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C9010-022 IBM AIX Administration V1

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C9010-022 exam Dumps Source : IBM AIX Administration V1

Test Code : C9010-022
Test Name : IBM AIX Administration V1
Vendor Name : IBM
: 262 Real Questions

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IBM IBM AIX Administration V1

IBM Patches New security Flaws in Java, OpenSSL | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

April 3, 2019 Alex Woodie

IBM this week patched a series of flaws in IBM i’s Java ambiance, together with a pair of very serious issues in the OpenJ9 runtime that could allow far flung attackers to execute arbitrary code, apart from a series of much less-severe Java vulnerabilities. The company also mounted a brand new flaw present in IBM i’s OpenSSL implementation.

a complete of seven Java flaws that have an impact on IBM i versions 7.1 through 7.3 have been addressed with one safety bulletin issued by IBM on March 29. IBM issued neighborhood PTFs for each and every unlock of the operating equipment to handle them. A single OpenSSL flaw additionally affects IBM i 7.1 through 7.3 and changed into handled the use of two PTFs, while a flaw in WebSphere application Server gets one patch for IBM i.

both most serious flaws both have an effect on Eclipse OpenJ9, which is the brand new name that’s been utilized to IBM’s pre-current J9 Java virtual machine (JVM) that it has used across many of its products, including IBM i, Linux, and AIX working systems, as well as a considerable number of middleware items, such because the WebSphere software Server.

With the first flaw, labeled CVE-2018-12547, a far flung attacker might ship a chunk of malicious code to exploit a buffer overflow vulnerability in Eclipse OpenJ9 working on IBM i, and thereby gain the potential to execute arbitrary code on the device or cause the equipment to crash. The flaw carries a CVSS base score of 9.eight out of 10, which means it’s an extremely severe hazard.

The second flaw, labeled CVE-2018-12549, could permit a far flung attacker to execute arbitrary code by means of exploiting a “failure to pass over a null verify on the receiver object of an dangerous call when accelerating it,” the malicious program document says. This flaw also contains a CVSS base rating of 9.8 and is regarded a very dangerous vulnerability.

The remaining five flaws aren't practically as serious. probably the most serious amongst these is a flaw in edition eight of AIX’s IBM SDK, Java know-how version, which may allow an attacker to inject code or elevate their privilege. This flaw, which is known as CVE-2018-1890 and carries a CVSS base rating of 5.6, more often than not impacts AIX and Db2 for LUW, but IBM is including a patch in the IBM i PTFs anyway.

The neighborhood PTFs include IBM i patches for 3 “unspecified vulnerabilities” in a considerable number of Oracle Java common edition (SE) add-ons. A flaw in Oracle’s Java SE’s Libraries element (CVE-2019-2422) may enable an unauthenticated attacker to reap delicate counsel. A flaw in the Java SE’s Deployment element (CVE-2019-2449) could allow an unauthenticated attacker to trigger a denial of carrier (DOS) attack. A flaw in Java SE’s Networking element (CVE-2019-2426) might permit an unauthenticated attacker to attain delicate tips. These three flaws carry CVSS base ratings of three.1 to 3.7.

The closing fix in the neighborhood PTF of Java protection vulnerability fixes addresses a flaw in an vague C library. CVE-2018-11212 address a flaw in libjpeg, which is a everyday C library used for analyzing and writing JPEG photo info. The vulnerability become given a CVSS base ranking of three.three.

all the above security flaws were addressed with three group PTFs. IBM i 7.1 users are encouraged to practice SF99572 stage 35. IBM i 7.2 users should still follow SF99716 level 20. And IBM i 7.three purchasers should put SF99725 level 12 on their techniques as quickly as possible. There are not any workarounds for any of these flaws.

On March 29, IBM issued a different protection bulletin informing IBM i consumers that it has fixed a flaw in the OpenSSL encryption library, which has been one of the vital trojan horse-ridden pieces of group code on the gadget in contemporary memory.

the brand new OpenSSL flaw, labeled CVE-2019-1559, might enable a far off attacker to examine encrypted records “led to by means of the failure to immediately close the TCP connection after the hosts come upon a nil-size checklist with legitimate padding.” This vulnerability may well be exploited by using a “0-byte record padding-oracle assault” to decrypt site visitors, IBM says.

This OpenSSL flaw includes a CVSS base ranking of 5.8. as soon as once more, there are not any workarounds for this flaw. IBM recommends IBM i 7.1 clients to practice PTF number SI69329, while IBM i 7.2 and 7.3 clients are directed to PTF quantity SI69336.

ultimately, IBM has issued a patch to fix a DOS vulnerability in WebSphere application Server led to by incorrect managing of request headers. The flaw, labeled as CVE-2019-4046, influences become types 7.x, 8.x, and 9.x, and the freedom server edition 19.x, working on IBM i, AIX, Linux, HP-UX, Solaris, z/OS, Mac OS, and windows operating techniques.

happy patching!

