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922-089 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Test Code : 922-089
Test Name : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Vendor Name : Nortel
: 30 Real Questions
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newsMicrosoft-Nortel See Unified Communications good points
The Alliance these days received three new consumers as neatly, including Indiana university, U.okay.-primarily based Worcestershire fitness assistance and Communications know-how features, and an IT and telephony provider known as 4ward.
Microsoft and Nortel formed the innovative Communications Alliance in July of remaining year with the goal of delivering unified communications solutions to companies. beneath the Alliance, the organizations initiated joint research and development efforts. They also created consumer demonstration facilities and engaged in joint income and marketing.
within the Alliance's initial press liberate, Jeff Raikes, Microsoft's company Division president, stated that the joint unified communications answer would enable a "single id across electronic mail, voice mail, voice over cyber web protocol (VoIP) name processing, fast messaging and video."
The Alliance's primary product is referred to as Nortel Converged workplace, a unified communications device that integrates Nortel's VoIP telephony equipment with Microsoft's server expertise.
The main accessories of Converged office include:
there is additionally a Nortel utility middle element that supports not obligatory capabilities, including internet integration, interactive voice response and speak to middle functions.
Unified communications receives described in various ways, however in response to the IEEE, it typically encompasses "unified messaging, collaboration and interplay methods." These programs additionally customarily permit true-time and near actual-time communications. in addition, mixed media (voice, email, fax, and so forth.) may also be accessed from a single application, impartial of the access device.
competitors within the unified communications house is thick with large names. In March of this year, IBM and Cisco, introduced a collaborative effort on unified messaging client expertise known as Unified Communications and Collaboration (UC2). UC2 is in response to open applied sciences, equivalent to Eclipse construction environment and the Open functions Gateway Initiative framework. Citrix methods and Nokia, among others, have expressed guide for the UC2 platform.
below the IBM-Cisco unified communications partnership, Cisco plans to promote IBM's Lotus Sametime collaboration answer and IBM plans to promote Cisco's Unified Communications manager, Cisco harmony and Cisco Unified MeetingPlace items. The entire unified communications answer is designed and delivered via IBM world know-how functions.
Kurt Mackie is senior information producer for the 1105 commercial enterprise Computing neighborhood.
informationMicrosoft and Nortel latest Alliance Roadmap
the two corporations first announced their collaboration final summer.
The street map contains three new joint options “to dramatically enrich enterprise communications through breaking down the boundaries between voice, e-mail, fast messaging, multimedia conferencing and different styles of communication,” in accordance with an announcement by means of both firms.
additionally protected in the announcement are eleven new implementation capabilities from Nortel and the outlet of more than 20 joint demonstration centers the place customers can event the expertise, the observation persisted.
in addition, the two businesses stated they have got signed agreements with dozens of customers, and have developed a “pipeline of hundreds of prospects who wish to recognize the merits of unified communications.”
From Microsoft's standpoint, it's all a part of the enterprise's lengthy-term play to merge all types of communications and messaging right into a single framework. A 12 months in the past, the enterprise announced that it was merging its exchange Server neighborhood with its precise-Time Collaboration (RTC) neighborhood, and that it had begun to suppose of the two applied sciences comprising a "platform."
the new group turned into named the Unified Communications group (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's business Division. The theory for the brand new group emanated from a imaginative and prescient of including continuity to a myriad of communications devices, technologies and modes -- from email and quick messaging to Voice over cyber web Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and internet conferencing -- in a unified method.
The three new joint solutions introduced via the alliance this week are named Unified Communications integrated department, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.
When it is accessible in the fourth quarter, UC integrated branch will contain Nortel and Microsoft know-how on a single piece of hardware that provides VoIP and unified communications in faraway workplaces.
Coming a bit of previous in the 2d quarter, Unified Messaging will aim to simplify client deployments, native session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel communique Server a thousand and Microsoft change Server 2007. The solution comprises Nortel skilled functions for design, deployment and help.
also coming in the fourth quarter, Conferencing will extend Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft office Communicator 2007. It aims to deliver a single client journey consistent across applications reminiscent of voice, fast messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.
This yr, the agencies also plan to extend their existing unified communications solution — a unified laptop and gentle mobilephone for VoIP, e-mail, speedy messaging and presence — to the Nortel conversation Server 2100, a service-grade commercial enterprise telephony product supporting as much as 200,000 clients on a single gadget, in line with business statements.
As for the street map, the two agencies have outfitted more than 20 joint demonstration facilities in North the us, Europe and Asia, with more than a hundred further facilities scheduled to open by using midyear.
Nortel has additionally added 11 core integration features to aid valued clientele build, set up and guide joint unified communications options, including end-to-conclusion challenge management. Nortel claims it has already educated greater than 2,200 VoIP consultants to convey these features and should add greater as deployment ramps up.
