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A2040-402 Assessment- Administering IBM Connections 4.0

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A2040-402 exam Dumps Source : Assessment- Administering IBM Connections 4.0

Test Code : A2040-402
Test Name : Assessment- Administering IBM Connections 4.0
Vendor Name : IBM
: 137 Real Questions

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IBM Assessment- Administering IBM Connections

IBM Launches skill assessment to assist Aspiring records Crunchers and Academia Gauge and enhance competencies | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

WASHINGTON, Nov. 12, 2013 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ -- IBM IBM, +0.53% these days unveiled the IBM Analytics talent assessment, a primary-of-its-form on-line platform that gives tuition college students with information-pushed insights that goal to support narrow the large facts and Analytics skills hole and foster ability for the next-era personnel.

the usage of IBM Analytics ability assessment, tuition college students can gauge their readiness for public and private sector big statistics and analytics careers and gain tips on how to extra improve and place themselves for these in-demand jobs through an easy on-line questionnaire. moreover benefitting college students and universities, ability assessments help businesses determine and rent the appropriate candidate for the correct job. they could additionally enable them to more accurately predict performance, thereby including superior efficiencies to an organization's human capital management strategy.

the new initiative became introduced as a part of a White apartment office of Science and technology policy huge information event held in Washington. The adventure is a response to the Obama Administration's call for multi-stakeholder partnerships that harness the vigor of large records to spark advancements in key country wide initiatives, equivalent to financial growth, schooling, health, power and sustainability.

starting this month, students from eight universities which are piloting IBM's assessment can access the platform, have interaction in an online check, and after completion receive customized stories with counsel on a way to bolster their aptitude for records-crunching jobs. These pilot universities are part of the more than 1,000 IBM educational Initiative partners that collaborate with IBM to offer massive statistics and analytics curriculum: Fordham institution, George Washington school, Illinois Institute of know-how, school of Massachusetts Boston, Northwestern school, The Ohio State school, Southern Methodist university and the college of Virginia.

As employers within the public and personal sectors are trying to find to fill the four.4 million jobs being created to assist big facts by using 2015* institution college students international are on the hunt for curriculum to prepare them for statistics-crunching careers. The good news: ingenious coursework is being launched at a quick clip, often by the use of business faculties with classes featuring essential IT and enterprise advantage, from utility proficiency to project administration. youngsters, to be successful in analytics jobs, students also need to develop a big range of "delicate potential": refined aptitudes, personal features and values that can also be difficult to pinpoint and can't all the time be discovered within the classroom.

Recognizing the magnitude of this finished skill set, IBM partnered with more than a dozen of its own clients including The Boeing business and Nationwide assurance to analysis and identify essentially the most simple knowledge and features that indicate no matter if a scholar now not handiest has the capability to analyze statistics, however can parlay it into positive company thoughts for becoming earnings, preventing risk, deepening client engagement, and even saving lives.

Uncovered by means of real-world businesses that have employed and cultivated analytics skill, as well as IBM's Smarter workforce consultants, these predictors of success range the gamut from the potential to assert oneself and negotiate amidst opposition to information-pushed strategies, to very own attributes reminiscent of concern for others and social assuredness.

"advice is a powerful natural resource if you want to play a necessary role in defining and creating the roles of the long run," talked about Mike Rhodin, Senior vp, IBM application solutions group. "IBM is committed to advancing records-pushed insights to radically change the knowledge for their future team of workers. by way of arming them with the necessary equipment and elements, they can assist allow them to turn into world-class analytics leaders who will radically change industries everywhere."

assisting big information and Analytics college students Set the appropriate Trajectory

college students who're at present engaged in analytics levels and coursework at the pilot universities will be encouraged by way of school to register for the IBM Analytics talent assessment at ibm.com/enterprise-analytics/talent-initiative.

The evaluation - which is a web test that tuition students can complete in about 30 to forty minutes - could have four sections. the first three sections will incorporate adaptive checks that measure cognitive ability, verbal reasoning and logical reasoning. The fourth part will characteristic a sequence of questions specializing in the important thing skills and features that point out success for analytics careers.

college students who take the assessment will engage in each traditional dissimilar choice questions and exercises akin to deciphering on-display shapes in ways in which show analytical pondering abilities. The assessment covers a diverse set of themes from mathematical complications that organizations should solve, to questions about how students have interaction with friends, or how they conduct themselves in difficult instances.

After carrying out the assessment, college students will acquire a customized file by way of electronic mail, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses relative to the knowledge and qualities that predict the scholar's probability to be triumphant in analytics. suggested through each and every consumer's interesting outcomes, the report will also provide assistance on methods students can additional enhance themselves, so upon graduation, they're more suitable organized for a profession in analytics.

The eight universities participating with IBM on the assessment will receive reports that show how taking part college students performed in aggregate. this will assist school improved have in mind how their curriculum is preparing college students for careers helping companies find and maximize of the cost of massive facts insights. long run, IBM plans to present the evaluation to its entire ecosystem of big facts and analytics larger training companions.

Narrowing the huge facts and Analytics abilities hole

IBM's collaboration with academia on the Analytics ability evaluation is one in every of a multitude of initiatives the business has instituted to assist narrow the skills hole between the hundreds of thousands of massive information and analytics jobs being created and the variety of college students who have the training and palms-on experience to fill them.

