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CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Jan. 15, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) nowadays announced that IBM® MaaS360® with Watson™ has been named by Google as an Android business recommended solution for company-owned, BYOD, and committed contraptions.
IBM business enterprise logo. (PRNewsFoto/IBM company) (PRNewsFoto/) (PRNewsfoto/IBM)extra
Android enterprise suggested, a Google-led program, validates commercial enterprise Mobility administration (EMM) product choices which are developed to an expanded set of solution standards using superior Android enterprise facets that prioritize up to date administration the right way to aid enterprise valued clientele utilize the best of Android. Android commercial enterprise recommended EMMs dwell existing with the newest platform facets and work carefully with Google to offer regularly knowledgeable workforce, tested substances and relied on advice to make certain a consistent, a hit deployment.
traditionally, counsel expertise and safety leaders have carried out cell equipment administration (MDM) and commercial enterprise mobility administration (EMM) options as a way to assist manage and relaxed cell instruments in the commercial enterprise. With the introduction of laptops, computers, wearables and cyber web of things (IoT) devices in an ever-altering latitude of endpoints and commercial enterprise use situations, teams need a platform that offers visibility and handle over their endpoint and cellular environment: unified endpoint administration (UEM). MaaS360 is the best platform that promises an AI method to UEM to enable endpoints, end users, and everything in between — including apps, content material, and facts.
MaaS360 offers the visibility and handle IT must support at ease Android smartphones, tablets, IoT, and ruggedized contraptions within the enterprise. MaaS360 contains assist for Android within the commercial enterprise, Samsung Knox and Android version 2.2 and higher. With equal-day help for the latest Android OS edition, Pie (9.0), clients benefit immediate entry to the newest security and productiveness functionality available through the platform.
"With big Android commercial enterprise activations for MaaS360, now they have prioritized no longer only the product roadmap to make sure their shoppers can undertake the Android commercial enterprise answer sets, however additionally practicing and enablement for the IBM revenue and guide agencies to most beneficial assist the platform." said John Nielsen, providing supervisor, MaaS360, IBM safety. "With the consistency that Android business gives customers throughout a lot of Android producers, they don't expect the adoption style to slow down any time quickly."
MaaS360 and Android Integrations
MaaS360 changed into one of the first UEM/EMM options to support the Android working device, beginning lower back in 2010. With the unencumber of Android commercial enterprise zero-touch enrollment, various shoppers have deployed the answer leveraging Android enterprise through MaaS360. Android 9 Pie offers new performance already supported by using MaaS360, such as more desirable lock down mode, native help for shared gadgets, and streamlined QR code enrollment.
in addition to working with main know-how vendors to assist the newest platform updates, performance and standards, MaaS360 is committed to supplying a most appropriate in category AI and analytics experience for IT & protection specialists and their employees. during the past yr, MaaS360 has introduced quite a number characteristic enhancements designed to help the benefit, velocity, and self belief in decision-making bearing on endpoints and their commonplace use within the enterprise.
using the UEM's cognitive capabilities, MaaS360 coverage advice Engine dynamically displays concepts right through configuration to aid directors verify their inputs are in alignment with that of their friends throughout passcode, container, restrictions, and greater. MaaS360 Assistant, the first-ever AI sidekick for the mobile employee, is designed to help raise mobile productiveness whereas chopping down the extent of standard end-person help inquiries. business Dashboards for Apps helps groups song ROI on their enterprise app investments, clearing up which were found out, which haven't, and which are crashing – highlighting those that want essentially the most attention and prioritization.
IBM MaaS360 with Watson is available for a 30-day free trial: https://www.ibm.com/maas360-trial
To discover extra about how IBM and Google have partnered for successful Android adoption within the commercial enterprise, be a part of their upcoming January thirty first webinar: https://experience.on24.com/wcc/r/1898869/E41647FDCF214C008DE864A962F1295E?partnerref=PR
Google and Android are emblems of Google LLC.
About IBM security IBM safety presents one of the crucial superior and integrated portfolios of commercial enterprise security products and capabilities. The portfolio, supported by using world-favorite IBM X-drive® research, allows for organizations to comfortably control chance and guard towards emerging threats. IBM operates one of the crucial world's broadest security research, development and birth groups, screens 60 billion security hobbies per day in more than a hundred thirty nations, and has been granted more than 10,000 security patents global. For more advice, please determine www.ibm.com/protection, follow IBMSecurity on Twitter or talk over with the IBM safety Intelligence weblog.
CONTACT: Dillon Townsel firstname.lastname@example.org 512-571-3455
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IBM Corp. introduced nowadays the launch of the IBM Blockchain Founder Accelerator application to give choose enterprise builders carry blockchain networks into construction quicker.
The accelerator is the first program attainable from IBM and should provide developers access to technological guide, felony and business knowledge in dispensed ledger expertise and IBM’s own blockchain ecosystem.
with a purpose to top-rated serve new enterprise ventures into blockchain know-how, the Founder Accelerator application gives one-on-one mentorship and support via community founders and technologists across a number of knowledge comparable to company case development, community membership incentives, technical building, governance and prison concerns.