Stuart J. Johnston has lined expertise, notably Microsoft, on account that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, assistance Week, and pc World, as well as for business Developer, XML & internet services, and .net magazines.
normal utility movement gives complete, most economical, and Scalable solution throughout systems and into department places of work
TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Nov. 3, 2009) - Small and medium-sized organizations (SMBs) can achieve productivity, can charge-rate reductions and the investment protection vital to success in modern day company environment with new unified communications-based mostly (UC) utility from Nortel* (OTCBB:NRTLQ). The newest application unlock 5.0 for Nortel's award-profitable company Communications supervisor (BCM) adds new UC capabilities, including unified presence, and greater simplicity with the introduction of a typical utility circulate for BCM50 and BCM450.
The Nortel BCM450 and BCM50 are Linux-based mostly IP/TDM PBXs offering software-prosperous, all-in-one options for converged voice and statistics communications. The BCM50 serves corporations with as much as 50 clients while the bigger means BCM450 is relevant for growing medium to significant corporations and department places of work with as much as 300 users. each helps a mix of IP and digital shoppers and can permit enterprises to keep as much as 70 % of their long-established investment by way of reusing present gadget.
As a part of the brand new BCM Rls 5.0 utility, BCM450 and BCM50 deliver SMBs with dynamic UC elements like InTouch, which provides real federated presence, and widespread integrated communications applications and capabilities. InTouch lets users speak without difficulty with any person of their own listing – throughout Microsoft Outlook, Nortel BCM, MSN, and Skype for click-to-call, click-to-IM, and click-to-e-mail. by means of connecting americans sooner, improving collaboration and rushing up the time to determination, Nortel estimates that unified communications can support companies understand can charge-rate reductions and an increase in productiveness of as much as 18 p.c.
remaining 12 months, the Nashville conference and guests Bureau** (NCVB) leveraged its BCM450 answer to booklet more than 650,000 resort rooms whereas marketing tourism on behalf of a number of companions. NCVB is now trialing BCM Rls 5.0 and plans to roll out the InTouch application in the coming weeks. Kay Hopwood, NCVB's director of tips know-how, is anticipating seeing actual-time presence for all and sundry on the network and having a view into ignored calls even when a caller does not go away a voicemail. For now, NCVB is having fun with the primary BCM Rls 5.0 function it deployed, FindMe/FollowMe (FMFM), which allows for simultaneous ringing of up to 5 additional exterior instruments. "each name is skills company," observed Hopwood. "With BCM's FindMe/FollowMe ability, their income crew not ever has to miss a different income-generating call once again."
Minitel**, a premier Nortel companion presenting service across Canada, additionally chose to trial BCM Rls 5.0 in its own office production gadget. Its Toronto vice president of Operations, Dan Silverman, changed into so completely satisfied with the progress of the in-condo trial he satisfied a huge accounting firm customer to set up it as well. "The installing became as smooth as may be and the client is now rolling out each InTouch and FindMe/FollowMe to distinct users in their organization easily. They had been capable of get their client up to velocity on the interface and rolling the utility out by using themselves in lower than an hour," spoke of Silverman.
Mexico's Universidad Latinoamericana** (ULA) similarly established the latest BCM application with high quality results. "we are within the business of training modern adolescence and getting ready them for the long run and the challenges ahead," observed Mario Ahumada Sandoval, subdirector of systems, ULA. "To accomplish that, they count number on having the newest in communications expertise that helps us present a wealthy UC event for body of workers and college students. Trialling BCM Rls 5.0, they discovered that the product's new function set enhances their UC adventure, whereas maximizing device already in region."
BCM50 customer, Philkeram-Johnson**, the oldest ceramic tile producer in Greece, also welcomed the new software unlock. "Our Nortel BCM50 gives us room to develop, in terms of capability and performance, and it can provide the aspects they need to evolve to a unified communications ambiance," said Christos Syropoulos, business manager, Philkeram-Johnson. "we're constantly searching for easy methods to enhance their items and their productivity for you to reply extra quickly to consumers. i am desirous to find out extra in regards to the new features purchasable in BCM Rls 5.0 and the way they can use them to boost their communications."
moreover the InTouch and FMFM capabilities, BCM Rls 5.0 lets a person ahead a voice message the use of a file so that it may also be played or read by any cellular equipment on the planet. Meet-Me Conferencing for BCM now offers as much as one hundred twenty five ports with support for as many as 300 users. expert name Recording, a capacity customarily supplied through a 3rd birthday party is additionally attainable as a part of the newest BCM unencumber.
As a further potential of streamlining charges and operations making it much more simple for SMBs and Nortel channel companions to install, provision, and migrate pre-current statistics, the brand new BCM50 and BCM450 portfolio contains ordinary utility and applications, O/S, working towards, accreditation, person interfaces, and documentation.
Dell'Oro ranks Nortel's SMB portfolio #1 on the planet in variety of hybrid-IP strains shipped and #2 in SMB market salary for the second quarter 2009. Nortel's BCM options are localized and offered in over 120 international locations through greater than 1000 channels.
