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922-101 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Linux Platform Architecture
Test Code : 922-101
Test Name : Communication Server 1000 Linux Platform Architecture
Vendor Name : Nortel
: 110 Real Questions
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Nortel executive options has accomplished the core network for the U.S. Social security Administration's VoIP equipment, which is engineered to aid more than a hundred,000 phones.
Nortel govt options, a U.S. company absolutely owned by way of Nortel, this week announced it accomplished the core network for the U.S. Social safety Administration VoIP gadget.
The business says it accomplished the assignment inside a hundred and eighty days of preliminary buy orders as a part of the SSA's 10-year, $300 million telephone programs replacement mission (TSRP). the brand new gadget is expected to become one of the crucial largest enterprise VoIP deployments on earth, and is already aiding greater than one hundred twenty five places of work and greater than 33,500 calls day by day.
to this point, the system has dealt with greater than 1.6 million calls. With as many as 16 places of work brought each week, approximately 500 workplaces should be delivered per year until all 1,526 offices are on-line.
Nortel govt solutions has engineered the equipment to assist greater than 100,000 phones.
The core implementation protected establishment of redundant, geographically dispersed carrier delivery aspects for high survivability; an indication facility in Columbia, Md.; and a network operations center, assist desk, and company look at various facility in Woodlawn, Md. Nortel govt options has also implemented a VoIP purposes suite that contains an information mart and management suggestions equipment for custom reporting, and contours to enhance normal name-dealing with efficiency.
All components have been validated and accepted before rollout to SSA box places of work begun, Nortel govt solutions says.
TSRP is anticipated to support functions for an predicted inflow of latest clients, together with retiring child boomers. The SSA additionally expects its VoIP community to support consolidate monthly public network provider costs, lower working and preservation expenses, and set up a platform for future capabilities.
The SSA VoIP community points Nortel's verbal exchange Server one thousand switching, Contact center management Server, Media Processing Server 500 IVR, unified messaging solution with Unified Messaging 2000 core platform and CallPilot, and IP mobilephone 1100 collection handsets.
The Nortel executive solutions TSRP group includes universal Dynamics, Black field network services, Shared applied sciences, York Telecom, excessive Wire Networks, NetIQ, NETCOM technologies, Attivasoft and friend-Tech.
Nortel govt solutions says it is also worried in a number of principal VoIP transitions for U.S. govt customers global, together with the department of Veterans Affairs, the branch of energy, the U.S. Senate, the department of Transportation, the U.S. Air force and other features of the department of protection.be taught extra about this subject
Nortel lands large VoIP win
Six burning VoIP questions
Nortel buys gov't capabilities company for $448 millionjoin the network World communities on facebook and LinkedIn to touch upon topics that are appropriate of mind.
IBM enterprise, headquartered in Armonk, ny, ranks among the many few businesses that has created computing and communications innovations for over a century.
incorporated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording enterprise (C-T-R), the firm's predecessors will also be traced to the Eighties with innovations equivalent to time clock to checklist a employee's arrival and departure time on paper tape, and the punched card system that become used to tabulate census information.
Thomas J. Watson, Sr., a former executive at national cash Register enterprise, joined C-T-R in 1914 and famously insisted on "well-groomed, darkish-perfect salesmen," and a company center of attention on "big-scale, customized-constructed tabulating solutions for giant corporations".
His son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., converted the business from maker of tabulating gadget and typewriters right into a pioneer of the computing business, introducing the system/360 mainframe in 1964.
these days, that focus has broadened extensively, with products that latitude from laptops to these tremendous mainframe systems, and an organization that serves both consumers and small to tremendous corporations. IBM employs over 386,000 people worldwide, and, all through 2007, recorded $ninety eight.6 Billion in income.
To boost their help of the Token-Ring networking expertise, IBM delivered NetView/workstation in 1986, which accelerated the community management capabilities of IBM's methods network architecture.
IBM's network management assist work become further improved in 1996 with the merger of IBM and Tivoli methods, Inc., a leading issuer of systems administration software for allotted client/server networks. IBM's acquisition of Tivoli prolonged its network administration capabilities beyond the mainframe to multi-platform, allotted systems. These initiatives have been extra reinforced with IBM's 2006 acquisition of Micromuse, Inc., and its Netcool line of business network management solutions.
The Tivoli software options provided integrated visibility, control, and automation throughout distinct enterprise and expertise property, accordingly maximizing those property in aid of community operations. These products tackle a wide selection of network management challenges, together with:
another important enviornment it truly is supported by way of the Tivoli suite of utility is the Netcool application for carrier providers, which gives actual-time efficiency and service management for service suppliers. IBM claims that over 1,000 carrier suppliers, together with the entire proper 20, count on this community management solution. This equipment helps telecommunications, instant, cable, and web service suppliers in meeting both their latest and future service start challenges.
Of particular interest is the provider VoIP service management solution, which is designed to assist all layers within the network and all links across it-from the core network to the client's premises-as a consequence simply managing VoIP features and maintaining a top quality of adventure (QoE) for the client.
