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A2040-913 exam Dumps Source : Assessment: Developing Websites using IBM Lotus Web Content Management 7.0
Test Code : A2040-913
Test Name : Assessment: Developing Websites using IBM Lotus Web Content Management 7.0
Vendor Name : IBM
: 85 Real Questions
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IBM unveiled new technology to in the reduction of vigour outages by way of helping power businesses predict the place timber and other vegetation might also threaten vigour lines. IBM labored with Oncor, the largest utility enterprise in Texas and the fifth largest in the united states, to strengthen a solution tailored for the power and utility business, to support improve operations and supply reputable electric powered carrier for hundreds of thousands of clients across the state.
The climate company Vegetation management - Predict is constructed on IBM PAIRS Geoscope, a expertise developed by way of IBM analysis.The device right away approaches big, advanced geospatial and time-primarily based datasets collected by using satellites, drones, aerial flights, millions of IoT sensors and climate fashions.
The ensuing insights can support businesses like Oncor to display screen vegetation growth across their entire provider territory, permitting them to more desirable identify and predict competencies infringement with power lines. corporations can greater proactively and accurately plan for preventive renovation and rapid response, focusing crews within the optimum-precedence locations and validating that imperative trimming was completed as anticipated.
"electricity is a necessary a part of their lives, and tens of millions of Texans rely on Oncor day by day. Vegetation poses a serious chance to power traces and the surrounding areas, but monitoring it is a difficult and time-drinking process," says Peter Stoltman, vegetation administration program manager, Oncor. "through working with IBM, we're capable of use analytics and AI to prioritize excessive-risk areas. This helps us adapt renovation operations to improve public defense and service reliability."
Vegetation is a number one reason for provider interruption for utility organizations. With typical methods, the basic perception into advantage dangers comprises high priced on-web site inspections or understanding the ultimate time a neighborhood was trimmed. With this new solution, lots of of miles of transmission and distribution lines should be consistently monitored to deliver continual perception concerning the state of increase and upkeep. apart from helping determine and predict outage threats, geospatial-temporal insights can assist with typical grid reliability and compliance, wildfire prevention, storm management and assessment.
“Our utilities shoppers advised us that getting designated insight into the state of vegetation throughout their provider territory turned into a key problem,” says Mahesh Sudhakaran, chief digital officer of IBM power, atmosphere and Utilities. "via combining PAIRS with AI and industry abilities, they may give customers one integrated solution, delivered via IBM Hybrid Cloud, to assist them predict and control vegetation in a cost-valuable and intelligent manner.”
“every business is suffering from weather. however for energy agencies and their valued clientele, it could mean the difference between no matter if they can hold the lights on and warmth their buildings,” says Cameron Clayton, IBM’s frequent manager of Watson Media and weather. “The capacity to layer weather statistics with satellite tv for pc and sensor statistics offers utility companies powerful new insights to aid them improve operations and minimize impact on their consumers.”
PAIRS Geoscope ingests greater than 10 terabytes of recent statistics per day and has already served more than 15 million requests from more than four,000 researchers, facts scientists and builders in 80 international locations. It eliminates the labor-intensive technique of generating insights from geospatial-temporal data, which is wide-spread for its sheer measurement and complexity. The lack of ability to entry, query and analyze this class of large facts in a scalable manner is the reason it changed into long considered unsearchable records. IBM scientists invented a new approach to run and analyze complex queries inside minutes as an alternative of weeks or months, making in the past unimaginable insights now a reality.
PAIRS Geoscope is generally attainable for diverse industries and use situations. moreover Vegetation management - Predict, PAIRS is additionally the underlying know-how for Watson decision Platform for Agriculture, a collection of agribusiness equipment that uses the vigour of AI and geospatial statistics to support farmers make extra informed selections about their crops.
For more tips, view the internet site.
Tech enormous IBM has become a pacesetter in demonstrating precise-world applications of blockchain technology. The company has already carried out blockchain-based solutions to song meals give chains and to be certain ethically sourced minerals.
IBM continues to collaborate with a few leading groups to remedy complex company challenges through its blockchain community. announced these days, IBM analysis is partnering with The Freshwater believe (TFT), a nonprofit working to give protection to and fix freshwater ecosystems, and SweetSense Inc., a issuer of cost-efficient satellite tv for pc connected sensors, to pilot blockchain and IoT applied sciences for monitoring groundwater utilization in a single of the biggest and in danger aquifers in North the us.
The tuition of Colorado at Boulder will deliver extra analysis assist for this project, which is also being collectively funded with the aid of the Water basis and the Gordon and Betty Moore groundwork.
The task’s scientists and engineers will exhibit how the blockchain and faraway IoT sensors can accurately measure groundwater usage transparently and in real-time. The sensors will transmit water extraction data to orbiting satellites after which to the IBM blockchain platform hosted in the IBM Cloud. The blockchain will checklist all data exchanges or transactions made in an append-best, immutable ledger. sensible contracts will also be used as soon as transactions are immediately performed when the circumstances are matched.
The group will pilot the gadget in northern California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, often pointed out as the “nexus of California’s statewide water device.” The river delta covers 1,100 rectangular-miles, proposing water to the San Francisco Bay area and Southern California. It also supports dozens of legally blanketed fish, plant and animal species. in addition, virtually seventy five% of this land is used for agriculture.
according to a analysis undertaking in Kenya with USAID, the Millennium Water Alliance and other companions, they are actually applying their capabilities in building determination help programs for water management for floor and groundwater information aggregation, workflow optimization and analytics to tackle an identical challenges in California. With the addition of the blockchain, they are able to bridge critical trust and transparency gaps making it feasible to construct a robust, scalable and good value platform for managing precious groundwater supplies anyplace on the planet”, said Dr. Solomon Assefa, vice chairman, emerging Market options and Director for IBM analysis, Africa.
The collaboration between the businesses started in response to the Sustainable Groundwater administration Act (SGMA), which became signed into California legislations in 2014. SGMA mandated the creation of Groundwater Sustainability agencies (GSAs), native organizations which are responsible for making certain that regional groundwater elements are sustainably managed. The GSAs are liable for constructing and implementing a plan to make their local groundwater usage sustainable via 2040.
In California and in the imperative Valley, one of the vital largest influences on their river conditions is agriculture. this is a massive agricultural vicinity it truly is severely groundwater wired. This challenge was brought to consideration in California when a multi-year drought resulted in an impact of over $three billion to the agricultural economic system. California then handed the SGMA, which for the first time will adjust groundwater pumping. Now, youngsters, the State of California is attempting to check how to share communal materials. As a non-income, they try to support reaching these desires,” Alex Johnson, Freshwater Fund Director with TFT, informed me.
A Blockchain For Farmers, Financers And Regulators
all through the pilot, a web-based dashboard should be available to farmers, financers and regulators, enabling all parties to monitor and song the use of groundwater. this will additionally support show how sustainable pumping tiers may also be achieved throughout the trading of groundwater use shares within the State of California. individual users who require groundwater amounts beyond their share cap may be capable of “purchase” groundwater shares from other clients who do not require all of their deliver at a market-regulated price.
in line with Nathan Wangusi, computing device scientist for IBM research, Africa, researchers are setting up an idea for a “groundwater credit score,” with the intention to permit farmers to alternate water sources amongst each other.
The blockchain permits for visibility of water extraction and maintains a tight ledger on this, whereas assisting with transparency and the capability to exchange belongings. They at the moment are constructing a groundwater credit score, which is an asset-based mostly token that represents an volume of water that a consumer has rights to. here is corresponding to an environmental credit score. as an example, they currently have a venture that uses plastic recycling as a tokenized credit score that can also be traded on a blockchain platform.”
for example, if a strawberry farmer is planning to take the season off to prepare for an organic crop right here harvest, they can alternate or promote water credit on the blockchain to yet another farmer. Or, if because of a particularly dry season a winery realizes it is going to need additional floor water to evade losing the antique, the vintner should purchase additional water shares, with out negatively impacting the aquifer.
moreover blockchain, the sensor know-how supplied by means of SweetSense is a vital point for monitoring groundwater materials.
with the aid of remotely monitoring groundwater use via their sensors, we’re able to help increase and maintain sustainable access to water elements for individuals, farmers, and cattle. The work we’re doing in Africa is directly translatable to California, pointed out Evan Thomas, CEO of SweetSense and Mortenson Chair of global Engineering at the university of Colorado Boulder. Their research group at the university of Colorado will support in modeling groundwater use during the sensor facts and satellite detected rainfall and climate correlations.”
SweetSense is at present monitoring groundwater for over 1,000,000 americans by way of satellite networks in Kenya and Ethiopia and plans to scale to five million by way of the conclusion of the yr.
just The beginning
whereas this pilot is an early illustration of the talents of these applied sciences, the teams at the back of the project also view it as a big opportunity for future success.
“we're operating in a free market area and the regulations and requirements for ground water balance are best now being determined by means of native jurisdiction in California. other western states are a ways in the back of, although. They view this as a chance to show how things can work if you practice them to a gadget with applied sciences like these,” observed Johnson of TFT.
Explaining blockchain know-how to all of the events involved remains a problem, despite the fact.