IBM is partnering with greater than 1,000 universities across the globe to enhance curriculum that reflects the mixture of enterprise, technical and problem-solving expertise essential to prepare students for big information and analytics careers, throughout all industries. The goal: prepare students for jobs starting from front-line analytics contributors to leadership roles such as Chief records Officers. via these collaborations, which span lots of majors from business to fitness functions, IBM gives colleges with access to IBM huge information and analytics utility, curriculum materials, case analyze projects, IBM records scientists who consult with classes as visitor lecturers, and faculty grants that gas new curriculum.

A key instance of how public, private and educational collaboration can assist create a data-pushed team of workers: the IBM client center for advanced Analytics in Columbus, Ohio. The core serves as an innovation hub to enhance analytics advantage, drawing on the potential of native agencies, educational associations and business companions to create a talented analytics team of workers. A key a part of this effort is IBM's partnership with The Ohio State institution to boost analytics curricula and provides college students access to the center's know-how and notion leaders.

For more advice on the IBM tutorial Initiative talk over with: ibm.com/academicinitiative.

About IBM big statistics & Analytics

everyday they create 2.5 quintillion bytes of facts generated with the aid of lots of sources -- from local weather tips, to posts on social media websites, and from buy transaction statistics to healthcare scientific pictures. At IBM they agree with that statistics is emerging because the world's most up-to-date aid for competitive capabilities, and analytics is the key to make sense of it. IBM is helping customers harness massive records & Analytics to give insights crucial to make more desirable selections, create price, and convey that cost to consumers and society. IBM has the realm's deepest and broadest portfolio of big facts & Analytics technologies and solutions, spanning features, application, analysis and hardware. For extra information about IBM large statistics & Analytics, talk over with http://ibm.co/bigdataanalytics. observe IBM big records & Analytics on Twitter @IBMbigdata and @IBMAnalytics.

*Gartner Press release, Gartner Says massive information Creates huge Jobs: 4.four Million IT Jobs Globally to guide large facts with the aid of 2015, October 22, 2012

Contact:Douglas FraimIBM Media Relationsdfraim@us.ibm.com617-501-6376

source IBM

Copyright (C) 2013 PR Newswire. All rights reserved


Talevation Expands Strategic Partnership with IBM; increases Assessments offerings and adds IBM Watson AI | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

CARMEL, Ind.--(company WIRE)--Talevation® has extended their skill Assessments Platform (faucet)™ to over 700 on-line talent assessments. faucet is Talevation’s cloud-based mostly, software-as-a-provider (SaaS) digital industry, where clients can self-purchase and self-administer (in a personal and at ease manner) validated skills and behavioral skill assessments throughout a extensive latitude of job titles, classifications and behavioral standards. With the quantity of ability assessments now available, Talevation additionally increased their strategic partnership with IBM®, and has now included IBM Watson™ AI, to aid ebook users in deciding on the right assessments, for their enjoyable cases.

Scott Abbott, Talevation Managing associate referred to, “as a result of we've such an expansive portfolio of talent assessments - and that average key phrase search offers restricted consequences - they expected that users may have issue touchdown on the excellent evaluation(s) or know precisely which assessments to take. In response, they built a chatbot named TAPbot™, that utilizes IBM Watson capabilities to bring a guided event. as an example, TAPbot may imply taking the ‘records mining concepts’ evaluation, when the user searches for ‘synthetic intelligence’. Or for a selected competencies evaluation, TAPbot may also recommend definite behavioral assessments, to complement their abilities. These connected but diverse assessments may be ones their person didn't originally agree with. Such self-discovery and guide, is on the coronary heart of the tap event.”

besides IBM Kenexa examine on Cloud™ and IBM Watson, faucet leverages other items and functions from the IBM Cloud™, including: Alert Notification, API connect, Assistant, Availability Monitoring, certificates manager, Cloudant, Cloud Foundry, Cloud features, Cloud Object Storage, continual start, Discovery, herbal Language realizing.

brought Abbott, “tap offers the most huge and comprehensive portfolio of self-carrier talent assessments available in the market these days. And with the contemporary addition of faucet U!, their profession services application for faculties, students and up to date or quickly-to-be graduates - they are excited that tap can support hundreds of thousands of individuals earn, boost and maintain rewarding employment.”

About Talevation: Headquartered in Carmel, IN - Talevation companions with IBM and IBM’s Kenexa skill Assessments - to provide over 1,000 talents and behavioral skill assessments used to determine, body, validate, measure, prove and substantiate the healthy and proficiency of competencies and latest employees. Talevation helps people and groups of all sizes, take the guesswork out of their ability decisions: from hiring the right individuals, to career development, and worker engagement. Talevation supports 4,000+ enterprise places, which together administer over 1000000 individual advantage and behavioral tests, monthly.

For guidance about faucet and Talevation, discuss with www.talevation.com.

All business and products are the registered emblems of their respective agencies.


imposing IBM Connections | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

I’m gratefully, fortunately, miraculously near the conclusion of an extended experience to put into effect IBM Connections for my business of 50,000. This event took longer than it can have however this text isn’t about that. this article is ready what it takes to get throughout the u.s.a.and downs of implementing an commercial enterprise software product.

Many individuals worked lengthy and hard to get this task off the floor and safely to its destination. It quiet pretty much — but often figuratively — took a solid of lots.

