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February 4, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
there are many things that one could constructively criticize IBM about when it involves the vigour techniques platform working the IBM i operating device. however, in fresh years as a minimum, a kind of things would not be – and could not be – that the enterprise has not accomplished satisfactory to embrace essentially the most essential facets of the up to date programming toolbox.
truly, the business has achieved and more and more decent job of embracing and lengthening the compilers, interpreters, frameworks, and models of the programming languages that have long gone mainstream because Java first took the stage originally of the dot-com increase in 1996 as an try to deliver a simplified variant of C++, living in an idealized, simplified, and importantly transportable hardware abstraction referred to as a virtual desktop. because that time, big Blue and the IBM i neighborhood have labored together, regularly with the group out in entrance with the energetic involvement of the IBMers within the developerWorks organization, to carry the Apache web server and the Tomcat software server the OS/400, i5/OS and IBM i platform along with programming languages reminiscent of Perl, personal home page, Python, and Node.js, and versioning tools such as Git, and different methods utility which are are essential tools for contemporary programmers.
The 2019 edition of the IBM i industry Survey, which become released in January and which is spearheaded by using Tom Huntington, executive vice president of technical options at HelpSystems, provided some insight into what's occurring obtainable on the programming front. The survey become performed remaining October and had seven hundred respondents, with fifty seven % coming from the U.S. but handiest 2 percent from Canada; another 19 percent came from Europe, 15 p.c got here from Latin the us, and the the rest was break up throughout Australia, Asia, and Africa. As they have pointed out earlier than, here's now not exactly consultant of the genuine IBM i put in base, which is greater heavily dispensed outdoor of the U.S.; however the numbers are step by step shifting in the correct course as HelpSystems interprets the survey into more languages and businesses such because it Jungle encourage readers to take the survey.
The range of operating methods supported on the vigor systems platform and the skill to snap in tools created for Unix-like working methods into the PASE AIX runtime embedded in OS/four hundred and its successors is a key factor to the means to get and use tools that other structures have. (during this means, IBM preserves its personal benefits akin to RPG enterprise language programming and an integrated relational database administration equipment and grafts on the merits of alternative platforms, giving it a kind of hybrid vigor.) And IBM i stores were embracing that working device range on the platform and fitting much less elegant on windows Server machines running on X86 iron somewhere else within the datacenter, as that you would be able to see from this working equipment distribution from the survey:
most effective 22 % of the corporations surveyed referred to that they had been simplest working the IBM i platform, and frankly, they find it tough to trust that this quantity is not zero % given how pervasive home windows file and print servers are. however it is viable to move it on my own with IBM i, perhaps in factory or faraway retail settings, and it is viable so they will take the survey respondents at face cost. what is unique during this chart is that the proportion of windows Server is falling. returned in the day, somewhere north of ninety five percent of IBM midrange stores mentioned the use of windows Server alongside their OS/400 and i5/OS machines, and this has been trending down as Linux, both on vigor programs iron interior of PowerVM logical partitions and on outboard X86 systems, is on the upward push. AIX has won some penetration at IBM i retail outlets, too, each on distinctive energy methods machinery and on PowerVM partitions on the identical machines operating IBM i.
As you may think about, RPG remains probably the most popular programming language in use at IBM i retail outlets, with over eighty four % of respondents asserting they use RPG to create purposes (or purchased RPG applications from third birthday celebration software vendors that do). The SQL database programming language ranks number two, at 72 p.c, followed with the aid of the CL scripting language native to IBM at forty seven % and Java at 41 p.c. right here’s the rundown of programming language adoption:
There are a few pleasing issues going on here. First, while 68 percent of shops file the use of home windows Server of their IBM i shops, handiest 17 % say they are the usage of the .internet framework from Microsoft for programming, which supports visible fundamental and the Java-inspired (that’s the quality method to say that) C# languages. they might have thought that after two and a half decades, Java would had been up there with RPG and SQL as a favorite language, however that has no longer happened. The share of COBOL is about the historic fashion and tends to be concentrated within the financial capabilities and insurance industries the place code changed into ported from mainframes so many many years in the past.