Blockchains, trusted and cryptographically secured distributed ledgers, have seen use throughout a lot of industries together with banking economic services, healthcare and civil executive. every application and industry brings distinct challenges for a building crew to overcome together with determination of the assets to be secured, how to comfy them and often what prison and regulatory issues deserve to be addressed.
“Blockchain is a group activity,” said Marie Wieck, normal supervisor of blockchain expertise at IBM. “With the correct community of members participating on the blockchain, the advantages can be exponential.”
To help application membership, Wieck brought that IBM is proactively building solutions and full blockchain ecosystems designed to operate in numerous industries. “we are sharing their capabilities and materials to aid more companies directly install their networks,” she mentioned.
Kevin Ellison, chief executive officer of Schedule1 Inc., a developer of delicate statistics coverage options, noted that IBM’s information proved “worthwhile in accelerating the building and delivery of their blockchain-based functions.”
Schedule1, as a issuer of safety and privateness options, Ellison explained, needed to navigate the can charge and complexity of complying with regulatory necessities such as the european’s new usual records insurance plan law. IBM would bring to undergo the same competencies used to assist Schedule1 for brand spanking new blockchain ventures involved in the accelerator application.
software participants will gain access to agile design “bootcamps” designed to assist builders quickly construct, iterate and launch blockchain networks in Design pondering Workshops. Technical and enterprise mentors from IBM research crew on growing blockchain options will additionally assist individuals in understanding and using IBM Hyperledger material, which is IBM’s blockchain answer (together with a venture hosted by means of The Linux basis), to benefit skills in blockchain techniques.
IBM intends to make its own technology obtainable to participants, including IBM Blockchain solutions by way of IBM’s cloud platform Bluemix and Hyperledger. To make this ensue, all software members will acquire as much as $a hundred and twenty,000 value of IBM Cloud credit to allow them to make full use of IBM’s ecosystem of products.
The IBM Cloud capabilities attainable to program membership consist of document shop, a security-wealthy atmosphere for document storage; the Provenance Engine, a comprehensive historical past of industry property and transactions with the skill to track asset owner, location and status; the system Engine, a workflow orchestration gadget on right of the blockchain network for tamper-resistant doc protection and authorization; and Member management and Onboarding, identification administration of members within the blockchain network, including registration and safety roles of member organizations and individual users.
To get the IBM Blockchain Founder Accelerator software up and operating, IBM will select eight new blockchain network founders by way of June 2 throughout a number industries corresponding to banking, logistics, manufacturing and retail.
program access is first-come, first-serve and is payment-primarily based with two tiers for members. At tier 1 the investment cost is $a hundred,000 and comprises all the alternatives mentioned above. The tier 2 the investment can charge is $250,000, which also contains a six-week business community build out with IBM’s Bluemix storage, startup developer accelerator.
applications for the IBM Blockchain Founder Accelerator program are now purchasable before June 2.graphic: IBM considering you’re right here …
… We’d want to let you know about their mission and how that you could help us fulfill it. SiliconANGLE Media Inc.’s company model is in line with the intrinsic cost of the content, not promoting. unlike many on-line publications, they don’t have a paywall or run banner advertising, as a result of they need to hold their journalism open, devoid of have an impact on or the should chase traffic.The journalism, reporting and commentary on SiliconANGLE — along with live, unscripted video from their Silicon Valley studio and globe-trotting video groups at theCUBE — take a lot of challenging work, time and money. preserving the nice high requires the help of sponsors who are aligned with their imaginative and prescient of ad-free journalism content material.
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IBM has been working with an utility developer startup called Lightbend Inc. on synthetic intelligence, cognitive and different dispensed functions, most destined to run within the cloud. The startup announced this week that IBM has prolonged their collaboration by leading a $15 million funding round that also includes Intel Capital and a group of challenge capital backers.
Launched in 2011 below the identify Typesafe, Lightbend changed into headquartered by Martin Odersky, creator of the Scala programming language. becoming a member of IBM (NYSE: IBM) and Intel (NASDAQ: INTC) within the early funding round were Bain Capital Ventures, Blue Cloud Ventures, Juniper Networks and Shasta Ventures.
along with Scala, Lightbend's claim to fame is a "reactive" software development platform for constructing allotted functions. The platform leverages micro-services together with "speedy records" on a message-pushed run time. The approach is designed to aid scale enterprise functions on cloud infrastructure.
The companions noted IBM would prolong its collaboration with San Francisco-based Lightbend through integrating its hybrid cloud offerings with the Scala development platform. those choices consist of WebSphere and Analytics, IBM Cloud and the Watson information Platform. The aggregate is meant to aid developers the usage of the Java virtual computer and related languages equivalent to Java and Scala.
among the many desires of the collaboration is extending AI and cognitive applied sciences to application builders, the partners mentioned Monday (July 10).
