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interior the Video Surveillance software IBM built for Philippine Strongman Rodrigo Duterte | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Jaypee Larosa changed into standing in front of a web cafe in Davao metropolis, a metropolitan hub on the Philippine island of Mindanao, when three guys in darkish jackets pulled up on a bike and opened fire. That summer time evening, Larosa, 20, was killed. After the taking pictures, based on witnesses, one of the guys reportedly eliminated Larosa’s baseball cap and pointed out, “Son of a bitch. here is no longer the one.” Then they drove off.

Larosa’s homicide, on July 17, 2008, changed into certainly one of tons of of extrajudicial killings performed in Davao city, now a metropolis of 1.6 million, while Rodrigo Duterte, now president of the Philippines, became mayor there. Years before launching his infamous, bloody “drug conflict” across the country, Duterte presided over an identical strategies on the native stage. right through his tenure as mayor, in response to a 2009 investigation with the aid of Human Rights Watch, loss of life squads assassinated street infants, drug buyers, and petty criminals; in some cases, researchers discovered evidence of the complicity or direct involvement of executive officers and police.

Duterte has always denied any connection to this campaign of killings, but now and then, his assist for the violence changed into barely concealed. As mayor, Duterte would publicly announce the names or places of “criminals,” and a few of them would later be killed, according to human rights corporations and native newspapers. even though it stopped wanting accusing Duterte himself of misconduct or direct involvement, the Philippines’ office of the Ombudsman partly stated in 2012 the police’s function in tolerating the killings, discovering that 21 Davao city police officials and officers had been “remiss of their obligation” for failing to resolve them.

Children hold the coffin of 13-year-old Aldrin Pineda, who was shot to death by a police officer, during his funeral in Manila, Philippines, March 14, 2018. More than 27,000 have been killed as a result of a two-year war on drugs in the Philippines. In 2016, Rodrigo Duterte became president of the Southeast Asian republic. His campaign promise to fight drugs with any means won him the election: he threatened those connected to the drug trade with death, called for vigilante justice, and allowed the police to act with brutality. Human rights groups and local media have reported that dealers, users, petty criminals, and even local politicians, priests, as well as plenty of innocent people and children were murdered. The United Nations have appealed in vain to the Philippine government to investigate extrajudicial killings and to prosecute the perpetrators, while the International Criminal Court has begun preliminary inquiries into the violent acts carried out in the Philippines as well as the questionable methods of Duterte and the police.Photo: Ezra Acayan/NurPhoto (Photo by Ezra Acayan/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

toddlers cling the coffin of 13-yr-historic Aldrin Pineda, who turned into shot by using a police officer, throughout his funeral in Manila, Philippines, on March 14, 2018.

image: Ezra Acayan/NurPhoto via Getty images

but this expertise complicity in human rights violations didn't stop IBM from agreeing to supply surveillance technology to legislation enforcement in Davao metropolis. On June 27, 2012, three years after the devastating Human Rights Watch record, IBM issued a brief information unencumber asserting an agreement with Davao to upgrade its police command middle with a purpose to “additional enhance public protection operations in the metropolis.” IBM’s installation, usual as the intelligent Operations center, promised to increase authorities’ ability to computer screen residents in true time with reducing-area video analytics, multichannel communications expertise, and GPS-enabled patrol cars. below two months later, the Philippine commission on Human Rights posted a resolution condemning Davao authorities for fostering a “climate of impunity” with regard to the killings, recommending that the country wide Bureau of Investigation undertake an neutral investigation into potential obstruction of justice by way of native police officers. (Duterte has recently condemned the commission, questioning its causes and suggesting that it would be abolished.)

The 2012 IBM deal become signed with the aid of Rodrigo Duterte’s daughter, Sara Duterte, who changed into Davao metropolis’s nominal mayor at the time, while her time period-restrained father served as vice mayor; beneath Sara Duterte, the killings endured. The device, in keeping with local information experiences, changed into deployed in June 2013, simply as Rodrigo Duterte was about to come back to the mayoral seat he had already held for just about two decades. The police command core, Sara Duterte informed the Durian put up, “is now infused with IBM’s IOC know-how,” enabling police to “shift from responding to vital movements to waiting for and combating them.”

whereas The Intercept and kind Investigations had been unable to find any reference to Davao’s death squads in IBM’s public corporate documents about the program, a 2014 business overview of the installation made clear that IBM knew “unlawful medicine,” predictive policing, and crime suppression were amongst Davao city protection forces’ “precedence areas.” From 2013 through late 2016, when one Davao security professional estimated the IBM software stopped being in energetic use, Filipino human rights activists who labored carefully with the commission on Human Rights claimed to have documented at the least 213 extrajudicial killings carried out by Davao demise squads.

Davao city officers didn't respond to queries related to IBM’s video surveillance system or its abilities role in extrajudicial killing operations right through its run. however three police and metropolis security officers interviewed in Davao metropolis final 12 months mentioned the application had reinforced police video monitoring capabilities, which they observed had proved effective in Davao’s controversial war on so-called drug syndicates. That struggle, human rights studies and former loss of life squad members have shown, regularly centered low-level drug clients and peddlers, in preference to important traffickers.

Amado Picardal, a former spokesperson of the Coalition towards abstract Executions, a Davao-based human rights group, referred to as IBM’s work “unethical,” considering one of the crucial killings had been linked to Duterte’s police within the years before its take care of Davao metropolis.

IBM declined to reply to queries about its human rights listing in Davao city. IBM spokesperson Edward Barbini briefly mentioned that the business “now not materials know-how to the intelligent Operations core in Davao, and has now not carried out so due to the fact 2012,” notwithstanding he declined to make clear whether IBM serviced the technology after that aspect, and IBM’s public filings point out the software as ongoing after that date. “The Philippines city of Davao’s 1.5 million citizens can be the first in Asia to benefit from an intelligent Operations core,” an April 3, 2013, IBM disclosure reads. “a new early warning gadget will monitor key chance indicators so corporations can take short action before cases amplify.”

within the years on account that the IBM software was phased out, Philippine police pastime in reducing-aspect surveillance infrastructure has rarely waned. country wide authorities are actually seeking to installation true-time facial consciousness throughout the nation, in a undertaking called “secure Philippines,” and have considered know-how from a whole lot of international vendors, including the chinese language telecom Huawei.

In December, a native newspaper mentioned that the Philippines had secured a 20 billion-peso personal loan for the installing of lots of surveillance cameras across Davao metropolis and metro Manila in collaboration with a chinese enterprise, an setting up that might reportedly include a countrywide command middle and have facial and vehicle focus software. In a January interview on Filipino television, Epimaco Densing III, undersecretary of the department of the interior and native executive, pointed out that a intention of the task is to notice the faces of terrorist suspects and prevent crimes earlier than they take place.

Filipino activists be anxious that such capabilities could facilitate human rights violations. Over the closing three years, constituents of the country have been below brief declarations of martial legislation, and Duterte’s “battle on drugs” has left as a minimum 5,000 and might be as many as 27,000 useless (police and human rights companies’ estimates differ widely). these killed have included anti-Duterte activists, elected officers, and outspoken Catholic priests. at the moment, Duterte is campaigning to adjust the constitution, a circulate that may have enough money powers to the executive to additional the suppression of political opponents.

Surveillance Capabilities in Davao

In June 2012, Mayor Sara Duterte introduced a 128 million-peso deal, price just over $three million at the time, with IBM to increase its true-time monitoring capabilities. The announcement promised to “scale up” Davao’s Public defense and safety Command center, or PSSCC, with more suitable communications and surveillance expertise.

Sayaji Shinde, a former IBM income chief who says he become part of the group that secured the command middle deal, recollects that his team became eager to accomplice with the Duterte administration. “if you seem to be on the Dutertes as such, they focus plenty on public-sector security,” said Shinde. “and that i think that is one of the drivers, for even us, to go and spend their time and recommend them because they noticed that they are in fact eager to ensure that the city develop into more safer.”