companies were definitely allowed to position down more than one programming language as a part of the survey, and if you add up all of the percentages, you get 320 percent, which suggests an arithmetic imply of three.2 languages in use per web page on normal throughout the IBM i installed base. (neatly, as a minimum this higher echelon – by which they mean the lively element, now not the greatest businesses or those with the biggest machines – part of the IBM i base. They don’t understand anything in regards to the americans who don’t take surveys and they suppose that the facts that was gathered for the 5 years of the IBM i market Survey are representative of those active shops. That capability people that retain their methods and operating systems fairly current and that are usually extra inclined to adopt more recent technologies, ranging from storage area networks to excessive availability clustering to advanced programming recommendations.) we're of two minds about this typical. First, RPG, SQL, and CL dominate, and combined they provide you with an ordinary of two languages. They think there are a lot of websites that notably use RPG and SQL, mainly people who have third party software application. it is essential to recognize that the survey question turned into not what languages have been used to create your functions, however somewhat what languages are used for new application development. So the base could have a lot more different and an improved numerical distribution of compilers and interpreters than this information implies. I don’t consider here's the case, however probably averages more like 5 languages as a result of whether or not they know it or not, there’s probably some SQL, CL, or Java running somewhere within the application stack.
The survey requested corporations about what open source applied sciences they've deployed of their IBM midrange stores, and accept as true with it or no longer the Apache web server, which IBM first commercialized as the kernel of WebSphere lower back in 1998, is still on the upward push and that is probably happening as fewer and fewer stores use home windows Server for software and web serving and more shops go native. That the native Apache internet server has best 40 p.c penetration tells you what those home windows Server that continue to be are doing. it's a mix of print, file, net, and software serving plus a healthy dose of SQL Server for analytical database processing that agencies don’t wish to install natively on their IBM i machines. Python and Node.js are on a gradual upward thrust, and the Git versioning tool is discovering its own degree, too.
What they can’t comprehend from the first 5 surveys and what they would like to understand within the sixth subsequent yr is what percentage of RPG is being coded in the contemporary free form trend that's greater like what Java does and what number continues to be the use of the older school, greater tightly restricted older RPG model. My wager is that for brand spanking new code, it is likely as excessive as half and half, and that's mirrored in the undeniable fact that about have of the agencies surveyed mentioned that they'd bought Rational Developer for i and were the usage of it for as a minimum some software coding. About a third of the businesses which have RDi say they're the use of it for all of their software building, about a third say it is round half and half, and a 3rd say it is less than half. typical that out and it is averaging around half of the purposes at half of the corporations surveyed are done the usage of RDi, which suggests free form RPG.connected stories
The IBM i Base Did indeed stream On Up
The IBM i Base Is able to circulate On Up
investment And Integration warning signs For IBM i
safety still Dominates IBM i dialogue, HelpSystems’ 2018 Survey displays
The IBM i Base now not As Jumpy because it Has Been
The Feeds And Speeds Of The IBM i Base
IBM i Priorities For 2017: Pivot To protection
IBM i developments, issues, And Observations
IBM i Survey receives stronger As Numbers grow
the place Do those IBM i Machines Work?
discovering IBM i: A game Of forty Questions
it is time to inform Us What you are as much as
IBM i industry Survey: The value Of Being Earnest
What’s Up in the IBM i industry?
IBM i market Survey Fills within the Blanks
Demand and Salaries for records Scientists continue to Climb
synthetic Intelligence Outperforms Human information Scientists
determined for statistics Scientists
what is a knowledge scientist? Job search company indeed lately sketched out an image of a knowledge scientist as a technologist with a degree “in desktop science, records, or a quantitative social science, together with some training in statistical modeling, computing device studying, and programming.” Wikipedia describes data science as “an interdisciplinary field that makes use of scientific methods, methods, algorithms, and methods to extract competencies and insights from information in numerous kinds, each structured and unstructured.”
but while lots of companies want to hire records scientists, there is little settlement about what a data scientist truly is. In a discussion on Hacker news about my recent weblog post indicating that demand and salaries for statistics scientists are both transforming into abruptly, one commenter wrote: “‘records scientist’ is a title these days thrown round a lot for positions that was known as ‘statistics analyst,’ and not using a powerful [machine learning] or [software engineering] potential required.”
one other pointed out: “i would have idea [data science involves] a significant, sustained analyze of facts—beginning with a powerful base expertise of the mathematics of chance and constructing from there. however in response to the resumes I've considered that doesn't seem to be the regular opinion.”