IBM Connections is a social collaboration platform that is obtainable in the cloud or via an on-premise implementation that offers internet/enterprise 2.0 capabilities — reminiscent of blogs, wikis, boards, fame updates, tags, and liking — to either inner and/or exterior clients. agencies customarily use Connections as a praise to or a replacement of common intranets.

study on for just a few pointers that allows you to with a bit of luck be of use for any person embarking on this journey.

selling

Getting buy-in to purchase and set up an business Social network (ESN) equivalent to IBM Connections isn’t a trivial project. An ESN isn’t some thing that each organization has. It isn’t whatever thing each company needs. it could actually not be whatever thing that your whole company’s leaders have even heard of. Gaining approval then is frequently a tough hill to climb. there's an excellent bit of tips freely available on the internet highlighting the advantages of imposing an ESN or becoming a extra social company. I’ve written about it a few instances right here in enterprise as extraordinary. you could also find amazing analysis reports from Gartner, Forrester, and McKinsey to name a few.

IBM company value assessment (BVA)

IBM can also aid out with building the business case with the aid of performing a enterprise price evaluation. The BVA lays out the advantages, found out via discussions and interviews with key stakeholders, and draws from IBM’s extensive skills and skills. Leveraging the experts can provide a brief enhance to realizing the expertise opportunities that a collaboration platform like IBM Connections can convey to your company.

company Use situations

selecting and building out company use circumstances can also be the no 1 selling aspect to gaining approval to implement an ESN. discover a problem that IBM Connections can remedy and flush out the details: latest system, to-be technique, and merits (both tough and smooth). Use circumstances might also additionally supply good counsel on which organizations to pull in to early proof of idea validation and pilot/beta environments. showing tips to remedy actual-world, present issues will enlighten nay-sayers and determination makers who have no experience or exposure to this class of collaboration (you comprehend…the “how’s this superior than email?” crowd).

constructing

excellent — you got approval to buy IBM Connections! Now it’s time to get to work on the implementation.

Kick the Tires

before you get too deep into your implementation you should spend the time studying the fine details of the device. Connections, in contrast to many of the different items in the ESN house, has a large record of elements and capabilities. Connections isn’t just an pastime movement with a shared calendar and a folder to shop a number of issues. With Connections there are usually assorted approaches which you could accomplish your intention. this pliability is terrific; youngsters, it also adds a bit of of complexity. I’ve doubtless noted “it relies upon” to my leaders way more instances than they have had the patience for right through this challenge. You can also wish to believe a metered strategy to exposing Connections capabilities to your personnel. trust their skills level of this class of product coupled with the use cases you identified previously to find the right stability.

in case you believe you’ve bought it, kick the tires some extra. Dig into the details. Write down and make sure crucial stakeholders understand the capabilities Connections brings in addition to its boundaries.

Configure, Don’t customise

Connections isn’t ultimate. You should be tempted to bend it to your certain wants and wishes. resist this urge. I totally suggest working with an experienced Connections architect and/or engineer from the very, very beginning of your implementation. There are definitely aspects of Connections that you'll wish to tweak, and also you should still. The main issue isn't making adjustments with a view to make improvements complex or bog down them altogether. depend on an authority to provide insight into the downstream outcomes of every change you agree with.

seem to be to the Clouds

This appears like a no brainer in 2016, however we're talking about commercial enterprise utility right here and enterprises like their purposes in-condo a lot of the time: I enormously motivate you to pursue the cloud-based Connections offering. An on-premise implementation will take longer to set up, be more expensive, and received’t have the newest and gold standard aspects. You want a extremely compelling rationale to now not opt for the cloud alternative. if you are leaning on-prem, query your sanity and rethink.

making ready

so you have your Connections environment up and running. able to launch, appropriate? believe again. What comes next is going to make or damage your success.

Governance

every corporation has a different urge for food for risk, takes distinctive methods to guidelines, and needs varying levels of control. Governing an ESN isn’t all the time an easy. Get the correct stakeholders together: representatives from HR, criminal, Communications, expertise, and others based on your specific organization and your plans for using Connections. Your governance group is going to deserve to keep in mind what employees can and might’t do in Connections and also you’ll should set up the appropriate volume of controls and safeguards commensurate with how much chance the crew sees within the new capabilities.

here is going to spin you back into discussions of configuration and customization, so do it early and withstand the urge. if you customize Connections so a great deal that your employees can’t comfortably leverage its capabilities, an ESN might now not be in your organization. Sorry.

I’m an recommend of maintaining people accountable. set up guidelines, codes of behavior, set some instructions, and monitor utilization. grasp violators responsible. This approach is meaningless in case you can’t or gained’t implement the policies.

focus

earlier than launch, you deserve to make a concerted effort to ensure that leaders recognize what’s coming. The greater your corporation and the larger the alternate an ESN represents at your workplace, the more awareness constructing you will definitely should do. Some leaders are going to be excited. Some might be apathetic. and a few are going to emphatically declare, “now not in my apartment.”

the key to recognition isn’t constructing consensus. imposing Connections is already accredited. consciousness is a courtesy. Yet, you can and may work to force pleasure and purchase-in to what’s coming. try to win each person over, however don’t beat your self up too bad on the few that you can’t.

merchandising

merchandising isn’t the exact same as focus but it surely is pretty equivalent. I separate both in that attention is giving key stakeholders and organizational leaders a more than cursory walkthrough of the new platform, and promotion is casting a wide web with most effective a excessive degree analyze what's to come. promoting is more about advertising than it's previewing. Catchy slogans, brief video clips, and brief information articles are the right way to get the message out that something new is coming and to construct some pleasure and anticipation. Leverage pursuits that are already taking place to piggyback upon and get the observe out that a brand new collaboration platform is coming.