The system screens key performance and high-quality indicators in precise time, for metrics including utilization (busy-hour call makes an attempt, minutes of use, and get in touch with destinations); VoIP first-rate (MOS), name readability index, and speech endeavor); name signaling (name completion cost, grade of provider, and post-dial extend); provider first-rate (availability, echo lengthen, and put up-dial delay); and subscribers (normal earnings per person, state of carrier events, and open tickets), as shown in determine 1.
A 2d Tivoli answer, the Netcool commercial enterprise VoIP manager, consolidates the administration of VoIP applications, servers, and the underlying networking infrastructure, from PBXs to gateways. This gadget is designed to meet the necessities of each medium and massive firms-as well as managed provider providers.
This providing is packaged with the Tivoli Netcool OMNIbus and Tivoli Monitoring products, and allows community managers to extend their existing monitoring capabilities to the administration of VoIP technologies. This answer can scale to assist business environments of as much as one hundred,000 IP endpoints, and offers out-of-the-container help for each Cisco and Nortel VoIP environments.
For Cisco environments, the commercial enterprise VoIP supervisor helps Cisco name manager and Cisco cohesion, plus facet routers, gateways, and gatekeepers. For Nortel environments, the product supports communique servers, business communication managers, media gateways, faraway gateways, and signaling servers.
The system comprises true-time shows with numerous charts that demonstrate community utilization, ability, availability, and performance metrics, plus customizable historical experiences. it's designed to operate with purple Hat enterprise Linux, Microsoft windows Server, or Microsoft home windows XP expert operating techniques.
further particulars on the IBM structure and products can also be discovered at 'http://www-306.ibm.com/utility/tivoli/solutions/voip/" trend="text-ornament:none">http://www-306.ibm.com/software/tivoli/options/voip/. Their subsequent tutorial will continue their examination of carriers' network administration architectures.
creator's BiographyMark A. Miller, P.E., is President of DigiNet business enterprise, a Denver-primarily based consulting engineering firm. he is the writer of many books on networking applied sciences, including Voice over IP applied sciences, and cyber web technologies instruction manual, each published by John Wiley & Sons.
Article courtesy of business VoIP Planet, © 2008 DigiNet corporation, All Rights Reserved
Mark A. Miller, P.E. is President of DigiNetB. company, a Denver-based consulting engineering firm. he is the author of many books on networking technologies, including Voice over IP applied sciences, and information superhighway technologies handbook, each published through John Wiley & Sons.
A virtual inner most community (VPN) is a device that permits the relaxed transmission of facts over untrusted networks such as the web. VPNs commonly are used to join local enviornment networks (LANs) into wide enviornment networks (WANs) using the web. possibly you need to build a VPN between two offices however don't seem to be certain if the big infrastructure fees linked to an enterprise-level VPN solution are justifiable. The efficiency of functions which are meant for use over LANs (as an example folks that use community file sharing) severely will also be degraded over WAN connections. Likewise, decrease bandwidth and longer latency in WAN connections can have an effect on adversely the reliability and performance of groupware and skinny-customer purposes. perhaps you have got a house office and would like to use your high-speed cyber web access to join seamlessly and securely to your workplace LAN through an IPSec-competent router. Or possibly you are only interested in VPNs and IPSec in regular and want to test.
The VPN firewall mentioned listed here will run on virtually any 486-or-more desirable workstation that has 16MB or extra leading reminiscence and two Linux-compatible Ethernet community playing cards. The thought is to provide a starting point from a single, self-contained package for you to permit you to create robust, cozy, scalable and extremely configurable VPNs that are also interoperable with many regular commercial VPN implementations. if you need to experiment on a low-renovation firewall-VPN gateway, then the equipment discussed here should be would becould very well be ultimate for you.
this article indicates you how to set up, at minimal rate, a working VPN gateway that makes use of the IETF's (web Engineering assignment drive) IPSec (information superhighway protocol safety) specification. IPSec is an open normal and is supported via practically all most important firewall utility and hardware companies, such as Lucent, Cisco, Nortel and investigate factor. This kit will give you a commonly interoperable IPSec that makes use of the de facto usual 3DES encrypted, MD5-authenticated web page-to-website or factor-to-website VPN. be sure to be capable of do that with out resorting to a full Linux distribution or recompiling a standard Linux kernel with a kernel IPSec module.
The VPN device they assess here is according to FreeS/WAN (www.freeswan.org), a conveyable, open-source implementation of the IPSec specification. FreeS/WAN has been confirmed to interoperate, to a number of levels, with Cisco IOS 12.0 and later routers, Nortel Contivity Switches, OpenBSD, Raptor Firewall, verify point FW-1, SSH Sentinel VPN 1.1, F-at ease VPN, Xedia entry element, PGP 6.5/PGPnet and later, IRE SafeNet/SoftPK, Freegate 1.three, Borderware 6.0, TimeStep permit/Gate 2520, Intel Shiva LanRover, sun Solaris and windows 2000. The reputable FreeS/WAN net site has a frequently updated compatibility list with the latest version of its online documentation. FreeS/WAN edition 1.5 is covered in this kit.
