is a middle school chess team in the city of Cleveland.

They play for Joseph M. Gallagher, that brick, brutalist fortress on Franklin Boulevard at West 65th Street, a tee shot from the heart of Gordon Square. Established by the Cleveland Metropolitan School District in the mid-1970s and operating for years as a junior high school, Gallagher is now CMSD's largest PreK-8 school and counts itself among the district's several multilingual, vibrantly multicultural campuses. Gallagher, multiple teachers and administrators tell Scene, has "a family feel."

If that's the case, the students on the chess team are making their family proud.

(Check out more photos of the chess team right here.)

The only problem is what to do about all the trophies. When the year's hardware is assembled in full, it's a glittering, golden skyline. But there are too many of them for a permanent display. And so teachers and staff, who've become die-hard fans of the team, have volunteered their classrooms and offices to accommodate. Several of the tallest trophies now reside with school psychologist Amy Such, who watches the chess team practice every day, after the 2:30 bell, from her library-adjacent office.

Gallagher's recent success has been astonishing — neither Such nor any of her colleagues dispute the accuracy of the word "unprecedented" — in part because there are no prodigies on the team, no wunderkinds ranked above 2,000, the rarified air of U.S. Masters, or even in the mid-1,000s, the territory of competitive high school players. No one started playing at an early age, and no one has trained with elite coaches or highly paid chess tutors.

Eight of the team's 10 official members — and all of the players who competed regularly in 2018-2019 — are recent immigrants from India and Nepal. They've picked up chess only in the past two years and have devoted themselves as fully to their friendships with one another as they have to the game.

That's how they've gotten so good. By playing each other. A lot.

Gallagher eighth-grade language arts teacher Jose Colon, whose homeroom has become a kind of satellite headquarters for the team, at least during school hours, says that the chess players are the sort of students who turn in homework assignments days before they're due.

"They turn in their in-class assignments early too," he says. "You know, so they can squeeze in a quick game of chess."

Colon and other Gallagher teachers have high praise for the chess students, calling them "incredible," "bright," "dedicated," "positive," "committed," "responsible," "on-task," "enthusiastic."

And their chess exploits? Those are "amazing," "fantastic," "unbelievable," "huge."

In the classroom, in tournament play and in life, the students of the Gallagher chess squad prove over and over again that they are the Cleveland team they should all be rooting for.

(View photos of the team and their historic season, here.)


"I like chess because it's fun." — Arpan Rai, 13

* * *

It's CMSD's spring break, and seven members of the Gallagher chess squad are at team captain Akshar Patel's apartment in West Park. They're playing chess — what else? — on three roll-up boards arrayed side by side on the living room carpet. All but one of the core players, bespectacled eighth-grader Nouh Shaikh, live here in West Park. But Nouh spent the night last night, he says.

Nouh fires up a laptop to verify some team statistics. He's fact-checking head coach Amit Ghose, who's trying to summarize the team's staggering list of accomplishments this season.

Here's one. Over the past two years, Gallagher has gone 57-0 in CMSD tournament play. This is a feat that Coach Ghose believes has never been equaled, or frankly even approached. He's been coaching chess at Gallagher for nearly a decade, but this year's team?

"What this year's team is doing has never been done before," he says. "In chess, there are many draws [tie games]. To go 57-0? To not lose or draw even one time? This is a rare accomplishment."

Ghose is a first-generation Indian American — a native of the state of Uttar Pradesh — and serves not only as the head chess coach but as a bilingual instructor at Gallagher, which has CMSD's highest percentage of Asian students (10.8 percent, as of 2017).

Akshar Patel and his parents immigrated from India in 2015. Nouh arrived from India, by way of Oman, in 2017.

"October 13," Nouh says. "At 6:13 a.m. It was a Friday."

The rest are Nepali, and arrived in the United States from 2008 to 2013 as part of a U.N. resettlement program. Most of them had been living in refugee camps in Eastern Nepal after their families had been expelled from the Kingdom of Bhutan in the preceding decades.

"These are children from very humble beginnings," Coach Ghose says in a later interview. "Every day, I remind them that they were lucky enough to make it to this great country, and they have to succeed, for their families and for themselves."

In Cleveland, almost every immigrant student begins his or her studies at the Thomas Jefferson Newcomers Academy — "TJ," to CMSD vets. There, the English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction and cultural acclimation is much more intensive. Once language barriers have been sufficiently reduced, students fan out to other schools. Many find their way to Gallagher.