This fuzzy definition doesn’t make filling statistics science jobs—or discovering the correct job—any less demanding.
In hopes of starting to be the provide of information scientists—and clarifying the definition—the Open group, an IT industry consortium that offers certification courses in IT structure and possibility evaluation, this week announced that it has based a certification program for records scientists.
Certification requires realizing a certain set of area count, together with statistics, computing device gaining knowledge of, AI, and company communications, and demonstrating that potential through initiatives, explained Martin Fleming, chief analytics officer for IBM. it'll offer three degrees of certification: licensed information scientist, master licensed information scientist, and unique certified facts scientist. candidates for certification can also be reviewed through their peers throughout the Open group or inside their personal corporations, proposing their agencies acquire Open group accreditation to do so.
IBM, Fleming talked about, is the primary company to be permitted, however he expects other organizations to quickly follow.
offering certification, Fleming talked about, will “aid make their organization a pretty location to come and work, since it will give their people a credential it's helpful to them. it's going to additionally aid them enrich their capabilities, which can be valuable to the company, and supply readability around sorts of advantage which are required for the profession.” IBM at the moment employs about 15,000 tech people that it defines as information scientists, and expects that number to develop quicker than its ordinary workforce, Fleming indicated.
IBM also introduced that it will establish a 24-month information science apprenticeship software, permitting individuals attracted to facts science without experience in the field, together with those that shouldn't have 4-yr school degrees, to construct capabilities and get hold of Open community certification. The apprenticeship program is certified by using the U.S. department of Labor. That took a little doing, Fleming mentioned, since it required the department of Labor, for the primary time, to consist of “data scientist” as a diagnosed occupation.
“We are inclined to believe of information scientists as superstars,” Fleming mentioned, “but it surely is a large group—you need individuals at junior stage and at celeb stage.”
IBM is making an attempt to fatten its cloud revenues with a "skinny" mainframe for midsize groups all the way down to born-in-the-cloud startups.
The z14 mannequin ZR1 and LinuxOne Rockhopper II every healthy into a 19-inch, single body rack -- a dramatic design change for IBM's mainframes -- yet they both give the equal pervasive encryption capabilities as their big brother, the z14 mainframe. extra importantly, this skinny mainframe indicators IBM's intent to seed new markets with mainframe know-how and boost the knowledge to promote those clients on its strategic cloud-based utility applied sciences, similar to blockchain, computing device getting to know, AI and container technologies.
"they're gravitating faraway from the traditional business space with mainframes and relocating them into the cloud," pointed out Frank Dzubeck, president of Communications network Architects, a consultancy in Washington, D.C. "here's an try to expand the bottom [of mainframe users], as neatly enter new markets with a few of their new era technologies.
a few of those new generation IBM technologies, peculiarly the protection that blockchain can present, may additionally appeal to no longer just smaller user companies but provider suppliers that work with greater enterprise-category IT shops.
"higher stages of protection via built-in encryption and the new form factor could increase Z programs shipments to extra MSPs [managed service providers] and CSPs [cloud services providers] who deliver features to commercial enterprise customers," talked about Jean Bozman, vp and primary analyst at Hurwitz & associates.IBM's z14 ZR1 'skinny mainframe' IBM reloads for cloud market battle
the new device is a counter punch to lower-can charge, Intel-based server hardware that has flooded into the statistics centers of big IT shops and service suppliers from the likes of Dell applied sciences Inc. and Hewlett Packard commercial enterprise during the last decade, drowning the hopes of IBM's proprietary servers.
they are gravitating far from the classic business space with mainframes and relocating them into the cloud. Frank Dzubeckpresident, Communications community Architects.
"just as Intel programs scrunched into the work environments the place IBM had been dominant, IBM is going to scrunch returned with [these skinny mainframe systems] and try to make it tougher for those [Intel-based server] groups to head after the cloud market," Dzubeck observed.
Going hand in hand with the systems' new design is the company's effort to rebrand the mainframe to enchantment to the technology of younger IT gurus. right through an IBM briefing, the business persistently referred to as the brand new systems "a 'cloud information middle in a box', which is barely a rack," stated one analyst. "They seemed reluctant to use the notice mainframe in reference to this."
IBM worked with over eighty groups and providers in creating the brand new systems, and acquired ample vital contributions to claim the systems have been "co-created" with them. these clients encompass Atos, an MSP, in addition to coverage companies Techcombank and North Carolina Farm Bureau Mutual coverage, in response to IBM.