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Tags: Tags: AIX, CVSS, Db2 for LUW, Denial of carrier, DOS, HP-UX, IBM i, Java, Java virtual computing device, JVM, Linux, Mac OS, OpenJ9, OpenSSL, PTF, Solaris, WebSphere application Server, home windows, z/OS

consideration Synon clients: which you can Automate Your move To RPG Free kind And DevOps IBM Clarifies Java alternatives Following Oracle License Crackdown


IBM PowerVM: Product Overview and insight | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

See the complete listing of superior server virtualization software.

base line:

IBM PowerVM can virtualize AIX, IBM Linux, and IBM i customers working on its power server platform. certainly, it is likely one of the most full featured virtulization classes available on the market – no shock, given IBM's deep legacy in the information core.

however may additionally no longer be the simplest platform to enforce. it will require consultants to installation it. as a result, mid-sized and big companies should still do satisfactory, however SMBs could be most suitable to prevent it unless they can afford outside help. IBM PowerVM is geared exceptionally for today's superior facts centers with annoying application workloads.

Product Description:

IBM PowerVM can consolidate distinctive workloads onto fewer methods, expanding server utilization and decreasing charge. PowerVM offers a relaxed and scalable server virtualization environment for AIX, IBM i and Linux purposes built upon the RAS elements of the energy methods platform. in brief, its hypervisor is reasonably bendy. it could possibly assist give capabilities within the cloud sooner by automating deployment of VMs and storage. it might probably also aid dispose of downtime by means of are living mobility between servers.

PowerVM 2.2.6 gives you commercial enterprise-grade virtualization, presenting the groundwork for cloud computing on IBM power techniques. it can efficiently share elements amongst purposes, consolidate distinct workloads, and provide the utility mobility in a multi-cloud infrastructure. It is said to raise resource utilization, cut back working prices, and provide a extra agile atmosphere for IBM AIX, IBM i, and IBM Linux applications running on power methods.

within the most contemporary liberate, IBM has extra tightly integrated PowerVM with the vigor platform. every POWER9 server comes with POWERVM commercial enterprise version. there's also a common edition as well as an IBM PowerVM, Linux edition. PowerVM average edition contains the following accessories:

  • Micro-Partitioning know-how
  • N-Port identity Virtualization (NPIV)
  • Partition droop and resume is supported on POWER8 processor-based mostly servers when the firmware is at degree 8.4.0, or later.
  • PowerVM NovaLink
  • Shared processor swimming pools
  • Shared storage pools
  • Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV)
  • skinny provisioning
  • virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
  • digital network Interface Controller adapters
  • “It has been very authentic with little to no downtime. they have been in a position to stretch their IT greenbacks because the refresh cost on IBM energy can run for years. additionally, they now have been in a position to add many extra VMs to actual machines than other systems can run,” observed an information core supervisor in manufacturing.

    Servers/operating techniques:

    AIX, Linux and IBM i customers

    “Our enterprise utilizes VMware and PowerVM. VMware is person friendly and makes supporting home windows OS more straightforward. PowerVM is relocating in that course. PowerVM is improved in for you to prioritize workloads across distinctive VMs and be granular for your reservation of cores and digital CPUs. PowerVM means that you can alter VM traits while the VM is up and operating,” pointed out a gadget Admin in oil & gasoline.

    Implementation:

    PowerVM is a software down load.

    Scalability:

    up to one thousand VMs on a single server.

    Overhead:

    10% to fifteen%

    administration:

    administration tools equivalent to Hardware administration Console (HMC), integrated Virtualization manager (IVM), and PowerVC help to combination and manage components through the use of a consolidated logical view. you could allocate processors to partitions in increments of 0.01, which allows for multiple partitions to share the processing energy of the device. When the firmware is at degree 7.6, or later, micropartitions can also be described as small as 0.05 of a processor and may be changed in increments as small as 0.01 of a processor. A optimum of 20 micropartitions can also be created per core.

    A operating AIX, Linux, or IBM i logical partition will also be suspended along with its working equipment and purposes. that you would be able to share reminiscence among partitions in a shared memory pool, by using PowerVM active reminiscence Sharing. energy Virtualization performance (PowerVP) is a efficiency monitoring solution that provides distinctive and actual-time counsel about virtualized workloads that are running on vigor methods. that you can use PowerVP to bear in mind how virtual workloads use resources, to investigate efficiency bottlenecks, and to make suggested choices about aid allocation and virtualized machine placement.

    Patching/Backup:

    provided by different IBM vigour equipment.

    Migration:

    that you would be able to migrate an active or inactive AIX, Linux, or IBM i logical partition from one device to yet another through the use of are living Partition Mobility.

    safety:

    vigor techniques give a secured server platform. POWER9 hardware and firmware make it even more comfortable for cloud deployment with key elements for PowerVM servers. Implementation includes:

  • A cozy IPL process or cozy Boot which only permits platform manufacturer signed Hostboot and vigor Hypervisor (PHYP) related firmware up through and together with Partition Firmware (PFW) to run on the system.
  • A framework to guide faraway Attestation of the system firmware stack via a hardware relied on Platform Module (TPM).
  • Key Markets:

    Virtualization for AIX, Linux and IBM i valued clientele running IBM energy structures.

    “It could be over engineered for smaller functions. youngsters, if the infrastructure is in vicinity you can utilize it to run Linux VMs as well,” mentioned a device Admin in Oil & gas

    charge:

    starting at $590 per core, free with another IBM items.