Several years ago, Coach Ghose — whom his players call only "Mister" — noticed that the Indian and Nepali students were having a difficult time adjusting. They were loners, Ghose says, and not by choice. Some of this he attributed to the language barrier. But he also sensed that they weren't particularly interested in popular American sports, and that they were struggling to make friends.

He began recruiting them for the chess team, hoping first and foremost to give them a social outlet. That this year's team has embraced chess as vigorously as they've embraced their friendships was unexpected. He gestures to the students, who are wrapped up in their conversations and their chess, erupting in laughter and their native languages after audacious moves.

What some might see as extraordinary team chemistry Ghose sees as friendship strengthened by cultural bonds. They all take the RTA Red Line to school every day and meet on weekends at their homes or at Michael Zone Rec Center to practice chess and hang out. They share cultural festivals and food — many of them, under the watchful eye of their parents, are learning to cook regional cuisine. The girls are dancers. On Fridays at Gallagher, the students sit together at lunch and share meals from their home countries.

"It's not just chess," says Coach Ghose. "Yesterday, there was a get-together. They played an hour or two of chess. Then they had a food party and watched a Bollywood movie."

Akshar's mom has prepared poha — a spicy flattened rice — and chai tea, and Nouh, much to his teammates' chagrin, tracks down a YouTube video of a dance performance at Gallagher from a couple years back. The girls are mortified.

"I also have another skill," says Nouh, revealing a Rubik's Cube.

"Nouh can do it in less than two minutes," Coach Ghose brags.

"It's been a year since I've done this," Nouh reports.

"You literally did it yesterday," says eighth grader Oma Dahal, from across the room.

"Yes," Nouh admits. "But it's been a year since my top skills."

He completes it in 105 seconds.


"I like chess because it's exercise for the brain." — Akshar Patel, 14

* * *

The fact that the Gallagher chess squad is led by mostly eighth graders who have been playing competitively for two full seasons has bolstered their confidence and their performance. The players now say sincerely that their practices are much more difficult than tournament play.

Every day at the Gallagher library after school, they play each other in rapid succession. After one game is complete, they immediately begin again or else challenge another player. Their faces are low to the roll-up boards, their moves decisive. Eighth-grader Oma Dahal is known to be the team's most deliberate player. Eighth-grader Arpan Rai, his teammates say, plays fastest.

The squad's nuclear-grade secret weapon, though, is seventh-grader Sunita Magar, a soft-spoken Nepali whose ferocity on the board is belied by her smiling shyness. Before games she sometimes appears to be daydreaming, and during games she'll lazily cup her face in her hands. But her focus is razor-sharp, her attacks merciless.

Even as she has rapidly improved this year, she's still lovingly known on the team for her tardiness.

"When I was 8 or 9 years old, I wanted to be a doctor," Sunita tells Scene, when asked what she wants to be when she grows up. "Where I came from there weren't many doctors. But now, I know that I can't, because of my abilities."

What were her abilities? Scene wanted to know.

"My abilities are: I love to sleep."

Coach Ghose refers to Sunita as the best middle-school girl in the state of Ohio in her division.

"She knows now that to get better, she needs to play against players who are stronger than her," he says. "All the girls. They used to only want to play their friends. Now, they'll play anyone. They are fearless."

Sunita is one of four girls on the Gallagher team this year, alongside Oma Dahal, Binita Biswa and Ritu Limbu. This means that among regular competitors, there's an even split along gender lines. This is exceedingly rare. Though competitions are mixed, chess is dominated by boys. Ghose says Gallagher's principal Thomas Kubiak specifically asked him to recruit more girls for the team this year.

"Boys are more aggressive," Oma tells Scene. "But honestly, I'm more intimidated playing other girls. The girls are so rare that you know they are very smart. They are slower, more mature. The boys make many mistakes, and you can take advantage of them."

The team's top two players (by official rating) are Akshar and Nouh. They've both gotten so good so quickly that they've advanced out of the main middle-school pool and now compete in the "Champions" bracket, reserved for players ranked above 1,000. It's the equivalent of welterweight boxers gaining 60 pounds and extending their reach by several inches, all while maintaining their foot speed, and all in the span of a few months.

Akshar and Nouh's ascent has been both exhilarating and challenging for the team, because team chess scores are based on the cumulative point total of a team's top four players in each round. A player receives one point for a victory, a half-point for a draw, and zero for a loss. Without Akshar and Nouh, Gallagher's dominance was less assured.