“We ought to explain to explain what blockchain is, why it provides security and satisfactory transparency where it may also be used for compliance. They need to exhibit how this may assist farmers have a greater resilient aquifer to pump water from, whereas having the flexibleness to exchange amongst their neighbors if a drought happens,” pointed out Johnson.
additionally, the success of this pilot is totally stylish on the technologies worried.
the long run success of these sustainability plans hinges on being in a position to music and report groundwater use, and likely will also require a strong approach to change groundwater shares as neatly” introduced Johnson. “Our strategic intent is to harness new technologies to increase a device that makes getting groundwater greater sustainable, collaborative, accurate and clear technique, which is why they are using the blockchain. they have the task crew and funding to do it, and a strong community of companions within the location that are open to an preliminary checking out and constructing section.”
in the decade after the 9/11 attacks, the long island metropolis Police branch moved to position millions of new Yorkers below constant watch. Warning of terrorism threats, the branch created a plan to carpet ny’s downtown streets with hundreds of cameras and had, by 2008, centralized its video surveillance operations to a single command center. Two years later, the NYPD introduced that the command center, normal as the decrease manhattan safety Coordination core, had built-in reducing-aspect video analytics software into select cameras throughout the city.
The video analytics application captured stills of individuals caught on closed-circuit tv footage and instantly labeled the images with physical tags, corresponding to apparel colour, allowing police to instantly search via hours of video for photographs of individuals matching an outline of pastime. on the time, the software become also starting to generate indicators for unattended applications, vehicles rushing up a highway in the wrong direction, or individuals getting into restrained areas.
over the years, the NYPD has shared only occasional, small updates on the application’s growth. In a 2011 interview with Scientific American, as an example, Inspector Salvatore DiPace, then commanding officer of the lessen ny protection Initiative, said the police branch was trying out no matter if the application may field out photos of people’s faces as they handed by means of subway cameras and as a result cull throughout the pictures for various unspecified “facial points.”
whereas facial attention know-how, which measures individual faces at over 16,000 points for exceptional-grained comparisons with different facial photographs, has attracted giant prison scrutiny and media consideration, this object identification software has largely avoided consideration. How exactly this technology got here to be developed and which specific points the utility turned into built to catalog have by no means been printed publicly by using the NYPD.
Now, because of private company documents and interviews with most of the technologists worried in establishing the application, The Intercept and the Investigative Fund have realized that IBM started establishing this object identification know-how using secret entry to NYPD digicam footage. With access to images of thousands of unknowing New Yorkers provided up by way of NYPD officials, as early as 2012, IBM turned into developing new search points that allow different police departments to look camera photos for images of people by means of hair colour, facial hair, and dermis tone.
IBM declined to comment on its use of NYPD photos to boost the utility. however, in an electronic mail response to questions, the NYPD did tell The Intercept that “Video, every so often, changed into offered to IBM to make sure that the product they were setting up would work in the crowded urban NYC atmosphere and support us protect the city. there's nothing within the NYPD’s settlement with IBM that prohibits sharing statistics with IBM for device development applications. extra, all vendors who enter into contractual agreements with the NYPD have the absolute requirement to hold all records furnished by using the NYPD private right through the time period of the contract, after the completion of the contract, and within the experience that the settlement is terminated.”
In an e-mail to The Intercept, the NYPD tested that opt for counterterrorism officials had access to a pre-launched edition of IBM’s software, which blanketed dermis tone search capabilities, as early as the summer time of 2012. NYPD spokesperson Peter Donald said the search qualities had been only used for contrast functions and that officers had been urged not to consist of the skin tone search feature in their assessment. The department eventually decided no longer to integrate the analytics application into its bigger surveillance architecture, and phased out the IBM program in 2016.
After trying out out these bodily search features with the NYPD, IBM launched some of those capabilities in a 2013 product unlock. Later versions of IBM’s utility retained and accelerated these bodily search capabilities. (IBM did not reply to a query about the existing availability of its video analytics courses.)
requested concerning the secrecy of this collaboration, the NYPD noted that “quite a few elected leaders and stakeholders” have been briefed on the department’s efforts “to maintain this city protected,” including that sharing digicam entry with IBM became vital for the system to work. IBM didn't reply to a query about why the enterprise didn’t make this collaboration public. Donald spoke of IBM gave the branch licenses to apply the system to 512 cameras, however said the analytics had been established on “fewer than fifty.” He delivered that IBM personnel had entry to definite cameras for the only intention of configuring NYPD’s device, and that the department put safeguards in region to protect the information, including “non-disclosure agreements for every particular person getting access to the equipment; non-disclosure agreements for the organizations the providers labored for; and heritage checks.”
Civil liberties advocates contend that New Yorkers should still have been made privy to the advantage use of their physical statistics for a non-public company’s building of surveillance know-how. The revelations come as a metropolis council invoice that might require NYPD transparency about surveillance acquisitions continues to languish, due, in part, to outspoken opposition from big apple city Mayor invoice de Blasio and the NYPD.dermis Tone Search technology, sophisticated on New Yorkers
IBM’s preliminary breakthroughs in object recognition technology have been anticipated for technologies like self-riding cars or photo recognition on the cyber web, noted Rick Kjeldsen, a former IBM researcher. however after 9/eleven, Kjeldsen and a few of his colleagues realized their software became appropriate for counterterror surveillance.
“After 9/eleven, the funding sources and the consumer hobby basically obtained driven towards safety,” referred to Kjeldsen, who mentioned he labored on the NYPD application from roughly 2009 via 2013. “in spite of the fact that that hadn’t been their focal point up to that element, that’s where demand became.”
IBM’s first fundamental urban video surveillance task turned into with the Chicago Police department and began round 2005, in accordance with Kjeldsen. The branch let IBM experiment with the know-how in downtown Chicago unless 2013, however the collaboration wasn’t considered as a true company partnership. “Chicago was all the time known as, it’s now not a real — these guys aren’t a true consumer. here is sort of a construction, a collaboration with Chicago,” Kjeldsen talked about. “Whereas ny, these guys were a customer. and they had expectations hence.”
The NYPD acquired IBM’s video analytics software as one part of the domain recognition gadget, a shared challenge of the police department and Microsoft that centralized an unlimited net of surveillance sensors in reduce and midtown ny — including cameras, registration number plate readers, and radiation detectors — right into a unified dashboard. IBM entered the photograph as a subcontractor to Microsoft subsidiary Vexcel in 2007, as a part of a task value $60.7 million over six years, in keeping with the interior IBM documents.
In long island, the terrorist hazard “became a simple promoting factor,” recalled Jonathan Connell, an IBM researcher who worked on the preliminary NYPD video analytics setting up. “You say, ‘appear what the terrorists did earlier than, they might come back, so you give us some money and we’ll put a camera there.”
A former NYPD technologist who helped design the lower ny safety Initiative, asking to speak on historical past citing fears of knowledgeable reprisal, verified IBM’s role as a “strategic supplier.” “In their evaluate of video analytics companies at the moment, they were neatly ahead of all and sundry else in my own estimation,” the technologist referred to.
in response to internal IBM planning documents, the NYPD began integrating IBM’s surveillance product in March 2010 for the lower long island protection Coordination middle, a counterterrorism command middle launched by using Police Commissioner Ray Kelly in 2008. In a “60 Minutes” tour of the command middle in 2011, Jessica Tisch, then the NYPD’s director of policy and planning for counterterrorism, confirmed off the software on glowing widescreen displays, demonstrating the way it may pull up photos and video clips of people in crimson shirts. Tisch did not point out the partnership with IBM.
all the way through Kelly’s tenure as police commissioner, the NYPD quietly worked with IBM as the enterprise proven out its object cognizance technology on a choose variety of NYPD and subway cameras, in line with IBM documents. “We in fact crucial to be in a position to test out the algorithm,” said Kjeldsen, who explained that the software would should technique massive quantities of distinct images in an effort to learn the way to adjust to the differing lighting, shadows, and different environmental components in its view. “We have been just about the usage of the video for each things at the moment, taking it to the lab to get to the bottom of concerns they had been having or to experiment with new know-how,” Kjeldsen spoke of.
at the time, the branch hoped that video analytics would improve analysts’ means to establish suspicious objects and people in true time in sensitive areas, in keeping with Conor McCourt, a retired NYPD counterterrorism sergeant who spoke of he used IBM’s application in its preliminary tiers.
“Say you have a suspicious bag left in downtown manhattan, as an individual working in the command center,” McCourt spoke of. “It could be that the analytics saw the article sitting there for 5 minutes, and says, ‘appear, there’s an object sitting there.’” Operators could then rewind the video or analyze different cameras neighborhood, he explained, to get a number of probabilities as to who had left the object in the back of.
through the years, IBM employees spoke of, they began to become more worried as they worked with the NYPD to permit the software to identify demographic features. via 2012, in keeping with the interior IBM documents, researchers have been trying out out the video analytics application on the their bodies and faces of latest Yorkers, capturing and archiving their actual records as they walked in public or handed through subway turnstiles. With these close-up pictures, IBM refined its ability to look for americans on digicam in line with a lot of prior to now undisclosed aspects, equivalent to age, gender, hair colour (known as “head colour”), the presence of facial hair — and dermis tone. The files reference meetings between NYPD personnel and IBM researchers to review the development of body identification searches performed at subway turnstile cameras.