To seal the deal, Shinde referred to, IBM pointed to the overseas awareness that one of these undertaking would convey Davao. “it is precisely what they offered them: ‘You understand in case you try this, work with us, and it turns into first of its form, then this should be highlighted globally.’”

within the preliminary part of the task, IBM mapped Davao’s police cameras onto a geographic advice device, permitting operators to instantly entry camera feeds close locations of activity, Shinde said.

based on Shinde, the rollout additionally featured a multichannel communications equipment, allowing police, site visitors, and defense personnel to communicate with one one more. It also included video analytics know-how that immediately tagged objects captured on camera, like automobiles and americans, by means of their physical attributes. The tags blanketed the objects’ dimension, pace, colour, trajectory, and course, in accordance with a November 2014 IBM presentation to the Asian construction bank, allowing command core operators to comb via digital camera footage in search of suspects via their descriptions. (IBM had refined these styles of surveillance capabilities the usage of secret entry to big apple Police department camera footage, because the Intercept and type Investigations pronounced in September.)

“That was doubtless the primary-ever video analytics surveillance that was performed in Asia,” observed Shinde, noting that the system may be used in the wake of robberies or murders to track a suspect’s vehicle before and after a criminal offense. The application become “very consumer-pleasant,” he cited, so Davao protection officials at the command center may easily have develop into ready within the software’s object search capabilities.

Screen-Shot-2019-03-11-at-4.04.08-PM-1552680170

Davao metropolis PSSCC video showcasing IBM’s “Face catch” technology.

Screenshot: The Intercept

The 2014 IBM presentation on its Davao venture also mentions a tool referred to as “Face catch,” which boxes out images of faces in actual time and stores them for retroactive evaluation. In a contemporary interview, Emmanuel Jaldon, head of Davao city’s 911 core, claimed that this functionality became planned but by no means formally deployed. Barbini additionally claims that IBM “certainly not provided facial focus means for the core.” And Shinde, who left IBM in 2014, pointed out that Face seize was no longer integrated whereas he changed into there all the way through the first section of the Davao task. but a February 2015 promotional video for the PSSCC, highlighting the command center’s monitoring capabilities and potential to “suppress all forms of criminalities,” aspects a clip of IBM’s Face capture interface in motion, gathering facial images from pedestrians on the streets of Davao city. photos of what seems to be the IBM Davao city dashboard, pictured above, suggests the utility boxing out and accumulating facial photos as individuals walked previous highway cameras.

The software also helped authorities display screen “crowd habits” and situations of “loitering” — a criminal offense that Duterte has cracked down on nationally as president — in line with the 2014 IBM presentation.

IBM’s know-how in Duterte’s battle on Crime

When requested what assurances he become given about how the surveillance program can be used, Shinde defended IBM’s sale, saying that it became supposed for official public defense activities, akin to responding to fires. “That certain implementation changed into not meant to track americans,” he talked about. “It became intended to music the incidents and quicker responses to these incidences.”

but in interviews in the command core, the local 911 middle, and different locations in Davao city, local legislations enforcement officers general with the IBM program told The Intercept and sort Investigations that the know-how had assisted them in carrying out Duterte’s controversial anti-crime agenda.

Manuel Gaerlan, a former regional Philippines country wide Police chief superintendent, mentioned the command core, which IBM substantially upgraded, services as a drive multiplier in counter-drug operations. “It data events so it’s more straightforward to establish the perpetrators, then you could go after the member of the syndicates,” he talked about. “if you can see greater areas, which you can send patrol to reply. It’s like putting extra men on the floor. and you can put more cameras in drug areas.”

Jaldon, the 911 chief, pointed to IBM’s object tagging and search function because the most positive tool the program gave legislations enforcement in counter-drug operations, specially when it came to “backtracking,” or investigating incidents after the truth. “After an adventure, the gadget helps locate them directly, offer you recognition,” he pointed out. “It helps in investigations to slice and cube via time, color, category of physical characteristic.” Most greatly, he noted the program’s actual-time indicators might also boost authorities’ “consciousness of suspects’ presence.”

Antonio Boquiren, a working towards and analysis officer on the Davao command core, referred to the video capabilities helped police crack down on low-degree fine of existence violations.

“whether it’s criminal activity, smoking, or jaywalking, any violation of ordinance is a criminal offense and a police is sent,” he pointed out, laughing. “individuals who smoke bitch, ‘How did you trap us before they even lit?’ The police officer will point to the CCTV.”

The focused on of petty criminals, gang members, and road infants by means of Davao death squads figures prominently within the 2009 Human Rights Watch record. And a 2015 promotional video that includes IBM’s know-how shows authorities aggressively going after low-level crimes. One clip highlights a young man, caught on CCTV, stealing a bag from a truck. Later, the narrator notes that the expertise offers police quicker response instances and cuts to pictures of police officers chasing after a gaggle of americans on the street. One then raises his baton as if to hit certainly one of them.

A former Philippine army safety consultant with shut ties to Philippine intelligence, who requested anonymity for concern of reprisal, claimed that IBM’s software assisted police no longer only in monitoring crook actions, but also in gathering intelligence on the activities of the political opposition in Davao. in line with his dealings with Davao metropolis legislation enforcement officials, he said he couldn’t rule out that the statistics feed turned into implicated in extrajudicial killings.

TOPSHOT - Activists burn an effigy of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte during a protest in Manila on December 10, 2017, as they commemorate the International Human Rights Day. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte on December 5 told human rights groups criticising his deadly anti-drug war to "go to hell" after ordering police back to the frontlines of the crackdown. / AFP PHOTO / NOEL CELIS (Photo credit should read NOEL CELIS/AFP/Getty Images)

Activists commemorate international Human Rights Day by burning an effigy of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte all the way through a protest in Manila on Dec. 10, 2017.

picture: Noel Celis/AFP/Getty images

even if IBM’s application became entirely used to assist in reliable police responses to crime and fires, as Shinde pointed out it turned into designed to do, surveillance researchers element out that it may well have enabled extrajudicial killings, comfortably by way of assisting police capture or monitor everyday criminal suspects. The executive has lengthy denied the existence of police dying squads, however within the Dutertes’ Davao, victims of extrajudicial killing were every so often targeted instantly after being launched from police custody, and police generally killed suspects throughout planned raids.

In October 2015, for example, Duterte warned a bunch of drug buyers on a highway called Dewey Boulevard that they'd forty eight hours to leave the city or be killed. “when you are into medication, I’m warning you,” he announced, in line with native press experiences. “I’m providing you with forty eight hours, 48 hours. If I see you there, I’ll have you killed.” Police reportedly monitored the area and relayed that some accepted purchasers had left. but a day after the warning, police fatally shot Armanuel Atienza, a 38-12 months-old neighborhood leader, claiming that he had resisted arrest throughout a buy-and-bust operation and that they discovered a handgun and drugs on his adult. Such claims are suspect. according to 2016 Senate testimony by Edgar Matobato, who allegedly served as a loss of life squad member from 1988 to 2013, Davao police continuously planted weapons and medicines on suspects after killing them. (Duterte has asserted that he does not comprehend Matobato and has implied that he may additionally have committed perjury during this testimony. The Duterte administration’s communications office didn't respond to specified queries related to the IBM application, or its abilities function in human rights violations.)

IBM’s object-tagging potential, as an instance, could have been used to find a suspect via their physical attributes, somebody who may also then have develop into a target of extrajudicial violence, explains Kade Crockford, a technologist with the American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts, whose research focuses on police surveillance. “maybe the device identifies three to four individuals, then law enforcement are sent to locate these individuals,” Crockford mentioned. “possibly that adult isn’t executed immediate with the aid of legislation enforcement, however police question him about him and his acquaintances; now he and some of the people he named make their means on to an inventory which ends up in the palms of a death squad.”

Social media posts from a PSSCC branch head, archived on a local blog, imply that the core, the use of IBM’s technology, was valuable at nabbing suspected criminals.

A policeman investigates the scene where the body of an alleged drug user lies dead at a slum area in Manila after unidentified assailants killed him on December 8, 2017. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte on December 5 told human rights groups criticising his deadly anti-drug war to "go to hell" after ordering police back to the frontlines of the crackdown.  Duterte had removed the police less than two months ago in response to rising opposition to the campaign. But his spokesman said he was now reinstating them because drug crimes had risen in their absence. / AFP PHOTO / NOEL CELIS (Photo credit should read NOEL CELIS/AFP/Getty Images)

A policeman investigates the scene where the body of an alleged drug user lies lifeless at a slum enviornment in Manila after unidentified assailants killed him on Dec. 8, 2017.

picture: Noel Celis/AFP/Getty photos

In August 2014, that legit claimed that police monitored and caught a bunch of road children stealing from a cab driver “in the course of the coordination” of the PSSCC and metropolis police. That December, he claimed that the clever Operations center turned into a factor in the police surveillance and trap of a man cruising round Davao city with a gun.

