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The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a library of volumes describing a framework of optimum practices for offering IT capabilities. ITIL has passed through a few revisions in its history and presently includes five books, every masking a lot of tactics and stages of the IT provider lifecycle. ITIL’s systematic method to IT provider administration can assist groups manage risk, toughen customer members of the family, set up not pricey practices, and construct a good IT ambiance that makes it possible for for growth, scale and change.
Developed by using the British executive's vital desktop and Telecommunications agency (CCTA) throughout the 1980s, the ITIL first consisted of more than 30 books, developed and released over time, that codified top of the line practices in suggestions know-how amassed from many sources (together with providers' surest practices) world wide. IBM, for example, says that its 4-volume sequence on systems-management concepts, A administration system for assistance methods, typical because the Yellow Books, offered a must have input into the customary ITIL books.
In April 2001, CCTA, together with a few other businesses, had been rolled into the office of govt Commerce (OGC), which is now established because the cabinet workplace. The OGC adopted the venture as a part of its mission to work with the U.k. public sector as a catalyst to achieve effectivity, cost for cash in business activities, and improved success within the birth of courses and projects.
The goal wasn't to create a proprietary product that may well be commercialized; quite, it turned into to gather top-quality practices that may help with what the executive diagnosed turned into an expanding dependence in the government on IT mixed with a painful lack of general methods that have been increasing costs and permitting errors to perpetuate. It rapidly grew to become obvious that distributing these most desirable practices would income both public and private-sector businesses.
through the years, ITIL's credibility and utility grew to be recognized, and in 2005 its practices contributed to and aligned with the ISO/IEC 20000 service management typical, the primary international usual for IT carrier administration; it's based on British ordinary BS15000.
given that 2013, ITIL is owned by Axelos — a three way partnership between the cupboard office and Capita. Axelos offers groups the license to make use of the ITIL framework, while managing updates and manner alterations. despite the fact, to use ITIL internally, organizations will not have a license. ITIL v3 become launched in 2011, below the cupboard office, bringing updates to the 2007 edition posted beneath OGC.
In 2018, Axelos introduced ITIL four – an immense overhaul to the total framework and the greatest exchange considering ITIL v3 changed into published in 2007. ITIL four, which began rolling out in Q1 of 2019, offers a more agile, bendy and customizable edition of ITIL it really is up to date for contemporary organizations. The newest version encourages less siloes, extra collaboration, communication throughout the complete enterprise and integrating agile and DevOps into ITSM strategies.What's within the ITIL?
The ITIL has undergone a number of revisions in its heritage. The long-established 30 books of the ITIL were first condensed in 2000 (when ITIL V2 become launched) to seven books, every wrapped round a side of IT administration. Later, the ITIL Refresh project in 2007 consolidated the ITIL to 5 volumes which include 26 method and services – here's mentioned as the ITIL 2007 version. In 2011, one other update — dubbed ITIL 2011 — turned into posted under the cupboard workplace. The 5 volumes remained, and ITIL 2007 and ITIL 2011 remained similar.
ITIL four, which became released in 2019, maintains the same center of attention on automating processes, improving carrier management and integrating the IT department into the business. besides the fact that children, it also updates the framework to accommodate and answer to modern expertise, tools and utility. considering that ITIL’s last update, the IT branch has grown to turn into indispensable to each enterprise and the brand new framework incorporates this through being more agile, bendy and collaborative.
ITIL 4 includes 9 guiding principles that were adopted from the most contemporary ITIL Practitioner examination, which covers organizational exchange administration, verbal exchange and measurement and metrics. These principles consist of:
The most recent edition of ITIL focuses on company way of life and integrating IT into the normal company constitution. It encourages collaboration between IT and different departments, chiefly as other business gadgets more and more rely on expertise to get work carried out. ITIL four additionally emphasizes customer comments, on the grounds that it’s more straightforward than ever for groups to remember their public belief, customer delight and dissatisfaction.
For more suggestions on the merits of the newest edition of ITIL, see “ITIL four: ITSM gets agile.”How do I put ITIL into observe?
ITIL is a group of e-books, but in simple terms happening a analyzing binge may not enrich your IT operations. First, you must wrap your mind around the ideas and then get staff purchase-in. Getting some IT personnel to undertake new techniques will also be like herding cats, however there are equipment that may help.
together with the ITIL comes a whole suite of consulting, training and certification features. From the early Nineteen Nineties, certifications had been administered with the aid of two unbiased bodies: EXIN and ISEB, counting on your area. both their bodies formed an alliance at the end of 2006 to further IT service management.
since 2014, Axelos is the owner of the ITIL personnel certification and checks are administered via accepted training agencies (ATOs). Accreditations are administered through Strategic Examination Institutes (EIs). EIs deserve to be approved at once by means of Axelos with the intention to present accreditation to ATOs.
earlier than imposing ITIL at your groups, there are a few questions you should answer, similar to what issues your corporation is attempting to resolve and what's your path to continual service improvement.
For a deeper look at placing ITIL into practice, see "7 questions to ask before imposing ITIL" and "how to get all started with ITIL."what is ITIL certification and is it price it?