Hear from more BCM clients and companions:
Nortel grants communications capabilities that make the promise of enterprise Made elementary a reality for their customers. Their next-era applied sciences, for both carrier company and commercial enterprise networks, help multimedia and business-essential applications. Nortel's applied sciences are designed to assist dispose of today's limitations to effectivity, speed and efficiency by means of simplifying networks and connecting individuals to the guidance they want, once they need it. For extra information, seek advice from Nortel on the web at www.nortel.com. For the newest Nortel information, discuss with www.nortel.com/information.
definite statements in this press unencumber can also contain words akin to "might", "expects", "might also", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "aims", "envisions", "seeks" and other an identical language and are regarded ahead-searching statements or guidance under relevant securities legislations. These statements are based on Nortel's latest expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the operating ambiance, economies and markets through which Nortel operates. These statements are area to vital assumptions, hazards and uncertainties, that are difficult to predict and the precise influence can be materially distinct from these contemplated in forward-looking statements. For more information with recognize to certain of those and other factors, see Nortel's Annual document on Form10-k, Quarterly reports on kind 10-Q and other securities filings with the SEC. unless in any other case required by means of applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any intention or obligation to replace or revise any forward-searching statements, no matter if on account of new suggestions, future activities or in any other case.
*Nortel, the Nortel logo and the Globemark are trademarks of Nortel Networks.
**here is a 3rd party link as described in their web linking practices.
Use of the terms "companion" and "partnership" doesn't imply a legal partnership between Nortel and any other birthday celebration.
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Radar and electronic warfare (EW) developers are leveraging high-speed signal-processing devices such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) to meet the U.S. military’s insatiable desire for data. Meanwhile artificial intelligence (AI), neural networks, and machine learning (ML) concepts are more and more being embraced in EW and radar applications to ensure the U.S. maintains that tactical edge over its adversaries for years and decades to come.
“Since the enemy will pursue similar strategies and weapons, the challenge is to keep outperforming them with better technology and methods,” says Rodger Hosking, vice president and cofounder at Pentek, Inc. [Upper Saddle River, New Jersey].
To stay ahead, the defense industry is working at addressing the technical challenges it faces. “Said simply, it is ‘big data,’ says Chris Rappa, product line director for Radio Frequency, Electronic Warfare and Advanced Electronics within BAE Systems FAST Labs [Arlington, Virginia]. “EW and radar systems throw away loads of data that could be useful. It is all about power. They are getting smart on how to optimize power modes to handle these gigantic increases in data, but the challenges on how to process more and more data are not going to be solved over the next three years.”
Addressing these data pain points means getting down to the nitty-gritty of radar and EW systems. And, “One of the greatest challenges will be in the exponential increase in sensor data,” says Tammy Carter, senior product manager for OpenHPEC products for Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions [Ashburn, Virginia]. “This will drive the need for even faster backplanes, memory/data management, and the associated challenges of reliability. This in turn will drive the need for faster and larger data recorders with more focus on security. The development cycle of these new systems will require more analysts and data scientists to design and verify the new algorithms.”
Staying ahead of adversaries and getting past technical challenges also means upgrading and taking into account obsolescence issues, Noah Donaldson, chief technology officer at Annapolis Micro Systems, explains. “How do customers upgrade to the latest technology quickly? Traditionally, it has taken five to 10 years to upgrade a platform, but that is too long. That’s where commonality and open standards come into play. They work closely with SOSA [Sensor Open Systems Architecture consortium] and VITA [standards organization] to develop modular open architecture products that have standardized hardware profiles. As an example, their WILDSTAR 6XB2 6U Board was developed in alignment with SOSA and VITA standards.” (Figure 1).
Industry players have begun to collaborate to support the advancement of radar/EW systems, says Roy Keeler, senior product and business development manager, Aerospace and Defense, at ADLINK Technology [Washington D.C.]. Keeler says, “You’re seeing partnerships in industry at the chip-level manufacturing, at the manufacturing level for chips and for systems that will enable us to overcome some of the technical challenges that we’re facing.What tech is necessary and what isn’t?
“The military is now starting to question why they need dedicated pieces of hardware that just do one job in particular,” Keeler says. “For that reason, the trend in signal-processing designs for radar and EW systems is leading towards more configurable-type of systems where for example, the end user can utilize a radar as an EW receiver or transceiver.”
Requirements for power consumption, efficient data management, and limited space are playing a role in designing these systems. Essentially, some U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) requirements include the addition of “higher-density solutions to support multielement antenna arrays, where each element requires a separate signal processing channel for phased array beam steering,” Hosking says. “Each element may require both receive and transmit functions to support radar and EW countermeasures applications. While size and weight of the electronics for each channel are important, so are power requirements and cost per channel.”
In addition, users want “to install these functions as close to the antenna as possible to minimize cabling that imposes performance penalties due to signal loss and interference,” Hosking continues. “By incorporating RF circuitry, data conversion, and DSP [digital signal processing] functions in a housing near the antenna, wideband digitized signals can be delivered through optical cables, maintaining optimum signal fidelity.”