The funding in Lightbend's software development platform is designed basically to improve IBM's cognitive computing strategy as it fleshes out it Watson ecosystem. "Java and Scala are the languages of cognitive and AI development, and cognitive building is the long run,” Bob Lord, IBM's chief digital officer, asserted in a statement saying the funding.
The expanded collaboration additionally calls for IBM and Lightbend to strengthen new code and equipment for developing Java- and Scala-based mostly cognitive functions on the Lightbend platform. IBM also promotes the partnership as a way for users of its Java-based mostly Websphere application and integration middleware to leverage their investment.
The companions in the past introduced plans to carry micro-features to the Websphere platform. The collaborations potential Websphere users would get aid for working micro-services, Lightbend observed.
for the reason that large facts frameworks such because the Akka toolkit and runtime together with Kafka and Apache Spark are based on Scala, the partnership would additionally help streaming information and other huge records purposes.
"This funding from IBM and the development work we’re embarking upon is a natural progression of their work to help superior cognitive application building," noted Mark Brewer, Lightbend's president and CEO. "IBM brings critical code and equipment to their customers and the Java and Scala communities. IBM’s aid of Lightbend and the Reactive Platform is a validation of their shared vision for helping builders construct dispensed functions for the new world of cloud computing architectures."
concerning the writer: George Leopold
George Leopold has written about science and know-how for more than 30 years, specializing in electronics and aerospace expertise. He in the past served as executive editor of electronic Engineering times. Leopold is the writer of "Calculated possibility: The Supersonic lifestyles and instances of Gus Grissom" (Purdue college Press, 2016).
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The prospect of a new language coming to a platform is always reason for excitement. New languages bring new capabilities, or at least faster ways to tap into existing capabilities. The question for those living and working on the IBM i platform is what language will come next?
RPG remains the go-to language used by the vast majority developers on the IBM i platforms. According to the 2019 survey by HelpSystems, 84 percent of coders on the box use RPG. COBOL, RPG’s partner in legacy crime, is also supported in the Rational Development for IBM i RDi, along with C and C++ compilers. Java has also been big for a number of years.
In the mid-2000s, IBM made a big splash with PHP and its partnership with Zend Technology, the backers of the open source language, which is now controlled by Rogue Wave Software. More recently, IBM has been bringing even more languages to the box, including Python, Perl, and Node.js. Even Microsoft’s .NET is now running on IBM i via the open source Mono project, which they have recently covered in these pages.
So what’s next for IBM i in the world of languages that can actually run on the Power line of processors? There are rumblings that Go could be the next in line.
Go was originally developed by Google to streamline the development of applications running in parallel across multi-node clusters of commodity X86 boxes. The first line of Go code was laid down in 2007, and the language was released to the public in 2012. Since then, it has become one of the most popular languages in the world.
Go (which is sometimes called “Golang”) is a static-typed, compiled language that is syntactically similar to C, which programmers say make it relatively easy to read. The language offers features like memory safety and garbage collection that users say help Go to create secure and performant programs. It ships with a standard library, but there are many other open source libraries available too. The language features its own built-in testing tool, which is appreciated by some users.
Google is said to have developed Go largely in reaction to Oracle taking over Java. Google had been a big user of Java before Oracle’s acquisition of Sun Microsystems, and the company was reportedly concerned that Java’s future would be controlled by Oracle. While it resembles C to some extent, Go is said to have been developed as the antithesis of C++, which its creators reportedly loathed.
In his blog “Brave New Geek,” software engineer Tyler Treat elaborates on what makes Go tick. “Go makes it easy to write code that is understandable,” he writes. “There’s no magic like many enterprise Java frameworks and none of the cute tricks you’ll find in most Python or Ruby codebases. The code is verbose but readable, unsophisticated but intelligible, tedious but predictable.”
Some IBMers have said that they’re working on porting Go to IBM i. If true, the port would almost certainly be via PASE, which is the technology giant’s preferred route to bringing new software to the platform these days, especially software that’s open source.
Other possible candidates for IBM i include Erlang, a language that traces its roots back to 1986, when it was developed by Ericsson as a proprietary language for telephony applications. Erlang was released as open source in 1998, and today
Another candidate could be Swift, the object-oriented, static-typed language from Apple. Swift builds extensively upon Objective-C, which is another programming language from Apple that builds upon C and is the primary language for developing iOS mobile apps.
Unlike Objective-C, however, Swift is used more extensively on servers. In fact, since Swift was open sourced under an Apache 2 license in 2015, the language has even made it to IBM’s z Systems mainframe via the IBM Toolkit for Swift on z/OS. Could such a toolkit bring Swift to IBM i?
There are other languages that could eventually make their way to IBM i. There are JVM-compatible languages like Groovy, Scala, and Kotlin that are garnering a fair bit of attention, not to mention languages like Julia and Rust that are finding followers. The AIX team at IBM is also doing some work to support emerging compiler technology, such as Clang and LLVM, which could portend some future PASE-level enhancements for IBM i.