The ITIL v3 certification scheme prior to now consisted of 5 tiers: groundwork, Practitioner, Intermediate, knowledgeable and master. each degree required a higher depth of competencies and understanding of ITIL. The certification scheme under ITIL four has been streamlined to encompass the ITIL foundation and the ITIL grasp checks. The ITIL groundwork exam has two paths, ITIL Managing expert (MP) or ITIL Strategic leader (SL), which each have their personal modules and assessments.
The ITIL Managing professional (MP) examination is designed for IT practitioners who're involved with technology and digital teams all the way through the firm, now not simply within the IT department. This route will teach professionals every little thing they should know about working a success IT initiatives, teams and workflows.
The ITIL Strategic leader (SL) examination is designed for those that cope with “all digitally enabled features,” and never simply those that fall under IT operations. This path makes a speciality of how technology directs company method and the way IT performs into that.
both paths can lead to the ITIL grasp examination, which is the optimum degree of certification which you could obtain with ITIL 4.
For those already within the center of working against a ITIL v3 certifications, credits will transfer over to the new certifications. Axelos recommends that each one ITIL certification candidates proceed the route against ITIL grasp.
For in-depth evaluation of ITIL certification, see "What ITIL certifications imply to your IT management practices."How can ITIL improve my enterprise's business efficiency?
A neatly-run IT company that manages risk and continues the infrastructure humming now not most effective saves cash, nonetheless it additionally allows for the enterprise people to do their jobs more effortlessly. as an instance, brokerage firm Pershing decreased its incident response time by means of 50 percent within the first year after restructuring its carrier desk in response to ITIL guidelines, enabling clients with complications to get again to work an awful lot more right away.
ITIL gives a systematic and knowledgeable method to the administration of IT carrier provision, and presents right here merits:
based on Axelos, ITIL can also assist businesses enhance functions by using:
For a deeper examine a way to get the most from ITIL, see "5 steps to a success ITIL adoption."what will ITIL can charge?
Getting begun contains the buy of the ITIL both as hardcopy, PDF, ePub or via an online subscription at once from Axelos. Then there's the cost of coaching, which fluctuates every yr. The route resulting in the preliminary groundwork certificate typically runs for two days, and classes resulting in greater certifications can be per week or greater.
Add to that the inevitable can charge of re-engineering some approaches to agree to ITIL instructions, and adjustment of help desk or different software to seize the tips you want for tracking and producing metrics.
there's, by the way, no such issue as "ITIL-compliant" software; the ITIL is a framework, not a typical. Some aid desk and administration software has been engineered with ITIL practices in mind, however, and so will lend themselves more desirable to teams working in the framework.
Examples of software and features designed with ITIL and ITSM in intellect include:
ITIL is not a "challenge"; it's an ongoing event to increase IT carrier administration. superior practices ought to be baked into everything, and they must evolve because the commercial enterprise evolves. With IT body of workers purchase-in, changes can begin once staff are expert, and some results should be apparent inside weeks or months. technique adjustments do take time, despite the fact, as entrenched bad practices are rooted out and modified (and, doubtlessly, body of workers changes happen), but many businesses have suggested colossal mark downs after their first year.
To get a much better thought of what it's going to take to adopt and put in force ITIL, you can flick thru case experiences on the Axelos site. contemporary case experiences include organizations like Sony and Disney — two companies with massive IT operations to manipulate.What savings can i expect?
corporations and public sector businesses which have efficaciously carried out ITIL most desirable practices report huge reductions.
for example, in its advantages of ITIL paper, crimson Elephant reviews that Procter and Gamble saved about $500 million over 4 years with the aid of cutting back aid desk calls and improving operating methods. Nationwide insurance accomplished a forty % reduction in equipment outages and estimates a $4.3 million ROI over three years, and Capital One reduced its "business vital" incidents by using 92 p.c over two years. After three years of ITIL implementation, woodland items enterprise MeadWestvaco claimed to have eradicated greater than $one hundred,000 annually in IT protection contracts and diagnosed a ten % gain in operational steadiness thanks to ITIL.
with out purchase-in and cooperation from IT team of workers, however, any implementation is sure to fail. Bringing top-quality practices into a company is as a whole lot a PR job because it is a technical exercise.
other criticisms consist of the fact that it’s unimaginable to plot for every failure, experience or incident so it’s now not an accurate science. truly, you gained’t recognize the accurate ROI on ITIL except you put into effect it within your corporation and use it conveniently. ultimately, considering the fact that ITIL is a framework, it could possibly most effective be as successful as corporate buy-in allows for. Embracing certifications, working towards and investing in the shift will assist enhance the possibilities of success and mark downs.
Copyright © 2019 IDG Communications, Inc.