IBM plans to install the thin mainframe in its personal public cloud information facilities to further enhance security and average speed and efficiency, noted Ross Mauri, everyday manager of IBM Z.
IBM additionally claims the techniques, primarily the z14 ZR1, can serve as the foundation for the IBM Cloud inner most offering, to colocate storage, networking and a handful of alternative capabilities within the same actual body as the mainframe server, a company spokesman referred to.
Even in its 19-inch kind component, the new techniques have 10% extra storage capability than the z13 mainframes and with 8 TB of reminiscence it has twice as lots memory. The z14 ZR1 can method 850 million encrypted transactions a day on a single gadget. The methods are licensed for Docker EE and may scale up to 330,000 Docker containers to support company builders put collectively purposes that work with a microservices architecture.
Ed Scannell is a senior govt editor with TechTarget. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org
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This chapter covers the history of IBM's Information Management System (IMS) from its beginnings at NASA in 1969 to its current incarnation, and explains why IMS is still relevant to customers today.This chapter is from the book
This chapter presents IMS's past and discusses IMS as a strategic part of today's computing environment.
In This Chapter:
IMS has been an important part of world wide computing since its inception.
On May 25, 1961, United States President John F. Kennedy challenged American industry to send an American man to the moon and return him safely to earth. The feat was to be accomplished before the end of the decade, as part of the Apollo program. American Rockwell won the bid to build the spacecraft for the Apollo program and, in 1965, they established a partnership with IBM to fulfill the requirement for an automated system to manage large bills of material for the construction of the spacecraft.
In 1966, 12 members of the IBM team, along with 10 members from American Rockwell and 3 members from Caterpillar Tractor, began to design and develop the system that was called Information Control System and Data Language/Interface (ICS/DL/I). During the design and development process, the IBM team was moved to Los Angeles and increased to 21 members. The IBM team completed and shipped the first release of ICS in 1967.
In April 1968, ICS was installed. The first "READY" message was displayed on an IBM 2740 typewriter terminal at the Rockwell Space Division at NASA in Downey, California, on August 14, 1968.
In 1969, ICS was renamed to Information Management System/360 (IMS/360) and became available to the IT world.
Since 1968, IMS:
The IMS database management system (DBMS) introduced the idea that application code should be separate from the data. The point of separation was the Data Language/Interface (DL/I). IMS controls the access and recovery of the data. Application programs can still access and navigate through the data by using the DL/I standard callable interface.
This separation established a new paradigm for application programming. The application code could now focus on the manipulation of data without the complications and overhead associated with the access and recovery of data. This paradigm virtually eliminated the need for redundant copies of the data. Multiple applications could access and update a single instance of data, thus providing current data for each application. Online access to data also became easier because the application code was separated from data control.IMS as a Transaction Manager
IBM developed an online component to ICS/DL/I to support data communication access to the databases. The DL/I callable interface was expanded to the online component of the product to enable data communication transparency to the application programs. A message queue function was created to maintain the integrity of data communication messages and to provide for scheduling of the application programs.
The online component to ICS/DL/I ultimately became the Data Communications (DC) function of IMS, which became the IMS Transaction Manager (IMS TM) in IMS Version 4.
February 4, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
There are many things that one could constructively criticize IBM about when it comes to the Power Systems platform running the IBM i operating system. But, in recent years at least, one of those things would not be – and could not be – that the company has not done enough to embrace the most important elements of the modern programming toolbox.
In fact, the company has done and increasingly good job of embracing and extending the compilers, interpreters, frameworks, and models of the programming languages that have gone mainstream since Java first took the stage at the beginning of the dot-com boom in 1996 as an attempt to bring a simplified variant of C++, living in an idealized, simplified, and importantly portable hardware abstraction called a virtual machine. Since that time, Big Blue and the IBM i community have worked together, often with the community out in front with the active involvement of the IBMers in the developerWorks organization, to bring the Apache Web server and the Tomcat application server the OS/400, i5/OS and IBM i platform along with programming languages such as Perl, PHP, Python, and Node.js, and versioning tools such as Git, and other systems software that are are essential tools for modern programmers.