Launch and Ever After

You’ve sold the vision, realized the ins and outs, demonstrated it with real users, established a governance framework, instructed all and sundry it changed into coming, and developed up some exhilaration — it’s time to launch. Wait…are you basically capable? I particularly motivate you to not launch Connections to your whole firm devoid of permitting pilot organizations, or early adopters as they name them, to have used the creation software for some time in the past. Giving early entry to clients will help make certain that Connections isn’t a barren ghost city when the bulk of your users profit entry for the first time. if you take the ghost city strategy, it is relatively guaranteed that you just should be doing a “2d” launch at some time sooner or later. Get some undertaking going, birth just a few public communities that will be of broad and universal pastime. better yet, alternate a huge system so that it will power traffic and make use of Connections a necessity…not a passing curiosity.

Your launch day isn’t the conclusion. It may be an conclusion, nonetheless it is additionally a beginning.

As much as you plan for launch, you will definitely need a plan for how you'll maintain a relentless circulate of sparkling content material and pastime from that element forward. depending on your use circumstances, this could be an easy moving of work from one tool to a further. although, in many instances you are likely going to should work at educating your employees concerning the capabilities and features of Connections and helping them see the way to follow these to the work that they do.

Conclusion

Connections is a powerful device. It offers businesses a method to communicate and collaborate smartly past the rudimentary capabilities of a traditional intranet or the restricted functionality of small crew chat tools reminiscent of quick messengers or channel-primarily based items like Slack. Connections goes smartly past file sharing systems like field or Dropbox that deliver the ability to share files and song key information features such as types, downloads, comments, and likes. Connections does these issues as neatly, but can do it inside a community that has a shared calendar, a management verbal exchange weblog, a forum for getting questions answered, and an ideation weblog for soliciting crowdsourced ideas that the neighborhood participants vote on.

Connections is a full-featured, extremely-ready gadget that offers corporations the ability to give their personnel a platform for revitalizing the manner they work. Connections gives personnel a voice. Connections offers groups a place to collaborate. Connections gives leaders a place to have interaction with their workers. Connections opens up the numerous chances that are forward as they movement towards a digital place of work and the way forward for work.


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Assessment- Administering IBM Connections 4.0

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IBM Report: Ransomware, Malicious Insiders On The Rise | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

X-Force's top four cyber threat trends also names upper management's increasing interest in infosec.

Ransomware and malicious insiders are on the rise, upper management is showing greater interest in infosec, and organizations actually have a reason to be grateful to script kiddies, according to a new threat intelligence report from IBM X-Force.

Ransomware rising

Ransomware like CryptoWall has become one of the top mobile threats, in addition to desktop threats. It's been found wrapped into a variety of exploit kits -- the Angler EK alone generated $60 million from ransomware -- and has been seen spreading through malvertising campaigns.

IBM X-Force, however, states the top infection vector was simply unpatched vulnerabilities. "A well-known infection vector of ransomware can exploit unpatched operating system vulnerabilities to give attackers access to the system resources they want to lock or the data they want to encrypt," according to the report. After unpatched vulnerabilities, drive-by downloads and spearphishing, respectively, were the leading attack vectors. 

To defend against, recover from, and mitigate the effects of ransomware, X-Force recommends creating and testing back-ups thoroughly; conducting better user training; using "software designed to catch anomalies related to binaries, processes and connections" which "can also help identify many kinds of malware, ransomware included;" and using file recovery software, professional services, or Microsoft Windows Volume Shadow Copy Service to try to recover files that the ransomware has copied/deleted or encrypted.

'Onion-layered' incidents

By "onion-layered incidents" IBM X-Force is not referring at all to onion routing. It is referring to detected security incidents that lead forensic investigators to discover evidence of hitherto undetected attacks.

X-Force witnessed a new trend in which stealthy, sophisticated attacks were discovered during forensic investigations into simple, unsophisticated attacks. Attackers who'd been lurking within a network for months were not detected until investigators stumbled across them while investigating an attack by a script kiddie.

"Were it not for the disruptive event caused by the script kiddies, the client might never have noticed anything wrong," the report said.

The common trait in scenarios like this, said researchers, is that the compromised organizations were running old operating system versions that hadn't been patched in a long time.

Malicious insiders

Malicious insiders are abusing remote administration tools and organizations are making those attackers' work easier by following bad password policies, conducting insufficient logging, and failing to revoke employees' credentials immediately after they leave the company.

"The common thread is that accountability was not enforced. ... Knowledge can’t be stripped from an employee leaving an organization, but there are ways to minimize the risk of that knowledge being used for malicious purposes," the report said.

X-Force found that in the organizations most prone to insider attacks, passwords were "routinely" set to never expire, password sharing between team members was not discouraged, admin accounts were shared, and user credentials were not immediately revoked when an employee was terminated or left the company.

"As a result, ex-employees with ill will toward former employers held powerful weapons they could use to express their resentment. They simply needed a way to get back into the network."

The most common method, according to IBM: "In most malicious insider attacks we’ve seen, the disgruntled employee typically 'prepared for departure' by installing remote administration tools  such as LogMeIn or TeamViewer for access to the employer’s network."

X-Force recommends that security teams that suspect or detect the unauthorized use of remote administration tools block access for the master servers of these tools.

Upper management interest

The average cost of a data breach in the United States was $6.53 million, according to a study by the Ponemon Institute and sponsored by IBM. Numbers like this have gotten the attention of upper management, say researchers. 

What is management asking their security teams for more? Enterprise risk assessment, incident response, and tabletop exercises like stress tests and cross-functional reviews are top of the list.

Sara Peters is Senior Editor at Dark Reading and formerly the editor-in-chief of Enterprise Efficiency. Prior that she was senior editor for the Computer Security Institute, writing and speaking about virtualization, identity management, cybersecurity law, and a myriad ... View Full Bio

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Network Design Strategies | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter, from Upgrading and Repairing Networks, 5e, looks at the network's logical and physical design to assist your planning when creating a new network.