Tony Gannon, Steve Mann, Nigel Mear
posted throughBISL ISBN
£24.95Reviewed by way of
Peter Wheatcroft FBCS, CITP, CEng, FIET, FCMIrating
9 out of 10
This booklet is a brand new departure for BCS as it explains - in amazing detail - how questions for the ITIL v3 foundation certificate in carrier administration are built. Written through three ISEB examiners, it covers each the anatomy of the questions that candidates face in the hour long varied choice examination as well as a finished set of pattern questions. each types of content material are exciting and informative.
it's a accomplice book to one other BCS title IT provider management - A ebook for basis examination Candidates and these collectively cover everything a prospective candidate may are looking to learn about examination taxonomy and the way to be triumphant in the ITIL v3 basis examination.
both books work together to deliver a finished view of service administration and the way the examination appears to examine particular person figuring out of both the subject and the questions being asked. It become interesting to peer how numerous sorts of questions the examiners use!
the first area is a description of the examination itself and the different ways of proposing questions, whereas the 2d part lists a huge number of apply questions protecting the topics of all 5 publications within the ITIL v3 set as smartly as the services, procedures and expertise concerned in carrier management. model solutions are given to the entire practice questions, with explanations for both correct and improper answers. here's helpful as such feedback isn't purchasable within the actual exam.
The e-book is appropriate for revision or for self analyze (might be at the same time as a substitute for a practicing path in the adventure that one can not be sourced near to the candidate) but it surely does emphasis that it is neither a brief direction nor a mini-e book to carrier administration. this is a mild injustice as it is terribly authoritative.
a substantial body of expertise about ITIL is contained in a single slim volume and it's an ITIL licensed product. This latter point could be a disadvantage when the exam fabric alterations, but it is absolutely latest and therefore represents the latest v3 syllabus and is an excellent revision ebook that enhances any approved ITIL v3 groundwork training route.
along with the e book it costs 10/10, but even alone, it simply warrants full marks because of its scope.
The Configuration management Database (CMDB) is well recognized as a cornerstone constitution when it comes to the implementation of the advice expertise Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework and other IT service management (ITSM) frameworks.
The CMDB is that all essential single edition of the actuality that now not simplest indicates what property an agency has, however also defines relationships and interdependencies between assets. it is a map that provides path to ITIL and service administration development projects, and types the foundation for IT administration.
despite the fact, despite the magnitude of the CMDB, many organizations shy faraway from it, for a number of motives.
Given the significance of IT in the enterprise of these days and the number of laws round tips, the CMDB is greater important than ever and is essential in achieving IT governance, possibility management and service beginning targets.
The CMDB on the heart of ITIL or any ITSM undertaking, as it is a repository of assistance that carries all of an organisation’s information on counsel methods, together with configuration gadgets (CIs).
It helps corporations to keep in mind the relationships between accessories in an IT system, to tune their configuration, and manage this.
youngsters the CMDB isn't basically IT and might encompass information from different sources comparable to asset management, human components, identity and access management and greater. using the CMDB, corporations can music alterations to configurations as they take place, be they IT, HR or any other enviornment, and gain insight into how quite a lot of add-ons are connected and what's impacted if alterations are made. This in turn allows establishments to instantly discover the foundation reason for issues and take remedial action to suitable these considerations.
The CMDB is also a must-have in bridging that ever present gap between business and IT. The business spends huge sums of cash on infrastructure, which is then passed over to IT. despite the fact it's the business that needs to use this infrastructure to convey features and products to the customers. This capacity that the people who manipulate the infrastructure need to have guidelines and processes in location to be sure that it may deliver what the business wants. The CMDB is standard in this procedure. These guidelines and tactics have become much more important than ever on account of the want for IT governance.
Proving IT governance and compliance has become an important ingredient in attracting buyers in a company, and additionally offers a undeniable assurance that infrastructure is correctly managed and maintained to allow the birth of carrier. This instils self assurance in an employer’s skill to manage its IT infrastructure, which makes it a extra sound investment.
with out a CMDB, organisations would not have a clear image of their advice belongings and infrastructure, and will therefore be unable to properly control and keep it to show IT governance. devoid of IT governance, risk management turns into increasingly intricate, and service growth can not be measured. with out a CMDB, in other words, organisations can't get a transparent graphic of their company and the relationships between a considerable number of areas. modern companies spend hundreds of thousands, even billions on their IT infrastructure, and as the Lehman Brothers proved, one mistake can deliver the total business enterprise crashing down.
The CMDB allows for companies to not handiest keep money and enrich return on IT investment, but profit improved manage over belongings, ensure governance and compliance, enrich efficiency and enable proactive response to considerations as neatly. It offers evidential reporting capabilities that are fundamental for audit purposes, and ensures that all equipment and other property are managed all the way through their lifecycle.
regardless of the benefits of the CMDB and the a must-have nature of this database to carrier growth endeavours, many corporations continue to be reluctant to embark upon such an implementation. probably the most most important causes for this is charge, in view that imposing a CMDB contains a considerable capital outlay in lots of situations. however this capital outlay is an investment so one can repay within the long term, on account that the CMDB makes it possible for more accurate measuring and monitoring of a variety of areas of company, to be certain features are optimised and cash is not being wasted.
The other challenges for agencies consist of the seeming complexity of imposing a CMDB, that can develop into overcomplicated and complicated, and the need to be certain the CMDB is maintained in order that assistance is correct and relied on. Specialised service providers will also be of advice here, as they'll have the integral journey to make certain that the manner is accomplished to be of optimum advantage to the company.
sooner or later, in a enterprise world where capabilities is power, the extra you learn about your employer the better. The CMDB offers a centralised repository for counsel on business property, IT infrastructure and more, highlighting the relationships between these elements and guaranteeing that they could me managed to convey the optimum advantage to the enterprise as an entire.