IBM’s “Face capture” characteristic, if deployed, additionally might have helped authorities find wanted people in near actual time — together with residents on watchlists, based on Crockford. “think about a state of affairs by which someone within the police force, who has entry to this gadget and works with the native dying squad, producing lists of americans to be killed,” she stated. “This technology could support the police chief to identity a person on the kill listing in real time and then have them deploy the demise squads to head get them.”

The Davao command core, based on a local information document, did have facial consciousness capabilities in place by way of 2014, even though the technology turned into no longer recognized with IBM. And according to the 2009 Human Rights Watch document, Davao’s death squads have been customary to rely in part on photographs of aims on their watchlists.

In August 2016, Artemio Jimenez Jr., a neighborhood political leader and vocal supporter of Duterte’s war on medicine, became himself in to Davao city police after curiously discovering that he became on a government watchlist of suspected drug clients, offering to be proven for medicine in an effort to clear his identify. Police verified his urine for methamphetamine and cannabinol, in accordance with The Inquirer, checks that came up poor. having said that, the next month, “unidentified gunmen” drove up to his motor vehicle and fired again and again, killing him and wounding his driver and bodyguard. Police claimed that they were investigating, but by no means introduced a suspect or cause in the capturing. Nor did they clarify how the assassins knew Jimenez’s area.

IBM’s Public Human Rights Commitments

IBM publicly claims to be “committed to excessive specifications of corporate accountability” and to believe the “social concerns” of the communities in which it operates. IBM’s Human Rights remark of ideas cites a number of foreign standards, together with the U.N. Guiding ideas on enterprise and Human Rights, which calls on enterprises to operate due diligence on the “human rights context in advance of a proposed enterprise exercise,” determine “who can be affected,” and challenge “how the proposed endeavor and associated company relationships may have antagonistic human rights impacts on these identified.” These requisites additionally name on organizations to proactively track abilities human rights abuses concerning their company activities and require “active engagement” in the remediation of any recognized abuses.

IBM’s Securities and exchange fee files and annual reports between 2012 and 2016 comprise a few scattered mentions of its mission in Davao, but no discussion of any skills human rights concerns or any preventative measures taken via the enterprise. None of IBM’s company social accountability stories have ever outlined its collaboration with Duterte in Davao.

despite reporting with the aid of Human Rights Watch and local papers, Shinde claimed that the human rights allegations against the Duterte regime had been “now not within the news at all throughout those days.” There turned into “nothing pointed out like that about him at the moment,” he persevered, declaring that IBM shriveled with Sara Duterte, no longer her father, who, he stated, “didn’t have such a kind of listing.”

Yet when IBM agreed to work with the Duterte household’s administration in 2012, his regime’s aid of extrajudicial killings in Davao city had been neatly-based; as early as 2009, he had described criminals as “a legitimate target for assassination.” In 2012, the year IBM signed the cope with Sara Duterte, local human rights activists claimed to have documented 61 loss of life squad killings.

according to IBM files and legislations enforcement officers, the Philippine country wide Police also obtained information from the surveillance command core. before the IBM deal became signed, the Philippine national Police had additionally been criticized for failing to investigate dying squad killings, and due to the fact that Duterte grew to be president, it has played a job in the deadly national “warfare on drugs.”

“in the event that they had the technology then, I have no doubt that they used it and continue to make use of it to locate the goals for elimination,” talked about Picardal, formerly of the Coalition towards abstract Executions. “and never most effective drug users however human rights defenders, activists, and any person they accept as true with as enemies of the state.”

IBM needed to have popular in regards to the Dutertes’ track listing at the time, mentioned a U.S. authentic who recalled being briefed by IBM about its Davao city undertaking. “i will be able to’t see how they wouldn’t have common about it. they've native people working for them,” talked about the authentic, who requested anonymity as a result of he isn't approved to talk on U.S. government concerns.

Joshua Franco, head of know-how and human rights at Amnesty overseas, noted that Rodrigo Duterte’s checklist as mayor became so neatly-documented that any company enticing with the Davao police at that time would have had a accountability to examine and steer clear of skills complicity in human rights violations earlier than signing any agreements.

“there is documentation of the killings, with the aid of people believed to be linked to the police, that went on in Davao metropolis whereas Duterte become mayor,” he said. “Human rights agencies have documented that, during this period, as many as 1,000 americans were killed, together with street infants, individuals who used and bought medicine, in addition to petty criminals. devoid of implementing a rigorous human rights due diligence system, groups presenting the local police forces suspected of getting been concerned in the killings with policing device and technology may additionally have enabled or facilitated the fee of human rights violations.”

asked about the human rights implications of the surveillance program, Philippine legislations enforcement officers universal with the IBM device made light of such considerations.

“If police do some human rights abuses, who cares?” said one reputable, claiming that such tactics had resulted in big crime savings.

Gaerlan, the regional police superintendent, joked in regards to the extrajudicial killing of alleged drug lord Melvin Odicta Sr., who turned into shot, based on police, by means of two “unidentified assailants.” Gaerlan’s agency, the Philippine country wide Police, formally speculated that he might also have been killed through different drug buyers. but the commander waved off that edition of activities. “He turned into shot correct off the ship,” he referred to, laughing. “He became trying to sidestep authorities with the aid of now not coming here on a airplane. He never holds medicine. you could’t seize him, but he was killed. now not via any one in uniform! It turned into just some vigilantes, but they weren’t in uniform!”

felony protections for the accused, equivalent to due process, could be good in theory, argued Boquiren, the PSSCC officer, but they aren’t purposeful on account of a courtroom equipment he characterized as inefficient and corrupt. “Due technique is decent on the element of attorneys, but if they are talking in regards to the crook justice device, it’s vulnerable. Even clear-reduce instances of homicide take years, witnesses die, so something is wrong,” he referred to.

“If americans don’t have discipline, they don’t obey,” he continued. “but when there's fear, they'll obey.”

Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte delivers a speech during the "Digong's Day for Women" event on March 31, 2017. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte on March 30 described two major media outlets as "sons of whores" and warned them of karmic repercussions for their critical coverage of his deadly drug war. / AFP PHOTO / NOEL CELIS (Photo credit should read NOEL CELIS/AFP/Getty Images)

Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte can provide a speech all over the “Digong’s Day for ladies” event on March 31, 2017.

photo: Noel Celis/AFP/Getty pictures

Duterte’s Mass Surveillance Plans

In November, Jaldon observed that IBM’s surveillance application turned into no longer lively in Davao. He talked about that authorities switched over to an in-condo application gadget in 2016. nonetheless, he and Boquiren spoke of that the city surveillance middle mannequin IBM helped build in Davao metropolis has served as an suggestion for the Duterte administration. “in the following couple of years, the president may have replicated their equipment everywhere,” Boquiren pointed out remaining January. “anytime he goes somewhere, he keeps telling local leaders, go to Davao metropolis and replicate the PSSCC.”

Duterte’s plan is to extend and unify public security and emergency response centers at a regional and countrywide degree in the coming years, Jaldon observed. “The challenging part before was the price range fees, but that received’t be an issue anymore with the president prioritizing this.”

Jaldon and Boquiren referred to countrywide authorities — together with Duterte himself — are interested in increasing surveillance centers across the country and upgrading their video capabilities to consist of actual-time facial attention, which might examine the faces of suspects to facial pictures caught on CCTV.

In February 2018, a native news report referred to anonymous sources indicating that Duterte changed into pursuing a partnership with Huawei, a chinese telecom company, to provide facial attention technology, a construction Boquiren established on the time.