“We had been certainly concerned about the place the heck this changed into going,” recalled Kjeldsen. “there have been a few us that had been always talking about this, you understand, ‘If this receives enhanced, this could be an argument.’”
in keeping with the NYPD, counterterrorism personnel accessed IBM’s bodily search function capabilities handiest for contrast functions, and they have been purchasable most effective to a handful of counterterrorism personnel. “whereas equipment that featured either racial or dermis tone search capabilities were offered to the NYPD, they have been explicitly declined by the NYPD,” Donald, the NYPD spokesperson, referred to. “where such equipment came with a examine version of the product, the testers were advised only to test different elements (apparel, eyeglasses, and many others.), but no longer to test or use the dermis tone characteristic. That is not as a result of there would have been anything unlawful and even improper about testing or the usage of these equipment to go looking in the enviornment of a crime for a picture of a suspect that matched an outline given with the aid of a sufferer or a witness. It become primarily to stay away from even the advice or look of any form of technological racial profiling.” The NYPD ended its use of IBM’s video analytics application in 2016, Donald spoke of.
Donald acknowledged that, at some aspect in 2016 or early 2017, IBM approached the NYPD with an upgraded edition of the video analytics application that may look for individuals by way of ethnicity. “The branch explicitly rejected that product,” he said, “based on the inclusion of that new search parameter.” In 2017, IBM launched intelligent Video Analytics 2.0, a product with a body digital camera surveillance capacity that permits clients to discover individuals captured on digital camera through “ethnicity” tags, equivalent to “Asian,” “Black,” and “White.”
Kjeldsen, the former IBM researcher who helped boost the company’s skin tone analytics with NYPD camera access, observed the branch’s declare that the NYPD without problems established and rejected the bodily search features changed into misleading. “we might have not explored it had the NYPD advised us, ‘We don’t wish to do that,’” he said. “No enterprise goes to spend cash where there’s no longer customer hobby.”
Kjeldsen also added that the NYPD’s determination to allow IBM entry to their cameras was essential for the development of the skin tone search points, noting that throughout that length, big apple city served as the company’s “fundamental trying out area,” providing the business with appreciable environmental diversity for application refinement.
“The greater different situations you could use to increase your utility, the more advantageous it’s going be,” Kjeldsen talked about. “That obviously pertains to americans, epidermis tones, some thing it is you might be capable of classify people as, and it also goes for apparel.”
The NYPD’s cooperation with IBM has considering the fact that served as a promoting point for the product at California State school, Northridge. There, campus police chief Anne Glavin referred to the know-how firm IXP helped sell her on IBM’s object identification product by citing the NYPD’s work with the business. “They spoke of what it’s achieved for new york metropolis. IBM turned into very a good deal in the back of that, so this was obviously of notable activity to us,” Glavin said.every day Policing, Civil Liberties considerations
The NYPD-IBM video analytics software changed into originally envisioned as a counterterrorism device to be used in midtown and decrease big apple, in accordance with Kjeldsen. although, the software become integrated all the way through its testing part into dozens of cameras throughout the city. in response to the previous NYPD technologist, it might have been integrated into well-known criminal investigations.
“All bureaus of the department might make use of it,” observed the former technologist, probably assisting detectives examine every thing from intercourse crimes to fraud circumstances. Kjeldsen observed cameras being positioned at building entrances and close parking entrances to video display for suspicious loiterers and abandoned luggage.
Donald, the NYPD spokesperson, referred to the software’s access become restricted to a small variety of counterterrorism officers, adding, “We aren't aware about any case the place video analytics became an element in an arrest or prosecution.”
Campus police at California State college, Northridge, who adopted IBM’s software, stated the bodily search features have been constructive in criminal investigations. requested about even if officers have deployed the application’s potential to filter via photos for suspects’ clothing color, hair color, and dermis tone, Captain Scott VanScoy at California State school, Northridge, spoke back affirmatively, relaying a narrative about how college detectives have been capable of use such elements to promptly filter through their cameras and locate two suspects in a sexual assault case.
“We were able to decide upon up the place they were at different locations from past that night and put a story collectively, so it saves us a ton of time,” Vanscoy talked about. “by the time they did the interviews, they already knew the story and that they didn’t be aware of they had typical.”
Glavin, the executive of the campus police, brought that surveillance cameras using IBM’s utility had been positioned strategically throughout the campus to capture capabilities security threats, comparable to vehicle robberies or student protests. “So they mapped out some CCTV in that area and a course of shuttle to their leading administration building, which is occasionally where individuals will stroll to make their concerns commonplace and they want to stand backyard that building,” Glavin talked about. “not that we’re a big protest campus, we’re on no account a Berkeley, but it surely made sense to birth to construct the exterior digital camera equipment there.”
Civil liberties advocates say they're alarmed via the NYPD’s secrecy in assisting to enhance a program with the capabilities ability for mass racial profiling.
The identification know-how IBM constructed can be effectively misused after a tremendous terrorist assault, argued Rachel Levinson-Waldman, senior counsel in the Brennan core’s Liberty and countrywide safety program. “even if or not the perpetrator is Muslim, the presumption is commonly that she or he is,” she said. “It’s convenient to think about legislation enforcement jumping to a conclusion about the ethnic and non secular id of a suspect, swiftly going to the database of saved movies and combing via it for any person who meets that physical description, and then calling people in for questioning on that groundwork.” IBM didn't comment on questions in regards to the competencies use of its application for racial profiling. despite the fact, the enterprise did send a comment to The Intercept pointing out that it changed into “some of the first groups anyplace to undertake a set of concepts for have confidence and transparency for brand new technologies, together with AI methods.” The statement persevered on to explain that IBM is “making publicly available to different organizations a dataset of annotations for greater than a million photos to support solve one of the greatest considerations in facial evaluation — the lack of distinct facts to instruct AI systems.”
Few laws evidently govern object awareness or the other styles of artificial intelligence incorporated into video surveillance, in accordance with Clare Garvie, a law fellow at Georgetown legislation’s middle on privacy and technology. “Any kind of actual-time location tracking might also lift a Fourth amendment inquiry,” Garvie talked about, citing a 2012 Supreme court docket case, united states v. Jones, that involved police monitoring a motor vehicle’s path and not using a warrant and resulted in 5 justices suggesting that individuals could have a reasonable expectation of privacy in their public movements. in addition, she spoke of, any kind of “identity-based surveillance” may also compromise people’s right to nameless public speech and affiliation.
Garvie mentioned that whereas facial awareness expertise has been closely criticized for the risk of false suits, that chance is even higher for an analytics equipment “tracking someone via different characteristics, just like the color of their garb and their height,” that don't seem to be interesting features.
the previous NYPD technologist mentioned that video analytics techniques can make errors, and referred to a analyze the place the utility had obstacle characterizing americans of colour: “It’s under no circumstances one hundred percent.” but the application’s identification of competencies suspects became, he stated, only the first step in a sequence of pursuits that closely relies on human talents. “The technology operators hand the information off to the detective,” talked about the technologist. “you employ your whole databases to seek competencies suspects and also you provide it to a witness to analyze. … here's all about discovering a method to shorten the time to catch the dangerous americans.”
Object identification classes could additionally unfairly drag individuals into police suspicion simply as a result of regular physical features, in accordance with Jerome Greco, a digital forensics group of workers lawyer at the legal support Society, manhattan’s biggest public defenders organization. “I think about a scenario the place a indistinct description, like young black male in a hoodie, is fed into the equipment, and the utility’s undisclosed algorithm identifies a person in a video running just a few blocks away from the scene of an incident,” Greco mentioned. “The police locate an excuse to stop him, and, after the stop, an officer says the individual suits a description from the previous incident.” hastily, Greco persisted, “a man who changed into simply strolling in his personal local” may well be charged with a major crime without him or his legal professional ever figuring out “that all of it stemmed from a secret software which he can't challenge.”
whereas the know-how can be used for acceptable legislations enforcement work, Kjeldsen noted that what afflicted him most about his assignment changed into the secrecy he and his colleagues had to keep. “We definitely couldn’t discuss what cameras they were the use of, what capabilities they were placing on cameras,” Kjeldsen referred to. “They desired to handle public notion and recognition of LMSI” — the reduce ny protection Initiative — “so they all the time had to be cautious about even that a part of it, that we’re involved, and who they have been concerned with, and what they have been doing.” (IBM did not respond to a question about instructing its employees no longer to speak publicly about its work with the NYPD.)
the style the NYPD helped IBM increase this technology without the public’s consent sets a dangerous precedent, Kjeldsen argued.
“Are there certain actions that are no one’s company no count number what?” he asked. “Are there definite places on the boundaries of public spaces which have an expectation of privateness? after which, how will they construct tools to implement that? That’s where they want the conversation. That’s exactly why competencies of this should still become more broadly available — in order that they can figure that out.”
this text become mentioned in partnership with the Investigative Fund on the Nation Institute.
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Sep 1, 2011
In their September 2003 issue, they introduced the first list of trend-setting products. At the time, they thought sorting the products into specific categories-document management, business process management, enterprise search, content management, portals, smart enterprise suites, etc.-was appropriate, and we'd help bring order to the landscape. But even then the lines were blurring, of course, so they abandoned that strategy in 2004. They are even more blurry now.