    Product

    IBM PowerVM

    platforms

    AIX, Linux and IBM i purchasers

    Scalability

    one thousand VMs on a single server

    Overhead %

    10 to fifteen

    Markets

    Virtualization for AIX, Linux and IBM i purchasers working IBM vigour platforms

    can charge

    $590 per core

    Migration

    movement lively or inactive VMs

    Key Differentiator

    just right for IBM environments

    IBM power methods academic Initiative Reaches nearly 600 colleges worldwide | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    ARMONK, N.Y., may also 6, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- The IBM (NYSE: IBM) energy methods academic Initiative (PSAI) these days reached a huge milestone with nearly 600 taking part colleges now in the software.

    The PSAI is an creative bendy program designed to support schools and universities in the schooling of students in power programs applied sciences and concepts. The program presents faculty and excessive faculty faculty a lot of tutorial materials and materials to expand and raise their curricula. best of all, there are not any charges linked to participating in the software.

    Spanning the globe

    The PSAI has witnessed greater than 300 p.c increase in the variety of member faculties over the closing four years by myself. PSAI's 600 colleges span sixty seven international locations across six continents.   This boom will provide IBM clients worldwide with a vast range of qualified graduates with energy programs knowledge.

    PSAI academic choices encompass IBM power systems classes protecting Linux on power, IBM i, and AIX operations and administration. The course catalog, which is purchasable at PSAI's OnTheHub storefront, contains newbie, intermediate and advanced classes for each operating equipment.  furthermore, the power systems academic Cloud is available to faculty members for research and instructing applications and carries vigor methods that run Linux on energy, IBM i and AIX.  college students can additionally access PSAI's North AmericaJob Board, which is up to date each day with entry-degree and internship alternatives.

    vigor programs educational Initiative

    take a look at the energy techniques academic Initiative and learn greater concerning the schools around the world that are instructing the next era of IBM power systems administrators, programmers, and tips technology consultants.

    For a complete listing of PSAI participating faculties or for more tips about the program, please consult with: http://www.ibm.com/institution/vigor.

    Contact:Courtney LowellIBM Media RelationsCourtney.lowell@ibm.com 512-599-1676

    To view the usual version on PR Newswire, talk over with:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ibm-vigour-systems-academic-initiative-reaches-just about-600-faculties-international-300452714.html

    supply IBM

    Copyright (C) 2017 PR Newswire. All rights reserved


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    IBM AIX Administration V1

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    Risk Analytics as a Service v4.1.0 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Summary

    Brinqa Risk Analytics is an IT risk management and vulnerability risk management platform that provides a consolidated view of an organization’s risk factors. The Brinqa Risk Analytics Administration console enables data integration from security products and other data sources that are not able to “talk” to each other. Brinqa applications aggregate risk data, define and manage risk models, measure return on investment and risk reduction, and review metrics and trends. 

    The Brinqa Risk Analytics platform console provides users with wizards for completing various tasks and navigational features that are consistent throughout the application. The console is setup in a series of panels, with each related to one of the risk module wizards. Users have a common view of data across all modules including risk management, vendor risk management, threat and vulnerability management and incident management. 

    This is a risk object driven tool. Users start by manually importing assets using the connectors that come with the product. Policies are also imported. The user interface walks users through mapping object to domains and domains to workflows. Brinqa has an open content framework that has some light content out of the box, but users will more than likely import their own. Setting up the connectors, models, controls and process workflows are manual, but they are fully reusable. The risk assessment module is passed on PCI control sets. Assessments are used to collect data. Users have some pre-built content and a wizard to develop one’s own. Assessment lifecycle management includes stages for creating, answering and reviewing assessments with stage notifications built in. 

    The reporting and analytics capabilities were impressive. The approach Brinqa took to designing the data management system, i.e. Big Data architecture, really makes it easy to aggregate data across all areas and create ad-hoc on-the-fly reports and dashboards. The reporting module is graphical and business intelligence driven. The analytics capabilities, what-if analysis and trending were also well done. Using the analytics tools users can create metrics across any sets of data and even create useful, focused metrics to track things like incident management, virus protection, patch management, vulnerability management and change management metrics. The useful part of the analytics tool was that these metrics had a lot of additional information beyond simple counts. Some example metrics include mean time to mitigate metrics, percentages of systems patched as an example, SLA management, and frequency of threats/vulnerabilities. 

    Brinqa can be deployed as a cloud-based solution or as on-premise software. The supported server platforms for on-premise include: Oracle Solaris 9, 10; HP-UX 11iv2, 11iv3, IBM AIX 5.2, 5.3, 6.1; Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 3, 4, 5; OpenSolaris 2008.05, 2008.11, 2009.06; SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 SP2, 10, 11; Windows NT 4.0; Windows Server 2000, 2003, 2008; Windows Vista/XP, Windows 7, z/OS v1.6 – 1.11. The application server is supported on Apache Tomcat, Oracle WebLogic Server, IBM WebSphere, Sun Java System Application Server, Sun GlassFish Enterprise Server. Supported database systems include IBM DB2 9.1, 9.5, 9.7; Microsoft SQL Server 2000 SP3, 2005, 2008; MySQL 5.0, 5.1; Oracle 10g, 11g.

    Basic support is included in the license fee and includes phone and email access, and 24/7 access is by online support portal. No other support options were provided. Documentation is built-in and accessible from the application. 