The 2019 edition of the IBM i Marketplace Survey, which was released in January and which is spearheaded by Tom Huntington, executive vice president of technical solutions at HelpSystems, provided some insight into what is going on out there on the programming front. The survey was performed last October and had 700 respondents, with 57 percent coming from the United States but only 2 percent from Canada; another 19 percent came from Europe, 15 percent came from Latin America, and the remainder was split across Australia, Asia, and Africa. As they have pointed out before, this is not precisely representative of the actual IBM i installed base, which is more heavily distributed outside of the United States; but the numbers are gradually shifting in the right direction as HelpSystems translates the survey into more languages and organizations such as IT Jungle encourage readers to take the survey.
The diversity of operating systems supported on the Power Systems platform and the ability to snap in tools created for Unix-like operating systems into the PASE AIX runtime embedded in OS/400 and its successors is a key element to the ability to get and use tools that other platforms have. (In this way, IBM preserves its own advantages such as RPG business language programming and an integrated relational database management system and grafts on the advantages of other platforms, giving it a kind of hybrid vigor.) And IBM i shops have been embracing that operating system diversity on the platform and becoming less dependent on Windows Server machines running on X86 iron elsewhere in the datacenter, as you can see from this operating system distribution from the survey:
Only 22 percent of the companies surveyed said that they were only running the IBM i platform, and frankly, they find it hard to believe that this number is not zero percent given how pervasive Windows file and print servers are. But it is possible to go it alone with IBM i, perhaps in factory or remote retail settings, and it is possible so they will take the survey respondents at face value. What is interesting in this chart is that the share of Windows Server is falling. Back in the day, somewhere north of 95 percent of IBM midrange shops reported using Windows Server alongside their OS/400 and i5/OS machines, and this has been trending down as Linux, both on Power Systems iron inside of PowerVM logical partitions and on outboard X86 systems, is on the rise. AIX has gained some penetration at IBM i shops, too, both on distinct Power Systems machinery and on PowerVM partitions on the same machines running IBM i.
As you might imagine, RPG remains the most popular programming language in use at IBM i shops, with over 84 percent of respondents saying they use RPG to create applications (or bought RPG applications from third party software vendors that do). The SQL database programming language ranks number two, at 72 percent, followed by the CL scripting language native to IBM at 47 percent and Java at 41 percent. Here’s the rundown of programming language adoption:
There are a couple of interesting things going on here. First, while 68 percent of shops report using Windows Server in their IBM i shops, only 17 percent say they are using the .NET framework from Microsoft for programming, which supports Visual Basic and the Java-inspired (that’s the nice way to say that) C# languages. They would have thought that after two and a half decades, Java would have been up there with RPG and SQL as a preferred language, but that has not happened. The proportion of COBOL is about the historical trend and tends to be concentrated in the financial services and insurance industries where code was ported from mainframes so many decades ago.
Companies were obviously allowed to put down more than one programming language as part of the survey, and if you add up all of the percentages, you get 320 percent, which implies an arithmetic mean of 3.2 languages in use per site on average across the IBM i installed base. (Well, at least this upper echelon – by which they mean the active portion, not the biggest companies or those with the largest machines – part of the IBM i base. They don’t know anything about the people who don’t take surveys and they think that the data that was gathered for the five years of the IBM i Marketplace Survey are representative of these active shops. That means those that keep their systems and operating systems relatively current and that tend to be more inclined to adopt newer technologies, ranging from storage area networks to high availability clustering to advanced programming techniques.) They are of two minds about this average. First, RPG, SQL, and CL dominate, and combined they give you an average of two languages. They think there are lots of sites that mainly use RPG and SQL, particularly those that have third party application software. It is important to realize that the survey question was not what languages were used to create your applications, but rather what languages are used for new application development. So the base could have a lot more diverse and a higher numerical distribution of compilers and interpreters than this data implies. I don’t think this is the case, but it probably averages more like five languages because whether they know it or not, there’s probably some SQL, CL, or Java running somewhere in the application stack.
The survey asked companies about what open source technologies they have deployed in their IBM midrange shops, and believe it or not the Apache web server, which IBM first commercialized as the kernel of WebSphere back in 1998, is still on the rise and that is probably happening as fewer and fewer shops use Windows Server for application and Web serving and more shops go native. That the native Apache Web server has only 40 percent penetration tells you what those Windows Server that remain are doing. It is a mix of print, file, Web, and application serving plus a healthy dose of SQL Server for analytical database processing that companies don’t want to deploy natively on their IBM i machines. Python and Node.js are on a steady rise, and the Git versioning tool is finding its own level, too.