Then in December 2018, the Philippine legislature realized that a special chinese enterprise, the state-owned China foreign Telecommunications and development Corp., had loaned the Philippines department of the interior and local executive 20 billion pesos to install 12,000 surveillance cameras throughout Davao city and metro Manila. The “secure Philippines” infrastructure, in response to a file in the Philippine famous person, will encompass a countrywide command center and a backup statistics core, equipped with facial and car consciousness utility. At a Senate listening to, Sen. Ralph Recto raised concerns about China’s involvement within the assignment, and officers from the national department of tips and Communications know-how testified that that they had no longer been consulted concerning the deal.

a few other chinese enterprises had in the beginning been proposed by means of the chinese Embassy for the undertaking, including Huawei. however, in accordance with a January 2019 Senate resolution added by Recto, Huawei changed into slated to become handiest a huge subcontractor as the “simple device employer.”

in response to Boquiren, Huawei promised that its facial recognition product could capture a person “even with a picture of the aspect of their face” and “save as much as 1,000,000 faces.” In a November 2018 name, Boquiren reiterated that unspecified police authorities had been taking a look at Huawei technology, but declined to focus on any further details, citing a lack of technical competencies. Jaldon suggested that whereas the chinese language company had “an outstanding gadget,” authorities were nevertheless within the process of assessing numerous facial cognizance providers as part of the implementation of the “safe metropolis project” throughout the country.

The Philippines’ potential collaboration with chinese companies, which resulted from an settlement reached all through the seek advice from of chinese President Xi Jinping closing November, displays Duterte’s ongoing pivot to China and far from the U.S.. Huawei, in particular, is imagined to have such shut ties to the chinese state that it has been banned from U.S. government contracts and from featuring some security products to Australia for concern of backdoor intrusions with the aid of chinese intelligence actors.

the previous consultant to the Philippine military stated his knowing is that the protected Philippines installation might be modeled after chinese facial cognizance infrastructure, uniting CCTV installations and intelligence databases from protection corporations across the country into one unified gadget. “The project aims to establish new CCTV networks and cascade them with all latest CCTV installations,” he talked about. “Patterned after the chinese police state, the system is supposed to tap databases from a whole lot of organizations of the executive and integrate them with the records streams from the CCTV networks.”

In a greater contemporary interview, the former advisor stated that, given the scrutiny Huawei has drawn, the branch of the interior and native government can also opt for an additional know-how machine organisation, a claim that Densing, the branch of the indoors professional, echoed within the January tv interview.

Maya Wang, senior researcher on China at Human Rights Watch, talked about the advantage adoption of a chinese-fashion surveillance infrastructure, facilitated via chinese groups, is terribly regarding given the “context of Duterte’s increasing abuses, drug conflict, and large-scale extrajudicial violence.” however Wang suggested that the expenses and advantage required for such systems don't seem to be readily replicable. The Philippine govt could doubtlessly “replicate one or one of the most techniques, but now not the entire overlapping, multitiered mass surveillance systems seen in China,” she stated.


The department of Science & technology and IBM Collaborate to construct an clever Operations core for the Philippines | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

MANILA, Philippines, might also 29, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- The department of Science and expertise (DOST) and IBM (NYSE: IBM) today unveiled a new clever operations center to deliver a relevant aspect of command for catastrophe administration. the new core will help the Philippine govt more desirable control ongoing and future catastrophe response and recovery efforts following hurricane Yolanda in 2013.

instantly following the storm, IBM donated an have an impact on supply of expertise and features. As a part of the supply, IBM, in collaboration with relied on enterprise partners, delivered the IBM intelligent Operations core (IOC) with an built-in Communications equipment (ICS) with a view to facilitate superior and greater coordinated catastrophe administration efforts with the DOST and across a considerable number of executive organizations.

The integrated answer will pull statistics from disparate sources into a standard view, featuring emergency managers with crucial advice comparable to increase warning for extreme climate routine, remarks from first responders on the number of casualties and affected families, circumstance of constructions, roads, and infrastructure.  These dispensed records sources give analytics and scenario planning to streamline and integrate the government's response to mess ups. furthermore, the solution will enable advanced communications for first responders and emergency personnel. 

"building on a relied on, long term relationship between IBM and their countrywide government, IBM acted right now to mobilize and launch an have an effect on furnish with two essential solutions: an intelligent Operations middle for Emergency administration and an integrated Communications equipment," pointed out Secretary Mario Montejo, department of Science and expertise.  "IBM's provide comes with two years of aid, including an IBM-led transition team. this may be sure that they have the competencies and capabilities essential to utterly maximize the vigour of this new technology to make Filipinos safer and more resilient to hazards reminiscent of Haiyan"

"in the wake of typhoon Yolanda, IBM groups within the US and Philippines identified each the enormity of the disaster and the probability to give leading edge expertise," pointed out Mariels Almeda Winhoffer, President and nation widespread supervisor, IBM Philippines. "These options will address the govt's want for more advantageous decision-making aid and on the identical time, supply a place to begin to enhanced manage future responses."

"IBM's have an effect on supply to the Philippine govt - one in all 350 supplies they will award this yr - demonstrates their corporate dedication to presenting inventive technology that may help in any respect phases of disaster," mentioned Stanley S. Litow, IBM vice chairman, corporate Citizenship & corporate Affairs and President, IBM foundation.

the new facility, with an estimated market cost of the provide is $three.5 million, is determined within the assistance and Communications know-how office (ICTO) building, Diliman, Quezon city, Philippines.

study more about IBM Citizenship classes at www.ibm.com/responsibility

Contact information

Owen CammayoExternal relations LeaderIBM Philippines, IncPhone: (+632) 995-2519Mobile: (+632) 917-888-6936cammayol@ph.ibm.com

Donna MattoonIBM CommunicationsCorporate Citizenship & corporate Affairs518-852-3113dbmattoo@us.ibm.com

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Efforts to make certain moral use of biometric surveillance expertise face scrutiny | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM’s position in surveillance programs allegedly used to perform added-judicial killings directed by Rodrigo Duterte ahead of fitting president of the Philippines, is the area of an investigative file by way of The Intercept. The document means that the tech giant grew to become a blind eye to abuses of the system by means of legislation enforcement, and may have offered biometric technology allowing political opponents and others to be tracked.

The contract for Davao city’s surveillance gadget became signed through IBM in 2012, when Duterte’s daughter was mayor of Davao city. When IBM offered expertise to the intelligent Operations core in Davao, it had been three years for the reason that Human Rights Watch posted an investigation which indicated that whereas Rodrigo Duterte changed into mayor, drug broking, petty criminals, and road toddlers had been assassinated by death squads, with evidence of complicity or direct involvement by executive officers and police.

Activists working with the Philippine fee on Human Rights say 213 extrajudicial killings carried out by using Davao demise squads were documented between 2013 and 2016, when a Davao security reputable advised The Intercept that the IBM gadget became in energetic use. An IBM spokesperson noted that the business has not supplied the intelligent Operations core with technology given that 2012, notwithstanding The Intercept says it may possibly have endured to give aid capabilities.

A “war on medicine” conducted by way of Duterte has resulted in any place from 5,000 to 27,000 deaths.

Former IBM salesman Sayaji Shinde told The Intercept that the know-how supplied with the aid of the enterprise covered video analytics capabilities, which might tag objects and people by using their actual attributes. The IBM spokesperson says the business’s biometric Face catch technology changed into now not included within the deal, and a city legitimate lately said in an interview that the functionality changed into planned however no longer formally deployed. A 2015 promotional video for the Davao Public defense and security Command middle (PSSCC), however, features a clip of Face seize in use.

law enforcement officials interviewed with the aid of The Intercept made gentle of human rights abuses, legal due process, and the reputable edition of suspected assassinations via legislations enforcement, and rights campaigners and an unnamed U.S. legit briefed through IBM about its Davao city contract said the company should have been privy to the human rights situations it turned into working in.

Now, Huawei is anticipated to deliver facial recognition know-how to the country wide command middle of a “secure Philippines” venture, because the country turns faraway from American affect in opposition t China.

increasing partnerships carry possibility

The set of questions posed with the aid of IBM’s involvement in legislation enforcement surveillance systems within the Philippines is harking back to the fresh SenseNets facts leak. The leak published the extent of biometric surveillance in Xinjiang, the place greater than 1,000,000 americans are believed to be held in “re-education centers,” and the viable use of Microsoft technology in that surveillance equipment.

Microsoft has denied involvement, however overseas coverage reviews that no matter if deliberately or no longer, American tech corporations have provided talents, credibility, and know-how to chinese language surveillance companies.

Thermo Fisher Scientific and famous geneticist Dr. Kenneth Kidd helped China’s DNA registration program in Xinjiang, and the company has when you consider that introduced a policy to agree with how its items can be used.

