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8002 II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement

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8002 exam Dumps Source : II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement

Test Code : 8002
Test appellation : II- Mathematical Foundations of Risk(R) Measurement
Vendor appellation : PRMIA
: 132 real Questions

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Revised MPEP might too give unusual equipment in Alice Rejections | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Revised MPEP May Provide  unusual Tools in Alice RejectionsThe U.S. Patent and Trademark office recently issued a bulletin explaining that on January 25th, a revised MPEP — Ninth version (Revision 08.2017) of the manual of Patent analyzing course (MPEP) was made obtainable on the USPTO site.

whereas patent practitioners had been poring through the many additions listed in the change abstract for the Ninth edition, Revision 08.2017, a lot of their time has been spent looking at Chapter 2100 and area 2106 Patent territory matter number Eligibility [R-08.2017] which, of direction, focuses on Alice/Mayo framework.

there are many concepts and strategies for addressing a rejection under 35 united statesC. § one hundred and one, as there are many ways applicants will perceive an Alice-primarily based rejection swipe form. while the MPEP is not binding law, the guide presents guidelines for the examiners that can subsist used through applicants corresponding with the Patent office. The patent bar can only hope that the forty five,000 phrases introduced in MPEP § 2106 will deliver more consistency within the rejections and allow for productive discussions and greater fruitful amendment submissions.

My colleagues at TechPats manipulate a number of portfolios and prosecute patent applications—in addition to their accepted abilities in documenting facts of use, transpose engineering, and laboratory trying out—however this cloth should now not subsist considered criminal advice. for this reason, birthright here techniques on the revised MPEP and unusual case legislation should noiseless simplest subsist used for informational functions and should subsist fully checked earlier than use.

1. subsist positive the examiner meets the burden

based on what we’ve heard from their fellow patent practitioners seeing each first office motion that includes a topic matter eligibility rejection, there's a reasonably decent opportunity that the rejection below §one zero one is generated from both incomplete analysis or a duplicate-pasted kind. earlier than offering amendments or characterizations of the invention, it is probably going a advantageous view to stress the workplace’s burden for organising a prima facie rejection.

prior to the MPEP revision, applicants needed to cobble together USPTO guidance from the territory trust Eligibility age in-between tips portal to inquire of the examiner to give the requisite reasoning and examples (still a advantageous resource). Now they can too cite to the MPEP itself.

The MPEP requires that “[i]n specific, the initial burden is on the examiner to clarify why a declare or claims are ineligible for patenting naturally and specifically, so that applicant has sufficient word and is capable of with ease respond.” MPEP § 2106.07. In inspecting under Step 2A, “the rejection may noiseless determine the judicial exception by regarding what is recited (i.e., set forth or described) in the title and clarify why it's regarded an exception.” identification. particularly, “if the title is directed to an abstract conception, the rejection should noiseless identify the summary view as it is recited (i.e., set forth or described) within the title and clarify why it corresponds to a concept that the courts fill recognized as an abstract thought.” MPEP § 2106.07(a) (emphasis added). USPTO policy instructs that “[c]iting to an acceptable courtroom resolution that helps the identification of the topic matter recited in the title language as an summary concept is a optimal commemorate for you to foster prosecution.” identification.

once more, the hope with the unusual MPEP is that rejections under §a hundred and one are more consistent and cite court instances that prove how the examiner views the declare as directed to an ineligible thought. nobody means that declaring failure to compose a prima facie case is a adequate traversal, but asking the examiner’s to ensue the guide is a advantageous first step.

If the observe-up office motion provides a citation to a courtroom case (and greater reasoning), applicants might too squabble that inclusion is tantamount to acknowledging a failed rejection and the applicants are entitled to a new, Non-last office motion under MPEP § 706.07. here is continually very fact-based, notably now because the MPEP states “[c]itation to a case that supports the fashioned intuition would not subsist considered a unusual ground of rejection, until there is a change to the simple thrust of the rejection.” MPEP § 2106.07(b). So subsist on the seem to subsist out for when a last workplace motion adds a case that strikes along from “the common rationale.”