Edward Carbutt, executive Director at Marval Africafeedback
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Pretoria — As from next year, learners in Grades 1 to 3 will be required to take four subjects to help them cope better with the work load expected of them in the higher grades.
"The curriculum review process in 2009 alerted us to the fact that there is far too big a leap between the Foundation Phase (Grades 1-3) and the Intermediate Phase (Grades 4-6). Learners jump from three subjects to eight. This may account for the drop in results that they see as children move up the grades," said Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga.
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Parental concerns about student privacy have been rising in recent years amid the growing use by schools, school districts and states use technology to collect mountains of detailed information on students. Last year, a controversial $100 million student data collection project funded by the Gates Foundation and operated by a specially created nonprofit organization called inBloom was forced to shut down because of these concerns, an episode that served as a warning to parents about just how much information about their children is being shared without their knowledge.
Here’s an important piece on the issue by Leonie Haimson and Cheri Kiesecker. Haimson was a leading advocate against the inBloom project who then, along with Rachael Stickland, created the Parent Coalition for Student Privacy, a national alliance of parents and advocates defending the rights of parents and students to protect their data. Kiesecker is a member of the coalition.
By Leonie Haimson and Cheri Kiesecker
Remember that ominous threat from your childhood, “This will go down on your permanent record?” Well, your children’s permanent record is a whole lot bigger today and it may be permanent. Information about your children’s behavior and nearly everything else that a school or state agency knows about them is being tracked, profiled and potentially shared.
During a February 2015 congressional hearing on “How Emerging Technology Affects Student Privacy,” Rep. Glenn Grothman of Wisconsin asked the panel to “provide a summary of all the information collected by the time a student reaches graduate school.” Joel Reidenberg, director of the Center on Law & Information Policy at Fordham Law School, responded:
“Just think George Orwell, and take it to the nth degree. We’re in an environment of surveillance, essentially. It will be an extraordinarily rich data set of your life.”
Most student data is gathered at school via multiple routes; either through children’s online usage or information provided by parents, teachers or other school staff. A student’s education record generally includes demographic information, including race, ethnicity, and income level; discipline records, grades and test scores, disabilities and Individual Education Plans (IEPs), mental health and medical history, counseling records and much more.
Under the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), medical and counseling records that are included in your child’s education records are unprotected by HIPAA (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act passed by Congress in 1996). Thus, very sensitive mental and physical health information can be shared outside of the school without parent consent.
Many parents first became aware of how widely their children’s personal data is being shared with third parties of all sorts when the controversy erupted over inBloom in 2012, the $100 million corporation funded by the Gates Foundation. Because of intense parent opposition, inBloom closed its doors in 2014, but in the process, parents discovered that inBloom was only the tip of the iceberg, and that the federal government and the Gates Foundation have been assisting the goal of amassing and disclosing personal student data in many other ways.
Ten organizations joined together, funded by the Gates Foundation, to create the Data Quality Campaign in 2005, with the following objectives:
Since that time, the federal government has mandated that every state collect personal student information in the form of longitudinal databases, called Student Longitudinal Data Systems or SLDS, in which the personal information for each child is compiled and tracked from birth or preschool onwards, including medical information, survey data, and data from many state agencies such as the criminal justice system, child services, and health departments.
A state’s SLDS, or sometimes called a P20 database (pre-K to 20 years of age), P12, or B-20 (data tracking from birth), have been paid for partly through federal grants awarded in five rounds of funding from 2005-2012. Forty-seven of 50 states, as well as the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, have received at least one SLDS grant.
Although Alabama, Wyoming and New Mexico are not included on the site linked to above, Alabama’s governor recently declared by executive order that “Alabama P-20W Longitudinal Data System is hereby created to match information about students from early learning through postsecondary education and into employment.” Wyoming uses a data dictionary, Fusion, that includes information from birth. New Mexico’s technology plan shows that they moved their P-20 SLDS to production status in 2014 and will expand in 2015. This site run by the Data Quality Campaign tracks each state’s SLDS.
Every SLDS has a data dictionary filled with hundreds of common data elements, so that students can be tracked from birth or pre-school through college and beyond, and their data more easily shared with vendors, other governmental agencies, across states, and with organizations or individuals engaged in education-related “research” or evaluation — all without parental knowledge or consent,.
Every SLDS uses the same code to define the data, aligned with the federal CEDS, or Common Education Data Standards, a collaborative effort run by the US Department of Education, “to develop voluntary, common data standards for a key set of education data elements to streamline the exchange, comparison, and understanding of data within and across P-20W institutions and sectors.”
Every few months, more data elements are “defined” and added to the CEDS, so that more information about a child’s life can be easily collected, stored, shared across agencies, and disclosed to third parties. You can check out the CEDS database yourself, including data points recently added, or enter the various terms like “disability,” “homeless” or “income” in the search bar.