The chinese language govt says its surveillance programs have led to 13,000 terrorism arrests, with the result that no terrorist attacks have taken location within the vicinity for more than two years. the dimensions of arrests and the absence of incidents skill that the statement begs the very question it's intended to reply, despite the fact.

foreign coverage presents the analysis partnership between MIT and SenseTime introduced in February, 2018, when the facial recognition unicorn owned a now-divested forty nine % stake in SenseNets, for example of potentially troubling pass-pollination. SenseNets proprietor NetPosa additionally owns stakes in U.S. robotics startup Bito and drone utility company Exyn, which is taking part in a synthetic intelligence challenge from the U.S. defense superior research initiatives company (DARPA). NetPosa received funding funding from Intel in 2010, and has distinct offices within the U.S. iFlytek has also been recognized as a know-how service provider for chinese language govt surveillance, and reached a collaborative settlement with MIT’s computing device Science and artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) final June.

The Commerce department issued a rulemaking proposal for controlling exports of emerging technologies in November that overseas coverage suggests may be a great way to disentangle U.S. groups from the feasible irresponsible or unethical makes use of of their technologies they are saying they try to keep away from, however the details remain to be considered.

superior practices  |  biometrics  |  China  |  Philippines  |  surveillance  |  u.s.


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Inside the Video Surveillance Program IBM Built for Philippine Strongman Rodrigo Duterte | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Jaypee Larosa was standing in front of an internet cafe in Davao City, a metropolitan hub on the Philippine island of Mindanao, when three men in dark jackets pulled up on a motorcycle and opened fire. That summer evening, Larosa, 20, was killed. After the shooting, according to witnesses, one of the men reportedly removed Larosa’s baseball cap and said, “Son of a bitch. This is not the one.” Then they drove off.

Larosa’s murder, on July 17, 2008, was one of hundreds of extrajudicial killings carried out in Davao City, now a city of 1.6 million, while Rodrigo Duterte, now president of the Philippines, was mayor there. Years before launching his notorious, bloody “drug war” across the country, Duterte presided over similar tactics at the local level. During his tenure as mayor, according to a 2009 investigation by Human Rights Watch, death squads assassinated street children, drug dealers, and petty criminals; in some cases, researchers found evidence of the complicity or direct involvement of government officials and police.

Duterte has consistently denied any connection to this campaign of killings, but at times, his support for the violence was barely concealed. As mayor, Duterte would publicly announce the names or locations of “criminals,” and some of them would later be killed, according to human rights groups and local newspapers. Although it stopped short of accusing Duterte himself of misconduct or direct involvement, the Philippines’ Office of the Ombudsman partially acknowledged in 2012 the police’s role in tolerating the killings, finding that 21 Davao City police officials and officers were “remiss in their duty” for failing to solve them.

Children hold the coffin of 13-year-old Aldrin Pineda, who was shot to death by a police officer, during his funeral in Manila, Philippines, March 14, 2018. More than 27,000 have been killed as a result of a two-year war on drugs in the Philippines. In 2016, Rodrigo Duterte became president of the Southeast Asian republic. His campaign promise to fight drugs with any means won him the election: he threatened those connected to the drug trade with death, called for vigilante justice, and allowed the police to act with brutality. Human rights groups and local media have reported that dealers, users, petty criminals, and even local politicians, priests, as well as plenty of innocent people and children were murdered. The United Nations have appealed in vain to the Philippine government to investigate extrajudicial killings and to prosecute the perpetrators, while the International Criminal Court has begun preliminary inquiries into the violent acts carried out in the Philippines as well as the questionable methods of Duterte and the police.Photo: Ezra Acayan/NurPhoto (Photo by Ezra Acayan/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

Children hold the coffin of 13-year-old Aldrin Pineda, who was shot by a police officer, during his funeral in Manila, Philippines, on March 14, 2018.

Photo: Ezra Acayan/NurPhoto via Getty Images

But this potential complicity in human rights violations did not stop IBM from agreeing to provide surveillance technology to law enforcement in Davao City. On June 27, 2012, three years after the devastating Human Rights Watch report, IBM issued a short news release announcing an agreement with Davao to upgrade its police command center in order to “further enhance public safety operations in the city.” IBM’s installation, known as the Intelligent Operations Center, promised to enhance authorities’ ability to monitor residents in real time with cutting-edge video analytics, multichannel communications technology, and GPS-enabled patrol vehicles. Less than two months later, the Philippine Commission on Human Rights published a resolution condemning Davao authorities for fostering a “climate of impunity” with regard to the killings, recommending that the National Bureau of Investigation undertake an impartial investigation into potential obstruction of justice by local police officials. (Duterte has recently condemned the commission, questioning its motives and suggesting that it should be abolished.)

The 2012 IBM deal was signed by Rodrigo Duterte’s daughter, Sara Duterte, who was Davao City’s nominal mayor at the time, while her term-limited father served as vice mayor; under Sara Duterte, the killings continued. The system, according to local news reports, was deployed in June 2013, just as Rodrigo Duterte was about to return to the mayoral seat he had already held for nearly two decades. The police command center, Sara Duterte told the Durian Post, “is now infused with IBM’s IOC technology,” allowing police to “shift from responding to critical events to anticipating and preventing them.”

While The Intercept and Type Investigations were unable to locate any reference to Davao’s death squads in IBM’s public corporate documents about the program, a 2014 company overview of the installation made clear that IBM knew “illegal drugs,” predictive policing, and crime suppression were among Davao City security forces’ “priority areas.” From 2013 through late 2016, when one Davao security official estimated the IBM program stopped being in active use, Filipino human rights activists who worked closely with the Commission on Human Rights claimed to have documented at least 213 extrajudicial killings carried out by Davao death squads.

Davao City officials did not respond to queries related to IBM’s video surveillance system or its potential role in extrajudicial killing operations during its run. But three police and city security officials interviewed in Davao City last year said the program had strengthened police video monitoring capabilities, which they said had proved useful in Davao’s controversial war on so-called drug syndicates. That war, human rights reports and former death squad participants have shown, often targeted low-level drug users and peddlers, rather than major traffickers.

Amado Picardal, a former spokesperson of the Coalition Against Summary Executions, a Davao-based human rights group, called IBM’s work “unethical,” given that some of the killings had been linked to Duterte’s police in the years before its deal with Davao City.

IBM declined to respond to queries about its human rights record in Davao City. IBM spokesperson Edward Barbini briefly noted that the company “no longer supplies technology to the Intelligent Operations Center in Davao, and has not done so since 2012,” though he declined to clarify whether IBM serviced the technology after that point, and IBM’s public filings mention the program as ongoing after that date. “The Philippines city of Davao’s 1.5 million citizens will be the first in Asia to benefit from an Intelligent Operations Center,” an April 3, 2013, IBM disclosure reads. “A new early warning system will monitor key risk indicators so agencies can take quick action before situations escalate.”

In the years since the IBM program was phased out, Philippine police interest in cutting-edge surveillance infrastructure has hardly waned. National authorities are now looking to deploy real-time facial recognition across the country, in a project called “Safe Philippines,” and have considered technology from a variety of international vendors, including the Chinese telecom Huawei.

In December, a local newspaper reported that the Philippines had secured a 20 billion-peso loan for the installation of thousands of surveillance cameras across Davao City and metro Manila in collaboration with a Chinese firm, an installation that would reportedly include a national command center and feature facial and vehicle recognition software. In a January interview on Filipino television, Epimaco Densing III, undersecretary of the Department of the Interior and Local Government, said that a goal of the project is to detect the faces of terrorist suspects and prevent crimes before they take place.

Filipino activists worry that such capabilities could facilitate human rights violations. Over the last three years, parts of the country have been under temporary declarations of martial law, and Duterte’s “war on drugs” has left at least 5,000 and possibly as many as 27,000 dead (police and human rights groups’ estimates vary widely). Those killed have included anti-Duterte activists, elected officials, and outspoken Catholic priests. Currently, Duterte is campaigning to modify the constitution, a move that could afford powers to the executive to further the suppression of political opponents.

Surveillance Capabilities in Davao

In June 2012, Mayor Sara Duterte announced a 128 million-peso deal, worth just over $3 million at the time, with IBM to improve its real-time monitoring capabilities. The announcement promised to “scale up” Davao’s Public Safety and Security Command Center, or PSSCC, with improved communications and surveillance technology.