This chapter is from the book 

Many types of networks were discussed in Chapter 1, "A Short History of Computer Networking," from ARPANET to TCP/IP. And in Chapter 2, "Overview of Network Topologies," you learned about the various topologies you can employ when designing and creating a local area network (LAN), and they also looked at some scenarios in which several networks were connected to form a wide area network (WAN). In this chapter, they will look at another aspect of creating a network: the network's logical and physical design. The physical aspects of your LAN will depend on the underlying physical transport technology—Ethernet or Token-Ring, for example, or possibly ATM, which is supported as a LAN protocol in products such as Windows 2000/XP, Windows Server 2003, and Linux. Depending on which technology you use, there will be one or more LAN topologies from which to choose.

Before you can begin to design a physical network, however, you first must determine your needs. What services must you provide to your user community? What are the resources you'll need? If you have to compromise, what will it take to satisfy the most users or to provide the more important services? You then will have to take into account network protocols, applications, network speed, and, most important, network security issues; each of these figures into a network's logical design. Another important factor your management will probably force you to consider is cost—you can't forget the budget. These factors make up the logical design for your network. You first should decide what you need and what it will take to provide for those needs.

If you are creating a new network and purchasing new applications, you will probably spend most of your time considering the licensing and other financial costs (training users, network personnel, and so on). If you are upgrading older applications, several other factors come into consideration. Many applications that were coded using COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, and other languages that helped jumpstart the computer age may have built-in network functionality based on older proprietary network protocols. If this is the case with your network, you have to consider several things. What will it cost to update thousands of lines of code (or more) to more modern versions of the same programming language? What will it cost to upgrade these programs to newer object-oriented languages? To save money, can you upgrade part of your network and use gateway hardware/software to connect to older network components?

Because of the costs associated with coding applications that were created many years ago, and the expenses that will be required to update them to modern programming languages, you may be forced to maintain legacy applications for a few years while replacement applications are designed and created. You may find a packaged application that can be used to replace older programs. This problem will apply mostly to proprietary computer architectures, instead of Windows or Unix platforms. If you can simply make minor changes and compile the source code so that it will run on a newer operating system, your costs will be much less than if you have to re-create the applications your users need from scratch. Another cost associated with upgrading to new programs is training users and help-desk personnel.

When you plan a logical network design, you can start from one of two places. You can design and install a new network from scratch, or you can upgrade an existing network. Either way, you should gather information about several important factors before you begin the logical design. For example, depending on the services that will be provided to clients, you might need to analyze the possible traffic patterns that might result from your plan. Locate potential bottlenecks and, where possible, alleviate them by providing multiple paths to resources or by putting up servers that provide replicas of important data so that load balancing can be provided. The following are other factors to consider:

  • Who are the clients? What are their actual needs? How have you determined these needs—from user complaints or from help-desk statistics? Is this data reliable?
  • What kinds of services will you provide on the network? Are they limited in scope? Will any involve configuring a firewall between LANs? And if so, that still doesn't account for configuring a firewall to enable access to the Internet.
  • Will you need to allow an Internet connection for just your internal network's users, or will use you need to allow outside vendors access to your network? One example that comes to mind is the Internet Printing Protocol (see Chapter 24, "Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite"). What will it cost to evaluate what kind of services user groups need to access from the Internet? Will you need to allow all users to use email—both within the internal network and through the firewall on the Internet? The same goes for what sites users will be allowed to access using a network browser and other network applications. Will you have users who work from home and require dial-in or VPN access through the Internet?
  • Can your users tolerate a little downtime now and then due to network problems, or is it necessary to provide a high-availability network? Will you need clustered servers to provide for a high degree of uptime, or do your users' applications not suffer from a temporary loss of the use of a server? To provide for maximum uptime, can you afford to build redundancy into your network? For example, Chapter 2 discusses redundant topologies that can be used to prevent a single point of failure from making the network (and its resources) unavailable. Chapter 11, "Network Attached Storage and Storage Area Networks," describes methods you can use to mirror data at geographically distant locations.
  • In an existing network, will you keep the current protocol or upgrade to a different protocol standard? If you create a network from scratch, what factors should affect your network protocol decision? Ethernet is the most popular LAN technology in the world today. TCP/IP is the most popular protocol suite that runs on Ethernet. Yet there are cases in which other technologies have their niches. Consider the implications (such as support costs and security) to maintain older, proprietary protocols.
  • Who Are Your Clients?

    This seems like a very simple question. However, I'm not saying, "What are your clients' names and how well do you know their children?" I am referring instead to your knowledge of the job descriptions for the users on the network. You need to assess work patterns for various departments so that you can appropriately place servers, high-bandwidth links, and other such things in the appropriate physical location of the network. If most of the network traffic you expect to see will come from the engineering department, you'll need to provide that department with a large data pipe. In Chapter 4, "Upgrading Strategies and Project Management," you'll find more information about surveying the user community to come up with a plan that places resources where they are needed.

    What Kinds of Services or Applications Will the Network Offer?