With Akshar and Nouh, Gallagher's dominance was unequivocal.

Having dispatched their CMSD counterparts, Gallagher competed this year in the Greater Cleveland Scholastic League. These monthly tournaments, organized by the local chess nonprofit Progress with Chess, convened some of the region's stiffest youth competitors.

"These are farm programs, more or less," Coach Ghose tells Scene. "Regional powerhouses. The kids start playing at 5 or 6 years old, and the top players from the middle schools then play on their high-school teams." Ghose lists off some of their well-heeled opponents: Beachwood, Solon, Hawken, Westlake, etc.

But none of these programs were prepared for what awaited them in Gallagher. In November, during the first of the GCSL tourneys, Gallagher edged Solon by half a point for the top position. Coach Ghose was floored. "We thought it was a fluke," he says.

But then the team won again in December, and momentum was suddenly on their side. Then they won the next tournament, in February. Then they won in March. "These victories," says Coach Ghose modestly, "were in convincing fashion."

By now, CMSD was taking notice, in part due to Ghose's relentless advocacy and publicity. CEO Eric Gordon himself sent personalized letters to the team, congratulating them on their regional accomplishments. Students at Gallagher, too, were beginning to notice their classmates.

"They are becoming a little bit like celebrities," Ghose says. "Students have their favorite players. And they all want to join the team now."

In a stroke of good fortune, a rated chess master named Steven Seward lived down the street from Gallagher and volunteered his services. Seward tells Scene he heard about the team in a block club email, and as a former Ohio Speed Chess champion, he reached out to Coach Ghose, who accepted immediately.

"Mr. Seward is ranked above 2,000," Ghose says.

"Two-thousand two-hunded and seven, I think," says Akshar.

"Yes," confirms Nouh. "2,207."

Seward, who has come in after school to play simultaneous games with the team and offer tactical tips, says he was surprised by the students' skill.

"As far as I can tell, they've had no formal training," he tells Scene. "Most chess players I know have at least studied books. Others have had expert players teaching them. I don't know where they got their chess from — of course it's different nowadays, with the internet — but they've gotten to an impressive level all on their own."

Akshar, who is regarded as the strongest player on the team, says he regularly watches full games on YouTube to study the openings of the world's best players. Seventh-grader Reyosh Biswakarma swears by the Chess Talk YouTube channel, where he says he's learned a variety of ways to checkmate opponents. Nouh enjoys the "Play Magnus" app on his phone, where you can play against a simulated version of world champion Magnus Carlsen at his various stages of development.

But nothing teaches chess like playing chess. And Seward has been valuable to the team's top players in the same way that the team's top players have been valuable to those developing their skills.

"Akshar, for example, became obsessed with beating Mr. Seward," says Ghose.

"I beat him yesterday," Akshar says. "Twice."

As the GCSL victories mounted, Gallagher teacher Cynthia McGuire, who taught many of the chess students as fifth graders, urged Ghose to take the team to nationals. They were good enough. They deserved to compete against schools from around the country. Principal Kubiak agreed. The students deserved an experience.

But the district's funds were limited, and the U.S. Chess Federation's national middle-school championship was to be held in Texas. The trip was much too far and much too costly for the team, even with growing community support.

The national high-school championship, however, was to be held in Schaumburg, Illinois, an hour outside of Chicago. Illinois was much closer, much more doable. And even though Ghose worried about the vulnerability of his 13- and 14-year-olds squaring off against seasoned high-school teams in the pressure-cooker atmosphere of national tournament play, the kids had earned the opportunity.

Gallagher held a pep rally for the team in March. Each player was introduced as their accomplishments were read over the deafening applause of their classmates. They stood before the school on the squares of an enormous home-made chess board, donned in their trademark navy-blue-and-white jerseys.

And on Thursday, March 14, the players awoke early. They met at Gallagher before the sun came up, boarded a van and headed West.


"Before playing, I take deep breaths so I don't panic. If you panic, you lose control of the game. You cannot lose control. You must focus, and you cannot be focusing on anything else. Then, you just need the attitude that you're going to win." — Oma Dahal, 14

"When you shake your opponent's hand, your heart starts to race." —Reyosh Bishwakarma, 13

* * *

It is a matter of perpetual controversy at Joseph M. Gallagher that Amit Ghose, the head chess coach himself, believes that Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time.

