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The ICDL GCC groundwork, the governing physique of the overseas desktop riding License (ICDL) programme in the Gulf States, and the overseas faculty of Choueifat, part of the SABIS schooling system, which presently runs 31 inner most and government colleges in eleven international locations in four continents. SABIS regional workplace has signed an annual accreditation contract to implement the necessities and foreign requisites of the ICDL programme in the colleges. each and every Choueifat school may have an interior ICDL authorised checking out centre. ICDL checking out will develop into purchasable to all students and academics of those faculties. “here's a major flow that makes ICDL attainable to the pupil group of Choueifat faculties,” says Jamil Ezzo, director familiar, ICDL GCC groundwork. “The agreement comes in keeping with ICDL’s approach of encouraging the systematic educating of using computers in colleges, thereby presenting students with a powerful foundation to become ingenious and self-directed rookies.” ICDL has already been carried out with the aid of a big number of faculties and universities in the Arab world, whereas a few training ministries have made the programme mandatory for their body of workers. Ezzo says he expects the accreditation contract with the international colleges of Choueifat to inspire greater academic institutions to adopt the ICDL scheme to empower students with IT talents. The Choueifat schools in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, Al Ain, Doha will get hold of the accreditation, as will Ruwais inner most college and the modern schooling school in Oman, that are both run through Choueifat. “we're happy to obtain accreditation from the ICDL GCC basis, and they agree with the world-category ICDL qualification may give their college students a competitive aspect in their future careers, because the program is universally recognised,” says Ramzi Germanos, regional director of the international faculty of Choueifat. “Choueifat colleges have already got a strong computing device science syllabus that permits 12 to 13 year olds to circulate the ICDL exams and circulation on to greater difficult qualifications in computing device science. Passing the ICDL tests at an early age gives their college students an facet. teachers of all disciplines should be strongly inspired to gain this qualification,” Germanos provides. Choueifat college students should be able to take the ICDL checks within their school, so that they can now be reputable centres for the exams.
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Academia management solutions international (AMSI), a leading tutorial options provider, has signed a deal with ICDL GCC groundwork to install the ICDL application within its colleges throughout the GCC.
ICDL GCC basis is the governing physique and certification authority of the overseas computing device using Licence (ICDL) software in the Gulf place and Iraq.
AMSI manages the Al Mawakeb schools in Al Garhoud and Al Barsha, the foreign school of Arts & Sciences and the Lebanese school in Doha, Qatar.
under the phrases of the agreement, ICDL will accredit ICDL permitted practising and testing centres within AMSI faculties within the vicinity, whereas AMSI will contain the ICDL typical within its ICT syllabus.
The program can be provided to round 2,one hundred students starting from grades 7 to 12 and greater than 550 academics and college body of workers individuals in diverse AMSI schools in Dubai alone.
it's expected that round four hundred college students will be a part of the application yearly. throughout the ICDL authorised practising and testing centres, AMSI will also be capable of offer the ICDL program to fogeys and other contributors of the society.
George Akhras, CIO at AMSI, described the partnership as a tremendous step ahead in its continual efforts to promote digital awareness.
'we're confident that this could open up new alternatives for lengthy-term collaboration in other jointly a good suggestion tasks. AMSI college students and personnel individuals alike are very smitten by this new partnership as ICDL has been trendy worldwide for its center of attention on first-rate and excellence,' he introduced.
Jamil Ezzo, director familiar of ICDL GCC groundwork, mentioned that the support of academic associations turned into critical in advertising digital recognition across all sectors of society.
'we're very excited to receive AMSI’s endorsement as this could make ICDL attainable to the pupil community within its faculties and expand their attain to the academic sector,” he cited.
'ICDL and AMSI have also agreed to discuss and explore other expertise initiatives in assist of a considerable number of digital literacy courses which are designed to increase the laptop abilities of the common inhabitants in the GCC, he brought.-TradeArabia information provider
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2009 IEEE 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING 5
We trained networks with 4 0 ×40 neurons in each of L2/3,
L4,L5and L6layers of stereo feature-detection cortex (of
course there were 2×20 neurons in L1, as there is a one-
to-one correspondence between input and L1neurons). The
kparameter (the number of neurons allowed to ﬁre in each
layer) was set to 100 for the stereo feature-detection cortex,
and 5for the motor cortex. They set κ= 5 in Eq. 1 and α= 0.4
in Eq. 5 for all of the experiments, unless otherwise is stated.
A. The Advantage of Spatio-temporal 6-layer Architecture
Fig. 4 shows that applying top-down context signals in
single-layer architecture (traditional MILN networks ),
increases the error rate up to over 5pixels (we intentionally
set the relative top-down coefﬁcient, α, as low as 0.15 in this
case, otherwise the error rate would be around chance level).
As discussed in Section III, this observation is due the absolute
dominance of misleading top-down context signals provided
complex input (natural images in this study). On the other
hand, context signals reduce the error rate of the network to
a sub-pixel level in 6-layer architecture networks. This result
shows the important role of assistant layers (i.e. L5and L6)
in the laminar cortex to modulate the top-down and bottom-up
energies received at the cortex before mixing them.