There is a definite need to readjust components in order to have a cognitive radar or EW system on the field. “We’re also seeing requests for moving general processing to the ARM cores on many FPGA SoCs [field-programmable gate array system-on-chip], pulling out the SBC [single-board computer] and handling general processing elsewhere in the system via a networked processor,” says Peter Thompson, vice president, product management, at Abaco Systems [Huntsville, Alabama]. “Abaco’s VP430 Direct RF [radio-frequency] Processing System is a 3U VPX COTS [commercial off-the-shelf] solution that leverages the Xilinx ZU27DR RF system-on-chip (RFSoC) technology,” Thompson says (Figure 2).SWaP and multifunction systems
SWaP requirements are pushing designers to the max, with users desiring “more capability at a lower cost in shrinking form factors,” Rappa explains. “Increases in bandwidth and data rates with lower latency continue to be recurring themes. Lower size, weight, power, and cost desires drive the industry towards multifunction systems, where radar, EW, and other functions need to be combined with minimal performance sacrifice.”
The market has been using GPGPUs and FPGAs to make all these demands a reality: “I am seeing increased interest in using GPGPUs and direct transfer of data from the FPGA to the GPGPUs using GPUDirect to reduce latency,” Carter says. “More systems will have GPGPUs because of their power efficiency and the possibility for reduced SWaP because of the better throughput. For example, a 6U OpenVPX chassis with five server-class Xeon boards and a switch card yields around 5.6 TFLOPS for approximately 1000 watts. In comparison, a 6U OpenVPX single Xeon server-class CPU card paired with two OpenVPX dual NVIDIA Pascal P5000 GPGPU boards pumps out over 13 TLFOPS for around 550 watts.”Convergence of systems
Without a doubt, “the military has turned the heat up on these trends to converge systems that utilize RF such as radar and electronic warfare into one,” says David Jedynak, chief technology officer at Curtiss-Wright [Austin, Texas]. “The military is looking to converge signal-processing tech that does multiple things into one system. From a bird’s-eye view that sounds really easy. However, from a technical level, that proves to be a challenge.”
From a technical perspective, “Combining these capabilities requires smart techniques,” Rappa says. “Adaptive, adaptable, or cognitive capabilities can adjust the function according to the mission demands, potentially reducing the computational requirements to do everything at once.”
Enter AI and ML …Data and the role of AI, ML tech
The ripple effect of the AI push is resulting in adaptive cognitive radar and EW systems. When it comes to the big data challenge, AI may have the answer.
“The end-all goal for electronic warfare is to realize the concept of cognitive EW,” Jedynak explains. “The question is: How does artificial intelligence enable signal processing? Artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques are helping to automate tasks to ease the end user’s workload.”
“What we’re trying to do and what the industry is trying to do is see through the noise, see through the clutter in a very congested electromagnetic environment,” Keeler adds. “What AI will enable is to preprocess data by using machine learning techniques to learn the environment, then make decisions from the sensor-collected data.
“This way, gobs of data are not being sent back to be filtered in the rear echelons,” Keeler continues. “Artificial intelligence will put more intelligence at the edge, at the forward edge of the battle area, and allow the sensors to filter through all of that noise and unwanted data. Specifically, the user community would like to employ AI to reduce that sensor-to-shooter timeframe. AI will enable that by allowing preprocessing to take place.”
Yet engineers still face a challenge even when putting AI into radar and EW systems. Processing demands will continue and “there are always processing constraints,” Rappa adds.
“Classically, heavy filtering has been used to reduce the processing demands,” he continues. “Filtering, unfortunately, destroys features that AI might use to make better decisions. Therefore, any capability that reduces the necessity to filter becomes an enabler for artificial intelligence, and power efficiency is a big driver. The adjacency of processing with data needs to be prioritized as data transport has a huge power cost. Improvements in the power added efficiency of the front end are mandatory. They have prioritized investment in more efficient front-ends with capabilities like short gate GaN-on-SiC (gallium nitride on silicon carbide) and have a qualified 6-inch GaN-on-SiC foundry. Computation in memory enabling minimal data transport is also technology that they are very interested in adopting to enable AI.”
To continue enabling all these technologies, “BAE Systems signed a cooperative agreement with AFRL to transition their short gate GaN technology to their foundry,” Rappa adds. When it comes to the power needs, “This technology has significant improvements in power-added efficiency over the current state of the art.”
For radar and EW systems, “the most important factor in artificial intelligence signal processing is high bandwidth,” Donaldson says. There is a market for systems that require a high volume of data coming in, so much so that “there are new processors coming out that are focused solely on AI.”
With so much investment going into AI, “The idea is to teach and train these systems to automate more tasks,” Jedynak says. “With cognitive EW, if we’ve got the right silicate on platforms, which is suited for machine learning approaches – also meaning deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, and LSTM [long-short-term memory]-type systems – with the right foundation on the platform, they can start enabling more of these capabilities.”
“The increase in available memory on the processor, communication bandwidth for passing data, and overall throughput in embedded signal processing systems enable artificial intelligence for radar and EW applications,” Carter says. “A deep learning reference optimizer and runtime, NVIDIA’s TensorRT, can help radar and EW applications achieve low latency and higher throughput.”