2. Wrongly referred to case or a nasty illustration

When the rejection does encompass a characterization of what theory the title is “directed to,” as well as evaluation or citation to an illustration of an summary idea, there are a pair avenues of addressing.

For one, it's a advantageous view to compose unavoidable that the referred to instance is a precedential case that claims what the examiner alleges it to claim. The examiner can too fill transcribed an flawed evaluation.

The MPEP cautions that “[e]xaminers should subsist regularly occurring with any referred to conclusion relied upon in making or retaining a rejection to subsist positive that the rejection in entire fairness tied to the statistics of the case and to steer pellucid of relying upon language taken out of context” and “Examiners may noiseless no longer disappear past these ideas which are corresponding to what the courts fill identified as abstract ideas, and may linger away from relying upon or citing non-precedential selections unless the records of the utility below examination uniquely healthy the statistics at rigor within the non-precedential selections.” MPEP § 2106.07(a).

From there, the applicant can both tackle what the cited case actually described or try to distinguish why the examiner’s characterization is distinctive from the mentioned instance. both are likely uphill battles, but definitely value preserving for a potential attraction probability.

3. The characterization of what the declare is “directed to”

The other approach for addressing the Examiner’s assessment is to inquire of the examiner to reevaluate what she or he believes the declare is “directed to.” again, the revised MPEP can too subsist useful because the applicants can query the characterization, e.g., (i) no matter if the title changed into looked at as an entire, (ii) no matter if the declare in basic terms comprises an abstract idea, or (iii) whether the characterization is inexpensive.

as an example, as many courtroom decisions are turning on the gist of the corresponding requisites, it could subsist a advantageous view to inquire of the examiner to reconsider the rejection after re-reviewing the application as an entire (in addition to some selected paragraphs):

The MPEP requires that “examiners should accept as unprejudiced with the declare as a total when performing the Step 2A analysis.” MPEP § 2106.04. above all, the MPEP identifies that “[w]hen evaluating a claimed invention for compliance with the Important legislation on eligibility, examiners may noiseless evaluate the record as a total (e.g., the specification, claims, the prosecution heritage, and any principal case legislation precedent or prior paintings) before accomplishing a conclusion with reference to whether the claimed invention units forth patent eligible territory count.” MPEP § 2106.07 Formulating and aiding Rejections For lack Of area subsist counted Eligibility.

furthermore, asking the examiner to reevaluate the “reasonableness” of a broad interpretation of the title (certainly when amending that claim) might too prove fruitful (See MPEP § 2106 Patent area matter Eligibility, II. establish BROADEST in your expense purview INTERPRETATION OF declare AS an entire).

a pretty advantageous reminder is that a declare only involving an abstract concept is not always patent ineligible. The MPEP states:

…[T]he courts fill carefully construed this “exclusionary principle lest it swallow entire of patent law” as a result of “all innovations at some even embody, use, replicate, leisure upon, or apply legal guidelines of nature, natural phenomenon, or abstract concepts.” Alice Corp., 134 S. Ct. at 2354, 110 USPQ2d at 1980 (citing Mayo, 566 US at seventy one, one hundred and one USPQ2d at 1965). perceive too Enfish, LLC v. Microsoft Corp., 822 F.3d 1327, 1335, 118 USPQ2d 1684, 1688 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (“The ‘directed to’ inquiry, for this reason, can't with no grief inquire of even if the claims involve a patent-ineligible conception, as a result of very nearly each automatically patent-eligible declare involving actual products and moves comprises a legislations of nature and/or natural phenomenon”). Examiners may noiseless hence subsist cautious to differentiate claims that recite an exception (which require further eligibility analysis) and claims that purely accommodate an exception (which can subsist eligible and don't require additional eligibility analysis).

MPEP § 2106.04 (emphasis introduced).

once again, asking the examiner to change his or her intelligence is an uphill combat, but asking for consistency within the contrast beneath the MPEP will too subsist valuable when paired with amendments and or proffered option evaluation.