In relation to discipline, for example, CEDS includes information concerning student detentions, letters of apology, demerits, warnings, counseling, suspension and expulsion records, whether the student was involved in an incident that involved weapons, whether he or she was arrested, whether there was a court hearing and what the judicial outcome and punishment was, including incarceration.
This type of information is obviously very sensitive and prejudicial, and often in juvenile court, records are kept sealed or destroyed after a certain period of time, especially if the child is found innocent or there is no additional offense; yet all this information can now be entered into his or her longitudinal record with no particular restriction on access and no time certain when the data would be destroyed.
Expanding and Linking Data across States
Nearly every state recently applied for a new federal grant to expand its existing student longitudinal data system, including collection, linking and sharing abilities. You can see the federal request for proposals. Pay special attention to Section V, the Data Use section of the grant proposal, requiring states to collect and share early childhood data, match students and teachers for the purpose of teacher evaluation, and promote inter-operability across institutions, agencies, and states.
The 15 states and one territory, American Samoa, that won the grants were announced Sept. 17, 2015, and are posted here. President Obama’s 2016 budget request has a number of additional data related provisions, including a near tripling in funding for State Longitudinal Data Systems ($70 million) and Department of Labor Workforce Data Quality Initiative ($37 million) aimed at attaching adult workforce personal data with his or her student records.
Though the federal government is barred by law from creating a national student database, the U.S. Department of Education has evaded this restriction by means of several strategies, including funding multi-state databases, which would have been illegal before FERPA’s regulations and guidance were rewritten by the Department in 2012.
The federal grants encourage participation in these multi-state data exchanges. One existing multi-state database is WICHE, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, which includes the 15 Western states that recently received an additional $3 million from the federal government. This WICHE document explains that the project was originally funded by the Gates Foundation, and that the foundation’s goal of sharing personal student data across state lines and across state agencies without parental consent was impermissible under FERPA until it was weakened in 2012:
Upon approval of WICHE’s proposal by the Gates Foundation, the pilot MLDE (Multistate Longitudinal Data Exchange) project began in earnest in June, 2010, and the initial meeting to begin constructing the MLDE was held in Portland, Oregon, in October, 2010. It is worth placing the launch of the MLDE pilot within an historical timeline of events bearing on the development and use of longitudinal data. As the project got underway, the federal government’s guidance on the application of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) was still fairly restrictive. Indeed, based on a subsequent conversation with a member of the Washington State Attorney General’s office, their plans to actually exchange personally identifiable data among the states would be impermissible under the FERPA guidance in effect at that time. Though they were told they would have been able to assemble and use a de-identified dataset, which would have shown much of the value of combining data across states, not being able to give enhanced data back to participating states would have been a serious setback. Changes in the federal government’s guidance on FERPA that went into effect in January, 2012 resolved this problem.
The new guidance permitted the participating states to designate WICHE as an authorized representative for the purposes of assembling the combined data, while also allowing the disclosure of data across state lines and between state agencies.
Since 2010, the Gates Foundation has funded WICHE with more than $13 million. Just to underscore how powerful this organization has become, Colorado Lieutenant Governor Joe Garcia just stepped down from his post to head WICHE. Here is a helpful chart showing how student personal data is to be shared, among state agencies and across state lines.
Existing multi-state databases include not just WICHE, but also SEED, formerly Southeastern Education Data Exchange, now called the State Exchange of Education Data, including Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and South Carolina.
This North Carolina PowerPoint from 2013 describes what detailed information is to be shared among the states participating in SEED: data aligned with CEDS, including demographic information, academic and test score data, and disciplinary records. Here is a Georgia document, explaining how SEED will be “CEDs compliant” and describes in even more detail the sort of information that will be exchanged.
What Parents Can Do
Ask your State Education Department if they applied for this new grant to expand their SLDS, and if so, ask to see the grant proposal. You can also make a Freedom of Information request to the U.S. Department of Education to see the grant application. Ask what methods your state is using to protect the data that the SLDS already holds, and if the data is kept encrypted, at rest and in transit. Ask what categories of children’s data they are collecting, which agencies are contributing to it, and what third parties, including vendors and other states, may have gained access to it. Ask to see any inter-agency agreements or MOUs allowing the sharing education data with other state agencies. Ask if any governance or advisory body made up of citizen stakeholders exists to oversee its policies.
You should also demand to see the specific data the SLDS holds for your own child, and to challenge it if it’s incorrect – and the state cannot legally deny you this right nor charge you for this information under FERPA.
This was conclusively decided when a father named John Eppolito requested that the Nevada Department of Education provide him with a copy of his children’s SLDS records, and the state demanded $10,000 in exchange. He then filed a complaint with the US Department of Education, which responded with a letter on July 28, 2014, stating that the state must provide him with the data it holds for his child, as well as a record of every third party who has received it; and that they cannot charge a fee for this service.
Parents also have the right to correct their child’s data if it is in error. Apparently Mr. Eppolito found many errors in his children’s data. Even if it is accurate, the data that follows your child through life and across states could diminish his or her future prospects. As this Department of Education study points out,
“…imagine a student transferring from another district into a middle school that offers three levels of mathematics classes. If school staff associate irrelevant personal features with mathematics difficulties, the representativeness bias could influence the student’s placement… educators have been found to have a tendency to pay more attention to data and evidence that conform to what they expect to find.”