I actually have created a single-diskette distribution that installs the base configuration of a VPN firewall based on the Linux Router undertaking (LRP, www.linuxrouter.org), a compact Linux distribution that can healthy on a single, bootable floppy diskette. The distribution right here is pretty much Charles Steinkuehler's Eiger disk picture with Steinkuehler's IPSec-enabled kernel and LRP IPSec equipment. Firewalling is carried out through Linux ipchains. This selected edition is in accordance with the 2.2.16 kernel of Linux. This distribution is called DUCLING (Diskette-based mostly ultra Compact Linux IPSec community Gateway). Compact Linux distributions have a twisted history. LRP technically refers to Dave Cinege's compact distribution. there are lots of variations around, including Charles Steinkuehler's distribution (EigerStein) of Matthew grant's defunct Eiger version (lrp1.steinkuehler.internet). a different such distribution is David Douthitt's Oxygen (leaf.sourceforge.net/content.personal home page?menu=900&page_id=1). also, there's LEAF (Linux Embedded appliance Firewall), a developer's umbrella that tries to coordinate releases and documentation, form of like a one-cease shop for compact Linux distributions (leaf.sourceforge.web). i take advantage of the time period LRP to check with the compact Linux distribution offered here, however some may additionally consider this terminology wrong.
when you are operating MS home windows 9x, the distribution self-extracts and installs itself onto a standard 3.5", high-density floppy diskette. You can also write the photograph to a boot floppy if you have a gadget working Linux. as soon as the extraction is done, you're going to should boot off the floppy disk you have got created, reproduction the network drivers in your community playing cards over and edit the appropriate configuration data. it is it—no growing and formatting disk partitions or messing with boot managers in your tough power. if you are not happy with the distribution, simply pop the diskette out, throw it away (or reformat it) and reboot your computing device. examine the links on leaf.sourceforge.internet/devel/thc for more suggestions on these options.
background on the Firewall and the VPN
This distribution of LRP uses a standard ipchains-based mostly firewall. ipchains (changed via iptables within the 2.four sequence kernels—see David A. Bandel's “Taming the Wild Netfilter”, LJ, September 2001) is a freely dispensed packet filter for Linux. It is awfully instructive to seem through the ipchains HOWTO if you don't seem to be normal with this firewalling tool. This will also be discovered at www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/IPCHAINS-HOWTO.html.
The VPN is supplied by means of FreeS/WAN's implementation of IPSec. FreeS/WAN's IPSec implementation is compliant with the IETF's IPSec specification. IPSec is an extension to the internet Protocol (IP) that offers for authentication and encryption. Three protocols are used to handle encryption and authentication, namely ESP (Encapsulating security Payload), AH (Authentication Header) and IKE (the cyber web Key trade). All these accessories are covered in the FreeS/WAN implementation of IPSec and usually are clear to end clients. ESP and AH deal with encryption and authentication, while IKE negotiates the connection parameters, including the initialization, coping with and renewal of encryption keys. The simplest encryption scheme at present supported by FreeS/WAN is 3DES (the triple DES or statistics Encryption typical—the latest de facto common for IPSec encryption). Authentication is conducted the usage of MD5 digests of a so-called shared secret (a shared key). The shared key generally is a jointly agreed-to personality string, RSA cryptographic key pairs or X.509 certificates. FreeS/WAN's KLIPS (kernel IPSec) part, which is compiled into the Linux kernel, implements AH, ESP and the managing of packets. IKE procedures handle key negotiation, and renewals are carried out in FreeS/WAN's standalone pluto dæmon.
requirements and installation
First, you're going to need a pc with a floppy disk power (I even have demonstrated simplest 3.5" disk drives) and two community cards in it. The calls for of LRP (the distribution) are minimal and don't require a powerful notebook. anything else that is Intel 486-type or better with greater than 8MB of RAM will do. You additionally will want two floppy disks. authentic, excessive-density three.5" floppy disks should still do, equivalent to promotional diskettes from AOL. I even have never had any issues with prevalent floppy disk drives, however I actually have found some issues with writing the distribution to floppy disks with Imation USB U2 SuperDisk drives.
you will deserve to down load the appropriate DUCLING.tgz/zip distribution from ftp.cinemage.com/pub and extract the contents of the archive file. in case you have a static IP address, then download the static version, and when you are assigned a dynamic IP address, you are going to want the distribution with a DHCP customer. if you're operating home windows 9x, download ducling-stat-W9x-1-0.zip or ducling-dyn-W9x-1-0.zip. Extracting the .tgz file with Winzip (www.winzip.com) will produce a file, ducling-dyn-1-0.exe or ducling-stat-1-0.exe and listing modules. The .exe file is a self-extracting photo that codecs a floppy disk and writes the photograph to that disk. Run the ducling-stat-1-0.exe or ducling-dyn-1-0.exe file and place a floppy disk into the floppy disk drive. notice that any facts on the disk will be overwritten.
if you are the usage of MS-DOS or home windows 3.1, the TSR utility FDREAD.EXE must be loaded on the DOS level first if you want to read and write to the 1,722KB structure disk. FDREAD.EXE is a freeware application from Christoph H. Hochstätter.
if you are running Linux, down load ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz or ducling-stat-1-0.tgz, untar the photograph (the example here is for the DHCP-enabled dynamic IP tackle distribution):tar xvfz ducling-dyn-1-0.tgz
and write the graphic file, ducling-1-0.img, to a formatted floppy the usage of the Linux fdformat and dd commands:fdformat /dev/fd0u1722 dd if=ducling-dyn-1-0.ima of=/dev/fd0u1722 as soon as the floppy disk picture is created as outlined above, you can have a bootable Linux floppy diskette.