    Scalable Software manages clusters of servers. | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Press Release Summary:

    Cluster Systems Management v1.4 on AIX and Linux facilitates tasks of installing, operating, and maintaining servers. Supporting JS20 Blades, AIX 5L V5.3, and POWER5, program includes utilities and documentation to assist PSSP customers in moving clusters to CSM. Program allows user to copy files across nodes or node groups in cluster. Support for up to 1,024 nodes on xSeries fulfills larger enterprise opportunities, situations, and requirements.

    Original Press Release: IBM Cluster Systems Management V1.4 - Scalable Management Platform Makes Administration Even Easier

    OverviewCluster Systems Management (CSM) can help lower the overall cost of IT ownership by helping to simplify the tasks of installing, operating, and maintaining clusters of servers. CSM provides one consistent interface for managing both AIX®and Linux(TM) nodes, with capabilities for remote parallel network install, remote hardware control, and distributed command execution.

    New with IBM CSM V1.4 on AIX 5L and Linux:o Optional IBM CSM High Availability Management Server (HA MS) feature on Linux or AIX 5L V5.2, which is designed to allow automated failover of the CSM management server to a backup management server.o Sample scripts for setting up NTP, automounter, and network tuning (CSM V1.4 on AIX only) configurations to help improvecluster ease of use and site customizationo Capability to copy files across nodes or node groups in theclustero Support for representing additional parts of the cluster asnon-node devices in the cluster, and allowing the CSM management server to be able to show status of these non-nodedevices as well as to power on/off the devices if there is remote power capability

    Specific product enhancements:o CSM for Linux on POWER(TM):- Support on the IBM eserver pSeries® servers and BladeCenter(TM) JS20 running SUSE SLES 8 and Red Hat AS 3.0- Cluster scaling on each POWER4(TM) Hardware Management Console (HMC) up to 32 physical systems and 64 operating system images,and on each POWER5(TM) HMC up to 16 physical systems and 64 operating system images- A remote console for the JS20 to provide ease of administration and RAS- Greater install flexibility with ability to install over anyEthernet interfaceo CSM for Linux on e325 and xSeries®:- Support for up to 1024 nodes on xSeries fulfills larger enterprise opportunities, situations, and requirements.- Support for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (EL) 3.0- A remote console for the BladeCenter HS20 can provide ease of administration and RAS.- Greater install flexibility with ability to install over anyEthernet interface.o CSM for AIX 5L:- Support for new AIX 5L V5.3 and new POWER5 servers.- Cluster scaling on each POWER4 HMC up to 32 physical systems and 64 operating system images, and on each POWER5 HMC up to16 physical systems and 64 operating system images.- Utilities and documentation to assist you in moving your IBMParallel System Support Programs (PSSP) clusters to CSM for AIX 5L. This set of tools and documentation can be used to analyze, plan, and accomplish your transition to CSM.

    At a glanceCSM is designed to provide a robust, powerful, and centralizedway to manage a large number of xSeries and POWER machines -all from one single point of control. CSM V1.4 provides new function, including support for JS20 Blades, AIX 5L V5.3, and POWER5, and utilities and documentation to assist PSSP customers in moving their clusters to CSM, and a highly available management server option.New with CSM V1.4 on AIX and Linux:o Increased scaling capabilitieso Support of new IBM hardware and softwareo Enablement of Kerberos 5 security for remote commandso IBM CSM High Availability Management Server (HA MS) feature, designed to provide automated failover of the CSM management server to a backup management server

    For ordering, contact:Your IBM representative, an IBM Business Partner, or the Americas Call Centers at 800-IBM-CALL Reference: RE001

    Key prerequisitesRuns on AIX 5L, SUSE, Red Hat, and IBM Cluster 1350, Cluster1600, and selected pSeries and xSeries servers

    Planned availability dateAugust 20, 2004

    Related Thomas Industry Update Thomas For Industry

    Linux System Initialization | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    As the title indicates, I will discuss, in one form or another, how Linux system initialization works. System initialization starts where the kernel bootup ends. Among the topics I intend to explain include system initialization à la Slackware—a BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) knock-off—as well as System V (five) initialization à la Red Hat, Caldera, Debian, et al., and also point out the differences between them. You'll soon see that the systems are truly more similar than they are different, despite appearances to the contrary. I will also cover passing switches through LILO to init during the boot process—this is used mostly for emergencies.

    What I will not discuss (for brevity's sake) are the details in some of Red Hat's, Caldera's or other initialization scripts, specifically configuration information found in the /etc/sysconfig or /etc/modules directories. For those details, you're on your own. Besides, those details are more subject to change from one release to the next.

    BSD vs. System V

    Back in the days when UNIX was young, many universities obtained “free” copies of the operating system (OS) and made improvements and enhancements. One was the University of California at Berkeley. This school made significant contributions to the OS, which were later adopted by other universities. A parallel development began in a more commercial environment and eventually evolved into what is now System V. While these two parallel systems shared a common kernel and heritage, they evolved into competing systems. Differences can be found in initialization, switches used by a number of common commands (such as ps: under BSD, ps aux is equivalent to System V's ps -ef), inter-process communications (IPC), printing and streams. While Linux has adopted System V inits for most distributions, the BSD command syntax is still predominant. As for IPC, both are available and in general use in Linux distributions. Linux also uses BSD-style printcaps and lacks support for streams.