Schools could use this data to reject students, push them out, or relegate them to remedial classes or vocational tracks.
There is also abundant research that shows that a teacher’s expectations play a significant role in how a student performs – especially for marginalized groups. This is called the Pygmalion effect in the case of a teacher’s positive expectations, and the Golem effect in the case of negative expectations. These studies reveal that if teachers are provided with positive or negative information about their students before having a chance to form their own opinions based upon actual experience, this prior information often tends to bias their judgments and perceptions of that student, creating self-fulfilling prophecies. Parents should be legitimately fearful that positive or negative data may be used to profile their children, and potentially damage their chance of success.
What Else Can You Do?
If you send your children to a public school, under current federal law you have no way of opting out of the P20 profile that has been created by your state and potentially shared with others. You also have no right to refuse to have your child’s data disclosed to testing companies and other corporations in the name of evaluation and research. Researchers have legitimate interests in being able to analyze and evaluate educational programs, but any sensitive personal data should be properly de-identified and there must be strict security provisions to safeguard its access and restrict further disclosures, as well as a time certain when it will be destroyed. You do have the right to see that data, and challenge it if it is inaccurate.
You should also advocate for stronger state and federal laws to protect your child’s data and laws that give parents and students the right of ownership, including the ability to decide with whom it will be shared. You should urge your state Education Department to create advisory or governance boards that include stakeholder members, to provide input on restrictions on access and security requirements.
Any federal and state student privacy legislation should embrace five basic principles of student privacy, transparency and security, developed by the Parent Coalition for Student Privacy. Ask your elected officials to support TRUE data privacy and transparency legislation, to protect children. Parents deserve to know the data collected and shared about their children, and they should be guaranteed that their children’s data is safe from breaches and misuse.
On an August day, Tracey Williams was out beach-combing with her dog, a daily routine for the resident of Cornwall, when she came across an odd-looking object lying on the sand. It was a grayish slab stained brown by the elements, weighing about 3 lbs. and measuring 13 inches across—roughly the size of a kitchen chopping board. The word “Tjipetir” was inscribed on it.
“I wasn’t sure what it was made of—whether it was made of wood, or plywood—I hadn’t seen anything quite like it before,” she said, recalling the 2012 discovery.One of Tracey Williams’ Tjipetir blocks in Cornwall
In time, Williams would trace the blocks to an eponymous plantation in western Java active in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The facility harvested the latex of a particular Southeast Asian tree, palaquium gutta. The milky white liquid was known as gutta percha, and it was extracted by crushing the tree’s leaves under granite boulders, then fashioned into blocks and stamped with the facility’s name.
Williams’ discovery of the mysterious block was followed by dozens of reports of similar findings on beaches across western Europe. The blocks, materializing from the Atlantic surf, would cast the spotlight on gutta percha, a Victorian commodity whose obscurity belied its crucial place in modern communications. The humble latex would accelerate global telecommunications to a previously unimagined pace; cement the British empire’s grip over the world’s critical messaging systems; and spur industry and academia to devise some of the foundational theories of modern physics.A 19th century artist’s rendition of cable being laid across the Atlantic, originally published in Harpers Weekly.
The Victorian system of submarine cables literally laid the foundation, in many cases, for today’s fiber-optic networks. The globe-spanning networks of the day spawned business titans, and technological innovators, that bear close parallels to today’s internet-enabled tycoons. Gutta percha was largely replaced by polyethylene by the 1950s, ending a century of industrial telecommunications use.The depths of technology
Gutta percha solved a simple, but maddening, problem that had vexed Victorian engineers for years. How to insulate a copper wire laid on a seabed so that messages from, say, London, could be received in New York almost immediately? Submarine telegraphy would replace the messages carried by ship that was the norm in the middle of the 19th century. The issue was none of the materials and techniques at the time—tarred hemp or rubber—provided adequate insulation.
The apocryphal tale, recounted in Victoria University historian John Tully’s 2009 paper, A Victorian Ecological Disaster, goes that in 1832, a Scottish surgeon stationed in Singapore with the East India Company named William Montgomerie wrote a paper about gutta percha’s unique properties: it could be moulded in hot water but it hardened as it cooled. This was demonstrated to him by an anonymous Malay gardener, who was explaining why it was popularly used for knife handles, whips, and other tools in the Malay archipelago. Montgomerie thought the material could have surgical uses.Remnants of a gutta percha plantation in western Java, Indonesia, in Jan. 2016
Montgomerie also sent gutta percha samples to London, where they were displayed at the Society of Arts. Soon, the substance caught the attention of a star of Victorian technology, Michael Faraday, discoverer of electromagnetic induction, who wrote about its uses as an electrical insulator in The Philosophical Magazine in 1848. Word of the latex spread among British engineers. They saw an insulator that could be molded like rubber, but unlike rubber, didn’t crumble underwater.