The zipfile/directory named modules contain the required community driver modules as well as not obligatory modules for firewall masquerading. copy the contents of the module zipfile or directory onto a separate second MS-DOS-formatted floppy diskette for the configuration portion of this dialogue (below). In Linux, structure a 2d floppy disk by means of runningfdformat /dev/fd0
adopted throughmkdosfs /dev/fd0 and mounting the floppy force and copying the modules over. examine the documentation included in the README data, with the intention to provide you with details on configuring your firewall/router.
if you are unable to healthy the entire favored applications and modules onto a single floppy diskette, you are going to should verify choice setups that use dual floppy diskettes (see the covered README files with the DUCLING distribution), a bootable CD-ROM or even a small complicated disk. confer with the on line sources of LRP documentation for further guidance.
The LRP Boot Floppies—The magnificent actuality
You can be stunned to discover that LRP uses DOS-formatted floppies. You can be much more stunned to find that the DUCLING distribution installs itself as a 1,722KB bootable disk image. The three.5" high-density floppy is technically a 2MB format medium, and you can see these diskettes rated as 2MB “raw” or “unformatted” capability. The 1,440KB formatted potential is basically the effect of a conventional structure that writes eighty tracks on the magnetic media with 18 sectors per track. With the appropriate equipment, which you can create diskettes which have 80 sectors and 24 tracks per sector, giving 1,920KB per floppy. Floppies having 1,680KB (eighty/21 sector/tracks per sector) are used constantly for LRP distributions and appear to have a legitimate track list; 1,722KB (eighty two/21), 1,743KB (eighty three/21) and 1,760KB (80/22) also are suggested to be in use. I have found the 1,722KB structure floppy to be official enough for checking out and haven't any problems to report to date.
I have created and used huge-structure floppies of up to 1,920KB. extremely giant-layout floppies are typically nonbootable, apparently as a result of a conflict between pc BIOSes and the nonstandard sector dimension on the diskette. It has been said that gigantic-structure floppies higher than 1,680KB can suffer from floppy disk hardware dependability problems. windows NT and windows 2000 are reported to have reliability issues writing to massive-format floppies bigger than 1,680KB.
MS windows 9x operating programs frequently read general in addition to giant-format floppy diskettes with no configuration adjustments. In Linux systems, it is frequently crucial to mount the floppy disk with the proper layout designated, i.e., /dev/fd0u1722, where fd0u1722 specifies floppy disk machine 0 (fd0) and the u1722 specifies a 1,722KB format. The commonplace floppy disk drive in Linux /dev/fd0 defaults to /dev/fd0u1440, the 1,440KB structure.
For growing and manipulating large-structure floppies, talk to the LRP Boot Disk HOWTO by Paul Batozech. you are going to find this, and different valuable articles, in the supplies listed at leaf.sourceforge.web/devel/thc. For MS home windows, I actually have found Gilles Vollant's WinImage (www.winimage.com) to be specifically positive and user pleasant. however, it is in some ways extra constrained than the Linux equipment, akin to fdformat, mkdosfs and the greater fresh superformat application. The self-extracting 1,722KBps photographs for MS windows mentioned right here had been created the usage of WinImage.
How the LRP Distribution masses
earlier than you start to work with LRP it is constructive to word how the distribution works. if you assess the bootable diskette, you're going to see a sequence of files, together with ldlinux.sys, linux, syslinux.cfg, root.lrp, and so forth.lrp, modules.lrp and local.lrp.
The file ldlinux.sys is the bootstrap loader that loads the kernel (the file named linux) and preliminary root.lrp kit into reminiscence. The kernel begins and creates a RAM disk and extracts the basis.lrp kit. A RAM disk is a component of reminiscence it really is allocated as a partition. In different phrases, the kernel creates an area in memory and treats it like a read/write disk. The kernel then mounts the boot gadget designated in syslinux.cfg. The closing .lrp packages on the boot disk are extracted as targeted in syslinux.cfg and loaded to the RAM disk. The .lrp programs are in simple terms general UNIX tarballs (tar-gzipped archives). once the .lrp programs are installed in the directory tree on the RAM disk, the system starts off a boot based on the general Linux rc file boot hierarchy.