"LeBron is the greatest player of his generation," Ghose concedes to Scene, when asked to defend his position against the obvious. "But there is a reason why LeBron wears Michael's number. During championship time, it is the elevation of the game. LeBron is not a natural-born assassin like Michael was. If you have three seconds on the clock, would you rather give the ball to LeBron or Michael? Ask anyone. They give it to Michael. LeBron is a master distributor, a facilitator. But Michael, as a competitor, was the total package. He never had a bad game, even with the flu."

Ghose frequently turns to Michael Jordan analogies when describing the Gallagher chess team. Just like Jordan, he says, the practices are more intense than the games. Just like Jordan, he says, there is a healthy amount of trash-talking. And just like Jordan, he says, when a flu bug visited the team in Schaumburg, they dug deep and played through it.

Ghose was scrambling for Tylenol that Friday evening after the tournament's tough opening rounds. The following day, he knew, was going to be hellish. Chess tournaments are excruciatingly long. A round is only completed after every game is over. So if you win or lose early, you've got a lot of downtime. At the district level, each round is two hours, but at nationals, each round is five. Three rounds were scheduled for Saturday, and his players' temperatures were rising.

The illnesses would have been easier to keep in check had they booked rooms at the convention center hotel, where the tournament was held. Ghose had been looking for value, though, and the team was camped out in a hotel 15 minutes away. On Saturday, as other players returned to their rooms upstairs to nap or unwind after games, the Gallagher kids were stranded, nursing headaches in the hallways.

The U.S. Chess Federation, at the high-school level, has a U-800 division (players ranked below 800), and a U-1,200 division. This put both Sunita Magar and Binita Biswa up with Nouh and Akshar, above the level where they normally compete.

That meant that Oma Dahal would be anchoring the foursome in the U-800 division, along with teammates Arpan Rai, Ritu Limbu and Reyosh Biswakarma, the leather-jacket-wearing team rebel.

While players are matched against competitors of the same general skill level, playing against high schoolers is still a different beast. They're physically imposing, for one thing, but they also play more assuredly. They make fewer mistakes. Chess, by its nature, is a cruel and unforgiving game — it is not uncommon for students to emerge from tournament ballrooms in tears — but high-school players are more experienced, keener to exploit their psychological advantages.

Being younger, though — and being smaller — has advantages as well. Oma tells Scene that chess is unique because "size doesn't matter." Children beat adults all the time. The flip side is that there is nothing more demoralizing than losing control of a game to an opponent you feel you should be beating. (This is why Coach Ghose repeatedly instructs his team not to look at ratings before their matches. Playing an opponent with a higher rating can lead to undue intimidation; playing an opponent with a lower rating can lead to dangerous overconfidence.)

The Gallagher kids didn't have to look at the ratings to be intimidated. The high-schoolers they were playing were huge. Nevertheless, and in the face of their sickness, the team prevailed. Both Nouh and Akshar managed to tally 4.5 and 4 points, respectively, over seven rounds in the U-1,200 group.

But the star of the tournament was Reyosh. He'd lost his first two games Friday, and things were looking bleak for the U-800 squad heading into Saturday. But in Round 3 Reyosh was pitted against a player who had also lost his first two games, and Reyosh defeated him. He then won his fourth round game, too, bringing his individual record to 2-2. In Saturday's final round, he won again. The U-800 team was making some noise. Oma, Arpan and Ritu were collecting victories as well.

Reyosh won Sunday morning, bringing his tournament record to 4-2 (four total points) with one round to go. In the final round, he was matched up against a player from Florida who was also 4-2.

"He was playing with white," Reyosh tells Scene, "and he told me that the only two games he'd lost were when he was black. When he was white, he said he had destroyed his opponents."

Reyosh's heart was racing, he says, but even with the slight disadvantage of playing with black (which moves second), Reyosh took the game.

With an individual record of 5-2, the best of any Gallagher player, Reyosh tied for 30th in the country and received a trophy for the tournament's top players. And with that victory, alongside Oma and Arpan's 4.5 points and Ritu's 4, Gallagher secured a top-10 team finish. The U-800 squad tied for sixth place in the nation. (Solon High School's U-800 squad, Coach Ghose was very pleased to mention, finished 61st.)


"Chess — how do I say it? — it prepares me for real life. You make a move in chess, and with every move, there are consequences. Sometimes you lose a piece and you cannot take it back. It's just like in real life." — Sunita Magar, 13

* * *

At the Ohio Middle School Championships, three weeks after Schaumburg, the Gallagher team wants to put the only cap on their season that makes sense: a state title.