The juggernaut of consolidation keeps charging along, so what were single-point solutions a decade ago now include a broad spectrum of capabilities. A Web content management system, for example, contains functionality for, say, collaboration, social media, analytics, records management, etc. Enterprise search is a tool for text mining, sentiment analysis, legal discovery, big data and more. So, as they continue to emphasize, knowledge management isn't an application per se, it's an attitude, an approach to delivering the right information to the right people throughout the entire constituency chain, users and customers alike.
For this year's list, the judging panel of colleagues, analysts, system integrators and users evaluated more than 800 products. Although the products on the list cover a host of technology areas, they share one thing in common: Each has helped create, define, enhance or sustain a market.
As in years past, assembling the list involves a yearlong collaborative effort that culminates with a series of conference calls to finalize the list that follows. It's a big job and a certainly lively and sometime contentious process. All of us have their prejudices based on specific areas of interest/expertise, and because the panel requests anonymity to avoid the onslaught of e-mail, I make the final decision. Trust me, people have tried to bully their way on the list, which isn't a good strategy. Receiving unsolicited recommendations from customers is, however. After all, it's the needs of the market that should identify a trend. Further descriptions of selected Trend-Setting Products begin on Page 18, September KMWorld 2011, Vol 20, Issue #8 and are also linked online within the company description:
A2iA: A2iA DocumentReader-classification, keyword spotting and extraction of information from handwritten letters and loosely structured fields within forms.
ABBYY: FineReader Online-an online OCR service to provide conversion of text from scanned, photographed images and PDFs into editable Word, Excel, RTF, TXT and searchable PDF documents. Click here for more product details.
AccessData Group: AccessData eDiscovery-automated, repeatable and defensible electronic data discovery from litigation hold to production. Click here for more product details.
Accusoft Pegasus: Prizm Viewer-document and image viewing within Internet Explorer, Firefox and Mozilla browsers.
Acquia: Acquia Network-software and services to create and maintain Web experiences built on Drupal. Click here for more product details.
Alfresco: Alfresco Team-content collaboration product that includes iOS apps for the iPad and iPhone.
Altep: Inspicio-document review platform capable of providing access to any document type.
Alterian: Content Manager-software designed to build and manage branding strategies across websites, e-mail campaigns and social media channels.
AnyDoc Software: CAPTUREit-standalone document capture application or component of an end-to-end OCR for AnyDoc automated document and data capture and processing solution. Click here for more product details.
Appian: BPM Suite-comprehensive business process management software on the desktop and mobile devices in the cloud and on premise.
Applied Knowledge Group: KM Solutions built on SharePoint-collaboration and knowledge management solutionsfor government, commercial and non-profit clients
ArcMail: ArcMail Guardian-cloud-based e-mail archiving solution that automatically encodes, indexes and archives all inbound, outbound and internal mail.
ASG Software: ViewDirect Suite-scalable, full-featured archiving platform.
Attensity: Respond 5.1-multichannel customer engagement application.
Attivio: Active Intelligence Engine-extends enterprise search capabilities across documents, data and media.
Autonomy: ControlPoint-centralized policy hub for enforcing compliance policies on distributed content, including content residing in ECM applications.
AvePoint: DocAve Software for SharePoint-fully integrated solution for SharePoint life cycle management.
BA Insight: Longitude Search and Longitude Connectors products-securely extend Microsoft SharePoint and FAST Search to more than 30 enterprise systems.
Box.net: Cloud Content Management-allows sharing, managing and accessing all business content in the cloud.
BP Logix: Process Director-defines, automates and reports on business processes.
Brainware: Globalbrain Enterprise Edition-intelligent data capture and enterprise search.
Bridgeline Digital: iAPPS Product Suite-complete SaaS and on-premise Web content management including e-commerce, e-marketing and analytics. Click here for more product details.
Clarabridge: Sentiment and Text Analytics Platform-data acquisition through linguistic processing and enterprise reporting in an integrated environment. Click here for more product details.
Concept Searching: conceptClassifier for SharePoint-automatic document classification and enterprise class taxonomy management. Click here for more product details.
Connotate: Agent Community-content acquisition and management software platform enabling users to transform Web content into information assets.
Consona: Consona KM 8.0- a true knowledge management solution with enhanced usability for administrators and knowledge authors and editors with tools for the internationalization of knowledge content.
Content Analyst: Content Analyst Analytical Technology (CAAT)-advanced text analytics in a scalable platform designed to cope with massive amounts of unstructured data. Click here for more product details.
Coveo: Coveo Knowledge 360 Solutions for Customer Service-enables access to actionable knowledge from organizations' information.
Darwin Ecosystem: Awareness Engine-tracks Web and Enterprise 2.0 events, discovers emerging trends and gains faster understanding of complex issues over time.
Datameer: Analytics Solution-business user-focused BI platform for big data analytics using Apache Hadoop.
Denodo: Data Virtualization and Data Federation-creates virtual, real-time single views from disparate, heterogeneous data sources.
eGain: Interactive Sales Suite-converts online visitors to buyers with proactive contextual offers across consumer lifecycle . Click here for more product details.
Ektron: CMS400.NET-a platform with complete functionality to create, deploy and manage full-featured, global Web sites.
EMC: SourceOne Suite-family of products and solutions for archiving, e-discovery and compliance to centrally manage multiple content types in order to apply content governance.
Endeca: Endeca Latitude- foundation upon which configurable, search-based business applications can be built and deployed.
EPiServer: CMS 6-combines tools for online engagement through content, community, communication and commerce.
Equilibrium: MediaRich ECM for SharePoint 2010 Online-visualizes more than 400 different document, image video and audio file types in SharePoint Team Portal.
Exalead: CloudView 360- information access for the enterprise and the Web with advanced data extraction, indexing and text analytics.
Exsys: Corvid-interactive Web-enabled knowledge automation expert systems. Click here for more product details.
Exterro: Fusion-integrated e-discovery, legal hold and litigation management software platform.
Fabasoft: Fabasoft Mindbreeze Enterprise-unified organizationwide access to information through indexing and searching data sources such as e-mail systems, file systems, databases, document management systems, intranet and the Internet. Click here for more product details.
Findwise: Findwise Findability Solutions-software for intranets, Web, e-commerce and applications to help make information easily accessible to both company employees and their customers. Click here for more product details.
FTI Technology: Acuity-outsourced document review offering for corporations and law firms. Click here for more product details.
Global 360 (now OpenText): processView-cloud-based forum to collaborate on process discovery.
GlobalNet Services Inc.: Google Search Solutions-search optimization, clustering, security and personalization for structured and unstructured data. Click here for more product details.
HiSoftware: Compliance Sheriff-content compliance testing, monitoring and reporting against standards-based policies for privacy, accessibility, social computing, brand integrity, site quality and operational security.
HP: HP TRIM 7-a records management system with SharePoint support providing a scalable, policy-driven foundation for information governance strategies.
IBM: Content Manager-imaging, digital asset management, Web content management and content integration for multiple platforms, databases and applications.
iDatix: iSynergy-integrated content management designed to manage content and simplify workflow.
IGLOO Software: Enterprise Social Networking-integrated suite of content, collaboration and knowledge management tools within a single, secure social business platform.
InQuira: Customer Experience Services-expert resources focused on optimizing and enhancing an InQuira implementation through proactive, strategic business insights and technical expertise to maximize system uptime.
Integrify: Integrify 5.0-lean business process management with available SharePoint API kit and plug-in.
IntelliResponse: IntelliResponse Answer Suite-enhances consumer experience across a variety of interaction channels, including corporate Web sites, agent desktops, social media platforms and mobile devices.
Intrafind: iFinder Enterprise Search-solutions and consultancy services for enterprise search, information access and text mining.
ISYS Search Software: ISYS Document Filters-an embeddable set of document filters for extracting text from a comprehensive library of file, container and e-mail formats. Click here for more product details.
Jive Software: Engage Platform-robust enterprise social networking platform.
JustSystems: XMetaL-enables content creators to create, collaborate and reuse information that can be repurposed into languages and formats required by customers.
Kofax: Kofax Capture 9.0-full-featured platform allowing users to automate the deployment and updating of the software, their applications and any customizations from a central server.
Metalogix: Content Lifecycle Management for SharePoint-on-premise or cloud-based solution to move, store and manage Microsoft content. Click here for more product details.
Metastorm (now OpenText): Enterprise-aligns business strategy with execution while optimizing the types and levels of business resources it uses.
MicroLink: Information Fusion and Discovery-collaboration and search designed to support growing information and the need for increased data availability.
Microsoft: SharePoint 2010-the versatile platform that continues to spawn an ecosystem of partners extending its capabilities.
Moxie Software: Spaces-social networking software for the enterprise.
Mzinga: OmniSocial-a broad, single-platform suite designed to facilitate community building, collaboration and knowledge sharing across the organization. Click here for more product details.
NavigationArts: Content Management Solutions-software engineered to deliver intuitive online experiences consistent with brand expectations and offline interaction.
NewsGator: Social Sites 2.0-enterprise collaboration software designed for easy integration with SharePoint 2010.
Noetix: NoetixViews-simplifies report development against Oracle enterprise applications by automatically creating business views of the underlying database. Click here for more product details.
Nunwood: Fizz Knowledge Management-allows organizations to optimize their existing knowledge work across research studies, competitor intelligence, external news subscriptions and internal working groups.