LRP is effortlessly a stripped-down typical Linux kernel with loadable modules and different software contained in units of .lrp packages. LRP is basically Linux; commonly, anything with a view to run on a commonplace Linux distribution should still run off the LRP diskette. regularly the impediment to extending LRP's functions and capabilities is the area constraint of a single diskette. in case you require additional capabilities, as an instance, remote administration through ssh, a DNS server and so on, you will need to study multidiskette, CD-ROM and even the entire disk drive distributions of LRP that can be found.
birth up and Configuration of Router/Firewalling VPN
as soon as the bootable floppy disk is created, make sure the floppy is placed in the floppy disk drive of the computer on which you want to run the firewall/VPN. ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot from a floppy disk. Upon booting the firewall/VPN, you're going to see the LRP splash monitor, messages from the Linux loader followed with the aid of a login on the spot.
when you've got made it this some distance, congratulations! you have installed an LRP distribution efficaciously. Now which you can start to configure the firewall homes of the LRP as outlined within the bundled documentation.
as soon as any firewalling tweaks are completed, the VPN must be configured. The bundled DUCLING documentation discusses the particulars for configuring a subnet-to-subnet setup. This comprises configuring IPSec's authentication mode (/etc/ipsec.secrets), the IPSec network configuration (/etc/ipsec.conf) as smartly as the firewalling rules to enable access to ports 500 (UDP), 50 and 51 (TCP).
word that you needn't necessarily require a static IP tackle with the intention to run VPN hyperlinks. A “roadwarrior” configuration is described within the subsequent area, by which the one VPN customer has an undetermined static IP tackle. I have run VPNs between pairs of nodes with dynamically assigned IP addresses. The administration of VPN nodes with DHCP-assigned IP addresses becomes intricate if each IP address assignments trade generally. right here area discusses a roadwarrior configuration the usage of DUCLING and a Microsoft-based mostly IPSec customer.
This instance shows an MS windows 9x/2000 customer element-to-site using SSH Communications safety Sentinel 1.1 (Public Beta 3). FreeS/WAN is interoperable with a big range of IPSec implementations. the convenience of implementation and computability will range counting on the product. Many IPSec items that help 3DES/MD5 encryption through IKE are interoperable with FreeS/WAN. despite the fact, I found that legally acquiring entirely purposeful IPSec implementations that guide strong encryption can also be exhausting, especially in case you are living backyard of the united states.
Many companies offer best confined capabilities of their freely purchasable IPSec implementations. as an example, a product may additionally handiest support weak encryption (DES) or can also restrict VPN capabilities to transport mode only. it is vital to differentiate between the two VPN modes that are offered through IPSec: transport mode and tunnel mode. Transport mode encrypts and authenticates site visitors between two mounted end features. Tunnel mode is more beneficial for connecting subnets and allows for tunneling through firewall and router parameters into different subnets. in reality, transport mode restricts site visitors to factor-to-point verbal exchange. Tunnel mode additionally permits aspect-to-web site (aspect-to-subnet) or web site-to-web page communications. as a minimum one dealer doesn't appear to enable its implementation of IPSec to run over a connection the use of a static IP tackle.
The SSH Communications protection Sentinel product (www.ipsec.com) does not appear to endure from any of these issues, probably due to the fact that the business is primarily based outside of the U.S.. I downloaded and confirmed the 30-day trial beta three liberate of Sentinel 1.1 and located it to be very effortless to configure on a windows 98 desktop computing device. The Sentinel documentation offers configuration examples for interconnectivity with a FreeS/WAN VPN gateway.
here is a summary of a roadwarrior configuration that allows for faraway clients with dynamically assigned IP addresses to join transparently to a LAN behind a firewall. you are going to should open ports 50, fifty one (TCP) and port 500 (UDP) to the dynamic IP tackle or the ISP's DHCP tackle latitude. figure 1 indicates the basic setup. you are going to need to edit /and so on/network.conf on the DUCLING FreeS/WAN firewall (go into lrcfg, choose 1), then 1) and seteth0_IP_SPOOF=NO
to disable the blocking off of tunneled packets. The bundled documentation includes the exact instructions on a way to do these initiatives.
determine 1. A Roadwarrior-to-site Configuration
The contents of the FreeS/WAN ipsec.conf file are given in list 1. The corresponding ipsec.secrets and techniques file consists of the entry1.2.three.4 0.0.0.0: PSK "Put your roadwarrior mysterystring right here"
the place the phrase in fees is a shared-secret string. The IP handle 0.0.0.0 denotes any IP address, so remember to select a comfy shared-secret string. The rightsubnet and rightnexthop parameters are left clean and suggest that the connection is some extent-to-subnet connection.
checklist 1. The FreeS/WAN conn listing for the Setup proven in figure 1.
To installation the Sentinel IPSec carrier:
down load SSH Sentinel from www.ipsec.com and installation, following the instructions.
Go into the Sentinel coverage supervisor (determine 2).
determine 2. Sentinel coverage supervisor
select the important thing management tab, Authentication Keys and choose Add (determine 3).
figure three. including a brand new Key
opt for Create a brand new preshared key then next (determine 4).
determine 4. Configuring Preshared Key
type on your preshared key. It have to be identical to the shared-secret string you have inserted in /and so on/ipsec.conf (devoid of the charges). (See figure 5.)
determine 5. Typing in Shared Secret
On the leading console of SSH Sentinel policy supervisor, within the security policy pane, select VPN connections®Add.
Enter in the IP/hostname of the faraway VPN gateway; for their illustration, it's 1.2.three.4, and choose the preshared secret that you created in step 5 because the Authentication key (determine 6).
figure 6. entering Key and UP information
choose 3DES encryption, main Mode and MODP 1024 for IKE Mode and IKE group, respectively. The superior pane generally will also be left with the defaults.