    Of course, everyone knows that the most important function of a network today is to support multiuser gaming. Seriously, though, you need to make a list of the kinds of applications currently in use, as well as a list of those requested by users. Each application should have a written risk assessment document that points out potential security problems, if any. Typical network applications today include FTP, telnet, and, of course, browsing the Web. There are "secure" versions of these applications and there are versions that leave a door wide open into your network. Whatever list of applications you chose to support over the network, keep in mind two things:

  • Is the application safe? Most applications today come in secure versions or can be used with a proxy server to help minimize the possibility of abuse. Yet, as they all have seen, even the largest corporations are targets at times, and those companies have the staff that should be able to prevent these things from happening. Because proxy servers are an important component of firewalls, this subject is covered in greater detail in Chapter 45. If you want a secure network, this is highly recommended reading!
  • Does one application overlap another? Every user has his or her favorite application. Some people like one word processor, whereas others prefer a different one. But when dealing with applications or application suites (such as Microsoft Office), you'll find it better to make a decision and stick with a single product if it can satisfy the needs of your users. They might not like it, and training might be necessary, but supporting multiple applications that do the same thing wastes money and leads to confusion.
  • A commonly overlooked method for getting data files out of a network and onto the Internet is to simply send the files as an attachment to an email. So if you think you've blocked file transfers by disabling FTP access through the firewall, this example should show that you really do need to do a thorough evaluation of any new application or service you will allow on the network. New applications should be justified with facts that show why they are needed. If an existing application can be used to accomplish the same goal, why do you need another application? Should you retire the older application and use a newer one? Pay attention to the details. And don't forget to test new applications to ensure that they perform as expected. The same goes for older applications—will they work on the new or upgraded network?

    Lastly, do you monitor network usage? Do you want to permit users to spend their days browsing the Net, or checking personal email while at work? Many companies have policies that apply to using the telephone for personal business. Do you overlook this situation when giving users email capability? Are you preventing access to sites that are obviously not business-related?

    What Degree of Reliability Do I Require for Each Network Link?

    Just how much downtime is acceptable? For most users, the answer would be zero. Important components of your network, such as file servers, should have fault tolerance built in from the bottom up. In large servers, you'll find dual-redundant power supplies (each connected to a separate UPS), and disk arrays set up using RAID techniques to provide for data integrity in the event that a disk goes south. If a link between two offices needs to be up 100% of the time, you should plan for multiple links between the two sites to provide a backup capability. In this case, you also can justify the cost of the extra link by using load balancing so that network response time is improved. And, if you are using multiple links to remote sites, it's always a good idea to have more than a single path to the site. At one site this author worked at, there were redundant power lines bringing electricity into the site—side-by-side. If a tree falls, will it bring down one or both of those power lines?

    Another technology that can be used to provide an extra layer of redundancy, as well as high-speed access to storage devices, is the Storage Area Network (SAN). A SAN is a network that is separate from the LAN and contains only storage devices and servers that need to access those devices. Because the network bandwidth is not shared with LAN users, multiple servers can access the same storage. If one server fails, other servers can be configured to provide redundant access to the data. Also, the same RAID and other redundancy techniques used for storage devices that are directly attached to a server (such as the SCSI hardware and protocols) can be used on a SAN.

    arrow.jpg

    The terms RAID and UPS are important in today's networks, as is the concept of load balancing and dual-redundant power supplies in large networks. You can find out more about RAID (Redundant Array Of Independent Disks) and UPSs (uninterruptible power supplies) by reading Chapter 5, "Protecting the Network: Preventative Maintenance Techniques." For more information about SANs, see Chapter 11.

    The old saying "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" doesn't apply to networks. You should always be proactively looking for potential single points of failure and doing something to fix them. By building redundancy into the network design at the start, you'll save yourself a lot of grief in the future.

    Chapter 5 can give you more suggestions about using clustering, backups, uninterruptible power supplies, and other techniques that can keep the network up and running.

    Choosing a LAN Protocol

    Today the de facto protocol of choice has to be TCP/IP. However, other protocols have their place in some vertical markets. In this book, they talk about NetWare. NetWare has been around so long that you might find you have no choice when designing an upgrade but to keep using IPX/SPX, depending on the applications your network uses. However, even NetWare has moved toward using TCP/IP as the underlying protocol. This is basically the case for version 5.x and 6.x of NetWare. Older NetWare networks should upgrade, if possible, to one of these newer versions. If you will be connecting the network to the Internet, TCP/IP will be a necessity. Even if you don't expect to have an Internet connection, you'll find that choosing TCP/IP is a more practical choice today because most applications work with it and there is a large market of trained professionals who can be hired to manage a network built on TCP/IP. NetWare 6.x provides backward compatibility with IPX/SPX for the most part, but newer features such as the iPrint—which uses the Internet Printing Protocol—require TCP/IP.

    In addition to transport protocols such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX, you must consider application protocols that can be used on the network. For example, to simplify administering configuration information for a large number of computers, you might want to use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which is discussed in Chapter 28, "BOOTP and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)." If you want to provide a central name resolution service, you might choose the Domain Name Service (DNS), which is covered in Chapter 29, "Network Name Resolution." If you are going to operate a Windows network that has pre–Windows 2000/XP clients, you might need to use the Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) for backward compatibility.

    So when thinking about a network protocol, remember that it's not just one protocol you need to worry about. After you've decided which protocols are necessary, research the security implications of each.

    It's Virtually Universal: TCP/IP

    For all practical purposes, the standard LAN protocol today is TCP/IP. This is partly due to the rapid growth of the Internet, and the necessity of most businesses of having a Web presence, as well as the large number of vendors that have adopted this protocol suite. If your LAN is still using an older proprietary network protocol, you should seriously consider what it would take to upgrade to TCP/IP. Currently, TCP/IP version 4 is the most widely used protocol. In the future you can expect that the next version (IPv6) will start to find its way from the core of the Internet out to the edge, where your network resides. While technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) are widely employed to remedy the problem associated with the limited address space provided by IPv4, IPv6 will enable a much larger address space. Combine that with Network Address Translation, and the long-term bets are going to be on IPv6, or possibly some of the features that are part of IPv6. In addition to giving you a larger address space, IPv6 includes other important features. Those that will affect your network the most are security mechanisms, which will only become more important as Internet commerce continues to grow.