    Under initialization, the biggest difference between the two (BSD and System V) is in the use of init scripts. System V makes use of run levels and independent stand-alone initialization scripts. Scripts are run to start and stop daemons depending on the runlevel (also referred to as the system state), one script per daemon or process subsystem. System V states run from 0 to 6 by default, each runlevel corresponding to a different mode of operation; often, even these few states are not all used. BSD has only two modes (equivalent to System V's runlevels), single-user mode (sometimes referred to as maintenance mode) and multi-user mode. All daemons are started essentially by two (actually more like four to six ) scripts—a general systems script, either rc.K or rc.M for single- or multi-user mode, respectively, a local script and a couple of special scripts, rc.inet and rc.inet2. The systems script is usually provided by the distribution creator; the local script is edited by the system administrator and tailored to that particular system. The BSD-style scripts are not independent, but are called sequentially. (The BSD initialization will be most familiar to those coming from the DOS world.) The two main scripts can be compared to config.sys and autoexec.bat, which, by the way, call one or two other scripts. However, the likeness ends there. Having only these few scripts to start everything does not allow for the kind of flexibility System V brings (or so say some). It does, however, make things easier to find. In System V circles (but only in System V circles), BSD initialization is considered obsolete—but what do they know? Like a comfortable pair of shoes, it won't be discarded for a very long time, if ever.

    Recall that earlier I said Slackware did a BSD knock-off, and yet it still uses the rc.S/rc.M, et al., scripts. This is because inittab, (which we'll look at later) uses the same references to runlevels, and uses those (very much System V) runlevels to decide which scripts to run. In fact, the same init binary is used by all the distributions I have looked at, so there is really less difference between Slackware and Red Hat or Debian than appears on the surface, not at all like older BSD systems that reference only modes “S” or “M”.

    init: Where It All Begins

    Once the kernel boots, they have a running Linux system. It isn't very usable, since the kernel doesn't allow direct interactions with “user space”. So, the system runs one program: init. This program is responsible for everything else and is regarded as the father of all processes. The kernel then retires to its rightful position as system manager handling “kernel space”. First, init reads any parameters passed to it from the command line. This command line was the LILO prompt you saw before the system began to boot the kernel. If you had more than one kernel to choose from, you chose it by name and perhaps put some other boot parameters on the line with it. Any parameters the kernel didn't need, were passed to init. These command-line options override any options contained in init's configuration file. As a good inspection of what's really going on will tell you, runlevels are just a convenient way to group together “process packages” via software. They hold no special significance to the kernel.

    When init starts, it reads its configuration from a file called inittab which stands for initialization table. Any defaults in inittab are discarded if they've been overridden on the command line. The inittab file tells init how to set up the system. Sample Slackware, Red Hat and Debian inittabs are included later in this article.

    inittab Specifics

    Reading inittab, we'll be skipping any lines that begin with a “#”, since these are comments and ignored by init. The rest of the lines can be easily read as many other typical UNIX-like configuration tables, i.e., each column is separated by a “:” (id:runlevel:action:process) and can be read as follows:

  • id: This first column is a unique identifier for the rest of the line. On newer Linux systems, it may be up to four alphanumeric characters long, but is typically limited to two. Older systems had a two-character limitation, and most distributions have not changed that custom.

  • runlevel: The second column indicates what runlevel(s) this row is valid for. This column may be null or contain any number of valid runlevels.

  • action: This can be several different things, the most common being respawn, but can also be any one of the following: once, sysinit, boot, bootwait, wait, off, ondemand, initdefault, powerwait, powerfail, powerokwait, ctrlaltdel or kbrequest.

  • process: This is the specific process or program to be run.

  • Each row in inittab has a specific, unique identifier. Normally, you will want this to be something easily associated with the specific action performed. For example, if you want to put a getty on the first serial port, you might use the identifier s1. When I execute w to see what processes are running, I can more easily identify who is logged in via the modem on com1 when that user is identified as being on s1.

    The runlevels are identified as 0 to 6 and A to C by default. Runlevels 0, 1 and 6 are special and should not be changed casually. These correspond to system halt, maintenance mode and system reboot, respectively. Changing runlevel 1, for example, can have far-reaching consequences. Note that to enter maintenance mode (state 1), you can pass init (via telinit2) the argument 1. Alternately, you can use S or s for maintenance mode. If you change what transpires for state 1, the same changes will apply when S or s is passed. However, runlevels 2 through 5 can be customized as desired.

    Many systems have the command runlevel (usually found in /sbin). Executing this command will output the previous runlevel and the present runlevel as follows: N 2. The N indicates no previous runlevel. If you make a change, say, to state 3 and then reissue the runlevel command, you'll see 2 3.

