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The ICDL GCC groundwork, the governing physique of the overseas desktop riding License (ICDL) programme in the Gulf States, and the overseas faculty of Choueifat, part of the SABIS schooling system, which presently runs 31 inner most and government colleges in eleven international locations in four continents. SABIS regional workplace has signed an annual accreditation contract to implement the necessities and foreign requisites of the ICDL programme in the colleges. each and every Choueifat school may have an interior ICDL authorised checking out centre. ICDL checking out will develop into purchasable to all students and academics of those faculties. “here's a major flow that makes ICDL attainable to the pupil group of Choueifat faculties,” says Jamil Ezzo, director familiar, ICDL GCC groundwork. “The agreement comes in keeping with ICDL’s approach of encouraging the systematic educating of using computers in colleges, thereby presenting students with a powerful foundation to become ingenious and self-directed rookies.” ICDL has already been carried out with the aid of a big number of faculties and universities in the Arab world, whereas a few training ministries have made the programme mandatory for their body of workers. Ezzo says he expects the accreditation contract with the international colleges of Choueifat to inspire greater academic institutions to adopt the ICDL scheme to empower students with IT talents. The Choueifat schools in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, Al Ain, Doha will get hold of the accreditation, as will Ruwais inner most college and the modern schooling school in Oman, that are both run through Choueifat. “we're happy to obtain accreditation from the ICDL GCC basis, and they agree with the world-category ICDL qualification may give their college students a competitive aspect in their future careers, because the program is universally recognised,” says Ramzi Germanos, regional director of the international faculty of Choueifat. “Choueifat colleges have already got a strong computing device science syllabus that permits 12 to 13 year olds to circulate the ICDL exams and circulation on to greater difficult qualifications in computing device science. Passing the ICDL tests at an early age gives their college students an facet. teachers of all disciplines should be strongly inspired to gain this qualification,” Germanos provides. Choueifat college students should be able to take the ICDL checks within their school, so that they can now be reputable centres for the exams.

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Academia management solutions international (AMSI), a leading tutorial options provider, has signed a deal with ICDL GCC groundwork to install the ICDL application within its colleges throughout the GCC.

ICDL GCC basis is the governing physique and certification authority of the overseas computing device using Licence (ICDL) software in the Gulf place and Iraq.

AMSI manages the Al Mawakeb schools in Al Garhoud and Al Barsha, the foreign school of Arts & Sciences and the Lebanese school in Doha, Qatar.

under the phrases of the agreement, ICDL will accredit ICDL permitted practising and testing centres within AMSI faculties within the vicinity, whereas AMSI will contain the ICDL typical within its ICT syllabus.

The program can be provided to round 2,one hundred students starting from grades 7 to 12 and greater than 550 academics and college body of workers individuals in diverse AMSI schools in Dubai alone.

it's expected that round four hundred college students will be a part of the application yearly. throughout the ICDL authorised practising and testing centres, AMSI will also be capable of offer the ICDL program to fogeys and other contributors of the society.

George Akhras, CIO at AMSI, described the partnership as a tremendous step ahead in its continual efforts to promote digital awareness.

'we're confident that this could open up new alternatives for lengthy-term collaboration in other jointly a good suggestion tasks. AMSI college students and personnel individuals alike are very smitten by this new partnership as ICDL has been trendy worldwide for its center of attention on first-rate and excellence,' he introduced.

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'we're very excited to receive AMSI’s endorsement as this could make ICDL attainable to the pupil community within its faculties and expand their attain to the academic sector,” he cited.

'ICDL and AMSI have also agreed to discuss and explore other expertise initiatives in assist of a considerable number of digital literacy courses which are designed to increase the laptop abilities of the common inhabitants in the GCC, he brought.-TradeArabia information provider

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Temporal information as top-down context in binocular disparity detection | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


We trained networks with 4 0 ×40 neurons in each of L2/3,

L4,L5and L6layers of stereo feature-detection cortex (of

course there were 2×20 neurons in L1, as there is a one-

to-one correspondence between input and L1neurons). The

kparameter (the number of neurons allowed to fire in each

layer) was set to 100 for the stereo feature-detection cortex,

and 5for the motor cortex. They set κ= 5 in Eq. 1 and α= 0.4

in Eq. 5 for all of the experiments, unless otherwise is stated.

A. The Advantage of Spatio-temporal 6-layer Architecture

Fig. 4 shows that applying top-down context signals in

single-layer architecture (traditional MILN networks [14]),

increases the error rate up to over 5pixels (we intentionally

set the relative top-down coefficient, α, as low as 0.15 in this

case, otherwise the error rate would be around chance level).

As discussed in Section III, this observation is due the absolute

dominance of misleading top-down context signals provided

complex input (natural images in this study). On the other

hand, context signals reduce the error rate of the network to

a sub-pixel level in 6-layer architecture networks. This result

shows the important role of assistant layers (i.e. L5and L6)

in the laminar cortex to modulate the top-down and bottom-up

energies received at the cortex before mixing them.

0 2 4 6 8 10













Epochs of Training

Root Mean Square Error (pixel)

Eect of utilizing laminar architecture and temporal context

Single−layer architecture − Context enabled

Euclidean SOM updating rule

Single−layer architecture − Context disabled

Dot−product SOM updating rule

6−layer architecture − Context disabled

6−layer architecture − Context enabled

Fig. 4. How temporal context signals and 6-layer architecture improve

the performance.