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    For a detailed introduction to TCP/IP, see Chapter 24, "Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite"; Chapter 25, "Basic TCP/IP Services and Applications"; and Chapter 27, "Troubleshooting Tools for TCP/IP Networks."

    There is one very important reason you should consider TCP/IP as a LAN protocol: There are more trained professionals knowledgeable in TCP/IP than any other LAN protocol at this time. It is interesting to note that in Windows NT 3.51, the default network protocol was Microsoft's implementation of IPX/SPX (NWLink). In Windows NT 4.0 (and successive operating systems, from Windows 2000, XP, and Server 2003), the default network protocol is TCP/IP.

    If your network is composed of several operating systems, from Windows to NetWare to Unix and Linux, then the bottom line is that TCP/IP is the lowest common denominator that will allow the easiest connectivity and interaction between all of these. Even Microsoft's now-legacy NetBIOS/NetBEUI protocols have been adapted to run over TCP/IP.

    Novell's NetWare Version 6.5

    NetWare was perhaps the first attempt at seriously providing a LAN protocol that was easy to use. The basic file and print services offered by early versions of NetWare were much better than other solutions available at that time. After it became established in the business community, NetWare became the network solution of choice in many business environments that used the PC. Microsoft countered this success with its LANManager products, which were also marketed by other vendors in their own way, such as the Pathworks solution from Digital Equipment Corporation.

    Today NetWare is a totally revamped solution to LAN connectivity. It provides many new features that are addressed to specifically make use of the Internet, and allow mobile users to connect to their home networks, as well as to enable NetWare users to make connections to outside networks. For example, the iPrint feature enables NetWare users to print to a printer on a remote network. For example, instead of sending a catalog that may be out of date in a month or so, you can use iPrint to periodically send specific information relevant to each customer, by printing it directly to the customer's printer.

    And NetWare's iFolder allows mobile users to synchronize data stored on remote computers (such as a laptop computer) with the data stored on the company's network. Microsoft and other vendors offer similar features. However, the point to remember is that if you already are a NetWare user, you don't have to throw out your existing investment and move to a Microsoft network, or even a Unix/Linux environment. NetWare has changed as the market has changed, and you might find it less expensive to upgrade to NetWare 6.5 than to migrate to another platform. The bottom line involves not just the cost of migrating to another operating system, but the costs involved with retraining your network administrative personnel in new technology.

    Because NetWare 6.5 is so tightly integrated with the IP protocol, and also offers backward compatibility with IPX/SPX, admins for existing NetWare networks should consider upgrading to NetWare 6.5 as well as considering other options.

    If you want to move to Linux, Novell makes it easy by incorporating an enhanced version of NetWare 6.5 and SuSE Linux into its Novell Open Enterprise Server. Open Enterprise Server supports both Linux and NetWare-specific software and features, enabling you to move to Linux gradually.

    Other LAN/WAN Protocols

    The distinction between LAN and WAN (wide area networking) protocols is beginning to blur. Ethernet was once considered to be a LAN protocol. As time has passed, other technologies, such as Token-Ring, have become minor players in the LAN world. Yet the opposite is true of Ethernet. It has grown from a modest specification endorsed by Intel, DEC, and other vendors, such that it now can be considered a WAN protocol. The capabilities introduced by current LAN technologies are beginning to erode the differences between a LAN and a MAN (metropolitan area network). When the fourth edition of this book was published, Gigabit Ethernet was starting to fall into the inexpensive range of network topologies. That trend has continued and now 10Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) is frequently being used in enterprise data centers. Today you may be using 100BASE-T for connecting client computers to the network, and Gigabit Ethernet to connect network segments via the network backbone. In some cases your network might even be exclusively based on 10GbE.

    What does this mean to a network administrator today? With 10Gigabit Ethernet, you can use TCP/IP not only to create a local area network backbone, but to extend that reach to a metropolitan area network. And because TCP/IP is so intertwined with Ethernet, you can achieve an end-to-end MAN link that uses TCP/IP over faster Ethernet connections. Instead of employing more expensive solutions, such as SONET, you can now connect branch offices in the same geographical area using just TCP/IP.

    You may not have to worry about installing expensive equipment used by SONET and other typical MAN protocols. Still, for the long haul—for example, between different cities—other protocols such as ATM and Frame Relay will come into play.

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    For more information about SONET, ATM, and Frame Relay, see Chapter 15, "Dedicated Connections."


    Inside the Mason-IBM-NSF Insights for Securing Industrial Control Systems | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Inside the Mason-IBM-NSF Insights for Securing Industrial Control Systems December 31, 2015  |  By Dr. Jane L. Snowdon Threats are coming from all sides when it comes to industrial control systems (ICS) in the U.S., and organizations in a variety of sectors are boosting cybersecurity in an effort to keep their services up and running smoothly.

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    The Mason-IBM-NSF April 2015 conference engaged industry, academia and government in a dialogue to address the challenges and uncertainties associated with securing industrial control systems (ICS) and processes, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. It also made recommendations on possible actions and steps for industry leaders and policymakers.