Power also needs to be addressed when incorporating AI or neural networks in radar and EW systems: “What it takes to train a neural network is not the same as what it takes to run it,” Jedynak explains. “It takes a lot of horsepower to train a neural network and a lot of effort needs to go into it. However, once you have a trained network it can run at a much more modest hardware.”
Therefore, emphasis is being placed on the software side of developing radar and EW systems, says Keeler. “When you look at, for instance, NVIDIA and their frameworks for their software, when they first started releasing this in 2015, they had approximately 400,000 downloads. Then, in 2016, that jumped to two million downloads. Then, last year, they had over eight million downloads of their frameworks that deal with artificial intelligence. It’s just starting to ramp up. It’s just starting to gain traction in the industry. AI will really have an impact on EW and radar applications in the future.”Ramping up AI and ML for military
A glimpse of what AI will be able to do for the military: “The long-term results, if they look at commercial areas that are applying AI and machine learning in systems, such as what DeepMind is doing with AlphaGo and now AlphaGo Zero, these are now teaching themselves how to play games all alone without any other direction,” Jedynak says. “That gives you an idea of where the technology is heading.”
UPDATED: January 2019
Last September, consumers began to see the first service bundles offered by telecommunications companies in their area, marketed with some form of the term "5G." "5G is here," declared Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, specifically for cities such as Sacramento, Los Angeles, and Indianapolis where rival AT&T had already been drumming up excitement around its 5G trials.
It was a bit like SpaceX's 2016 announcement, its 2017 announcement, and its 2018 announcement that the race to Mars had begun.
Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint merger: The numbers and assumptions you need to know
5G Wireless is an explicit set of technologies specified by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as "Release 15" and "Release 16." 3GPP is an organization consisting of essentially all the world's telecommunications standards bodies who agreed to share the definition of 3G Wireless, and to move on from there to successive generations.
Overlooked by London's skyscrapers EE's 5G mobile trial kicks off.Image: EE Who gets to say what 5G really is and isn't
Today, 3GPP specifies which technologies constitute 5G Wireless and, by exclusion, which do not. 5G is an effort to create a sustainable industry around the wireless consumption of data for all the world's telcos. One key goal of 5G is to dramatically improve quality of service, and extend that quality over a broader geographic area, in order for the wireless industry to remain competitive against the onset of gigabit fiber service coupled with Wi-Fi.
The 5G transition plan, once complete, would constitute an overhaul of communications infrastructure unlike any other in history. Imagine if, at the close of the 19th century, the telegraph industry had come together in a joint decision to implement a staged transition to fax. That's essentially the scale of the shift from 4G to 5G. The real reason for this shift is not so much to get faster as to make the wireless industry sustainable over the long term, as the 4G transmission scheme is approaching unsustainability faster than the industry experts predicted.
SEE: How 5G will transform business (ZDNet special report) | Download the report as a PDF (TechRepublic)
To make the transition feasible in homes and businesses, telcos are looking to move customers into a 5G business track now, even before most true 5G services exist yet. More to the point, they're laying the "foundations" for technology tracks that can more easily be upgraded to 5G, once those 5G services do become available.New business models
Equipment staged by NTT DOCOMO for 5G urban area trials in Japan.(Image: Ericsson)
The initial costs of these infrastructure improvements may be tremendous, and consumers have already demonstrated their intolerance for rate hikes. So to recover those costs, telcos will need to offer new classes of service to new customer segments, for which 5G has made provisions. These include:
"It's not only going to be they humans that are going to be consuming services," remarked Nick Cadwgan, director of IP mobile networking, speaking with ZDNet. "There's going to be an awful lot of software consuming services. If you look at this whole thing about massive machine-type communications [mMTC], in the past it's been primarily the human either talking to a human or, when they have the internet, the human requesting services and experiences from software. Moving forward, they are going to have software as the requester, and that software is going to be talking to software. So the whole dynamic of what services we're going to have to deliver through their networks, is going to change."Driving for higher yields
5G is comprised of several technology projects in both communications and data center architecture, all of which must collectively yield benefits for telcos as well as customers, for any of them to be individually considered successful. The majority of these efforts are in one of three categories:
Projection of interrelated 5G service tiers(Image:International Telecommunications Union)
It was during the implementation of 4G that telcos realized they wished they had different grades of infrastructure to support different classes of service. 5G allows for three service grades that may be tuned to the special requirements of their customers' business models:
"The first generation of mobile systems that were launched around 1991 -- popularly known as 2G/GSM -- was really focused on massive mobile device communication," explained Sree Koratala, head of technology and strategy for 5G Wireless in North America for communications equipment provider Ericsson, speaking with ZDNet. "Then the next generation of mobile networks, 3G, launched starting in 1998, enabled mobile broadband, feature phones, and browsing. When 4G networks were launched in 2008, smartphones popularized video consumption, and data traffic on mobile networks really exploded.