Sayaji Shinde, a former IBM sales leader who says he was part of the team that secured the command center deal, recalls that his team was eager to partner with the Duterte administration. “If you look at the Dutertes as such, they focus a lot on public-sector security,” said Shinde. “And I think that is one of the drivers, for even us, to go and spend their time and advise them because they saw that they are really keen to ensure that the city become more safer.”

To seal the deal, Shinde said, IBM pointed to the international recognition that such a project would bring Davao. “That is precisely what they sold them: ‘You know if you do this, work with us, and it becomes first of its kind, then this will be highlighted globally.’”

In the initial phase of the project, IBM mapped Davao’s police cameras onto a geographic information system, allowing operators to quickly access camera feeds near locations of interest, Shinde said.

According to Shinde, the rollout also featured a multichannel communications system, allowing police, traffic, and defense personnel to communicate with one another. It also included video analytics technology that automatically tagged objects captured on camera, like cars and people, by their physical attributes. The tags included the objects’ size, speed, color, trajectory, and direction, according to a November 2014 IBM presentation to the Asian Development Bank, allowing command center operators to comb through camera footage in search of suspects by their descriptions. (IBM had refined these kinds of surveillance capabilities using secret access to New York Police Department camera footage, as The Intercept and Type Investigations reported in September.)

“That was probably the first-ever video analytics surveillance that was done in Asia,” said Shinde, noting that the system could be used in the wake of robberies or murders to track a suspect’s car before and after a crime. The software was “very user-friendly,” he noted, so Davao security officials at the command center could easily have become competent in the program’s object search capabilities.

Screen-Shot-2019-03-11-at-4.04.08-PM-1552680170

Davao City PSSCC video showcasing IBM’s “Face Capture” technology.

Screenshot: The Intercept

The 2014 IBM presentation on its Davao project also mentions a tool known as “Face Capture,” which boxes out images of faces in real time and stores them for retroactive analysis. In a recent interview, Emmanuel Jaldon, head of Davao City’s 911 Center, claimed that this functionality was planned but never formally deployed. Barbini also claims that IBM “never supplied facial recognition capability for the center.” And Shinde, who left IBM in 2014, said that Face Capture was not integrated while he was there during the first phase of the Davao project. But a February 2015 promotional video for the PSSCC, highlighting the command center’s monitoring capabilities and ability to “suppress all forms of criminalities,” features a clip of IBM’s Face Capture interface in action, gathering facial images from pedestrians on the streets of Davao City. Footage of what appears to be the IBM Davao City dashboard, pictured above, shows the software boxing out and collecting facial images as people walked past street cameras.

The program also helped authorities monitor “crowd behavior” and instances of “loitering” — a crime that Duterte has cracked down on nationally as president — according to the 2014 IBM presentation.

IBM’s Technology in Duterte’s War on Crime

When asked what assurances he was given about how the surveillance program would be used, Shinde defended IBM’s sale, saying that it was intended for legitimate public safety activities, such as responding to fires. “That particular implementation was not meant to track people,” he said. “It was meant to track the incidents and faster responses to those incidences.”

But in interviews in the command center, the nearby 911 center, and other locations in Davao City, local law enforcement officials familiar with the IBM program told The Intercept and Type Investigations that the technology had assisted them in carrying out Duterte’s controversial anti-crime agenda.

Manuel Gaerlan, a former regional Philippines National Police chief superintendent, said the command center, which IBM substantially upgraded, functions as a force multiplier in counter-drug operations. “It records events so it’s easier to identify the perpetrators, then you can go after the member of the syndicates,” he said. “If you can see more areas, you can send patrol to respond. It’s like putting more men on the ground. And you can put more cameras in drug areas.”

Jaldon, the 911 chief, pointed to IBM’s object tagging and search feature as the most useful tool the program gave law enforcement in counter-drug operations, especially when it came to “backtracking,” or investigating incidents after the fact. “After an event, the system helps find them quickly, give you awareness,” he said. “It helps in investigations to slice and dice by time, color, type of physical feature.” Most significantly, he said the program’s real-time alerts could also increase authorities’ “awareness of suspects’ presence.”

Antonio Boquiren, a training and research officer at the Davao command center, said the video capabilities helped police crack down on low-level quality of life violations.

“Whether it’s criminality, smoking, or jaywalking, any violation of ordinance is a crime and a police is sent,” he said, laughing. “People who smoke complain, ‘How did you catch us before they even lit?’ The police officer will point to the CCTV.”

The targeting of petty criminals, gang members, and street children by Davao death squads figures prominently in the 2009 Human Rights Watch report. And a 2015 promotional video featuring IBM’s technology shows authorities aggressively going after low-level crimes. One clip highlights a young man, caught on CCTV, stealing a bag from a truck. Later, the narrator notes that the technology gives police faster response times and cuts to footage of police officers chasing after a group of people on the street. One then raises his baton as if to hit one of them.

A former Philippine Army security consultant with close ties to Philippine intelligence, who requested anonymity for fear of reprisal, claimed that IBM’s program assisted police not only in monitoring criminal activities, but also in gathering intelligence on the activities of the political opposition in Davao. Based on his dealings with Davao City law enforcement officials, he said he couldn’t rule out that the data feed was implicated in extrajudicial killings.

TOPSHOT - Activists burn an effigy of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte during a protest in Manila on December 10, 2017, as they commemorate the International Human Rights Day. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte on December 5 told human rights groups criticising his deadly anti-drug war to "go to hell" after ordering police back to the frontlines of the crackdown. / AFP PHOTO / NOEL CELIS (Photo credit should read NOEL CELIS/AFP/Getty Images)

Activists commemorate International Human Rights Day by burning an effigy of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte during a protest in Manila on Dec. 10, 2017.

Photo: Noel Celis/AFP/Getty Images

Even if IBM’s program was solely used to assist in legitimate police responses to crime and fires, as Shinde said it was designed to do, surveillance researchers point out that it could well have enabled extrajudicial killings, simply by helping police capture or monitor everyday criminal suspects. The government has long denied the existence of police death squads, but in the Dutertes’ Davao, victims of extrajudicial killing were sometimes targeted immediately after being released from police custody, and police frequently killed suspects during planned raids.

In October 2015, for example, Duterte warned a group of drug dealers on a street called Dewey Boulevard that they had 48 hours to leave the city or be killed. “If you are into drugs, I’m warning you,” he announced, according to local press reports. “I’m giving you 48 hours, 48 hours. If I see you there, I’ll have you killed.” Police reportedly monitored the area and relayed that some known dealers had left. But a day after the warning, police fatally shot Armanuel Atienza, a 38-year-old community leader, claiming that he had resisted arrest during a buy-and-bust operation and that they found a handgun and drugs on his person. Such claims are suspect. According to 2016 Senate testimony by Edgar Matobato, who allegedly served as a death squad member from 1988 to 2013, Davao police regularly planted guns and drugs on suspects after killing them. (Duterte has asserted that he does not know Matobato and has implied that he may have committed perjury in this testimony. The Duterte administration’s communications office did not respond to detailed queries related to the IBM program, or its potential role in human rights violations.)

IBM’s object-tagging capability, for example, could have been used to locate a suspect by their physical attributes, someone who may then have become a target of extrajudicial violence, explains Kade Crockford, a technologist with the American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts, whose research focuses on police surveillance. “Maybe the system identifies three to four people, then law enforcement are sent to find those people,” Crockford said. “Maybe that person isn’t executed on the spot by law enforcement, but police question him about him and his associates; now he and some of the people he named make their way on to a list which ends up in the hands of a death squad.”

Social media posts from a PSSCC department head, archived on a local blog, suggest that the center, using IBM’s technology, was effective at nabbing suspected criminals.

A policeman investigates the scene where the body of an alleged drug user lies dead at a slum area in Manila after unidentified assailants killed him on December 8, 2017. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte on December 5 told human rights groups criticising his deadly anti-drug war to "go to hell" after ordering police back to the frontlines of the crackdown.  Duterte had removed the police less than two months ago in response to rising opposition to the campaign. But his spokesman said he was now reinstating them because drug crimes had risen in their absence. / AFP PHOTO / NOEL CELIS (Photo credit should read NOEL CELIS/AFP/Getty Images)

A policeman investigates the scene where the body of an alleged drug user lies dead at a slum area in Manila after unidentified assailants killed him on Dec. 8, 2017.