For comparison, they implemented two versions of Self-

Organizing Maps updating rules, Euclidean SOM and dot-

product SOM [9]. With the same amount of resources, the

6-layer architecture outperformed both versions of SOM by

as much as at least 3times lower error rate.

B. Smoothly Changing Receptive Fields

In two separate experiments, they studied the topographic

maps formed in L2/3.

1) Experiment A – κ= 5:As depicted in Fig. 5a, the

disparity-probability vectors for neurons tuned to close-by

disparities are similar; neurons tuned to close-by disparities are

more likely to fire together. Equivalently, a neuron in the stereo

feature-detection cortex is not tuned to only one exact dispar-

ity, but to a disparity range with a Gaussian-like probability for

different disparities (e.g. neuron nicould fire for disparities

+1,+2,+3,+4,+5 with probabilities 0.1,0.3,0.7,0.3,0.1,

respectively). This fuzziness in neuron’s disparity sensitivity is

caused by smoothly changing motor initiated top-down signals

(κ > 1in Eq. 1) during training. Fig. 5b shows this effect on

topographic maps; having κ= 5 causes the regions sensitive

to close-by disparities quite often reside next to each other

and change gradually in neural plane (in many areas in Fig.

5b the colors change smoothly from dark blue to red).

2) Experiment B – κ= 1:However, if they define disparity

detection as a classification problem, and set κ= 1 in Eq.

1 (only one neuron active in motor layer), then there is

no smoothness in the change of the disparity sensitivity of

neurons in the neural plane.

These observations are consistent with recent physiological

discoveries about the smooth change of stimuli preference

in topographic maps in the brain [5] and disparity maps in

particular [4], [12].


Presented is the first spatio-temporal model of the 6-layer

architecture of the cortex which incorporated temporal aspects

of the stimuli in the form of top-down context signals. It

outperformed simpler single-layer models of the cortex by

a significant amount. Furthermore, defining the problem of

binocular disparity detection as a regression problem by train-

ing a few nearby neurons to relate to the presented stimuli

(as apposed to only one neuron in the case of classification),

resulted in biologically-observed smoothly changing disparity

sensitivity along the neural layers.

Since the brain generates actions through numerical sig-

nals(spikes) that drive muscles and other internal body effec-

tors (e.g. glands), regression (output signals) seems closer to

what the brain does, compared to many classification models

that have been published in the literature. The regression

extension of the MILN [14] has potentially a wide scope

of application, from autonomous robots to machines that can

learn to talk. A major open challenge is the complexity of the

motor actions to be learned and autonomously generated.

As presented here, an emergent-representation based binoc-

ular system has shown disparity detection abilities with sub-

pixel accuracy. In contrast with engineering methods that used

explicit matching between the left and right search windows,

a remarkable computational advantage of their work is the

potential for integrated use of a variety of image information

for tasks that require disparity as well as other visual cues.

Our model suggests a computational reason as to why there

is no top-down connection from L2/3to L4in laminar cortex;

to prevent the top-down and bottom-up energies received at the

cortex from mixing before they internally compete to sort out


Utilization of more complex temporal aspects of the stimuli

and using real-time stereo movies will be a part of their future


Dually Optimal Neuronal Layers: Lobe Component Analysis | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


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ison of neural ICA algorithms,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Artif. Neural Netw.

(ICANN’98), Skövde, Sweden, 1998, pp. 651–656.

[49] J.-F. Cardoso, “Blind signal separation: Statistical principles,” Proc.

IEEE, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 2009–2025, 1998.

[50] A. Hyvarinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Anal-

ysis. New York: Wiley, 2001.

[51] P. J. Huber, Robust Statistics. New York: Wiley, 1981.

Juyang Weng (S’85–M’88–SM’05–F’09) received

the B.S. degree from Fudan University, China, and

the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University

of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, all in computer


He is now a Professor at the Department of

Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan

State University, East Lansing. He is also a Faculty

Member of the Cognitive Science Program and the

Neuroscience Program at Michigan State. Since

the work of Cresceptron (ICCV 1993), he has

expanded his research interests to biologically inspired systems, especially

the autonomous development of a variety of mental capabilities by robots and

animals, including perception, cognition, behaviors, motivation, and abstract

reasoning skills. He has published more than 200 research articles on related

subjects, including task muddiness, intelligence metrics, mental architectures,

vision, audition, touch, attention, recognition, autonomous navigation, and

other emergent behaviors. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal

of Humanoid Robotics. He was a Member of the Executive Board of the

International Neural Network Society (2006–2008), Program Chairman of

the NSF/DARPA-funded Workshop on Development and Learning 2000 (1st

ICDL), Program Chairman of the Second ICDL (2002), Chairman of the Gov-

erning Board of the ICDL (2005–2007), and General Chairman of the Seventh

ICDL (2008) and Eighth ICDL (2009). He and his coworkers developed SAIL

and Dav robots as research platforms for autonomous development.

Dr. Weng is an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON


tonomous Mental Development Technical Committee of the IEEE Compu-

tational Intelligence Society (2004–2005) and an Associate Editor of IEEE



Authorized licensed use limited to: Michigan State University. Downloaded on August 28, 2009 at 09:42 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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