4. Overgeneralizing the claim(s)

regardless of the caution above, one component of the MPEP appears to motivate a large interpretation of when the declare is “directed to” a judicial exception:

Step 2A asks: Is the title directed to a legislations of nature, a natural phenomenon (made from nature) or an abstract idea? A title is directed to a judicial exception when a law of nature, a natural phenomenon, or an abstract conception is recited (i.e., set forth or described) within the declare. while the phrases “set forth” and “describe” are thus each equated with “recite”, their different language is intended to testify that there are different ways by which an exception will too subsist recited in a claim. as an example, the claims in Diehr set forth a mathematical equation within the repetitively calculating step, the claims in Mayo set forth legal guidelines of nature within the wherein clause, which means that the claims in these cases contained discrete declare language that was identifiable as a judicial exception. The claims in Alice Corp., youngsters, described the theory of intermediated settlement without ever explicitly using the words “intermediated” or “agreement.” MPEP § 2106.04(II).

Of route, there's the MPEP language that “all innovations at some degree [] use… abstract concepts,” but the message is fairly fantastic in wish of rejecting beneath § one zero one. I deem here's very nearby to an overstatement of the case law, certainly considering the fact that that there is exiguous to no information within the revised MPEP on how an examiner should noiseless assemble what the title is “directed to” as continuously required with the aid of the court docket of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

whereas not mentioned within the revised MPEP, some fresh case legislations has lent some language that could subsist helpful , for instance:

Referencing Alice, the Federal Circuit has cited that “describing the claims at this sort of towering even of abstraction and untethered from the language of the claims entire however ensures that the exceptions to § one zero one swallow the rule.” Enfish, LLC v. Microsoft Corp., 822 F.3d 1327, 1337 (Fed. Cir. 2016). The Federal Circuit has too warned that “overgeneralizing claims, ‘if carried to its excessive, make[s] entire innovations unpatentable because entire innovations may too subsist decreased to underlying concepts of nature.’” In re TLI Commc’ns LLC Patent Litig., 823 F.3d 607, 611 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (quoting Diamond v. Diehr, 450 U.S. one hundred seventy five, 189 n.12 (1981)). The CAFC additionally referred to that the evaluation “must hence compose unavoidable at step one that they articulate what the claims are directed to with adequate specificity to compose unavoidable the the first step research is significant.” Thales Visionix Inc. v. united states, 850 F.3d 1343, 1347 (Fed. Cir. 2017). The USPTO has additionally provided suggestions, announcing, “fantastic facets from McRO: Examiners should believe the declare as an entire below Step 2A of the USPTO’s SME suggestions, and will not overgeneralize the title or simplify it into its ‘gist’ or core ideas, when deciding on a concept as a judicial exception.” Memorandum – fresh area matter Eligibility decisions (McRO, et al), Nov. 2, 2016, p. four (emphasis introduced; https://www.uspto.gov/sites/default/info/documents/McRo-Bascom-Memo.pdf).

5. Step 2B, the inventive conception

with reference to the evaluation in Step 2B to determine no matter if any extra features in the declare add vastly extra to the exception, the revision identifies skills challenges and/or paths to fruitful amendments. If the best closing concern for the utility falls below §one hundred and one, an change can subsist the highest property approach to overcoming a patentability rejection, at least within the examiner’s eyes. nevertheless the applicant is entitled to publish that the alleged inventive theory is considered when the title is evaluated as a total and/or the elements are considered in combination.

Of direction, the applicant can at entire times inquire of for the examiner to proffer relevant reasoning, peculiarly if early in prosecution the examiner fails to tackle a particular point that may too prove huge. as an example:

The MPEP requires that, for Step 2B, “the rejection should establish any further elements (particularly point to declare elements/obstacles/steps) recited within the declare past the identified judicial exception” and “explain the reason(s) that the additional points taken in my view, and additionally taken as a mix, conclude not outcomes in the title as a total amounting to tremendously extra” than the alleged judicial exception. MPEP § 2106.07(a) Formulating a Rejection For lack of discipline matter Eligibility (emphasis brought). The MPEP extra states that “the rejection may noiseless clarify why the courts fill diagnosed, or these within the territory would admire, the extra features when taken both in my view and as a blend to subsist neatly-understood, pursuits, conventional activities.” identification (emphasis introduced).

occasionally practitioners may successfully identify an component that turned into left out of the 2B evaluation because it turned into incorporated into the “directed to” thought in 2A without addressing the factor as a share of an growth and/or inventive conception when due to the fact that the extra aspects in aggregate. perceive MPEP § 2106.05(I)(B) “Examples Of How Courts habits The hunt a creative theory.”