Omtool: AccuRoute-document handling platform that captures, converts and distributes paper and electronic documents.
OpenText: ECM Suite-robust platform addressing all management capabilities needed to handle each type of enterprise content-including business documents, records, Web content, digital, e-mail, forms, reports, etc.
Oracle: Enterprise Manager 11g-integrated IT management designed to increase business productivity and efficiency.
Pegasystems: Case Management Solutions-allow organizations to quickly define case solutions and manage their work.
Percussion: CM1-allows business users to directly create, launch and maintain robust websites.
Project Performance Corp.: KM Solutions-consulting and IT solutions with an emphasis in the areas of environment and energy.
Qontext: Qontext for NetSuite-a full collaboration portal within NetSuite.
Raytion: Enterprise Search Connectors-family of vendor-independent enterprise search connectors that enable secure and easy retrieval of business-critical information.
Recommind: Axcelerate eDiscovery-precisely identifies key documents quickly while automatically assessing document responsiveness, privilege and issue relation before the review process begins.
Reprints Desk: STM Document Delivery-simplifies single article procurement, with copyright-compliant, same-day delivery. Click here for more product details.
RightAnswers: Unified Knowledge Platform-provides a knowledgebase for IT support and a knowledge foundation for the organization.
RightNow: RightNow CX-a customer experience suite designed to deliver comprehensive customer experience applications that drive revenue, increase efficiency and build loyalty.
Rivet Logic: ECM Solutions-transform traditional content repositories and static intranets into collaborative work environments through open source functionality. Click here for more product details.
RSD: RSD GLASS-governance solution engineered to help organizations manage corporate risk and improve operational efficiency. Click here for more product details.
salsaDev: salsaAPI-full range of automated text analysis and content enrichment services, including auto-tagging and auto-classification capabilities.
SAS: SAS Text Analytics, SAS Rapid Predictive Modeler-extract relevant information to reveal patterns, sentiments and relationships among documents; allow business analysts and subject matter experts to generate predictive models based on specific needs and business scenarios.
SDL: SDL Tridion-complete, global Web content management solutions; SDL TrisoftTM and SDL LiveContentTM-an intelligent and interactive platform for delivery of technical content. Click here for more product details.
Search Technologies: Search Application Assessment Process-detailed analysis, reporting of organizational search solutions, including open source options.
Sinequa: Enterprise Search 7.0-Semantic and linguistic search based on vector modeling of the key meaning of documents.
Siteworx: Enterprise Search Consulting-advice about implementation and integration of enterprise search solutions.
Smartlogic: Semaphore-combines ontology management, classification, text mining and semantic analysis in a search application framework.
Socialtext: Version 4.6-intranet-centric software designed to increase insight and enhance social networking inside the organization.
Sophia Search: SOPHIA-understands different contextual meanings for a query and intelligently returns results organized in structured, thematic folders.
SpringCM: Content Management Service-cloud-based content, document and workflow management solutions.
SpringSense: Enterprise Search Solution-recognizes the meaning of text through context rather than relying solely on keywords.
StoredIQ: Risk Assessment Service for SharePoint-information intelligence solution for handling legal risks within SharePoint environment.
Symantec: AntiVirus Corporate Edition-threat protection to detect viruses, Trojans horses, spyware, etc.
Synaptica: Version 7.2-visualization suite including tools to help streamline and automate building and deploying taxonomies.
Telligent: Telligent Enterprise, Version 3.0-social community application for employees, enabling corporate communication, networking, collaboration and innovation.
Traction Software: TeamPage 5.2-enables searching both external sources and TeamPage's Social Enterprise Web to discuss, tag, task, share and badge internal or external content.
Vivisimo: Customer eXperience Optimization (CXO)-connects customer-facing professionals with information required for successful customer, partner and sales prospect interactions.
Wall Street Network: WSN Insight 2011 R2 for SharePoint-allows corporate collaboration within an organization by proactively pursuing each user's input targeted by each employee's skill sets. Click here for more product details.
Workshare: Workshare Professional-document control management of multi-person document reviews, metadata removal, secure PDF creation and sharing, and complete information security.
Xenos (a division of Actuate): Xenos Enterprise Server-document and data transformation services to lower operational costs and complexity and improve customer service.
ZyLAB: eDiscovery Software-proven software and services tailored to any environment, either outsourced or in-house.
As mobile devices become more common, protecting the data stored on them becomes a primary concern for the enterprise. Fortunately, mobile operating systems now include security features that enterprises can use to enforce corporate policies. In this series, they explore data protection on today's most popular mobile device operating systems: BlackBerry, Windows Mobile and Symbian.
In this series:
Protecting data on your BlackBerry devices Protecting data on your Symbian devices Protecting data on your Windows Mobile devices
Protecting data on your BlackBerry devices
In this section, they explore BlackBerry security capabilities most directly related to data protection. You'll discover how tight IT controls and protection options can be combined to safeguard your enterprise's valuable data on a BlackBerry.
For many employers, the data on a handheld is far more valuable than the device itself. According to Ponemon Institute, the average cost of a data breach has now reached $197 per compromised record. The vast majority of breaches involve laptops, but it's just a matter of time before some CEO's lost BlackBerry makes headlines. Or is it?
Under my thumb
Most BlackBerry users carry a device that is centrally configured and monitored by their employer. Although BlackBerrys have long been available to individuals, BlackBerry has until recently been marketed almost exclusively to corporations. In particular, mobile device management through the BlackBerry Enterprise Server (BES) has been a big part of BlackBerry's business appeal.
IT staff use BES to deploy IT and application policies that control how a BlackBerry operates, the programs it can run, and how it will protect data. Global policies are defined for the entire domain and refined to reflect the needs of each group. All authorized BlackBerry users are bound to an IT policy, which can be pushed to their handhelds over-the-air during "wireless enterprise" activation.
Through IT policies, employers can enforce common mobile security needs like mandating device passwords with a minimum length, complexity and update frequency; requiring inactivity timeouts; preventing user changes to read-only parameters; and permitting voice calls on locked handhelds. They can also disable riskier features like Bluetooth or IM and control whether and how data is encrypted.
Application policies go beyond those native capabilities, letting employers control custom and third-party applications installed on the device and the resources they are permitted to access. For example, an application can be permitted to reach internal and/or external domains or prohibited from using Bluetooth or GPS.
Controls like these can reduce risk. For example, BlackBerrys have flown under the radar for mobile malware by running only IT-vetted applications. This may change as consumers configure their own BlackBerrys to run non-business applications.
Digging into data
No matter who manages a BlackBerry, that device's content can be protected through a combination of hardware, software and policies. When the content-protection option is enabled, a random 256-bit AES content-protection key is used to produce a public/private key pair. The content-protection key and private key are then encrypted with a temporary key, derived from the user's password, and stored in flash memory.
As long as the BlackBerry is unlocked, data received by or typed into the device will be encrypted with the content-protection key. Once the device is locked, that content cannot be read until the user enters the correct password, allowing the content-protection key to be decrypted. Furthermore, any messages received while the device is locked are encrypted with the previously generated public key and cannot be decrypted with the private key until the user's password has been entered.
This scheme prevents someone from picking up a locked BlackBerry and viewing user data (including text typed into the BlackBerry), any data saved by the BlackBerry Web browser (including its cache), calendar entries, address book contacts, memos, tasks, and email messages (including bodies and attachments). Further options can encrypt files written to external memory and passwords saved by a Password Keeper application.
IT policies control whether or not content protection is used and the length (strength) of associated keys. Policies also control whether users can make exceptions, like viewing the address book on a locked BlackBerry. It is important to realize, however, that content protection depends on the user's password. This entire scheme can be defeated by an easy-to-guess password.
To deter password compromise, define IT policies that discourage practices like reuse and simple password incrementing. Combine those with secure data wipe after max. password attempts or device loss/theft. BlackBerry policies also let you automatically wipe a device if it isn't unlocked within a defined period or if the battery becomes too weak to receive a remote wipe command.
Going the distance
These measures protect data at rest on a BlackBerry, but what about data in transit? The BlackBerry operating system is well known for including transport encryption, but it actually supports multiple methods -- some of which affect stored data too.
Every message sent to a BlackBerry through a wireless carrier is routed through RIM's BlackBerry infrastructure. For customer privacy, each message is encrypted with 3DES or AES and keys known only to the BES and the handheld. The BES decrypts each message before relaying it to your company's messaging server (e.g., Microsoft Exchange, IBM Lotus Domino).
Some newer BlackBerrys support further over-the-air encryption options, including IPsec tunneling to a corporate VPN gateway and Wi-Fi data encryption using WPA/WPA2. All of these methods deter eavesdropping on messages in transit. But some companies require end-to-end encryption, from sender to recipient. How can a recipient know that a message was not modified or viewed on the messaging server?
BlackBerry handhelds support end-to-end encryption through optional PGP or S/MIME clients. For example, when the BES delivers an S/MIME-protected message to a BlackBerry, both BlackBerry transport encryption and S/MIME data encryption are applied. Upon receipt, the handheld removes BlackBerry transport encryption, but S/MIME data encryption remains until the recipient views the message.