    Since a good demonstration will illustrate better than just telling you about it, try this on your system. (Note that I have done this successfully on Debian 1.3 and a few others, such as an older Red Hat [perhaps 3.0], but not many others, so your mileage may vary.) As root (only root can tell init to change states), issue the init command. You should see a usage message telling you to pass init an argument consisting of a number from 0 to 6, the letters A to C or S or Q. Lowercase letters are syntactically the same as their uppercase counterparts. If you pass init anything other than legal values, you should receive this same usage message. Now pass init the argument 8, as in init 8 (or telinit 8, if you wish). If nothing appears to happen, don't worry. Now type runlevel again, and you should see 2 8. If you don't have runlevel on your system, try ps ax | grep init and you may see init [8]. You may or may not see the runlevel listed in square brackets. Once you have confirmed that you actually did change to runlevel 8, change back to your previous runlevel. Note that, should your gettys die, they won't respawn at this runlevel, so you could have a problem logging in again after you log out. If you are unsure what your default runlevel is, look in inittab near the top for a line where the first column is id and the third is initdefault. The second column in this line is the default runlevel. An example line looks like this:

    id:3:initdefault

    This demonstration was designed to show you that while runlevels 7 to 9 are undocumented, they actually are available for use should you need them. (I'll explain later why nothing happened when you changed states). They aren't used only because it's not customary. The customizable states for Linux (2 through 5) are usually more than sufficient for anyone.

    The letters A to C are used when you want to spawn a daemon listed in inittab and have this “runlevel” designation on a one-time basis (on demand). Therefore, telling init to change to state C doesn't change the runlevel, it just performs the action listed on the line where the runlevel is listed as C. Perhaps you want to put a getty on a port to receive a call, but only after receiving a voice call first (not every time). Let's further suppose you want to be ready to receive either a data call or a fax call, and when you get the voice message, you'll know which you want. You can put two lines in inittab, each with its own ID, and each with a runlevel such as A for data and B for fax. When you know which you need, you simply spawn the appropriate one from a command line: telinit A or telinit B. The appropriate getty will be put on the line until the first call is received. Once the caller terminates the connection, the getty will drop, because by definition, an on-demand process will not respawn.

    The other two letters, S and Q, are special. As I noted earlier, S will bring your system to maintenance mode which is the same as changing state to runlevel 1. The Q is necessary to tell init to reread inittab. inittab may be changed as often as required, but will be read only under certain circumstances: one of its processes dies (do they need to respawn another?), on a powerfail signal from a power daemon (or the command line), or when told to change state by telinit. So the Q argument will tell init, “I've changed something, please reread the inittab.”

    Before I delve into sections grouped by distribution, I'd like to emphasize that they don't stand alone. Each of the following sections will complement the others.

    Slackware (BSD) inittab

    Let's take a look at the sample Slackware inittab in Listing 1. I've numbered the lines for easy reference. The numbers don't appear in your inittab—your inittab will begin two spaces to the right of the line numbers. Within the inittab file, lines beginning with a “#” sign are disabled and left as explanatory remarks or examples for possible future use. Be sure to read all the comments throughout; they were inserted to help you and may give you a hint on how to better customize your own inittab. Most programs, such as mgetty or efax, that were meant to run from inittab come with examples of how to implement them.

    Since you already know how to read a line (id:runlevel(s):action:process), I'm going to cover only those few lines of special interest.

    As I've already mentioned, Slackware isn't a true BSD system in the old style. Rather than having just a single-user mode and multi-user mode, it actually uses runlevel 3 as its default runlevel. It runs a system initialization script first, rc.S. This script is designed to be run only once at bootup. Then it runs rc.M. It skips the line with rc.K unless a system operator intervenes and deliberately changes to that state. When changing states between single-user and multi-user modes, the appropriate script is called. (See Listing 1, lines 15, 18 and 21.)

    rc.0 and rc.6 are each files that are also run when the system is brought down. (See Listing 1, lines 27 and 30.)

    You will see power management (UPS power management) handled in the script as well as the ctrl-alt-del key sequence. (See Listing 1, lines 24, 33, 36 and 39.)

    Something odd you should notice about this inittab (which was lifted straight from a distribution CD): while the default init runlevel is 3, if a power daemon signals the system to shut down, then power is restored, the shutdown is canceled, and the system is brought back up at runlevel 5. However, since runlevels 3 and 5 are essentially identical (they run the same rc scripts), there is no difference in this case.

    Now they come to the standard part which all inittabs were specifically designed to handle: initializing and respawning gettys. When UNIX was young, dumb terminals hung off serial ports. These dumb terminals were called teletype terminals or simply TTYs. So, the program that sent a login screen to the tty was called getty for “get TTY”. Today's getty performs the same basic function, although the TTY today is not likely to be quite so dumb. Adding and subtracting virtual terminals is as easy as adding or subtracting lines in the inittab; you can have up to 255.

    Next, you'll see a line that allows the X Display Manager (XDM) to be respawned in runlevel 4.

    About the only thing I haven't mentioned is that the scripts which do all the work on the Slackware system are all located in /etc/rc.d. Look them over. Slackware uses a minimal number of scripts to start background processes. Specifically referenced by inittab are rc.S, rc.K, rc.M, rc.0 and rc.6. Called by scripts (such as rc.M), but not by init, are rc.inet, rc.inet2, rc.local, rc.serial and others.

    Sys V inittab (à la Red Hat)

    Take a look at the Red Hat inittab (Listing 2). In this file are some good explanations of what Red Hat does with runlevels. I won't belabor it further here. Note that the runlevels chosen for use by Red Hat are just one convention and not indicative of all System V UNIX systems, not even other Linux System V initializations.

    As you can see, Red Hat defaults to runlevel 3, but you can change this to 5 once you have the X server properly configured. (See Listing 2, lines 18 and 56.) Given the number of graphical tools Red Hat has put together, you'd think they'd encourage the use of runlevel 5, but using that as the out-of-the-box default would cause trouble if X was not properly configured first.