What they can’t know from the first five surveys and what they would like to know in the sixth next year is what percentage of RPG is being coded in the modern free form style that is more like what Java does and what percentage is still using the older school, more tightly constrained older RPG model. My guess is that for new code, it is probably as high as half and half, and that is reflected in the fact that about have of the companies surveyed said that they had bought Rational Developer for i and were using it for at least some application coding. About a third of the companies that have RDi say they are using it for all of their application development, about a third say it is around half and half, and a third say it is less than half. Average that out and it is averaging around half of the applications at half of the companies surveyed are done using RDi, which implies free form RPG.RELATED STORIES
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Developments in commodity hardware, cheap storage and open source have motivated IBM mainframe pricing to drop.
Mainframes host a huge quantity of historical and operational data that's too expensive to move. But that inertia doesn't apply to newer workloads, such as processing mobile transactions.
IBM has made several attempts to change the economics of big iron versus distributed servers: Specialty engines make traditional distributed applications cheaper on the mainframe, but programming barriers and the "generosity factor" (an assigned percentage of time that a given workload can run on an SE) frustrate users. System Z New Application License Charge (zNALC) has a lot of conditions for mainframe administrators to meet, such as identifying specific types of new qualified applications to run on a separate logical partition (LPAR), following a specific naming convention.
Then came IBM's millions of service units from mobile device-based workloads.
CPU usage identified from mobile workloads must be directly attributable to executed transactions. Users cannot claim the discount based on distributed system metrics or estimates. However, neither the WMP nor supporting documentation defines "mobile device" strictly; it may mean tablets and smart phones, but not laptops. Browser-based transactions from mobile devices are included in the discount, even though they originate from a so-called traditional Web interface.
As for IBM software, eligible programs include currently supported releases of DB2 database software, CICS application servers, IMS transactional database management, MQ messaging middleware and Websphere Application Server. Users must have at least one zEC12 processor on the mainframe to participate.The human workload
IBM's previous attempts to bring new workloads onto the mainframe required shifts in configuration, and proved difficult to manage and to obtain. MWP is a nice change of pace.
The basis for the MWP discount must be directly gathered from the accounting data of the transaction processors. Flagging mobile transactions might involve a server application adding identifying information into messages it sends to the mainframe. The information could be a flag in the input message, a unique transaction ID or special logon ID. IBM requires a "yes" or "no" indicator, but no further specifics, such as the mobile operating system or device type.
Once the mainframe receives the message, it requires some mechanism to propagate the mobile workload information into the back-end reporting system. Unique transaction or logon IDs are the simplest method, because they only require changes to back-end reporting systems. If the mobile flag is part of the input messages, CICS-based mainframe shops can easily configure user areas in their CICS monitoring facility records and relocate the flag into a performance record.
To participate in the discount to IBM mainframe pricing, you must submit your plan for identifying mobile transactions to IBM for approval. Upon approval, you sign a contract addendum titled, "The System Z AWLC and AEWLC Addendum for Mobile Workload Pricing" (number Z126-6300), then download the Mobile Workload Reporting Tool (MWRT).
MWRT replaces the Sub Capacity Reporting Tool (SCRT) that many IBM shops already use. MWRT takes in the System Management Facility type 70 and 89 records, and the user supplies a comma separated value (CSV) file containing the number of mobile CPU seconds per LPAR per hour.
Like SCRT, MWRT computes the peak four-hour rolling average for each LPAR in the shop. Then it discounts the mobile CPU seconds -- supplied by the CSV file -- by 60% and applies it to the entire software stack, not just to the transaction processor that ran the transaction.
Thus, if 30% of your online CPU comes from mobile devices, you could see an 18% discount in monthly license charges.
IBM has care and feeding details for MWRT in the MWRT User's Guide.
About the author:
Robert Crawford spent 29 years as a systems programmer, covering CICS technical support, Virtual Storage Access Method, IBM DB2, IBM IMS and other mainframe products. He programmed in Assembler, Rexx, C, C++, PL/1 and COBOL. Crawford is currently an operations architect based in south Texas, establishing mainframe strategy for a large insurance company.
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