Photo: Noel Celis/AFP/Getty Images

In August 2014, that official claimed that police monitored and caught a group of street kids stealing from a cab driver “through the coordination” of the PSSCC and city police. That December, he claimed that the Intelligent Operations Center was a factor in the police surveillance and capture of a man cruising around Davao City with a gun.

IBM’s “Face Capture” feature, if deployed, also could have helped authorities locate wanted people in near real time — including residents on watchlists, according to Crockford. “Imagine a scenario in which someone in the police force, who has access to this system and works with the local death squad, producing lists of people to be killed,” she said. “This technology could help the police leader to ID a person on the kill list in real time and then have them deploy the death squads to go get them.”

The Davao command center, according to a local news report, did have facial recognition capabilities in place by 2014, though the technology was not identified with IBM. And according to the 2009 Human Rights Watch report, Davao’s death squads were known to rely in part on photos of targets on their watchlists.

In August 2016, Artemio Jimenez Jr., a neighborhood political leader and vocal supporter of Duterte’s war on drugs, turned himself in to Davao City police after apparently discovering that he was on a government watchlist of suspected drug users, offering to be tested for drugs in order to clear his name. Police tested his urine for methamphetamine and cannabinol, according to The Inquirer, tests that came up negative. Nonetheless, the next month, “unidentified gunmen” drove up to his car and fired repeatedly, killing him and wounding his driver and bodyguard. Police claimed that they were investigating, but never announced a suspect or motive in the shooting. Nor did they explain how the assassins knew Jimenez’s location.

IBM’s Public Human Rights Commitments

IBM publicly claims to be “committed to high standards of corporate responsibility” and to consider the “social concerns” of the communities in which it operates. IBM’s Human Rights Statement of Principles cites a number of international standards, including the U.N. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which calls on corporations to perform due diligence on the “human rights context prior to a proposed business activity,” identify “who may be affected,” and project “how the proposed activity and associated business relationships could have adverse human rights impacts on those identified.” These standards also call on companies to proactively track potential human rights abuses related to their business activities and require “active engagement” in the remediation of any identified abuses.

IBM’s Securities and Exchange Commission documents and annual reports between 2012 and 2016 contain a few scattered mentions of its project in Davao, but no discussion of any potential human rights concerns or any preventative measures taken by the company. None of IBM’s corporate social responsibility reports have ever mentioned its collaboration with Duterte in Davao.

Despite reporting by Human Rights Watch and local papers, Shinde claimed that the human rights allegations against the Duterte regime were “not in the news at all during those days.” There was “nothing said like that about him at that time,” he continued, pointing out that IBM contracted with Sara Duterte, not her father, who, he said, “didn’t have such a kind of record.”

Yet when IBM agreed to work with the Duterte family’s administration in 2012, his regime’s support of extrajudicial killings in Davao City had been well-established; as early as 2009, he had described criminals as “a legitimate target for assassination.” In 2012, the year IBM signed the deal with Sara Duterte, local human rights activists claimed to have documented 61 death squad killings.

According to IBM documents and law enforcement officials, the Philippine National Police also received information from the surveillance command center. Before the IBM deal was signed, the Philippine National Police had also been criticized for failing to investigate death squad killings, and since Duterte became president, it has played a role in the deadly national “war on drugs.”

“If they had the technology then, I have no doubt that they used it and continue to use it to locate the targets for elimination,” said Picardal, formerly of the Coalition Against Summary Executions. “And not only drug users but human rights defenders, activists, and anyone they consider as enemies of the state.”

IBM had to have known about the Dutertes’ track record at the time, said a U.S. official who recalled being briefed by IBM about its Davao City project. “I can’t see how they wouldn’t have known about it. They have local people working for them,” said the official, who requested anonymity because he is not authorized to speak on U.S. government matters.

Joshua Franco, head of technology and human rights at Amnesty International, noted that Rodrigo Duterte’s record as mayor was so well-documented that any company engaging with the Davao police at that time would have had a responsibility to investigate and avoid potential complicity in human rights violations before signing any agreements.

“There is documentation of the killings, by persons believed to be linked to the police, that went on in Davao City while Duterte was mayor,” he said. “Human rights organizations have documented that, during this period, as many as 1,000 people were killed, including street children, people who used and sold drugs, as well as petty criminals. Without implementing a rigorous human rights due diligence process, companies supplying the local police forces suspected of having been involved in the killings with policing equipment and technology may have enabled or facilitated the commission of human rights violations.”

Asked about the human rights implications of the surveillance program, Philippine law enforcement officials familiar with the IBM system made light of such concerns.

“If police do some human rights abuses, who cares?” said one official, claiming that such tactics had resulted in significant crime reductions.

Gaerlan, the regional police superintendent, joked about the extrajudicial killing of alleged drug lord Melvin Odicta Sr., who was shot, according to police, by two “unidentified assailants.” Gaerlan’s agency, the Philippine National Police, officially speculated that he may have been killed by other drug dealers. But the commander waved off that version of events. “He was shot right off the ship,” he said, laughing. “He was trying to evade authorities by not coming here on a plane. He never holds drugs. You can’t catch him, but he was killed. Not by anyone in uniform! It was just some vigilantes, but they weren’t in uniform!”

Legal protections for the accused, such as due process, may be good in theory, argued Boquiren, the PSSCC officer, but they aren’t practical because of a court system he characterized as inefficient and corrupt. “Due process is good on the point of lawyers, but if they are talking about the criminal justice system, it’s weak. Even clear-cut cases of murder take years, witnesses die, so something is wrong,” he said.

“If people don’t have discipline, they don’t obey,” he continued. “But if there is fear, they will obey.”

Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte delivers a speech during the "Digong's Day for Women" event on March 31, 2017. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte on March 30 described two major media outlets as "sons of whores" and warned them of karmic repercussions for their critical coverage of his deadly drug war. / AFP PHOTO / NOEL CELIS (Photo credit should read NOEL CELIS/AFP/Getty Images)

Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte delivers a speech during the “Digong’s Day for Women” event on March 31, 2017.

Photo: Noel Celis/AFP/Getty Images

Duterte’s Mass Surveillance Plans

In November, Jaldon said that IBM’s surveillance program was no longer active in Davao. He said that authorities switched over to an in-house software system in 2016. Still, he and Boquiren said that the urban surveillance center model IBM helped build in Davao City has served as an inspiration for the Duterte administration. “Within the next few years, the president will have replicated their system everywhere,” Boquiren said last January. “Every time he goes somewhere, he keeps telling local leaders, go to Davao City and replicate the PSSCC.”

Duterte’s plan is to expand and unify public safety and emergency response centers at a regional and national level in the coming years, Jaldon said. “The hard part before was the budget costs, but that won’t be a problem anymore with the president prioritizing this.”

Jaldon and Boquiren said national authorities — including Duterte himself — are interested in expanding surveillance centers across the country and upgrading their video capabilities to include real-time facial recognition, which could compare the faces of suspects to facial images caught on CCTV.

In February 2018, a local news report cited anonymous sources indicating that Duterte was pursuing a partnership with Huawei, a Chinese telecom firm, to provide facial recognition technology, a development Boquiren confirmed at the time.

Then in December 2018, the Philippine legislature learned that a different Chinese firm, the state-owned China International Telecommunications and Construction Corp., had loaned the Philippines Department of the Interior and Local Government 20 billion pesos to install 12,000 surveillance cameras across Davao City and metro Manila. The “Safe Philippines” infrastructure, according to a report in the Philippine Star, will include a national command center and a backup data center, equipped with facial and vehicle recognition software. At a Senate hearing, Sen. Ralph Recto raised concerns about China’s involvement in the project, and officials from the national Department of Information and Communications Technology testified that they had not been consulted about the deal.

Several other Chinese firms had originally been proposed by the Chinese Embassy for the project, including Huawei. But, according to a January 2019 Senate resolution introduced by Recto, Huawei was slated to become only a major subcontractor as the “primary equipment supplier.”

According to Boquiren, Huawei promised that its facial recognition product could capture someone “even with an image of the side of their face” and “store up to a million faces.” In a November 2018 call, Boquiren reiterated that unspecified police authorities were looking at Huawei technology, but declined to discuss any additional details, citing a lack of technical expertise. Jaldon cautioned that while the Chinese firm had “a good system,” authorities were still in the process of assessing a variety of facial recognition vendors as part of the implementation of the “safe city project” across the country.