    Just below the default runlevel, you'll see the system initialization script (Listing 2, line 21). This is run once when the system boots. Then init jumps down to (in this case) line 13 (Listing 2, line 26). The lines for 10 through 12 and 14 through 16 are skipped because their default runlevel is 3.

    Notice that ud, ca, pf and pr run regardless of the runlevel. When the runlevel column is null, the process is run in every runlevel.

    The getty lines should look familiar to you. Don't be bothered by the fact that Red Hat chose mingetty over getty. They both do the same thing: send a login banner to the tty.

    Finally, runlevel 5 spawns XDM (X Display Manager).

    Under Red Hat, you'll find all the system initialization scripts in /etc/rc.d. This subdirectory has even more subdirectories—one for each runlevel: rc0.d to rc6.d and init.d. Within the /etc/rc.d/rc#.d subdirectories (where the # is replaced by a single digit number) are links to the master scripts stored in /etc/rc.d/init.d. The scripts in init.d take an argument of start or stop, and occasionally reload or restart.

    The links in the /etc/rc.d/rc#.d directories all begin with either an S or a K for start or kill respectively, a number which indicates a relative order for the scripts and the script name—commonly the same name as the master script found in init.d to which it is linked. For example, S20lpd will run the script lpd in init.d with the argument start which starts up the line-printer daemon. The scripts can also be called from the command line:

    /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd start

    The nice part about System V initialization is that it is easy for root to start, stop, restart or reload a daemon or process subsystem from the command line simply by calling the appropriate script in init.d with the argument start, stop, reload or restart.

    When not called from a command line with an argument, the rc script parses the command line. If it is running K20lpd, it runs the lpd init script with a stop argument. When init has followed the link in inittab to rc.d/rc3.d, it begins by running all scripts that start with a K in numerical order from lowest to highest, then likewise for the S scripts. This ensures that the correct daemons are running in each runlevel, and are stopped and started in the correct order. For example, you can't start sendmail or bind/named (Berkeley DNS or Domain Name Service daemon) before you start networking. The BSD-style script Slackware uses will start networking early in the rc.M script, but you must always be cognizant of order whenever you modify Slackware startup scripts. Remember when they changed to runlevel 8 above and nothing happened? Since no subdirectory rc8.d exists and consequently no kill or start scripts, no scripts were run when they changed states. Had they come from boot directly to runlevel 8, they would have had a problem. Only the kernel, init and those daemons started via the sysinit, boot or bootwait commands in the inittab would have been running. I'll let you look at the scripts in the ../init.d/ directory for yourself, but an example for those with Slackware systems is shown in Listing 3.

    For those who find editing links to add or delete scripts in any particular runlevel a tedious task or who are just not comfortable doing this, Red Hat distributes a program called tksysv. This program uses a graphical interface (using Tcl/Tk) to read the script names in /etc/rc.d/init.d and displays them on the far left side of the application box. If you have a system with init.d in a different location, you can install symbolic links (for each of the rc#.d directories) and it will function just fine, or hack the script and customize it to your system. The system also reads the links in each of the rc#.d subdirectories and displays them for each runlevel from left to right with start scripts above and kill scripts below. (See Figure 1.) You can add, delete and even change the order of execution as you see fit.

    Figure 1. System V Runlevel Manager

    SysV inittab (à la Debian)

    Now take a look at the sample Debian inittab. While similar to Red Hat's inittab, it also has some differences. First, you'll notice that while Red Hat used runlevel 3 for non-graphical mode and runlevel 5 for graphical mode, Debian uses runlevel 2 for both (see Listing 4, line 5). The difference is in Debian's use of a start/kill script for XDM.

    I'd also like to draw your attention to a very special line, line 12. The line begins with “~~” (two tildes). Note that in single-user mode (state 1 or S), sulogin is called. This prevents someone from just booting the system and becoming root. While it doesn't prevent other tricks from being used to “back door” the system and isn't a substitute for physical security of the system, it does prevent the casual user from obtaining root access simply by rebooting. The use of the command:

    boot from c: only, vice boot a: then c:

    combined with password protection of the BIOS setup screens, and a lock on the case to prevent someone from resetting the BIOS on the motherboard, and finally setting LILO to 0 seconds, the computer is almost 50% of the way to being secured from unauthorized tampering. (You can get almost another 45% from the system itself, but note that the last 5% is effectively out of reach.)

    Just below the script calls for each runlevel is another line to put a login screen up for root in runlevel 6. This is only for emergencies, should something go wrong with the kill scripts in runlevel 6 and the system does not halt properly. It should never run. (See Listing 3, lines 22 to 30).

    The Debian inittab also includes some examples to enable gettys on modem and serial lines, should you find a use for them. The line that invokes mgetty, however, will obviously not work unless you've installed the mgetty package.

    Following the logic through a boot-up, during a normal boot init knows it will run in state 2. Armed with this information and not overridden during boot-up, init first runs the /etc/init.d/boot script. Once this script has run, init then executes /etc/init.d/rc with an argument of 2. init also runs the commands associated with ca, kb, pf, pn and po. If you read up on powerfail, you'll see that nothing will happen until a change occurs with the power. Next, they see that init spawns gettys on the virtual terminals. In this case (runlevel 2), it will spawn six (see Listing 4, lines 50-55). The rest of the lines are commented out, and not used.