Bringing new languages to IBM i seems like a good idea. After all, it puts new tools in the hands of application developers, while allowing a new group of developers to write applications that run on IBM i. But not everybody is thrilled with the idea that more syntaxes make for a stronger ecosystem.
Instead of getting existing developers to learn new languages, some say IT departments are better off bolstering their development teams with skills like database design, project management, and technical writing.
For some, having a well-rounded development team that can develop, deploy, and maintain applications – as opposed to just knowing the latest, greatest language – is the critical factor that’s missing in so many IT departments these days.
Whichever camp you find yourself in – the one eager to welcome new languages into the IBM i ecosystem or the one yearning for more well-rounded developers using existing technologies – the topic of application development strategies on the IBM i platform is an important one.RELATED STORIES
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A short list of the most transformative products of the past century and a half would include the lightbulb, Ford’s Model T—and the IBM System/360. This mainframe series forever changed the computer industry and revolutionized how businesses and governments worked, enhancing productivity and making countless new tasks possible.
In the years leading up to its 7 April 1964 launch, however, the 360 was one of the scariest dramas in American business. It took a nearly fanatical commitment at all levels of IBM to bring forth this remarkable collection of machines and software. While the technological innovations that went into the S/360 were important, how they were created and deployed bordered on disaster. The company experienced what science policy expert Keith Pavitt called “tribal warfare”: people clashing and collaborating in a rapidly growing company with unstable, and in some instances unknown, technologies, as uncertainty and ambiguity dogged all the protagonists.
Ultimately, IBM was big and diverse enough in talent, staffing, financing, and materiel to succeed. In an almost entrepreneurial fashion, it took advantage of emerging technologies, no matter where they were located within the enterprise. In hindsight, it seemed a sloppy and ill-advised endeavor, chaotic in execution and yet brilliantly successful. They live in an age that celebrates innovation, so examining cases of how innovation is done can only illuminate their understanding of the process.
By the end of the 1950s, computer users faced a seemingly intractable problem. Had it not been solved, it would have prevented computers from becoming widespread, and any thoughts of living in an Information Age would have been fiction.Photo: IBM The S/360 was designed to replace IBM’s 1401 mainframe, which was popular but couldn’t be expanded or upgraded.
Organizations were acquiring computers in great numbers, automating many of the old punch card operations and doing more with data processing. The popularity of the IBM 1401 illustrates the rapid adoption of computing. Over 12,000 of these systems were sold from their introduction in 1959 to 1971, when IBM retired the line.
With the 1401 so dominating the computer business, any problems with it were serious. One of them was that the 1401 was too small.
Users found these machines so useful that they kept piling more work on them, reaching the system’s capacity. They then had three options: move to a bigger IBM system, such as an IBM 7000, install a competitor’s system, or acquire more 1401s. None of these options was attractive. To change to a bigger system required rewriting software, since the old software would not work on a different type of machine. The cost of rewriting could easily exceed the financial benefits of moving to a bigger machine. Such a change also called for retraining staff or hiring new staff familiar with the new system. Adding more units of the same system was equally unattractive because each unit required duplicate staff, equipment, and maintenance of hardware and software. Customers wanted systems that were “upgradable” or “compatible,” such that as their needs grew, they could bring in larger machines but still run the same software and peripheral equipment. In the 1950s and early 1960s, it was a wish, and for vendors an aspiration.
IBM had worse problems than its customers did. The 1401s were proving so popular that engineers in Endicott, N.Y., which had developed the system, resisted attempts by their counterparts in Poughkeepsie to build larger computers, leading to growing rivalry between the two groups. As one engineer recalled, “So intense was it that sometimes it seemed to exceed the rivalry with external competitors.” Systems made by Poughkeepsie would not run programs written for the 1400 series. Customers wanting to move from the smaller 1400s to the larger Poughkeepsie machines put increasing pressure on IBM to provide compatibility. Senior management had to contend with the expenses of sustaining R&D for a half-dozen incompatible product lines and training IBMers to sell and maintain so many systems.
Consensus grew that IBM needed to get down to one system to simplify production, reduce the cost of R&D, and be more competitive against a growing array of rivals. If customers had to upgrade in the early 1960s, they could just as easily move to a competitor’s machine, since they would have to rewrite their software anyway.
The power of compatibility was demonstrated in the fall of 1960, when IBM introduced the more powerful 1410 to replace the 1401. Software and peripheral equipment for the 1401 worked with the newer machine. Customers and IBM sales loved that fact. Poughkeepsie’s engineers were close to completing work on a set of four computers known as the 8000s that were compatible with the 7000s.Photo: IBM To get the S/360 off the ground, T. Vincent Learson compelled engineering factions within IBM to cooperate.
T. Vincent Learson—known as Vin or T.V.—was in charge of future product development as the vice president of manufacturing and development. A gifted problem solver, he knew he had to move quickly to break down the rivalry between Endicott and Poughkeepsie. IBM’s CEO at the time, Thomas J. Watson Jr., later described what happened: “He did it by applying a management technique called ‘abrasive interaction.’ This means forcing people to swap sides: taking the top engineer from the small-computer division and making him boss of the best development team in the large-computer division. A lot of people thought this made about as much sense as electing Khrushchev president.”