The Philippines’ potential collaboration with Chinese firms, which resulted from an agreement reached during the visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping last November, reflects Duterte’s ongoing pivot to China and away from the United States. Huawei, in particular, is alleged to have such close ties to the Chinese state that it has been banned from U.S. government contracts and from providing some security products to Australia for fear of backdoor intrusions by Chinese intelligence actors.

The former consultant to the Philippine Army said his understanding is that the Safe Philippines installation will be modeled after Chinese facial recognition infrastructure, uniting CCTV installations and intelligence databases from security agencies across the country into one unified system. “The project aims to establish new CCTV networks and cascade them with all existing CCTV installations,” he said. “Patterned after the Chinese police state, the system is intended to tap databases from a variety of agencies of the government and integrate them with the data streams from the CCTV networks.”

In a more recent interview, the former consultant said that, given the scrutiny Huawei has drawn, the Department of the Interior and Local Government may opt for another technology equipment supplier, a claim that Densing, the Department of the Interior official, echoed in the January television interview.

Maya Wang, senior researcher on China at Human Rights Watch, said the potential adoption of a Chinese-style surveillance infrastructure, facilitated by Chinese companies, is very concerning given the “context of Duterte’s increasing abuses, drug war, and large-scale extrajudicial violence.” But Wang cautioned that the costs and expertise required for such systems are not easily replicable. The Philippine government could potentially “replicate one or some of the systems, but not all of the overlapping, multitiered mass surveillance systems seen in China,” she said.


Efforts to ensure ethical use of biometric surveillance technology face scrutiny | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM’s role in surveillance systems allegedly used to carry out extra-judicial killings directed by Rodrigo Duterte prior to becoming president of the Philippines, is the subject of an investigative report by The Intercept. The report suggests that the tech giant turned a blind eye to abuses of the system by law enforcement, and may have provided biometric technology allowing political opponents and others to be tracked.

The contract for Davao City’s surveillance system was signed by IBM in 2012, when Duterte’s daughter was mayor of Davao City. When IBM provided technology to the Intelligent Operations Center in Davao, it had been three years since Human Rights Watch published an investigation which indicated that while Rodrigo Duterte was mayor, drug dealer, petty criminals, and street children had been assassinated by death squads, with evidence of complicity or direct involvement by government officials and police.

Activists working with the Philippine Commission on Human Rights say 213 extrajudicial killings carried out by Davao death squads have been documented between 2013 and 2016, when a Davao security official told The Intercept that the IBM system was in active use. An IBM spokesperson noted that the company has not supplied the Intelligent Operations Center with technology since 2012, though The Intercept says it may have continued to provide support services.

A “war on drugs” carried out by Duterte has resulted in anywhere from 5,000 to 27,000 deaths.

Former IBM salesman Sayaji Shinde told The Intercept that the technology provided by the company included video analytics capabilities, which could tag objects and people by their physical attributes. The IBM spokesperson says the company’s biometric Face Capture technology was not included in the deal, and a city official recently said in an interview that the functionality was planned but not formally deployed. A 2015 promotional video for the Davao Public Safety and Security Command Center (PSSCC), however, features a clip of Face Capture in use.

Law enforcement officials interviewed by The Intercept made light of human rights abuses, legal due process, and the official version of suspected assassinations by law enforcement, and rights campaigners and an unnamed U.S. official briefed by IBM about its Davao City contract said the company must have been aware of the human rights conditions it was operating in.

Now, Huawei is expected to supply facial recognition technology to the national command center of a “Safe Philippines” project, as the country turns away from American influence towards China.

Increasing partnerships carry risk

The set of questions posed by IBM’s involvement in law enforcement surveillance systems in the Philippines is reminiscent of the recent SenseNets data leak. The leak revealed the extent of biometric surveillance in Xinjiang, where more than a million people are believed to be held in “re-education centers,” and the possible use of Microsoft technology in that surveillance system.

Microsoft has denied involvement, but Foreign Policy reports that whether intentionally or not, American tech companies have provided expertise, credibility, and technology to Chinese surveillance companies.

Thermo Fisher Scientific and prominent geneticist Dr. Kenneth Kidd helped China’s DNA registration program in Xinjiang, and the company has since announced a policy to consider how its products will be used.

The Chinese government says its surveillance programs have led to 13,000 terrorism arrests, with the result that no terrorist attacks have taken place in the region for more than two years. The scale of arrests and the absence of incidents means that the assertion begs the very question it is intended to answer, however.

Foreign Policy offers the research partnership between MIT and SenseTime announced in February, 2018, when the facial recognition unicorn owned a now-divested 49 percent stake in SenseNets, as an example of potentially troubling cross-pollination. SenseNets owner NetPosa also owns stakes in U.S. robotics startup Bito and drone software company Exyn, which is participating in an artificial intelligence challenge from the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). NetPosa received investment funding from Intel in 2010, and has multiple offices in the U.S. iFlytek has also been identified as a technology supplier for Chinese government surveillance, and reached a collaborative agreement with MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) last June.

The Commerce Department issued a rulemaking proposal for controlling exports of emerging technologies in November that Foreign Policy suggests may be a good way to disentangle U.S. companies from the possible irresponsible or unethical uses of their technologies they say they are trying to prevent, but the details remain to be seen.

best practices  |  biometrics  |  China  |  Philippines  |  surveillance  |  United States


The Department of Science & Technology and IBM Collaborate to Build an Intelligent Operations Center for the Philippines | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

MANILA, Philippines, May 29, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and IBM (NYSE: IBM) today unveiled a new intelligent operations center to provide a central point of command for disaster management. The new center will help the Philippine government better manage ongoing and future disaster response and recovery efforts following Typhoon Yolanda in 2013.

Immediately following the typhoon, IBM donated an Impact Grant of technology and services. As part of the grant, IBM, in collaboration with trusted business partners, delivered the IBM Intelligent Operations Center (IOC) with an Integrated Communications System (ICS) that will facilitate better and more coordinated disaster management efforts with the DOST and across various government agencies.

The integrated solution will pull data from disparate sources into a common view, providing emergency managers with critical information such as advance warning for extreme weather events, feedback from first responders on the number of casualties and affected families, condition of buildings, roads, and infrastructure.  These distributed data sources provide analytics and scenario planning to streamline and integrate the government's response to disasters. In addition, the solution will enable advanced communications for first responders and emergency personnel. 

"Building on a trusted, long term relationship between IBM and their national government, IBM acted quickly to mobilize and launch an Impact Grant with two critical solutions: an Intelligent Operations Center for Emergency Management and an Integrated Communications System," said Secretary Mario Montejo, Department of Science and Technology.  "IBM's grant comes with two years of support, including an IBM-led transition team. This will ensure that they have the skills and expertise needed to fully maximize the power of this new technology to make Filipinos safer and more resilient to hazards such as Haiyan"

"In the wake of Typhoon Yolanda, IBM teams in the US and Philippines recognized both the enormity of the crisis and the opportunity to provide cutting edge technology," said Mariels Almeda Winhoffer, President and Country General Manager, IBM Philippines. "These solutions will address the government's need for better decision-making support and at the same time, provide a starting point to better manage future responses."

"IBM's Impact Grant to the Philippine Government - one of 350 grants they will award this year - demonstrates their corporate commitment to providing innovative technology that can assist at all phases of disaster," said Stanley S. Litow, IBM Vice President, Corporate Citizenship & Corporate Affairs and President, IBM Foundation.

The new facility, with an estimated market value of the grant is $3.5 million, is located in the Information and Communications Technology Office (ICTO) building, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.

Learn more about IBM Citizenship programs at www.ibm.com/responsibility

Contact Information

Owen CammayoExternal Relations LeaderIBM Philippines, IncPhone: (+632) 995-2519Mobile: (+632) 917-888-6936cammayol@ph.ibm.com

Donna MattoonIBM CommunicationsCorporate Citizenship & Corporate Affairs518-852-3113dbmattoo@us.ibm.com

Logo - http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20090416/IBMLOGOPhoto - http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20140528/92028

SOURCE IBM

Copyright (C) 2014 PR Newswire. All rights reserved



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