    Looking at the /etc/init.d/rc script, you can see how it determines what to run to achieve a state change or to bring the system to the initial state.

    Emergencies

    Editing inittab or any of the rc scripts requires some degree of caution. Even the best tests cannot simulate a complete system reboot, and a script may appear to function properly after a system has initialized but fail during system initialization. The reasons are diverse, but usually involve getting things out of order.

    In Caldera's Network Desktop, which ran on a 1.2.13 kernel and used modules, I had modified a script to start the kerneld process early in the boot sequence. When I upgraded the system to Caldera's OpenLinux v1.0 which ran a 2.0.25 kernel, I made the exact same changes to the same script, tested it and when I was satisfied all was well, I rebooted. Much to my dismay, the boot process hung, and guess where—yes, loading kerneld. I found that in the newer kernels, kerneld needed to know the host name of the computer, which was not yet available. Things like this can happen to anyone. Something as simple as typing the wrong key or forgetting to give the full path name of a file can leave you in the lurch.

    Fortunately, you can pass boot-time parameters to init. When the system boots and you see: LILO:, you can press the shift key, then the tab key to see the kernel labels available for booting. You can then add a kernel label and follow it by any required parameters to boot the system. Any parameters the kernel needs are used and discarded. For example, if you have more than 64MB of RAM, you need to pass that information to the kernel in the form mem=96MB. If you pass the -b switch, the kernel won't use it, but will pass it on to init. The same goes for any single-digit number or the letters S or Q in either upper or lower case.

    By passing any of the numbers or letters to init, they are overriding the defaults in inittab, as I stated earlier. Most of these numbers or letters do exactly what they would do if passed from a command line on a running system. However, the -b is special: it is the emergency boot parameter. This parameter tells init to read the inittab, but for some special exceptions not to execute any of the commands, just drop into maintenance mode. Thus, no rc scripts will be executed. You may mount the system read-write and fix it. One exception to not executing any inittab commands is the process id ~~ that should have as its process sulogin. This will give you a prompt for root's password so no unauthorized person can alter system files such as /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow.

    What if you've made a mistake in the inittab file? Can the system be saved? Yes, but I must warn you not to do this unless absolutely necessary. Coded into the kernel is the instruction to start init once it is completely loaded and in memory. If the /etc/inittab is corrupted to the point that init can't run, not even with the -b switch (I've personally never seen this), it is possible to tell the Linux kernel to run a different program at bootup instead of init. Instead of issuing the -b switch, substitute init=/bin/sh after the kernel name. This will cause the kernel to run the bash shell, and you will be logged in as root. Be careful here, as nothing else is running, e.g., system logging or the update daemon. This is not a normal mode of operation for the system. Fix whatever is necessary and reboot.

    Standards

    Now that I've explained a significant part of how Linux system initialization works, I'll tell you how Linux compares to some of the systems I've worked with.

    For BSD-style systems, the first time I saw Slackware, I was amazed at its similarity in boot-up to Ultrix which I was using on some DEC-5000s—it has the same structure with the rc scripts in /etc/rc.d and the same names. If Slackware used any system as a pattern, Ultrix could have been one of them. I haven't used any newer BSD-style systems, so I cannot comment further.

    For System V, I can compare the various Linux distributions to several others. The one with the most resemblance seems to be Sun Solaris, which uses the same structure as Debian, but uses runlevel 3 as its default and implements XDM startup as Debian. Also, runlevel 5 is used for system shutdown, and the rc scripts are moved to /sbin. HP-UX 10.20 is also similar, but HP puts the init.d, rc.d and other runlevel directories under /sbin. IBM's AIX uses System V style initialization, but with most of the individual scripts for subprocesses called directly from its inittab. Finally, SCO OpenServer uses a system similar to Debian for its boot-time initialization, but does not use symbolic links to init.d. Instead, all start-kill scripts are located in rc2.d.

    The latest Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) v2.0 for Linux dated 26 October 1997 states either BSD or System V style initialization is acceptable. It stopped short, however, of outlining exactly where the rc scripts would go, except to say they would be below /etc, and future revisions to the standard may provide further guidance. I find that unlikely, since Red Hat and Debian, both very popular distributions, do it a little differently. I have no particular preference, and in fact my system has symbolic links which make each look like the other in case an install process makes an invalid assumption about how my systems are configured. I will tell you that as lazy as I am, less typing to start and stop daemons is more to my liking, so /etc/init.d/ gets my vote.

    Summary

    While this article hasn't been all-encompassing by any means, hopefully you've gained some knowledge of how your Linux system initializes during boot-up. All these tables and scripts are simple ASCII text files easily modified with vi or any text editor of your choice. Just read them and follow their logic. I've shown you how to read and interpret /etc/inittab and provided you with basic information regarding how init works.

    I've also shown you how to recover in case you've managed to create a script that hangs the boot process or prevents init from starting. Take a look at your inittab and the scripts it runs to better understand your system and optimize it for your own use.

    All listings referred to in this article are available by anonymous download in the file ftp.linuxjournal.com/pub/lj/listings/issue56/3016.tgz.



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