0 2 4 6 8 10
Epochs of Training
Root Mean Square Error (pixel)
Eect of utilizing laminar architecture and temporal context
Single−layer architecture − Context enabled
Euclidean SOM updating rule
Single−layer architecture − Context disabled
Dot−product SOM updating rule
6−layer architecture − Context disabled
6−layer architecture − Context enabled
Fig. 4. How temporal context signals and 6-layer architecture improve
For comparison, they implemented two versions of Self-
Organizing Maps updating rules, Euclidean SOM and dot-
product SOM . With the same amount of resources, the
6-layer architecture outperformed both versions of SOM by
as much as at least 3times lower error rate.
B. Smoothly Changing Receptive Fields
In two separate experiments, they studied the topographic
maps formed in L2/3.
1) Experiment A – κ= 5:As depicted in Fig. 5a, the
disparity-probability vectors for neurons tuned to close-by
disparities are similar; neurons tuned to close-by disparities are
more likely to ﬁre together. Equivalently, a neuron in the stereo
feature-detection cortex is not tuned to only one exact dispar-
ity, but to a disparity range with a Gaussian-like probability for
different disparities (e.g. neuron nicould ﬁre for disparities
+1,+2,+3,+4,+5 with probabilities 0.1,0.3,0.7,0.3,0.1,
respectively). This fuzziness in neuron’s disparity sensitivity is
caused by smoothly changing motor initiated top-down signals
(κ > 1in Eq. 1) during training. Fig. 5b shows this effect on
topographic maps; having κ= 5 causes the regions sensitive
to close-by disparities quite often reside next to each other
and change gradually in neural plane (in many areas in Fig.
5b the colors change smoothly from dark blue to red).
2) Experiment B – κ= 1:However, if they deﬁne disparity
detection as a classiﬁcation problem, and set κ= 1 in Eq.
1 (only one neuron active in motor layer), then there is
no smoothness in the change of the disparity sensitivity of
neurons in the neural plane.
These observations are consistent with recent physiological
discoveries about the smooth change of stimuli preference
in topographic maps in the brain  and disparity maps in
particular , .
V. CO NC LUS ION
Presented is the ﬁrst spatio-temporal model of the 6-layer
architecture of the cortex which incorporated temporal aspects
of the stimuli in the form of top-down context signals. It
outperformed simpler single-layer models of the cortex by
a signiﬁcant amount. Furthermore, deﬁning the problem of
binocular disparity detection as a regression problem by train-
ing a few nearby neurons to relate to the presented stimuli
(as apposed to only one neuron in the case of classiﬁcation),
resulted in biologically-observed smoothly changing disparity
sensitivity along the neural layers.
Since the brain generates actions through numerical sig-
nals(spikes) that drive muscles and other internal body effec-
tors (e.g. glands), regression (output signals) seems closer to
what the brain does, compared to many classiﬁcation models
that have been published in the literature. The regression
extension of the MILN  has potentially a wide scope
of application, from autonomous robots to machines that can
learn to talk. A major open challenge is the complexity of the
motor actions to be learned and autonomously generated.
As presented here, an emergent-representation based binoc-
ular system has shown disparity detection abilities with sub-
pixel accuracy. In contrast with engineering methods that used
explicit matching between the left and right search windows,
a remarkable computational advantage of their work is the
potential for integrated use of a variety of image information
for tasks that require disparity as well as other visual cues.
Our model suggests a computational reason as to why there
is no top-down connection from L2/3to L4in laminar cortex;
to prevent the top-down and bottom-up energies received at the
cortex from mixing before they internally compete to sort out
Utilization of more complex temporal aspects of the stimuli
and using real-time stereo movies will be a part of their future
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Juyang Weng (S’85–M’88–SM’05–F’09) received
the B.S. degree from Fudan University, China, and
the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, all in computer
He is now a Professor at the Department of
Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan
State University, East Lansing. He is also a Faculty
Member of the Cognitive Science Program and the
Neuroscience Program at Michigan State. Since
the work of Cresceptron (ICCV 1993), he has
expanded his research interests to biologically inspired systems, especially
the autonomous development of a variety of mental capabilities by robots and
animals, including perception, cognition, behaviors, motivation, and abstract
reasoning skills. He has published more than 200 research articles on related
subjects, including task muddiness, intelligence metrics, mental architectures,
vision, audition, touch, attention, recognition, autonomous navigation, and
other emergent behaviors. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal
of Humanoid Robotics. He was a Member of the Executive Board of the
International Neural Network Society (2006–2008), Program Chairman of
the NSF/DARPA-funded Workshop on Development and Learning 2000 (1st
ICDL), Program Chairman of the Second ICDL (2002), Chairman of the Gov-
erning Board of the ICDL (2005–2007), and General Chairman of the Seventh
ICDL (2008) and Eighth ICDL (2009). He and his coworkers developed SAIL
and Dav robots as research platforms for autonomous development.
Dr. Weng is an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
AUTONOMOUS MENTAL DEVELOPMENT. He was Chairman of the Au-
tonomous Mental Development Technical Committee of the IEEE Compu-
tational Intelligence Society (2004–2005) and an Associate Editor of IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN RECOGNITION AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE and
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING.
Authorized licensed use limited to: Michigan State University. Downloaded on August 28, 2009 at 09:42 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
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