"All these networks primarily catered towards consumers," Koratala continued. "Now when you look at this next generation of mobile networks, 5G, it is very unlike the previous generation of network. It's truly an inflection point from the consumer to the industry."
The full release of the first complete set of 5G standards (officially "Release 15") by 3GPP took place in June 2018. By the end of 2019, the organization expects to declare a supplemental set of 5G standards called "Release 16." That release is slated to include specifications for:
The true purpose of 5G Wireless, as you'll see momentarily, is to produce a global business model where expenses are lower and revenue from services is higher, on account of the presence of more and greater services than 4G could provision for. So there is a valid argument, from a marketing standpoint, in favor of a gradual deconstruction of 4G branding. As consumers hear more and more about the onset of 5G, enumeration leaves them feeling more and more like their 4G equipment is old and obsolete.
With so many technologies under the 5G umbrella -- home broadband, office broadband, home television, Internet of Things, in-vehicle communication, as well as mobile phone -- there's no guarantee that, when it comes time, any consumer will choose the same provider for each one unless that consumer is willing to sign a contract beforehand. That's why telcos are stepping up their 5G branding efforts now, including rolling out preliminary 4G upgrades with 5G monikers, and re-introducing the whole idea of 5G to consumers as a fuzzy, cloudy, nebulous entity that encapsulates a sci-fi-like ideal of the future.
"The general purpose technology for the Fourth Industrial Revolution is actually the ambiguous sort of connectivity that 5G can bring," admitted Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, in no less conspicuous an arena than the keynote address of CES 2019.
Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg explains "5G for All" to attendees at CES 2019.[Photo courtesy Verizon]
"So what is 5G? 5G is a promise," Vestberg continued, "of so much more than we've ever seen in any wireless technology. From the beginning, they had the 1G, the 2G, the 3G, and the 4G. They were sort of leaps of differences, when it comes to speed and throughput. When they think about 5G, they think about 10 gigabits per second throughput, they talk about 10x battery life, they think about 1000 times more data volumes in the networks. It's just radically different. I would say it's a quantum leap compared to 4G."
The first wave of 5G-branded services are effectively 4G, or 4G extensions, that place consumers on the right track for future 5G upgrades, thus guaranteeing the revenue sources that 5G will require to be successful, or if only to just break even.
But consumers aren't the only parties facing down the need to climb onto a new track. Telcos have their own service providers -- for example, Nokia, which has absorbed the assets of the former Alcatel-Lucent, and is now the holder of the massive Bell Laboratories intellectual property portfolio. These providers also need their customers to get with the program. In a January 22 blog post, Nokia's marketing strategist Clare McCarthy stated that communications service providers (CSPs) can start small if they want, but to become fully 5G compliant, they'll eventually have to overhaul their communications infrastructure completely. McCarthy wrote:
CSPs can start small by upgrading their radio access software and and maintaining the connection to an existing LTE core network if increased capacity is all they need, but capacity is not all CSPs need. They see their role as central to a flourishing digital economy. They need to offer new digital services and support new operating and business models across industry verticals — and this requires more than a radio-only upgrade. Delivering a new kind of business requires a network capable of higher speeds, greater spectral efficiency, a cloud native core and a coherent, end-to-end framework. CSPs need to deploy a fundamentally different infrastructure to meet the needs for greater capacity, latency and extreme reliability.Why cooling made 5G an urgent necessity
In May 2017, AT&T President of Technology Operations Bill Hogg declared the existing wireless business model for cell tower rental, operation, and maintenance "unsustainable." Some months earlier, a J. P. Morgan analyst characterized the then-business model for wireless providers in Southeast Asia as unsustainable, warning that the then-current system has rendered it impossible for carriers to keep up with customer demand. And as research firm McKinsey & Company asserted in a January 2018 report, the growth path for Japan's existing wireless infrastructure is becoming "unsustainable," rendering 5G for that country "a necessity."
One senses a theme.
The world's telcos need a different, far less constrained, business model than what 4G has left them with. The only way they can accomplish this is with an infrastructure that generates radically lower costs than the current scenario, particularly for maintaining, and mainly cooling, their base station equipment.
Read also: Stingray spying: 5G will protect you against surveillance
Cooling and the costs associated with facilitating and managing cooling equipment, according to studies from analysts and telcos worldwide, account for more than half of telcos' total expenses for operating their wireless networks. Global warming (which, from the perspective of meteorological instrumentation, is indisputable) is a direct contributor to compound annual increases in wireless network costs. Ironically, as this 2017 study by China's National Science Foundation asserts, the act of cooling 4G LTE equipment alone may contribute as much as 2 percent to the entire global warming problem.The world's biggest example
China Mobile's breakdown of its annual capital and operational expenditures for maintaining one 3G base station.(Image: China Mobile)
The 2013 edition of a study by China Mobile, that country's state-licensed service provider, examined the high costs of maintaining energy-inefficient equipment in its 3G wireless network, which happens to be the largest on the planet in both territory and customers served. In 2012, CM estimated its network had consumed 14 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity annually. As much as 46 percent of the electricity consumed by each base station, it estimated, was devoted to air conditioning.