Set the IKE SA lifetime (i.e., the interval between rekeying) to the identical cost as within the ipsec.conf file, customarily 480 minutes (eight hours).
save all settings and try to ping an internal node at the back of the firewall (try the inside interface, 192.168.x.254). you'll want to be related. try working Sentinel's diagnostics to make certain you are linked. I even have discovered that Sentinel's diagnostic mode can dangle the FreeS/WAN-home windows connections sometimes. If this occurs, go to the FreeS/WAN gateway and do a restart of IPSec after which bring up the numerous connections.
determine 7. The VPN Connection homes Tab
once once more, if you deserve to restart the connection, log in to the LRP container and type#/and many others/initd.d/ipsec restart
to restart the IPSec components.
I also found in home windows 2000 knowledgeable (however no longer home windows 98) that I needed to add the routing manually to the shared subnet 192.168.0.0/24 from the DOS console:route ADD 192.168.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0 1.2.three.4
(consult with the documentation for the Microsoft route command).
this article outlines the skill to put in force a firewalling VPN gateway from a single 3.5" floppy diskette. With a single floppy diskette, you should definitely be able to connect hosts and networks of a lot of topologies securely the use of the information superhighway. The DUCLING distribution is a bare-bones distribution. when you are convinced that a FreeS/WAN VPN can fulfill your wants, you can examine either going to a greater full-featured LRP distribution or even a full-blown Linux gadget, implementing such things as far flung entry (by means of the relaxed shell, ssh, for instance) or a DNS server.
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AMD's newest embedded SoC competes with Arm-based systems for digital signage, microconsole, and other low-end platforms.
AMD is taking a second shot at the embedded market with this week's introduction of the Ryzen Embedded R1000 SoC (system-on-a-chip) series, which are touted as being compatible with AMD's existing (and comparatively higher-power) V1000 series platform. The Ryzen Embedded R1000 series are built on 14nm Zen and Vega cores, targeted for a TDP of 15-25W.
Two variants of the R1000 series were announced, both with a two-core, four-thread design—the key differentiator here being clock speeds. The R1505G runs at 2.4 GHz base / 3.3 GHz turbo speed, while the higher-power R1606G runs at 2.6 GHz base / 3.5 GHz turbo speed. The Vega GPU cores run at 1 GHz on the R1505G, and 1.2 GHz on the R1606G. Full benchmarks are available at 3DMark—oddly, from October 2018.
AMD is positioning the pair as having "3x generational performance improvement per watt, and 4x better CPU and graphics performance per dollar than the competition," which in this case is an Intel Core i3-7100U.
SEE: Hybrid cloud: A guide for IT pros (free PDF) (TechRepublic)
The R1000 series support up to 4K displays at 60 FPS, via DisplayPort 1.4 connections, with hardware-accelerated H.265 encode/decode and decode for VP9. The duo also integrate two 10GbE connections, and support the same security extensions found on server-targeted EPYC CPUs, making the duo attractive for NAS and digital signage use cases.
Atari is planning to use the new CPUs for the Linux-powered Atari VCS microconsole, in place of the originally announced (and lower-power) AMD APU, and they are expected to appear in other (not necessarily consumer-facing) embedded systems for digital signage and embedded systems in the near future. The R1000 would be an attractive option for a higher-end single board enthusiast computer, as the x86-64 architecture and UEFI support allows for easier deployment than Arm-powered devices.
For more, learn why falling NAND prices will drive PCIe SSDs to 50% market share in 2019, and Windows XP dies final death as Embedded POSReady 2009 reaches end of life.Tech News You Can Use Newsletter
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AMD CEO Dr. Lisa Su holding a production sample of a Ryzen 3 CPU during a CES 2019 keynote.
Screenshot: James Sanders/TechRepublic
MINNEAPOLIS, Feb. 20, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- via PRWEB - Calabrio, a leading provider of contact center workforce optimization (WFO) and analytics software, has further expanded into the Avaya Marketplace by directly integrating its software with the Avaya IP Office™ (PBX) platform and Avaya Aura Contact Center Select (ACD).
"This latest integration is good news for the Avaya community and partners who resell Avaya equipment to midsized organizations, which often struggle to provide multichannel customer care with technologies built for larger enterprises," said Calabrio President and Chief Executive Officer Tom Goodmanson.
"Avaya customers who use the IP Office™ platform now can easily and seamlessly access Calabrio's Workforce Optimization applications, including Call Recording & Quality Management, Workforce Management (WFM) and Analytics (CAS), which offer immediate opportunities for improving contact center effectiveness through evaluation and coaching," he added.
Calabrio's direct integration with the Avaya Aura Contact Center and IP Office adds to an expanding list of available Calabrio ONE integrations, including the Avaya Aura Call Center Elite on the Communications Manager platform and the Avaya Aura Contact Center (ACCC) and Communications Server 1000 platform.
"We remain committed to the Avaya community and the concept of customer choice, both in terms of hardware and software applications," added Goodmanson.