Learson replaced the Poughkeepsie manager in charge of the 8000 project with Bob O. Evans, who had served as the engineering manager for the 1401 and 1410. Evans favored compatibility across all future products. After 90 days in his new role, Evans recommended that work on the 8000s be stopped and that both sites begin working “to develop a total cohesive product line.” He also proposed a bold new base technology for all future systems, called Solid Logic Technology (SLT), to make IBM’s machines more competitive.
Frederick P. Brooks Jr., who led the design team for the 8000, fought back. Evans and Brooks were formidable opponents. The two engineers both had years of experience running engineering and product development activities at IBM, and they were articulate and highly respected by their staffs and senior management. Brooks was not as high ranking as Evans, so Learson brought in Jerrier A. Haddad, who had spent the previous two years in charge of the Advanced Engineering Development Division, to study the proposed approaches of Evans and Brooks. Haddad recommended going with Evans’s ideas, and Learson killed the 8000 project in May 1961.
Bob Evans immediately asked Brooks to develop the plan for a compatible family of computers. Brooks was flabbergasted, but he accepted, and with that the two engineering communities stopped feuding and began collaborating. There were still opponents in the company, but no matter—the trajectory toward a common system had been set.Photos: IBM Bob O. Evans [left] recommended killing IBM’s larger 8000 mainframe in favor of a new line of compatible computers. Frederick P. Brooks Jr. [middle], who led the 8000’s design, objected, but Jerrier A. Haddad [right] sided with Evans. Evans then asked Brooks to work on the new line, which became the S/360.
Learson also assigned John W. Haanstra, president of the General Products Division, which produced the 1400s, to chair an internal task force called SPREAD (for Systems Programming, Research, Engineering, and Development), with Evans as vice chair. Brooks later joined the task force. In December 1961, the group presented its technical recommendations.
Their report called for five compatible computers, labeled processors (defined as the computer, its memory, and channels to connect to peripheral equipment). The software and peripherals for one processor were to work with all other processors. The plan called for using standard hardware and software interfaces between computers and peripherals, such as between disk drives and tape drives connecting to computers, so that the peripherals did not have to be swapped out when a new processor was installed. The recommendations became the basis for the System/360.
Because so much would be new, the processors would not be compatible with IBM’s existing products. That was an enormously important point. Customers moving to the new IBM machines would have to rewrite existing software just once to get on the path of the new system.
Then, IBM got a lucky break. As one engineer wrote, “Almost miraculously [Evans’s] vision of the new product line was saved by a last-minute technical accomplishment. In mid-1963, engineers in the Poughkeepsie and Endicott laboratories had begun exploring the possibility of adding special microcode to the control stores of computers to improve their performance when simulating earlier IBM computers.” This function would allow 1401 software to run in the two smaller models of the proposed new system, only faster. Sales got on board, and its executives began pressuring R&D and manufacturing management for early introduction of the new processors.
Watson recognized what was at stake, as he recalled in his memoirs:
From the beginning they faced two risks, either of which was enough to keep us awake at night. First there was the task of coordinating the hardware and software design work for the new line. They had engineering teams all over America and Europe working simultaneously on six new processors and dozens of new peripherals…but in the end all of this hardware would have to plug together. The software was a bigger hurdle still. In order for System/360 to have a common personality, hundreds of programmers had to write millions of lines of computer code. Nobody had ever tackled that complex a programming job, and the engineers were under great pressure to get it done.
A second set of problems involved manufacturing the electronic components for the new systems. The electronics industry was starting to work on integrated circuits, and the new computers were going to be filled with these new components. To be independent, IBM had to make its own. It proved to be an expensive proposition.
Eventually, the corporate management committee, including Watson and the board of directors, sucked in a deep breath and approved the SPREAD recommendations. IBM was off to the races in the wildest ride of its history.
IBM could not hide what was going on. New employees flocked to Endicott, Poughkeepsie, and other labs and plants. Customers heard rumors, the computer press was speculating, and executives at GE, Honeywell, Sperry Univac, and elsewhere were trying to anticipate what IBM would do.
At IBM, nobody seemed satisfied with progress on the new system. Engineering, manufacturing, sales, and corporate staff were in many cases working 100-hour weeks. Engineers moved cots into their offices. When Watson stopped in to see how programming was going, an engineer yelled at him to get out so he could work. The chairman of IBM beat a hasty retreat.Photos: IBM On 7 April 1964, a train from New York City’s Grand Central Terminal shuttled reporters to Poughkeepsie, where IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. officially unveiled the System/360.
It all became public at noon eastern time in the United States on 7 April 1964. Over 100,000 customers, reporters, and technologists met in 165 U.S. cities, while others gathered around the world over the next few days to hear the news. As Watson declared at a press conference in Poughkeepsie, it was “the most important product announcement in the company’s history.”Photo: Mark Richards/Computer History Museum Among the System/360’s 44 peripherals was the 2311 disk storage drive. Each removable disk pack stored 7.25 megabytes.