That study proposed a new method of constructing, deploying, and managing network base stations. Called Cloud architecture RAN (C-RAN), it's a method of building, distributing, and maintaining transmitter antennas that history will record as having triggered the entire 5G movement.
Read also: Samsung and KDDI complete 5G trial in baseball stadium
One of the hallmarks of C-RAN cell site architecture is the total elimination of the on-site base band unit (BBU) processors, which were typically co-located with the site's radio head. That functionality is instead virtualized and moved to a centralized cloud platform, for which multiple BBUs' control systems share tenancy, in what's called the baseband pool. The cloud data center is powered and cooled independently, and linked to each of the base stations by no greater than 40km of fiber optic cable.
An Ericsson 5G transmitter used in NTT DOCOMO's Japan trials.(Image: Ericsson)
Moving BBU processing to the cloud eliminates an entire base transmission system (BTS) equipment room from the base station (BS). It also completely abolishes the principal source of heat generation inside the BS, making it feasible for much, if not all, of the remaining equipment to be cooled passively -- literally, by exposure to the open air. The configuration of that equipment could then be optimized, like the 5G trial transmitter shown above, constructed by Ericsson for Japan's NTT DOCOMO. The goal for this optimization is to reduce a single site's power consumption by over 75 percent.
What's more, it takes less money to rent the site for a smaller base station than for a large one. Granted, China may have a unique concept of the real estate market compared to other countries. Nevertheless, China Mobile's figures show that rental fees with C-RAN were reduced by over 71 percent, contributing to a total operational expenditure (OpEx) reduction for the entire base station site of 53 percent.
Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint to merge, finally, strutting 5G clout
Keep in mind, though, that China Mobile's figures pertained to deploying and maintaining 3G equipment, not 5G. But the new standards for transmission and network access, called 5G New Radio (5G NR), are being designed with C-RAN ideals in mind, so that the equipment never generates enough heat to trip that wire, requiring OpEx to effectively quadruple.The new cloud at the new edge
It would appear a lot of the success of 5G rests upon this new class of cloud data centers, into which the functionality of today's baseband units would move. As of now, there is still considerable uncertainty as to where this centralized RAN controller would reside. There are competing definitions.
Some have taken a good look at the emerging crop of edge data centers sprouting adjacent to today's cell towers, and are suggesting that the new Service Oriented Core (SOC) could be distributed across those locations. Yet skeptics are wondering, why bother with the elimination of the BTS station in the first place, if the SOC would only put it back? Alternately, a separate SOC station could be established that services dozens of towers simultaneously. The problem there, obviously, is that such a station would be a full-fledged data center in itself, which would have real estate and cooling issues of its own.
Either option might be more palatable, some engineers believe, if the servers operating there could delegate computing infrastructure among internal operations and special customer services -- edge computing services that could compete with cloud providers such as Amazon and Microsoft Azure, by leveraging much lower latency. The ability to do so is entirely dependent upon a concept called network slicing. This is the subdivision of physical infrastructure into virtual platforms, using a technique perfected by telecommunications companies called network functions virtualization (NFV).
Also: Microsoft Azure: Everything you need to know about Redmond's cloud serviceThe dicey subject of slicing
One scenario mobile operators envision for 5G network slicing.(Image: Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance)
Exactly what routes these network slices would take through the infrastructure is completely up in the air. T-Mobile and others have suggested slices could divide classes of internal network functions -- for instance, dividing eMBB from mMTC from URLLC. Others, such as the members of the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN), suggest that slices could effectively partition networks in such a way (as suggested by the NGMN diagram above) that different classes of user equipment, utilizing their respective sets of radio access technologies (RAT), would perceive quite different infrastructure configurations, even though they'd be accessing resources from the same pools.
Another suggestion being made by some of the industry's main customers, at 5G industry conferences, is that telcos offer the premium option of slicing their network by individual customer. This would give customers willing to invest heavily in edge computing services more direct access to the fiber optic fabric that supports the infrastructure, potentially giving a telco willing to provide such a service a competitive advantage over a colocation provider, even one with facilities adjacent to a "carrier hotel."
Read also: Micro circuitry innovation needed to implement 5G
But depending upon whom one asks, slicing networks by customer may actually be impossible. There are diametrically split viewpoints on the subject of whether slicing could congregate telco functions and customer functions together on the same cloud. Some have suggested such a convergence is vitally necessary for 5G to fulfill the value proposition embodied in C-RAN. Architects of the cloud platforms seeking to play a central role in the SOC, such as OpenStack and CORD, argue that this convergence is already happening, and the whole point of the architecture in the first place.
AT&T has gone so far as to suggest the argument is moot and the discussion is actually closed: Both classes of functions have already been physically separated, not virtually sliced, in the 5G specifications, its engineers assert. In a January 2019 statement, the company said it has already begun deployments of what it calls Multi-access Edge Compute (MEC) services with select customers, in some cases using existing 4G LTE connectivity. "The data that runs through AT&T MEC," the statement reads in part, "can be routed to their cloud or stay within an enterprise's private environment to help increase security."