In this section, they explored BlackBerry security capabilities most directly related to data protection. They have shown how tight IT controls and protection options can be combined to keep BlackBerry data safe. To learn more about the BlackBerry security architecture, including capabilities that go well beyond data protection, visit www.blackberry.com/security. Remember: Your mobile device vendor can only supply the tools to secure your mobile workforce -- it's up to you to apply them wisely.
Protecting data on your Symbian devices
Global impactAccording to In-Stat, Symbian leads the smartphone operating system field with almost 70% of the global market, while the biggest Symbian player -- Nokia -- continues to out-ship every other wireless handset vendor. It therefore comes as no surprise that Symbian was targeted by the first significant mobile malware outbreak.
When SymbianOS.Cabir emerged back in June 2004, mobile vendors were put on notice that handhelds had matured sufficiently to lure attackers. Cabir was a simple worm that posed as the Caribe Security Manager utility, but it implanted malicious code that spread to other Nokia Series 60 devices over Bluetooth. Shortly thereafter, sibling Mabir exploited multi-media messaging service (MMS) in a similar fashion. Although these worms did no real damage, they showed how unprotected those handheld devices and their data were.
Taking responsibilityIn Cabir's aftermath, all major mobile operating systems were overhauled to incorporate protection features that prevented malware from overwriting sensitive files, including privileged OS components and device data.
First came Symbian-Signed, a program whereby registered software publishers could digitally sign applications that had been tested by a Symbian-accredited test house. This program has undergone revision to make signing less onerous for smaller developers. Today, there are three Symbian-Signed levels: Open-Signed (limited/internal use), Express-Signed (self-tested), and Certified-Signed (independently tested).
All three levels use digital signatures to bind software to publisher identities. Express-Signed and Certified-Signed programs must use Publisher IDs issued by TC TrustCenter, the official Certificate Authority for the Symbian-Signed program. The objective is to enable third-party software development while giving users a reliable way to identify software origin and trustworthy publishers.
Hardening the platformSymbian 9 built upon this foundation by implementing Platform Security -- an architecture designed to restrict or block unauthorized access to APIs and data. Platform Security replaces the old "all or nothing" execution environment, where every installed program had unfettered access to everything else on a Symbian handheld. Instead, Capability Management now controls the access rights afforded to each running process, while Data Caging confines each process to its own part of the file system.
On Symbian 9.x devices, signed executables are tagged with capabilities that can be permitted or denied at run-time, based on configured policies. Full API and file system privileges are reserved for the Trusted Computing Base (i.e., the kernel, file system, and software installer). System privileges grant Trusted Computing System servers like messaging selective access to device data, network interfaces, and power management. Finally, there are basic privileges, like the ability to read and write user data, use network services, and determine device location, which can be configured by users.
Capability Management is not impervious to hacks, but it helps Symbian devices resist unauthorized software installation, maintain system integrity, and lock down sensitive operations and data. To further protect data, capabilities are combined with Data Caging -- a straightforward way of keeping code, read-only public data, and per-application private data strictly separated. For example, files in the /resource directory are visible to all processes but can be deleted or changed only by the Trusted Computing Base. However, the files within each /private/SID directory are hidden from executables other than the one associated with a given SID (Secure Identifier).
Encrypting dataSymbian Platform Security is concerned with controlling API and data access but not with maintaining data confidentiality. The Symbian operating system does indeed implement several encryption algorithms, including DES, 3DES, RC2, RC4, RC5 and AES. The operating system does not, however, automatically encrypt folders, files or messages. Deciding whether and how data should be encrypted falls to each application.
For example, enterprises that require cryptographic protection for email messages may choose to send them over TLS, IPsec or another encrypted channel. If TLS is chosen, a Symbian device can use built-in functions to encrypt the IMAP or POP3 messages exchanged with each configured mail server. But those mail messages and file attachments stored on a Symbian device will not remain encrypted "at rest" unless a third-party stored data encryption solution is installed and configured to do so.
Many such programs are commercially available for Symbian handhelds, from basic standalone programs that individuals can use to encrypt passwords and credit card numbers, to centrally managed enterprise file/folder encryption solutions. To learn more about third-party programs for Symbian devices (including data encryption programs), consult your carrier or device manufacturer, or search at Symbian software website like www.my-symbian.com or www.phonesymbian.com.
Protecting data on your Windows Mobile devices
Until recently, Windows Mobile devices lacked the native management and security capabilities long associated with BlackBerrys. Many third-party device management and security solutions were (and still are) available for Windows Mobile. However, Windows Mobile simply did not have BlackBerry's "protected-out-of-the-box" appeal. With System Center Mobile Device Manager, Microsoft has moved to fill this gap.
Work in progress
Today's Windows Mobile 6 devices are descended from many generations of Windows CE PDAs and Pocket PCs. Those older mobile operating systems were certainly not devoid of native security capabilities. They were simply incomplete and hard to manage.
For example, Windows Mobile 2003 Pocket PCs included PPTP and IPsec VPN clients, but they were not enabled by default. Moreover, those clients could not be IT-configured over the air without jumping through extra hoops (e.g., syncing XML provisioning documents or using a third-party mobile device manager). Any data received by those devices was stored in decrypted form -- unless a third-party crypto product was added.
In short, enterprises that needed to centrally manage and secure Windows Mobile devices had to assemble the piece parts and fill in critical gaps.
A new generation
Starting with Windows Mobile 6.1, Microsoft-based smartphones and PDAs have an alternative: Microsoft's System Center Mobile Device Manager (SCMDM) 2008. All WM 6.1 devices are inherently capable of being managed by an enterprise SCMDM server. Depending upon your needs and configuration, that server can provide fully automated over-the-air device provisioning, software installation, policy enforcement, and monitoring/reporting.
To enroll with SCMDM, a WM 6.1 user just enters his enterprise email address and an administrator-supplied one-time PIN. The WM 6.1 device uses SSL to connect to an SCMDM gateway server (i.e., a 64-bit Windows 2003 Server reachable from the Internet, outside the enterprise's trusted intranet).
That gateway authenticates the user and completes enrollment by interacting with a device management server (i.e., another 64-bit Windows 2003 Server, located inside the intranet, with access to Active Directory). These SCMDM server functions can be further distributed -- for example, delegating persistent storage to a separate SQL Server, or using a separate Microsoft CA to issue device certificates.
Once a WM 6.1 device has been enrolled and "boots-strapped," all further communication between the PDA/smartphone and gateway is protected by an auto-configured IPsec "mobile VPN" tunnel. SCMDM can provision Windows Mobile devices by using the Windows Software Update Service (WSUS) 3.0 to push application packages over the air. SCMDM also installs and enforces IT-defined Active Directory Group Policies -- to deny use of selected network interfaces and applications, for example, or encrypt specified files or folders.
Thereafter, each managed Windows Mobile can be centrally monitored and updated through the SCMDM. New software can be pushed through WSUS. Device hardware and software can be periodically inventoried. If a managed Windows Mobile is ever lost or stolen, the SCMDM can be used to remotely wipe the device the next time it connects to the enterprise network.
Note that SCMDM does not rely on Active Sync. Instead, WM 6.1 devices automatically reconnect their mobile VPN tunnel to the SCMDM gateway whenever a 3G or Wi-Fi link becomes active. Bear in mind, however, that most nomadic mobile devices still spend some time out of range and thus disconnected from every network, including the SCMDM.
Finally, that mobile VPN tunnel can also provide a secure conduit for enterprise application access -- for example, letting Windows Mobile users connect to Exchange, Sharepoint, and other application servers inside the enterprise firewall. Even applications that apply their own data protection measures, like TLS-encrypted POP and SMTP sessions, can be relayed through the mobile VPN tunnel.
Where SCMDM fits
With SCMDM, Microsoft provides a "protected-out-of-the-box" solution for enterprises that use new Windows Mobile devices. However, SCMDM cannot manage older Windows Mobile devices, including today's dominant Windows Mobile 6.0 population. Given the short lifespan of smartphones, many older devices may never be soft-upgradeable to 6.1 -- instead, you'll have to buy new hardware to tap into SCMDM.
Moreover, like BlackBerry Enterprise Server, SCMDM is not (currently) a cross-platform solution. Organizations with diverse mobile device populations will either need to deploy multiple MDM "silos" or invest in a third-party MDM like Sybase iAnywhere, Nokia Intellisync, or Motorola Good, with agents for multiple operating systems.
While SCMDM provides a relatively broad set of management and security capabilities, no platform can be everything to everyone. For example, those who require over-the-air remote control still need a third-party solution. Finally, SCMDM is Microsoft's first foray into mobile device management; it will no doubt require refinement and hardening over time. Visit Microsoft to learn more about Windows Mobile 6.1 security and Microsoft's SCMDM approach to Windows Mobile data protection.
About the author: Lisa Phifer is president and co-owner of Core Competence, a consulting firm focused on business use of emerging network and security technologies. At Core Competence, Lisa draws upon her 27 years of network design, implementation and testing experience to provide a range of services, from vulnerability assessment and product evaluation to user education and white paper development. She has advised companies large and small regarding the use of network technologies and security best practices to manage risk and meet business needs. Lisa teaches and writes extensively about a wide range of technologies, from wireless/mobile security and intrusion prevention to virtual private networking and network access control. She is also a site expert to SearchMobileComputing.com and SearchNetworking.com.