“Gutta percha became one of the best studied substances,”—Bruce J. Hunt, University of Texas at Austin historian
Before long, risk-taking entrepreneurs wanted to profit from a gutta percha-coated underwater cable. The first successful cable was laid by the Brett brothers, connecting Dover and Calais over 25 nautical miles, in September 1851, marking the start of a boom in submarine telegraphy that would last well into the next century. The global cable network would grow from about 15,000 to over 200,000 nautical miles between 1866 and 1900, according to Bruce J. Hunt, a historian of science at the University of Texas at Austin, in his 1998 article Insulation for an Empire (pdf).
The rise of the underwater cabling industry spurred on technologists of the time. In a foreshadowing of today’s technological scrambles—whether over artificial intelligence, drones or bitcoin—the cutting-edge of Victorian engineering seized on quantifying gutta percha’s properties as the scientific trend of the day. They would either be directly employed by cable companies, or indirectly benefit from private industry’s well funded labs. ”Gutta percha became one of the best studied substances,” says Hunt. “[Victorian engineers] knew its electrical properties better than almost anything else, except maybe copper. It was hot stuff.”
The list of figures that gutta percha benefitted is long: Werner von Siemens, whose company bears his name today, conducted experiments in vulcanizing the latex; Lord Kelvin, after whom the unit of temperature the kelvin is named, helped to quantify its inductive properties; Faraday confirmed his theory of electromagnetic induction at a cable company’s docks in East London; data from gutta percha experiments would inform James Clerk Maxwell’s equations that unified light, electricity, and magnetism for the first time.
It was as if the Elon Musks or Steve Jobs of the day were all focused on the same, potentially world-altering technology. Here’s Lord Kelvin (at the time simply Sir William Thompson), addressing the British Society in Edinburgh in 1871, with a speech that wouldn’t sound out of place at a tech conference in today’s Silicon Valley:
“This leads me to remark how much science, even in its most lofty speculations, gains in return for benefits conferred by its application to promote the social and material welfare of man. Those who perilled and lost their money in the original Atlantic telegraph were impelled and supported by a sense of the grandeur of their enterprise, and of the world-wide benefits which must flow from its success.”A Victorian ecological disaster
There was a deep irony at the core of the gutta percha-enabled telegraphy craze. While the latex was fuelling the state of the art in global electrical communications, the methods by which the substance was collected by local woodsmen in its native Southeast Asia remained basic—and environmentally destructive.
As Tully describes in his 2009 paper, groups of local woodsmen—Malay, Chinese, Dayak—braved the rainforests to locate palaquium gutta trees in the wild. The trees were felled—often at great personal danger to the woodsmen—and the latex collected as it slowly flowed out of incisions in the bark. The collected latex had to be laboriously washed and rubbed before being rolled into sheets and finally into blocks. After the latex was processed, it was brought to Singapore, then a British colonial entrepôt, for export to Britain, where it could be applied to copper wires to form a submarine cable sheath.
Just as technology today regularly produces glitches and other unintended consequences, so did the appropriation of gutta percha to build Britain’s cable system, which had become a geopolitically important piece of technology for the empire. The British had an edge over its European colonial rivals because palaquium gutta happened to be most abundant in its Southeast Asian colonies, particularly in the jungles of what is today Malaysia. The French, for instance, mounted an attempt to break the British monopoly by cultivating gutta trees in plantations in its Indochina colonies in the 1880s that ultimately failed, according to Hunt.
But the collection method was a form of “destructive felling,” according to Peter Wilkie of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, and it proved unscalable as demand for thousands of miles of cable grew. A mature tree over 18 meters tall would yield about 300 grams of latex, according to contemporary reports. For comparison, the first transatlantic cable, laid in 1857, measured 1,853 miles (about 3,000 km) long and weighed 2,000 tons, of which 250 tons was gutta percha, as Tully has noted. In other words, some 900,000 trees would have to be felled for 1 ton of cable insulate, by those measures.
Wellcome Trust/Wikimedia CommonsDayak tribesmen collecting gutta percha from a tree trunk in Sarawak, Borneo
A kilogram of the stuff was purchased for the equivalent of £9.37 at 2016 rates, on average between 1885 and 1896, according to lectures given by Siemens employee Eugen Obach at the Royal Society of Arts in 1897. Observers of the time noted the rapacious demand for latex with alarm. “With the irrational manner in which the juice is collected, the trees still in existence will become more and more decimated, and … there is a danger of a decrease in the exportation and finally of the entire exhaustion of the sources,” wrote William T. Brannt, author of a book on gutta percha’s properties published in 1900.
Gutta percha wasn’t used only by the technologists of the day. It found two major applications: as a substance to make golf balls, replacing the old feather and leather affairs, and helping to popularize the game; and as fillings for dental cavities. Its properties as a natural plastic also made it ideal for homeware like picture frames, the soles of shoes, canes and other small items, according to Hunt.
Demand for the latex from Victorian society was such that palaquium gutta soon faced extinction in Southeast Asia’s jungles. Tully’s research shows that it had all but vanished from Singapore and parts of the Malay peninsula by the 1880s. An estimated 3 million trees were felled in just one region of Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, over a 20-year period. British colonial authorities even instituted a ban on harvesting the latex in 1883—but it was too little, too late.The “cable king”
The exhaustion of gutta supplies in Southeast Asia triggered a crisis for the increasingly powerful companies that manufactured submarine cables in Europe. The figure towering over them was John Pender, who earned the sobriquet ”the cable king,” whose business empire was a marvel of vertical integration—rivalling even those of today’s technology giants.