    Industrial control systems are vital to the operation of the U.S.’s critical infrastructure and can be found in electric, water and wastewater, oil and natural gas, transportation and discrete manufacturing industries, among others. The increasingly networked and linked infrastructure of modern ICS introduces serious cyber risks and vulnerabilities that cannot be addressed by physically separating the system and the components they control and monitor. Innovation and advancement will require the combined resources and collaboration of academia, government and industry.

    Historically, security concerns over ICS were limited to physical attacks. According to a white paper from Schneider Electric, new factors have increased the vulnerability of control systems. Some of these include: growing connectivity through the integration of control systems and enterprise networks; insecure remote connections, where a failure to use encryption or authentication mechanisms with dial-up modems and wireless communications for remote diagnostics and maintenance exist; availability of technical information about infrastructures and control systems on the Internet; and standardized technologies that have made it easier for knowledgeable people to attack systems.

    With the increasing connectivity of ICS and the evolution toward the smart grid, cybersecurity is playing an increasingly prominent role in the electric sector’s security strategy. Recent ICS-CERT statistics showed that the energy sector is the most-targeted of ICS operators, and U.S. policymakers are increasingly concerned that well-financed groups are targeting the country’s critical infrastructure.

    Download the complete Mason-IBM-NSF Cybersecurity Workshop Report

    Industrial Control Systems Get Serious About Security

    One of the major insights discussed at the conference was the fact that cybersecurity risks to the electric industry continue to rise due to the increasing complexity of smart grids, greater use and adoption of new technologies, increased connectedness and the growing number of entry points available for potential adversaries. Cybersecurity must be included in all phases of the system development life cycle, from the design phase through implementation, maintenance and disposition.

    With the Internet of Things (IoT), grid security threats have jumped the gap from physical to cyber, while the security of legacy systems is more often bolted on than built in. New critical infrastructure risks have been generated by an environment that combines TCP/IP, wireless radio frequency (RF) and Wi-Fi. Since the electrical grid is interconnected, a problem in one section can quickly affect another.

    The convergence of IT and operational technology (OT), together with sensor proliferation and the higher level of intelligence on grid architectures, is increasing the ICS attack surface. This new environment will enable a shift away from data theft to more complex cases of sabotage and cybercrime.

    ICS Needs Cooperation to Succeed

    Different departments within a business are increasingly cooperating on security as IT and OT are more integrated. Achieving a culture of cooperation is a major objective for energy providers.

    People are often the weakest link in an organization. Employees need support from senior leadership to be trained and aware of threats, assigned responsibilities and roles and have established policies and procedures. Threats to people include phishing, spear phishing, advanced persistent threats and malicious company insiders.

    The looming reality that cyberattacks can impact key aspects of business operations calls for cybersecurity leaders to possess both cyber and business acumen — a combination not traditionally emphasized by the academic or the business realms. For many, the only option is relying on modern security measures.

    A strong security solution assures the right technologies are procured, deployed and defended at multiple points. These tools supply layered defenses and deploy technology to detect intrusions.

    Managing and Securing Utilities

    The utilities systems that comprise the national electric grid require processes and procedures to manage overall security. These processes include password management, server administration, patch management, incident response and following industry-wide standards and regulations. Procedures include personnel training and regular assessments.

    Additional cybersecurity insights discussed at the conference included:

  • Access controls are needed in the form of fences, security locks, card readers, video cameras, firewalls, virtual private networks (VPNs) and unidirectional gateways.
  • Hardening is required through installation processes and procedures, Host Intrusion Protection System (HIPS) and application white-listing.
  • Authentication and authorization should be controlled by centralized account management and role-based access control.
  • Monitoring and auditing should be implemented through centralized security event logging, real-time alerting and 24/7 monitoring.
  • The patching of control systems can be a challenge since ICS patching cycles are not as rapid as IT patching cycles. In addition, electric systems are 24/7, and any system downtime is unacceptable.
  • The Future of Industrial Control Systems

    The conference speakers and participants provided recommendations for securing the smart grid and its IoT as part of a defense-in-depth strategy to limit the potential for damage and data leakage. Some of these recommendations were:

  • Using heterogeneous software and hardware to avoid cascading and wide failures when weaknesses are discovered;
  • Employing authentication and diverse encryption schemes;
  • Adopting hardened operating systems;
  • Tying data leaving local groups of devices to a bastion host or gateway device that filters communications;
  • Restricting local communications;
  • Limiting transmission of information from local sites;
  • Applying standards to ensure the smart grid and IoT interoperate safely.
  • Incorporating cybersecurity into the design phase early contributes to each of these measures and overall grid security. The integration and correlation of data from multiple ICS in conjunction with traditional network security information and event management (SIEM) systems contributes to grid security.

    Cybersecurity should be addressed from the perspective of enterprise risk management. It needs to be on the agenda of an organization’s corporate risk committee. Risk-based methodologies should be used to assess the value of information assets, understand cybersecurity threats and develop a program that mitigates threats.

    A successful model of building an effective organizational cybersecurity program is to develop a comprehensive cybersecurity strategy and translate it into programs that include benchmarking, asset classification, operational metrics, threat analysis, security alternatives and risk management. This approach will provide the basis for continuous improvements to help address risks and vulnerabilities.

    To learn more read the complete Mason-IBM-NSF Cybersecurity Workshop Report

    Tags: Energy and Utilities | Federal Government | Industrial Control Systems (ICS) | Internet of Things (IoT) | SCADA Contributor'photo Dr. Jane L. Snowdon

    Director of Watson Health Partnerships, IBM

    Dr. Jane L. Snowdon is the Director of Watson Health Partnerships for IBM’s newly formed Watson Health business unit... 1 Posts Follow on What’s new
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    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





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