On that day, IBM introduced a mind-boggling 150 new products: 6 computers; 44 peripherals, including tape drives, disk drives, printers, and control units; and a promise to provide the software necessary to make everything work together. The press packet was an inch thick, and manuals describing all the machines, components, software, and their installation and operation filled more than 50 linear feet.
The central feature of the System/360 was, of course, its compatibility. A growing data center could install a small 360 computer and later upgrade to a larger one without rewriting software or replacing peripheral equipment. Once familiar with the system, one did not have to learn a great deal more to handle an upgrade. The name 360 was chosen to suggest the idea of 360 degrees, covering everything.
In the first month following the S/360 announcement, customers worldwide ordered over 100,000 systems. To put that number in perspective, in that same year in the United Kingdom, all of Western Europe, the United States, and Japan, there were slightly more than 20,000 computers of any kind installed. The first deliveries of the smaller machines were promised for the third quarter of 1965, and deliveries of the larger ones in the first quarter of 1966. The delay between announcement and shipping date gave customers time to decide which models to acquire, get them approved and budgeted, plan on where to house them, train staff, complete software remediation, and so forth. With the April announcement, IBM bought itself two years to make good on its promises and knock competitors back on their heels.
From 7 April to when the company started delivering machines to customers, IBM entered the most dangerous, intense, and challenging era of its history. The company spent US $5 billion (about $40 billion today) to develop the System/360, which at the time was more than IBM made in a year, and it would eventually hire more than 70,000 new workers. Every IBMer believed that failure meant the death of IBM.
As Watson later recalled, “Not all of the equipment on display [on 7 April] was real; some units were just mockups made of wood. They explained that to their guests, so there was no deception. But it was a dangerous cutting of corners—not the way I think business ought to be done—and an uncomfortable reminder to me of how far they had to go before they could call the program a success.”
Watson assigned his brother, Arthur, to manage engineering and manufacturing going forward. Learson would run sales for the new system, “twisting the tails of their salesmen.” Tom Watson Jr. thought Learson had the more difficult task. The risk of customers converting to someone else’s machines rather than to the S/360 greatly concerned Watson.Photo: IBM IBM promised to begin delivering the first S/360 machines in the third quarter of 1965. Production problems emerged almost immediately.
As the number of orders for the S/360 kept increasing, manufacturing was asked in 1965 to double production. One production manager said it could not be done and was replaced. Quality declined. Some of the electronic circuits within an SLT, for example, were not complete, so electrons could not go where they were supposed to. By the end of the year, the quality control department had impounded 25 percent of all SLT modules, bringing production to a halt.Photo: IBM With the S/360, IBM introduced its solid logic technology (SLT), a precursor to integrated circuits. Doubling the production of the S/360 in 1965 led to defects in a quarter of the SLT modules.
After the problems were solved, manufacturing proceeded in 1966, resulting in 90 million SLT modules bring produced, compared to just 36 million the previous year. IBM opened a new plant in East Fishkill, just south of Poughkeepsie, which made more semiconductor devices than all other manufacturers worldwide combined. Production also expanded to new facilities in Burlington, Vt., and in Corbeil-Essonnes, France.
To resolve manufacturing problems with the ferrite-core memories, IBM set up a plant in Boulder, Colo., in 1965. But it took the craftsmanship of workers in Japan to get the production of memories up to the required amounts and quality.Photo: Mark Richards/Computer History Museum The S/360’s ferrite-core memory also proved extremely tricky to manufacture. This plane contains 1,536 memory cores.
As manufacturing became a worldwide effort, new problems arose in coordinating activities and fabricating machines. Arthur Watson had some experience managing IBM’s small factories outside the United States but none with resolving engineering problems, let alone massive global problems in development and manufacturing. He was out of his league, and his brother challenged him to resolve the problems. Meanwhile, Learson and his sales teams wanted additional improvements to the product line. Relations between Learson and Arthur completely deteriorated. In October 1964, IBM announced significant delays in shipping products.
Tom removed Arthur from his job and turned over his responsibilities to Learson, who in turn brought in four engineering managers to punch through the problems. Nicknamed the “four horsemen,” they had full authority worldwide for getting the S/360 manufactured and delivered to customers. Their collection of problems, one of the managers noted later, was “an absolute nightmare,” “a gray blur of 24-hour days, seven days a week—never being home.” And yet, in five months, they had worked out enough of the problems to start meeting delivery dates. In January 1966, Learson became president of IBM.Photos: IBM Facing unacceptable production delays, Learson brought in [left to right] Henry E. Cooley, Clarence E. Frizzell, John W. Gibson, and John Haanstra, who sorted out manufacturing problems worldwide and got the S/360 back on track.