“Pender’s motto as a member of parliament was, “Telegraphs know no politics”
Pender owned the Gutta Percha Company, which had a virtual monopoly over manufacturing submarine cables coated in the substance, as well as dozens of telegraph operators. His most well-known vehicles were the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, which acquired the world’s largest ship at the time, the Great Eastern, to lay the 1865 transatlantic cable, and the Eastern Telegraph Company.
Pender parlayed his position as the world’s cable operator into a political career—his motto as a member of parliament was “telegraphs know no politics,” which the tech tycoons of today echo in their refrains about their platforms’ algorithmic neutrality—and became wrapped up in imperial intrigue, fending off accusations that he was using his networks to spy on corporate and political rivals, sometimes on behalf of the British empire, according to Hunt. “He was always looking for government subsidies and he wanted to make sure he got those whether it was a conservative or liberal government,” Hunt says, explaining Pender’s refrain.
Pender’s businesses left a legacy. Vestiges of his cable empire live on in today’s telecom conglomerates. His firms formed the core of Cable & Wireless, which, after decades of nationalization, mergers, and acquisitions, now has seen its chief components absorbed into the listed companies Vodafone and Liberty Global.The roots of today’s submarine routes
The link between the cable systems of old and today’s fiber-optic networks don’t end there. Many of the undersea routes identified for submarine telegraphy have continued to be plied with new types of cables, carrying ever denser streams of data. “A lot of these routes remain the same … once [the undersea route] is pioneered, [engineers] knew it was a safe route, generally, so the maxim was, if it worked, then they would go ahead and lay another cable there,” says Nicole Starosielski, a professor at New York University and author of a book on submarine fiber-optics, The Undersea Network.
Technological conservatism overtook the cable industry once it achieved maturity
Hunt notes the technological conservatism that took hold as the cable business matured. The innovation and scientific discovery of the early days gave way to a focus on quality assurance—and profits. Pender and the other cable company bosses weren’t about to mess with a lucrative product. “The long dominance of gutta percha as an insulator resulted in part from the technological conservatism that overtook the cable industry once it achieved maturity around 1870 … Once they had found a type of cable that worked reasonably well … they saw little reason to run large risks involved in trying something new,” according to Hunt.
While the British raced ahead of other European powers in submarine telegraphy in the 19th century, thanks largely to its monopoly on gutta percha, Starosielski says, other countries caught up over the decades. But the cost and engineering expertise required to lay and operate the cables meant that the field has historically been dominated by a handful of companies or governments. That holds true today as web platforms like Facebook funnel their huge profits into their own submarine cables.
Collection Nationaal Museum van Wereldculturen, collection no. TM-10012863Gutta percha blocks at the Tjipetir factory in the late 19th century or early 20th century.
Back to the mysterious gutta percha blocks washing up on Cornish beaches. The prevailing theory—pieced together by Williams and her group of 10,000 sleuths assembled on Facebook—behind the Tjipetir mystery is that they were cargo on a Japanese ship called the Miyazaki Maru, which was sunk during World War One some 250 km off the Cornish coast. It had been traveling between Yokohama and London when it was attacked by a German submarine. A salvage operation is thought to have released the blocks from their resting place, causing them to float onto beaches across Europe.
The Receiver of Wreck, the British government official in charge of salvaged materials, says the theory hasn’t been confirmed—no one has been sent to search for the wreck—but it’s the most likely explanation. “We have nothing to suggest that’s not the case,” the Receiver, Alison Kentuck, says. “It’s quite a particular case, and I’d say it’s slightly unusual … [these items] have been on the seabed for a number of years, and through wind and tide action, tend to be released from whatever container they’re in, and are distributed over a number of years.”
Williams collated dozens of reports of Tjipetir blocks across Europe over the years. The reports led Wilkie, the taxonomist at Edinburgh’s botanical gardens, to plan a trip to the Tjipetir factory, where the blocks originated from, in January 2016. There, he found the factory in a semi-dormant state. It’s fired up once or twice a year, staffed by workers in the village that is its namesake—now rendered as Cipetir in Bahasa Indonesia.
Peter Wilkie, Royal Botanic Garden EdinburghThe Cipetir factory in Jan. 2016
In the distance, behind the Cipetir factory, is the plantation of palaquium gutta trees. They survived the submarine cable craze that gripped Europe from 1850 onwards, and according to Wilkie, other wild trees in what is now peninsula Malaysia, and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, have likely come back from the brink of extinction they faced a century ago. The Dutch technique of extracting latex from crushed leaves also avoided felling the trees. ”It’s no longer particularly endangered, which is surprising considering it was so heavily harvested,” he says.
The Cipetir factory still churns out gutta percha for export to Europe, although these days, the latex is molded into small discs, and they are no longer stamped with the factory’s name. Their main customer, Wilkie says, is a Swiss company that makes artificial limbs. Quite a departure from a commodity that enabled electrical communications to encircle the globe for the first time.
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PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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