Calabrio is a gold member of the Avaya DevConnect program and has been part of the Avaya program since 2008. The Avaya DevConnect program enables businesses to confidently add best-in-class capabilities to their network, speed deployment of new applications and reduce both network complexity and implementation costs.
About Calabrio, Inc.
Calabrio delivers workforce optimization (WFO) and analytics solutions that elevate the customer experience and drive strategic business growth. The company's integrated Calabrio ONE® software suite--including call recording, quality management, workforce management and analytics solutions--empowers contact centers of all sizes to optimize agent performance and liberate the data that provides true insight into the voice of the customer.
With more than 4,000 clients worldwide, Calabrio solutions are built on an intuitive, web-based architecture that positions and accelerates the contact center as an epicenter for customer insight. A pioneer in its industry for more than two decades, Calabrio has been named a "Visionary" for three consecutive years by Gartner in its Magic Quadrant for Customer Engagement Center Workforce Optimization (2012-2014)*. The company also is a member of the Cisco Developer Network (CDN), and a gold member of the Avaya DevConnect program.
Find news and information at http://www.calabrio.com
Follow @calabrio on Twitter.
Calabrio, Calabrio ONE and the Calabrio logo are registered trademarks or trademarks of Calabrio, Inc. All other trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of their respective owners.
*Gartner, Inc. "Magic Quadrant for Customer Engagement Center Workforce Optimization" by Jim Davies, November 12, 2014. Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in its research publications, and does not advise technology users to select only those vendors with the highest ratings. Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner's research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact. Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
This article was originally distributed on PRWeb. For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/02/prweb12531511.htmHaberman for Calabrio Tim Nelson +1 612-436-5543
Looking to improve the performance on your high-end Linux server? Is your Linux system connected to a high-speed network? Are your servers spending too much of their resources on processing the TCP/IP stack and Ethernet frames? These are just some of the problems in today's network environment. These problems arise because TCP/IP traffic on the Internet and on private enterprise networks has been growing dramatically for the past decade, and there is no sign that growth will be slowing down any time soon. The widespread global adoption of the Internet and the development of new networking storage technologies such as iSCSI are driving networking speeds even faster. Although the processors being manufactured today are gaining speed at an astonishing pace, it is likely that network-related growth will continue to outpace the increasing processor speeds, slowing servers from their primary tasks to process network packets.
Intel has developed a prototype that offloads an entire TCP/IP stack from a Linux-based operating system onto an intelligent network interface card (iNIC).
The iNIC Design
The iNIC contains a real-time operating system (RTOS) and an entire TCP/IP version 4 stack. An I/O processor (IOP) on the iNIC processes all of the network packets allowing the host processor to process other tasks. To accomplish this division of labor, a thin layer of logic is needed on the host side to route all the network traffic through the iNIC.
This technology is based on the intelligent I/O (I2O) architecture, which is already incorporated into the Linux 2.4.x kernel. Figure 1 is an I2O primer for those who are not familiar with I2O. The I2O specification is a message-based communication mechanism between a host operating system (OS) and I/O devices that are sitting on an IOP. The IOP runs an intelligent RTOS (IRTOS), which contains device-driver modules (DDMs) for each connected device. To obtain portability, I2O uses a split-driver model. The specification defines a set of abstract messages for each supported device class (i.e., LAN, tape, disk). The host OS uses the abstracted message layer to communicate with DDMs running on an IOP. The DDM translates these I2O messages to hardware-specific commands. To communicate with an I2O device, the host OS must have a driver that knows how to translate OS device commands to I2O device class commands. This module in the host OS is referred to as operating system module (OSM).
Figure 1. I2O Architecture
The solution is based on an extension of this architecture with the creation of the socket class. Changes were made to the I2O architecture to increase performance and minimize latencies usually associated with a split-driver model.
Figure 2. Socket Offload Architecture
The socket class defines messages needed for communication between the host OS and the DDM. The two drivers, OSM and DDM, communicate over a two-layer communication system. The message layer sets up the communication session, and the transport layer defines how information will be shared. The DDM is composed of two modules: intermediate service module (ISM) and hardware device module (HDM). The ISM provides the full functionality of the TCP/IP version 4 stack. The HDM is the device driver for the iNIC. The socket OSM is unlike any other network device in Linux. Normal network card drivers are protocol-independent and interface with the Linux kernel at the network application program interface (API). The socket OSM, on the other hand, will interface directly below the socket API. This allows the necessary socket services to be offloaded onto the IOP running the socket class ISM. The socket OSM replaces the services that the TCP/IP stack provided to the kernel, thereby providing necessary interfaces to the Linux kernel. It also transmits and converts socket requests and data in the socket offload format to the iNIC running the TCP/IP offload stack.
The OSM is divided into the following subsystems: user interface, message interface, kernel interface and memory management.
The user interface replaces the af_inet socket layer in the kernel. It provides feedback to the users' programs exactly as the native (non-TCP/IP offloaded) kernel would provide.
The message interface provides the initialization and control of the socket offload system. It translates the user socket requests to the socket messages.
The kernel interface provides kernel services to the OSM. This is the point at which the OSM provides any services normally provided to the kernel by the TCP/IP stack. This subsystem was designed to minimize the modifications needed for the Linux kernel.