Arthur was shunted into the role of vice chairman. His career was broken, and he retired in 1970. In his memoirs, Tom Watson Jr. admitted to being in a nearly continuous panic from 1964 to 1966 and deeply regretted his treatment of Arthur. “I felt nothing but shame and frustrations at the way I’d treated him…. As it was, they remade the computer industry with the System/360, and objectively it was the greatest triumph of my business career. But whenever I look back on it, I think about my brother I injured.”
Software problems also slowed production of the 360. The software development staff was described as being in “disarray” as early as 1963. The operating system, called OS/360, struggled to run more than one job at a time, which was essential to making the S/360 fast and productive. Other problems surfaced with telecommunications and with application programs. Programming support became another contentious issue.
Fred Brooks volunteered to help, and IBM added 1,000 people to the operating system project, costing the company more for software in one year than had been planned for the entire development of the S/360 system. But throwing more programmers at the project did not help. Based on the S/360 experience, Brooks would later expand on that theme in The Mythical Man-Month (Addison-Wesley, 1975), still one of the most widely read books on computing. The software would take years to complete, but in the end it worked well enough to keep the shipping delay to one month.Photo: IBM A System/360 arrives at Tokai Bank in Japan. Demand for computing grew enormously in the years following the S/360’s launch.
Despite the costs and anxiety, in 1965—the year IBM had committed to shipping the first units to customers—it managed “by some miracle” (Watson’s words) to deliver hundreds of medium-size S/360s. Their quality did not always match the original design specifications. Shortages of parts, other parts that did not work, and software filled with bugs spread to many countries. Almost every initial customer encountered problems.
Branch offices were hiring systems engineers to help. SEs were college graduates, usually with technical degrees, who knew how to debug software and assisted the sales force in selling and supporting computers. The SEs heroically tackled S/360’s software problems, while field engineers, who installed equipment, fixed hardware problems. Salesmen calmed their customers, while branch managers worked to keep their staffs motivated and focused.
And despite the many problems, “customers were still ordering 360s faster than they could build them,” Watson recalled, forcing delivery dates out as much as three years. By the end of 1966, customers had taken delivery of nine models of the S/360, for a total of 7,700.
IBM’s competitors responded. Burroughs, GE, Honeywell, NCR, and Sperry Rand, operating largely in the United States, CII in France, and ICT (later ICI) in Great Britain introduced systems compatible with one another’s machines, but not compatible with IBM’s. A second, smaller group chose to manufacture machines that were compatible with IBM’s, including RCA and others in Europe and Japan, relying on RCA’s licenses.Photo: IBM NASA purchased a number of S/360s, including this one at Goddard Space Flight Center. Several others at mission control in Houston were used to monitor Apollo 11.
Five years later, the worldwide inventory of installed IBM computers had grown to $24 billion, while that of competitors had reached $9 billion. In other words, IBM’s S/360 increased overall demand for computing so massively that it raised all boats. The industry’s annual growth in the second half of the 1960s was in double digits year over year, as many thousands of organizations expanded their use of computers. Demand for computing grew because of the technological innovations brought forth by IBM, but also because users were accumulating enough experience to understand a computer’s value in driving down costs and performing new functions.
IBM also grew, more than doubling from 127,000 employees worldwide in 1962 to 265,000 by the end of 1971. Revenue rose from $3.2 billion in 1964 to $8.2 billion in 1971.Photo: IBM The S/360 reinforced IBM’s domination of the global computer business. One executive, asked whether the company would ever take on another such project, replied, “Hell no, never again.”
Because the S/360 was the heart of much computing by the end of the 1960s, its users constituted a world of their own. Thousands of programmers only knew how to use software that ran on S/360s. Additional thousands of data-processing personnel had worked only with IBM equipment, including keypunch machines, printers, tape drives, disk drives, and software, which in many instances took years to master. By the early 1970s the computing space was largely an IBM world on both sides of the Atlantic, in the emerging markets in Latin America, and in Japan.
Years later, when asked whether IBM would ever engage in such a massive project again, one executive barked out, “Hell no, never again.” Watson tilted toward a similar reaction. Commenting in 1966, he said, “At their size, they can’t go 100 percent with anything new again,” meaning anything that big. After the 360, Watson made it a policy “never to announce a new technology which will require us to devote more than 25 percent of their production to that technology.”
The generation that brought out the S/360 remained unique in the company, a special clan bonded ferociously to IBM. Careers had been made and broken, personal lives and marriages upended. IBMers did not know at the time how extensively their products would change the world, but they do.
This article is based on excerpts from IBM: The Rise and Fall and Reinvention of a Global Icon (MIT Press, 2019).
James W. Cortada is a senior research fellow at the University of Minnesota’s Charles Babbage Institute. He worked at IBM for 38 years in sales, consulting, managerial, and research positions.
Students walk between classes past the bronze stag statue on the Fairfield University campus in Fairfield, Conn. on Wednesday, November 15, 2017.
Students walk between classes past the bronze stag statue on the Fairfield University campus in Fairfield, Conn. on Wednesday, November 15, 2017.Photo: Brian A. Pounds / Hearst Connecticut Media
Photo: Brian A. Pounds / Hearst Connecticut Media
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Students walk between classes past the bronze stag statue on the Fairfield University campus in Fairfield, Conn. on Wednesday, November 15, 2017.