But AT&T isn't the "Bell System" any more -- it doesn't get the final say. Thus one of the most critical decisions in 5G architecture may end up being the result of trial and error.
However this issue gets resolved, the very fact that slicing must take place somehow, if only to virtually separate those functions that will not have already been physically separated, suggests that 5G will not be "a fully meshed world of wirelessly connected everything." Security -- the topic that always waits until the last moment -- will ensure that certain things will remain strategically disconnected, for their own good.The emergence of fixed wireless
Ericsson's own forecasts of wireless connectivity have been known to fool people. In June 2017, its annual Mobility Report estimated that mobile data traffic would grow at an average compound annual growth rate of 42 percent through 2022, having grown eightfold by the end of that period. "By the end of the forecast period," stated Ericsson, "more than 90 percent of mobile data traffic will come from smartphones."
That forecast generated a truckload of headlines. A half-billion 5G mobile subscriptions are expected worldwide by 2022, reported ZDNet's Corinne Reichert. Ericsson's updated report, published last November, doubled that forecast number for 2023, adding that 5G access would reach one-fifth of the world's population by the end of that year.
Read also: Robots could get cheaper, thanks to 5G
The keyword in the above paragraphs is "mobile." Up to now, all the "Gs" have pertained to the wireless access technology we've historically perceived as synonymous with mobility. For 5G to be truly successful, Ericsson's Koratala told us, it will need to open up access to a broader range of devices, many of which are actually not the least bit mobile.The not-so-mobile proposition
"These connections are expected to be going into devices in factories, transportation, and the grid," said Koratala. "So the range of applications means a huge diversification of performance and requirements for communication. Then there are some use cases that might be demanding a 5x improvement in latency, a 100x or 1000x data volume, as well as [extending] battery life. So when you look at that set of requirements, it's very clear that it is not a single use case. It really becomes an enabler for a wide variety of use cases, that will have different requirements to be met to make them viable."
The key mission of mMTC is to service wireless devices that don't move. Its transmission scheme will be tuned for very high density -- for situations like factory floors where thousands of individual mechanical elements are sending operational data, simultaneously, to an off-site location for instant analytics.
Read also: UK government seeks city to showcase 5G connectivity
Viewed in this light, the prediction that nine-tenths of mobile data will be consumed by the largest class of mobile devices, seems about as spot-on as a forecast that rain will continue to be wet. What is completely unpredictable at this point is whether a fixed wireless use case will be competitive in an environment where wired broadband is also undergoing a revolution.Exchanging yesterday's new technology for today's
You will hear from many sources that 5G is not about what anything is, but rather what it enables you to do. No, it isn't. 5G is about the things in which the telecom industry, and to a growing extent the data center networking industry, must invest in order to produce the latest editions of platforms such as V2X and mMTC, so that it can start earning revenue from those services. 5G is all about what it is.
If you end up watching smoothly streaming 4K video on a new class of smartphone, allowing yourself to be ferried between cities in an otherwise unoccupied vehicle, or participate in a virtual, real-time football tournament with a few dozen goggle-wearers scattered throughout the planet, then you will be fulfilling the hopes of telco engineers who hope to make 5G viable. The truth is, none of these consumer technologies are the real reason 5G is being engineered. Indeed, they are the side benefits.The big gamble
Three experimental AT&T cell tower designs for desert deployment. (Yes, they're right in front of you.)(Image: AT&T)
5G is a collective bargain between the telecommunications industry and society. To allow for anything close to evenly distributed coverage over a metropolitan area, the base stations containing the transmitters and receivers (the "cells") must be smaller, much lower in power, and much greater in number than they are today. Essentially, the new cell towers must co-exist with the environment. An outdoor photograph taken in any direction will be just as likely to include a 5G tower as not. (The example above, provided by AT&T, includes three.)
Read also: How US carriers moved up the timeline on 5G
It would not be unprecedented in history. We've borne telephone and electric poles through their neighborhoods and, not all that long ago, willingly installed TV aerials the size of kites on their chimneys. Some of us still use their old mounting posts for their satellite dishes. In exchange for the hopefully minor blemish on their landscapes that 5G may bring, many would wave a cheerful good-bye to dead spots.
All these things must happen, and in relatively quick succession, in order for telcos to afford the infrastructural overhaul they now have no choice but to make.Explore further — From the CBS Interactive Network Elsewhere Previous and related coverage
Qualcomm touts OEM, carrier wins for global 5G launches in 2019
The chip giant announced that its Snapdragon X50 modem chipset was chosen by 19 global operators for upcoming mobile 5G trials.
Sprint eyes mobile 5G network launch for first half of 2019
5G could lead to an increase in customers' data plans, Sprint's CEO said.
How 5G will impact the future of farming
ZDNet caught up with Julian Sanchez, director of John Deere Technology Innovation Center, during CES 2018 to talk about how rural connectivity will impact the future of precision agriculture.
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Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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