The memory management module provides the buffer pools needed for data transfer to and from the user-space applications. Memory management was designed to 1) minimize the number of data copies and DMA requests, 2) minimize the host interrupts, 3) avoid requiring costly physical-virtual address mappings and 4) avoid overhead of dynamic-memory allocation at runtime. Two pools of DMA-capable data buffers are maintained in the OSM. The transmit buffer contains the data headed for the iNIC; the receive buffer receives the data into the kernel from the socket device.
Figure 3. Linux TCP/IP Stack
As shown in Figure 3, Linux network components consist of a layered structure. User-space programmers access network services via sockets, using the functions provided by the Linux socket layer. The socket structure defined in include/linux/net.h forms the basis for the implementation of the socket interface. Below the user layer is the INET socket layer. It manages the communication end points for the IP-based protocols, such as TCP and UDP. This layer is represented by the data structure sock defined in include/net/sock.h. The layer underneath the INET socket layer is determined by the type of socket and may be the UDP or TCP layer or the IP layer directly. Below the IP layer are the network devices, which receive the final packets from the IP layer.
The socket OSM replaces the INET socket layer. All socket-related requests passed from the socket layer are converted into I2O messages, which are passed to the ISM on the IOP.
The embedded system software consists of the messaging layer, TCP/IP stack, device driver and RTOS.
The messaging layer is the portion of the software that takes messages from the OSM, parses them and makes the socket call into the TCP/IP stack. This layer also takes replies from the network stack and sends the appropriate reply to the OSM. To improve performance and minimize the effects of latency inherent in split-driver systems, the messaging layer batches, replies and pipelines requests.
The embedded TCP/IP stack is a zero copy implementation of the BSD 4.2 stack. It provides all of the functionality of a networking stack to the messaging layer. Like all the software that runs on the IOP, the stack has been optimized for running on the Intel 80310 I/O processor chipset with Intel XScale microarchitecture (ARM-architecture compliant). Benchmarks were performed on the TCP/IP stack during optimization to ensure that it would perform well across all sizes of data traffic.
The HDM was written to take advantage of all the offloading capabilities of the NIC hardware. This includes TCP and IP checksums on transmit and receive, segmentation of large TCP packets (larger than 1,500 bytes) and interrupt batching supported by the chip. The NIC silicon chips supported were the Intel 82550 Fast Ethernet Mu.pngunction PCI/CardBus Controller and the Intel 82543GC Gigabit Ethernet Controller.
The RTOS is a proprietary OS that has been designed for the demands of complex I/O operations. This OS is fully I2O-compliant. It was chosen in part because of the willingness of the designers to make modifications to the OS for the prototyping efforts.
As described before, the socket calls made by the application layer are converted into messages that are sent across the PCI bus and to the I/O processor. This embedded system is a complete computer for performing I/O transactions. It consists of a processor, memory, RTOS and a PCI bus. Because it is designed for I/O, it will minimize the effects of context switching. Once a message reaches the IOP, it is parsed. The socket call that was requested by the application is then called on the embedded network stack. A reply message is sent to the OSM once the socket operation is completed.
The benchmark tests that were run using the prototype showed that the offloading of the TCP/IP stack significantly reduced both CPU utilization and the number of interrupts to the host processor. With a heavily loaded machine, the offloaded stack was able to maintain overall network performance and host CPU cycles were able to remain dedicated to the workload applications. In a native machine, the host processors were interrupted far more frequently, and the network application suffered from CPU resource starvation resulting in the network performance degradation.
Figure 4. Benchmark Results
As the subject of iSCSI (storage over IP by encapsulating SCSI in a TCP/IP packet) starts to heat up, desire for minimizing network overhead will continue to grow. Efforts used in moving the TCP/IP stack to an IOP quickly could shift to providing a full-featured TCP/IP stack at the back end of an intelligent iSCSI adaptor. This would minimize the impact of iSCSI to a Linux platform by making it available via the normal SCSI API. To compete with Fibre Channel, iSCSI must provide comparable performance.
Another future enhancement is that embedded Linux will be used for the RTOS. At the start of this prototyping effort, an Intel i960 RM/RN processor was used, and embedded Linux was not available. Since then, the Intel XScale microarchitecture has been introduced, enabling the adoption of the embedded Linux that is available for Intel StrongARM core. Porting of Linux-based StrongARM Linux to the XScale microarchitecture will be completed by the end of the year.
There were several goals behind this prototype effort: 1) to demonstrate that the enhanced performance achieved by offloading network tasks from the host processor reduces the host processor cycles otherwise consumed by processing of network data, 2) to show that the use of specialized software on the iNIC performs the same networking tasks while maintaining overall network performance and 3) to enable the use of I/O processors to work in conjunction with the host processors to handle the network traffic, thereby maximizing performance of a Linux-based server at minimal cost.
Offloading the TCP/IP protocol to a specialized networking software environment using embedded processors is an effective way of improving system performance. With the advancement of high-speed network deployments and adoption of network storage, TCP/IP will inevitably play an important role.
Technical contributors: Dave Jiang, Dan Thompson, Jeff Curry, Sharon Baartmans, Don Harbin and Scott Goble.
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