Fairfield University professor predicts 'quantum' leap in new computing
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(The Conversation is an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts.)
Computers were once considered high-end technology, only accessible to scientists and trained professionals. But there was a seismic shift in the history of computing during the second half of the 1970s. It wasn’t just that machines became much smaller and more powerful — though, of course, they did. It was the shift in who would use computers and where: They became available to everyone to use in their own home.
Today, quantum computing is in its infancy. Quantum computation incorporates some of the most mind-bending concepts from 20th-century physics. In the U.S., Google, IBM and NASA are experimenting and building the first quantum computers. China is also investing heavily in quantum technology.
As the author of “Quantum Computing for Everyone,” due out in March, I believe that there will be an analogous shift toward quantum computing, where enthusiasts will be able to play with quantum computers from their homes. This shift will occur much sooner than most people realize.
Rise of personal computers
The first modern computers were constructed in the 1950s. They were large, often unreliable, and by today’s standards, not particularly powerful. They were designed for solving large problems, such as developing the first hydrogen bomb. There was general consensus that this was the sort of thing that computers were good for and that the world would not need many of them.
Of course, this view turned out to be completely wrong.
In 1964, John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz wrote the BASIC language. Their goal was to design a simple programming language that would be easy to learn and would enable anyone to program. As a result, programming was no longer solely for highly trained scientists. Anyone could now learn to program if they wanted to.
This shift in computing continued when the first home computers appeared in the late 1970s. Hobbyists could now buy their own computer and program it at home. Parents and children could learn together. These first computers were not very powerful and there were a limited number of things that you could do with them, but they had an extremely enthusiastic reception.
As people played with their machines, they realized that they wanted more features and more power. The founders of Microsoft and Apple understood that the home computer had a bright future.
Almost every American now owns a laptop, tablet or smartphone – or all three. They spend a lot of time on social media, e-commerce and searching the internet.
None of these activities existed in the 1950s. Nobody at the time knew that they wanted or needed them. It was the availability of a new tool, the computer, that led to their development.
Classical computation, the kind of computation that powers the computer in your home, is based on how humans compute. It breaks down all computations into their most fundamental parts: the binary digits 0 and 1. Nowadays, their computers use bits – a portmanteau word from binary digits – because they are easy to implement with switches that are either in the on or off position.
Quantum computation is based on how the universe computes. It contains all of classical computing, but also incorporates a couple of new concepts that come from quantum physics.
Instead of the bits of classical computation, quantum computing has qubits. However, the outcome from a quantum computation is exactly the same as that from a classical computation: a number of bits.
The difference is that, during the computation, the computer can manipulate qubits in more ways that it can with bits. It can put qubits in a superposition of states and entangle them.
Both superposition and entanglement are concepts from quantum mechanics that most people are not familiar with. Superposition roughly means that a qubit can be in a mixture of both 0 and 1. Entanglement denotes correlation between qubits. When one of a pair of entangled qubits is measured, that immediately shows what value you will get when you measure its partner. This is what Einstein referred to as “spooky action at a distance.”
The mathematics needed for a full description of quantum mechanics is daunting, and this background is needed to design and build a quantum computer. But the mathematics needed to understand quantum computation and to start designing quantum circuits is much less: High school algebra is essentially the only requirement.
Quantum computing and you
Quantum computers are only just starting to be built. They are large machines that are somewhat unreliable and not yet very powerful.
What will they be used for? Quantum computing has important applications in cryptography. In 1994, MIT mathematician Peter Shor showed that, if quantum computers could be built, they would be able to break current internet encryption methods. This spurred the construction of new ways of encrypting data that can withstand quantum attacks, launching the age of post-quantum cryptography.
It also looks as though quantum computing will probably have a large impact on chemistry. There are certain reactions that classical computers have difficulty simulating. Chemists hope that quantum computers will be efficient at modeling these quantum phenomena.
But I don’t think it makes much sense to speculate about what most people will be doing with quantum computers in 50 years. It may make more sense to ask when quantum computing will become something that anyone can use from their own home.
The answer is that this is already possible. In 2016, IBM added a small quantum computer to the cloud. Anyone with an internet connection can design and run their own quantum circuits on this computer. A quantum circuit is a sequence of basic steps that perform a quantum calculation.
Not only is IBM’s quantum computer free to use, but this quantum computer has a simple graphical interface. It is a small, not very powerful machine, much like the first home computers, but hobbyists can start playing. The shift has begun.
Humans are entering an age when it is straightforward to learn and experiment with quantum computation. As with the first home computers, it might not be clear that there are problems that need to be solved with quantum computers, but as people play, I think it’s likely they will find that they need more power and more features. This will open the way for new applications that they haven’t yet imagined.
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article here: http://theconversation.com/in-the-future-everyone-might-use-quantum-computers-112063.
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Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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