Most of the time you'll just want to save your existing document in its existing location, and Word provides three quick ways to do so. You can click the Save button on the Standard toolbar, use the Ctrl+S or Shift+F12 keyboard shortcut, or choose File, Save.Saving Files Using a Different Name, Format, or Location
Often, you want to make changes in the way you save a file. In particular, you may want to save a file to a different location on your computer or on your network. Or you may want to save it in a different file format so that people who run software other than Word can use it. In each case, you use the Save As dialog box (see Figure 3.7). To display it, choose File, Save As, or press F12.
Figure 3.7 The Save As dialog box enables you to save files to different locations or in different formats.
Because new documents require you to specify a name and location for the file Word also displays the Save As dialog box when you save a file for the first time. By default, Word expects you to save your file in the My Documents folder in Windows 98/Me or Windows 2000/XP; or your Personal folder in Windows NT 4.0. (In NT 4.0 and Windows 2000, these folders are stored as subfolders within the folders associated with your user profile.)
Word also inserts the first word or phrase of your document in the File Name text box, guessing that these words might be your document's title. If Word has made correct assumptions, all you need to do is click Save to store the file. Otherwise, type in a new before saving the file.
If you want to change the standard location Word uses for saving files, display Tools, Options; click the File Locations tab; select Documents from the File Types scroll box; and click Modify. Browse to a new location and click OK twice.Saving to a Different Location
Word's Save As dialog box gives you extensive control over where you save your files. Save a copy of your file in a different folder or drive as follows:
Click anywhere in the Save In drop-down box. A list of available drives and resources is displayed (see Figure 3.8).
Figure 3.8 You can choose a folder, drive, network, or Internet FTP resource from the Save In drop-down box.
Click the drive or resource where you want to store your file. A list of existing documents and folders already stored on that drive is displayed.
If you want to store your file in one of the subfolders, double-click it; repeat the process until you arrive at the folder you want.
Make sure that the filename and file format are correct and click Save.
If you are using Save As to save an existing file in a new location, Word leaves the earlier version where you originally stored it.
Sometimes the only change in file location you want to make when using the Save As dialog box is to go up one level in your folder structure. Or, you may want to move around on the same drive rather than choose a different drive. In this case, click the Up One Level toolbar button (or press Alt+2) to display the next higher level folder or drive. From there, browse the file and folder lists until you find where you want to save the file.
Occasionally, you may want to save a file in a folder that doesn't exist yet. To create a new folder within your current folder, click the Create New Folder button. The New Folder dialog box opens; enter the name of your new folder and click OK. The folder now appears within your current file and folder list. To save your file in the new folder, first double-click the new folder to open it and then click Save.Saving Across a Network
Most Word users are now connected to a network. If your computer connects to a networked folder at startup and assigns that folder a drive name, this mapped network drive appears in the list of drives under My Computer in the Save In drop-down list box. Choose the mapped drive as you would any other drive, find the folder within that drive if necessary, and click Save to save the file.
If the network drive or folder where you want to save the file is not a mapped drive, but you have unrestricted access to it, you can reach it through Network Neighborhood (in Windows 98 or NT 4.0) or My Network Places (in Windows 2000):
Click inside the Save In drop-down list box.
Click Network Neighborhood or My Network Places. Word displays a list of computers and mapped drives accessible to you on the network.
Double-click the computer or mapped drive where you want to store the file.
After that computer's name appears in the Save In drop-down box, browse for the drive and folder where you want to store the file.
Make sure that the filename and format are correct and click Save.
In certain instances, you may be asked to provide a password when you attempt to access a computer or drive. For example, if you are attempting to access a drive on Windows 2000 Server for the first time during a session, you may be asked for a password. Enter your password, or if you don't have one, speak to your network administrator about getting access.
If you don't have access to a computer on the network, it may not even appear on the list of computers in Network Neighborhood or My Network Places.Saving in a Different Format
What if you want to save a file for use by someone who works with a different word processor or an older version of Word? Or what about saving it as text-only for transmission over an e-mail system that can't handle formatting or HTML? In each case, you need to save your file in a different format.
To choose a format other than Word, display the Save As dialog box and click in the Save as Type drop-down box. Scroll to the file type you want to use and click it. If the filename uses a different extension (as will be the case unless you are saving to an older version of Word for Windows or DOS, or to WordPerfect), Word automatically changes it accordingly in the File Name text box. Click Save to save the file.
In some cases, Word may prompt you to install a filter¡ªeither from your CD-ROM or the network installation you installed Office from¡ªbefore you can save to other formats.
Table 3.3 lists the file formats available in Word.Table 3.3 File Formats Available As Save As Options
Saves in HTML/XML format for use on Web or intranet pages (see the Bonus Word Chapter, "Using Word to Develop Web Content").
Web Page, Filtered
Saves a more stripped-down version of HTML that doesn't contain code intended to support Word-only features.
Saves a single Web archive file that contains any graphics included on your Web page (as opposed to saving the graphics in a separate new folder). Note that Web Archive files can only be read by Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Saves files as Word templates for creating other similar files.
Rich Text Format (RTF)
Saves in a Microsoft standard file format for exchanging word processing data in text file format. RTF preserves most, but not all, Word formatting. Some software can import RTF files but not Word 2002 files; in addition, saving to RTF can sometimes fix a damaged Word file.
Eliminates all formatting; converts line, section, and page breaks to paragraph marks; uses the ANSI character set. Useful if you're uncertain about your file's ultimate destination.
MS-DOS Text with Layout
Attempts to mimic a formatted document through the use of additional spaces in place of indents, tab stops, tables, and other formatting elements.
Text with Layout
Similar to MS-DOS Text with Layout, except that it does not support DOS extended ASCII character set.
Word 2.x for Windows
Saves to Word 2.x for Windows format.
Word 4.0 for Macintosh
Saves to Word 4 for Macintosh format.
Word 5.0 for Macintosh
Saves to Word 5 for Macintosh format.
Word 5.1 for Macintosh
Saves to Word 5.1 for Macintosh format.
Saves to create files that can be used with Word 6.0 on either Windows or the Macintosh; and can also be used by Word 95 running on Windows 95, 98, or NT.
Word 6.0/95 for Windows&Mac
Saves to Word 6.0/95 format that can be read accurately by Windows and Macintosh versions.
Word 97 format
Saves to Word 97 format.
Word 97-2002 & 6.0/95¡ªRTF
Saves to a version of Rich Text Format that can be read by Word 6, 95, 97, 2000, and XP.
WordPerfect 5.0 for DOS
Saves to WordPerfect 5.0 for DOS format.
WordPerfect 5.0 secondary file.
Creates a WordPerfect 5.0 Secondary File
WordPerfect 5.1 for DOS
Saves to WordPerfect 5.1 for DOS format.
WordPerfect 5.x for Windows
Saves to WordPerfect 5.x for Windows format.
WordPerfect 5.1 or 5.2 secondary file.
Creates a WordPerfect 5.1 or Secondary File
Microsoft Works 2000 for Windows format.
Saves to MS Works 2000 for Windows
Microsoft Works 4.0 for Windows format.
Saves to MS Works 4.0 for Windows
It's unlikely, but you might need a file converter that isn't on this list. In this case, you have several options. In some cases, the converter you need is available in the Microsoft Office XP Resource Kit, or free from Microsoft's Web site. If you have a Web connection, you can reach this site by choosing Help, Office on the Web. Converters available online or in the Office Resource Kit at http://www.microsoft.com/office/ork/ include
Windows Write 3.0 or 3.1 (Write32.cnv)
Lotus Ami Pro 3.x (Ami332.cnv)
WordStar 3.3¨C7.0 for MS-DOS and WordStar for Windows 1.0¨C2.0 (import only)
WordStar 4.0 or 7.0 for MS-DOS (export only) (Wrdstr32.cnv)
Microsoft Works 3.0
Microsoft Word 4.x, 5.x, and 6.x for MS-DOS (Doswrd32.cnv)
If you need to convert a file that isn't on this list, you might need a third-party file converter such as Dataviz Conversions Plus or Inso ImageStream.
What if you need to view or work with a file someone else has sent? First, note that Word can open files in a few formats that it cannot use to save files, notably WordPerfect 6.x for Windows and Lotus 1-2-3.
If you need to merely view the contents of a file, and you're running Windows 98, try Quick View, which comes with Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, and Windows 2000. (It's an optional component; you might have to run your Windows setup program to install it.) Keep in mind, though, that because Windows NT 4.0 was released before Office 97, 2000 and XP, file formatted using these Office packages are not generally viewable in those versions of Quick View.
A third-party product, Inso Quick View Plus, supports more than 200 file formats, most of which aren't included in Quick View. Unlike the free Quick View, Quick View Plus enables you to print files. If you want to use this, be sure to check with Inso to see whether an updated version that supports Office XP file formats is available.
Often, the easiest solution is to ask whoever sent you the file to resave it in a format you can read. For example, most current word processors¡ªsuch as Sun's widely used StarOffice Writer¡ªwill save in one of Microsoft Word's native formats.
What if you need the text from a file right now; you can't afford to wait for a third-party product to arrive, and you can live without the formatting? Or what if you have a file that you can't even identify? Try Word's Recover Text from Any File filter, available through the File, Open dialog box. You'll learn how to use File, Open and Word's document filters in the next section.