They're feeling confident and relaxed at the Hilton Garden Inn in Mayfield Village as match assignments for Round 2 have just been posted. They process into the hotel ballroom and take their seats, writing their opponents' names in paper booklets — players are required to record their moves so that if a dispute arises, neutral judges can check the results against both players' tallies.

No parents or coaches are allowed in the playing area once the round begins, and so Coach Ghose, at tables near the hotel bar, can do little but wait.

As he has before, Ghose mentions that he's hopeful the team might be able to stay together next year, even as the majority of them head to high school. Most of the students live near John Marshall and have expressed interest in the three schools on CMSD's campus there. But Binita, whose expressiveness and buoyant personality seem suited for high-school theater, and Oma, who loves to dance, have both also considered the Cleveland School of the Arts. Ghose wants nothing but good things for this team and hopes that all the kids find their way to high schools where they can thrive. But if the team does manage to stay together, he intends to stay on as coach and mentor.

What has made the Gallagher team so successful this year is that they have all improved. Together. Akshar, Nouh and Sunita may be individually dominant, but every player has shone brightly in district and regional tournaments. Each one of them has scored crucial victories when others were outmatched.

A single stellar player cannot carry a squad. There's no "I" in team just as there's no "I" in chess. That's why, if they go to different high schools, Ghose says, even if they continue to succeed, they won't be able to reproduce the power of the team. This team.

"We don't know what will happen in high school," Ghose says, "but this year, these moments, they are something they may never experience again. This team has been so special. When they come together, magical things happen."

Ten minutes after Round 2 begins, Reyosh emerges from the ballroom with a smile. Not satisfied with his rapid victory, though, he immediately tracks down Roy-Allen Bumpers, a coach and organizer with Progress with Chess, and challenges him to a game.

Arpan Rai comes next, moping over to Coach Ghose and then flashing a smile as Ghose begins to console him: Tricked him good! Next out of the room is novice player Joshua Hargett, whom Ghose congratulates for taking his match to a draw. Nouh is a few moments behind, striding over to the Gallagher tables having claimed a victory in the Champions pool after an intense first-round loss. Binita and Oma are still in there, as is Akshar, who's being extra careful after losing his first round game to a player rated in the 1,800s.

Sunita slips out of the ballroom after Nouh, almost unnoticed, but shoots a thumbs-up to her teammates. They don't know yet that she is in the midst of one of the state middle-school tournament's most impressive individual performances of all time. Sunita will go undefeated in six rounds. And in every round, she will beat a player who had been undefeated until they played her. She is the conqueror of conquerors.

It should go without saying that Gallagher will take home the state title. In Sunita, Oma (who will have no losses and two draws) and Arpan (who will lose only once), Gallagher will boast the division's top three individual performers. Ritu will be ranked seventh, Reyosh 15th, in a divisional pool of 71 players.

But after Round 2, Sunita saunters over to the tables where Reyosh is already on his third game against Mr. Bumpers. He keeps losing, but keeps demanding to play again, tinkering with an opening that Steven Seward taught him. (He will defeat Bumpers, who says he's rated about 1,600, on his fourth try.)

Sunita scans the table, looking for an opponent. They have all just finished high-stress tournament games, yet there is no repose — no scrolling through cell phones or trawling for snacks. They can think only of diving back into chess.

"Nouh," she calls, and Nouh turns, giddily. "Wanna play?"

How the iconic '@' sign went from a forgotten typewriter key to a common symbol in email | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Business Insider UK spoke with Philip Gooden, language expert and author of "May They Borrow Your Language," who talked about the almost 2,000-year-old history of the iconic "@" symbol.

Read the full transcript below:

"One of the most curious words — it's not quite a word I suppose in English — is the ligature "@" which of course they use all the time now, or type all the time in emails and so on. In a funny way, it's probably really old, it may be a version of the Latin word "add" meaning "at" or "towards," and it could have been used in very old accounts, going back almost 2,000 years.

"But it was picked up again by Ray Tomlinson in the early 1970s, who was one of the pioneers of messaging and emailing. And he was looking at the keyboard on the typewriter and looking for a symbol that wasn't very much used and "@" fulfilled that function. It had been used in accounts, but only in accounts and by accountants so it was a pretty dusty, neglected key on the board. And Tomlinson used it and the rest is history."

"And it shows that language sometimes is not just made up of letters, but can also be made up of symbols and of course of numbers as well."

Filmed and Produced by David Ibekwe. Research by Fraser Moore.

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