Finally, it's important to note that Word's built-in file conversions aren't always perfect. For example, Microsoft has posted a five-page report on the limitations of the Word filter for saving documents to WordPerfect 5.x (Knowledge Base Article Q157085). Many of these limitations are minor; for example, Word's decimal table cell alignments are converted to WordPerfect right-aligned paragraphs, and centering codes may have to be individually repositioned. Taken together, however, they mean you can't assume that what you see in Word is what you get in WordPerfect.
Worse, if you convert a file to WordPerfect and then reopen the WordPerfect file in Word to see what it looks like, you see apparent problems that don't actually appear when your recipient opens the file in WordPerfect.
Ideally, you should double-check the results of any file conversion in the program to which you've converted. In the real world, however, you may not have access to that program, so just do your best to give your file's recipient enough time to check it and make any necessary adjustments.
¡ú For more information about file conversions, see the Bonus Word Chapter titled "Managing Word More Effectively," at http://www.quehelp.com.Taking a Closer Look at Word's New Save As and Open Dialog Boxes
In Word 2000 and 2002, Microsoft thoroughly revamped both the Save As and Open dialog boxes, making it easier to find the folders and files you need. If you are upgrading from an older version of Word, such as Word 6 or 97, take a few moments to look over these dialog boxes: it will pay off many times over in improved productivity.
For the first time, Word 2002 Save As and Open dialog boxes are resizable, so you can view longer or wider lists of documents. To resize one of these dialog boxes, drag on the triangle at the bottom right of the dialog box (refer to Figure 3.7).The Places Bar: Quick Access to Key Folders
At the left side of the Open and Save As dialog boxes, you'll see a vertical bar displaying five folders Microsoft expects you to use heavily as you work with Word. These work like shortcuts: clicking on one displays the contents of the corresponding folder.
History¡ªThe History folder stores Windows shortcuts for every file you've used and lists them in date order, with the most recent first. The History folder stores shortcuts to the files. If you've worked on the same file several times, the shortcut takes you to the latest version. It's a great way to find a file you've used in the past few days but that may no longer be on Word's most recently used file list.
My Documents¡ªThis is Word's default document folder. It places all the new files you save here unless you've specified otherwise. In Windows NT, this is called the Personal folder.
Desktop¡ªThis is the top-level folder on your computer. Although you probably won't store files in the Desktop folder, clicking Desktop gives you a quick high-level view of your drives and network resources. From the desktop, you can browse to just about anywhere.
Favorites¡ªYou can use this folder to store files you expect to work on especially often.
My Network Places¡ªThis folder gives you a one-click connection to the folders on your network, Web, or FTP server¡ªincluding files you may have published on your intranet or Web site. (In Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0, this option is called Web Folders.)
Word users welcomed the Places Bar in Word 2000 but wished for an easy way to customize it. In Word 2002, that wish comes true. To add a folder to the Places Bar, select the folder in either the Open or Save As dialog box; then click the Tools button at the top of the dialog box and choose Add To "My Places." The folder now appears on the Places Bar in all major Microsoft Office XP applications. An arrow may also appear at the bottom of the Places Bar, if its contents are now too long to fit.
To reorganize the Places Bar, right-click on an item; then choose Remove, Move Up, Move Down, or Rename. You can also choose Small Icons to squeeze more icons onto the Places Bar (see Figure 3.9).
Figure 3.9 Displaying small icons to fit more locations on the Places Bar.Controlling How You View Lists of Documents
Word can list your document in several different ways. You can choose a different view of your document list by clicking the down arrow next to the Views button on the Save As (or Open) toolbar (see Figure 3.10). A drop-down list appears, containing these choices:
Figure 3.10 Choosing how to view a list of documents.
Large Icons¡ªDisplays large icons representing each file and folder; Word files are displayed with a large Word icon.
Small Icons¡ªDisplays small icons representing each file and folder; Word files are displayed with a small Word icon.
List¡ªDisplays a list of your documents and folders, showing only their names.
Details¡ªDisplays the size, type, and last modification date of each file and folder. You can sort files by clicking on the heading you want to sort by, such as Name, Size, Type, or Modified.
Properties¡ªEnables you to select a file and get information about it (see Figure 3.11).
Preview¡ªDisplays the first page of the document.
Thumbnails¡ªDisplays thumbnail images of documents. Note, however, that in many cases Word cannot display a thumbnail and simply presents an icon.
Figure 3.11 The Properties view within the Save As dialog box.Using Tools in the Save As (and Open) Dialog Boxes
For your convenience, Word brings together a series of file-related tools in the Tools menu of the Save As dialog box. To view these tools, click the Tools button (see Figure 3.12).
These tools are also available in the Open dialog box, as is another tool¡ªFind¡ªwhich you can use to search for documents. Find is covered later in this chapter.
Additionally, some of the tools described previously, as well as other options, are also available from shortcut menus that display when you right-click on a filename.
Figure 3.12 Choosing among the tools available in the Save As dialog box.
You can select a file, click Tools, and then Delete it, Rename it, or
Click Add to Favorites to add a shortcut to this file to your Favorites folder for quick access.
Click Properties to display the document's properties. (To learn more about using document properties, see the Bonus Word Chapter, "Managing Word More Effectively.")
If you select a networked drive, you can choose Map Network Drive to map that drive so that it appears as another drive letter on your local drive. If you select a folder or drive, you can choose Add to "My Places" to display the folder or drive as one of My Network Places.
Several additional options are available; these are covered elsewhere in the book. Save Options is covered in Chapter 27. Security Options is covered in Chapter 29, "Word Document Privacy and Security Options." Compress Pictures, which shrinks file sizes by compressing images within the files, is covered in Chapter 14, "Getting Images into Your Documents." Finally, Save Version is covered in Chapter 24, "Managing Document Collaboration and Revisions."
You can select multiple files in the Open dialog box and use the Tools menu to delete, print, or add them to the Favorites folder all at once.Using MSN Web Communities to Store Content on the Web
Microsoft's MSN Web Communities offers 30 megabytes of storage space on the Web at no charge. You can use this space from within Office as
Supplemental file storage
An easy way to share large files with clients and business partners
An easy way to transfer files you'll need on a trip
In the following procedure, you'll walk through claiming and using your Web-based storage space.
The following procedure assumes that you have a Microsoft Passport user ID, which gives you access to all of Microsoft's services on the Web, including Hotmail. If you don't have one, you can get one at http://www.hotmail.com and a variety of other sites on the Web. As with any other free Web resource, before you sign up for Passport, carefully read Microsoft's posted privacy policies.
Choose File, Open (or File, Save As).
In the Open (or Save As) dialog box, choose My Network Places from the Places Bar.
Figure 3.13 The Sign in With Microsoft Passport dialog box.
Double-click on My Web Sites on MSN. The Sign In with Microsoft Passport dialog box appears (see Figure 3.13).
If you're unconcerned about the security of your computer, and you don't want to be bothered with signing in to Passport every time you use your Web storage, check the Automatically Sign Me In On This Computer check box.
Enter your sign-in name (typically your Hotmail e-mail address) and your password; then click OK.
Microsoft now provides you with a folder bearing your sign-in name (you cannot rename this folder). If you double-click this folder, you'll find a "files" folder and, within that, subfolders for My Music and My Pictures.
If you want to add a folder to the ones MSN gives you by default, double-click the files folder. Then, click the New Folder button in the Save As toolbar. The New Folder dialog box appears (see Figure 3.14). Enter a folder name in the name text box, and click OK. The folder now appears in your list of folders.
Figure 3.14 The New Folder dialog box.
Now that you have Web storage, you can browse to it, save files to it, and open files from it, just like any other drive you have access to. If you are accessing the drive for the first time in a session, you may be asked for your Microsoft Passport ID and password.Creating Shortcuts to Files Stored on Network Servers
Finding content stored on network servers or the Internet can be complex; Word and Office make it easy by allowing you to create shortcuts to Network Places¡ªfolders on any network server, Web, or FTP site that you can use as if they were folders on your own drive. The Web drive you created in the previous section is an example of a Network Place; in this section, you'll walk through creating a Network Place on your own network.
To create a Network Place, you use the Add Network Place Wizard. You can start the wizard by choosing File, New to display the New Document side pane and clicking Add Network Place. You can also access the wizard from within the Open or Save As dialog box, by clicking Add Network Place in the Places Bar. Either way, the Add Network Place Wizard opens.
After you've displayed the Add Network Place Wizard, follow these steps to add a Network Place that points to a folder that already exists:
Choose Create a Shortcut to an Existing Network Place and click Next. The Create Network Place Shortcut dialog box appears (see Figure 3.15).
Figure 3.15 Identifying your Network Place's location and shortcut name.
In the Location box, enter the complete Web location. If you're not sure of the location, click the Search the Web button to browse to the location and exit the browser when you get there; the Wizard appears with the location displayed.
Press the Tab key; a default shortcut name appears in the Shortcut Name text box. If you want to edit it, do so.
If you need to create a new folder and make that folder a Network Place, display the Add Network Wizard and follow these steps:
Choose Create a Shortcut to an Existing Network Place and click Next. The Network Place Location dialog box appears.
In the Folder Location box, enter the complete Web location where you want to create the new folder.
In the Folder Name text box, enter a name for the folder.
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Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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