MPEP § 2106.07(b) “Evaluating Applicant’s Response” items some ideas that may too entitle the candidates to a fruitful re-evaluation, such as “amend[ing] the declare, e.g., to add additional aspects or modify latest features so that the title as an entire amounts to tremendously more than the judicial exception” or “present[ing] persuasive arguments or facts in accordance with a very advantageous religion perception as to why the rejection is in error.” When a pretty good-faith amendment fails to elicit a metamorphosis of coronary heart, possibly requesting an interview or Advisory motion earlier than submitting an RCE may additionally multiply the applicants’ chances:

The MPEP requires that “[w]fowl evaluating a response, examiners should carefully coincide with entire of applicant’s arguments and proof rebutting the topic subsist counted eligibility rejection,” and upon modification, the “examiners may noiseless examine the amended declare’s broadest most economical interpretation and again duty the area trust eligibility evaluation.” MPEP § 2106.07(b).

6. Preemption

lastly, there are giant parts of MPEP Chapter 2100 that reiterate “preemption” because the groundwork for the Alice/Mayo evaluation.

The MPEP mandates that “[i]f applicant argues that the title is selected and doesn't preempt entire purposes of the exception, the examiner may noiseless rethink Step 2A [and] Step 2B.” MPEP § 2106.07. “Such reconsideration is applicable because, youngsters preemption is not a standalone verify for eligibility, it is noiseless the underlying problem that drives the two-half framework from Alice Corp. and Mayo (Steps 2A and 2B).” identification.

while no applicant wants to convey consideration to a “design around” or option implementation of the invention, highlighting the specificity of the title and citing the basis of preemption in Alice—e.g., one or more facets as an entire or as steps in a combination—likely entitles the applicant to a reevaluation that may prove fruitful.


Gross Receipts Taxes: thought and up to date proof | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Key Findings
  • Gross receipts taxes topple short of many characteristics of sound tax policy: they lack economic efficiency, deal with corporations differently based on their constitution, and are problematically nontransparent.
  • although there are few recent empirical studies on uncouth receipts taxes on account of their close-common abandonment in developed nations, some literature on taxes with identical constructions can shed light on fiscal results of uncouth receipts taxes.
  • Gross receipts taxes and different taxes levied on enterprise inputs had been proven to influence in “forward shifting” of charges on to remaining consumers. smart and chook (2009) ascertain colossal forward transferring of taxes on company inputs in Canada’s sales tax system, which turned into deserted by means of 4 of 9 provinces between 1992-1997.
  • although uncouth receipts taxes are trade taxes and as such are from time to time considered as progressive, in reality, they've abilities to subsist greater regressive than revenue taxes as they pyramid and are passed on to patrons.
  • regardless of considerations that value-introduced-taxes (VATs) were changing a more progressive system of uncouth receipts taxes, Alavuotunki and Pirttila (2015) locate that international locations noticed no massive stream on measures of inequality between 1975 and 2010. An influence on the GINI index would had been expected if eliminating taxes on business-to-enterprise purchases had a progressive incidence.
  • fresh studies by Ufier (2014) and Adhikari (2015) link the abandonment of uncouth receipts taxes with elevated creation efficiency and multiply in GDP per capita.
  • Introduction

    A uncouth receipts tax is levied in opposition t the receipts of a sale that consequences in a change of possession. uncouth receipts taxes are generally a historic novelty to the developed world because most evaluations of tax gadgets emphasize traits the uncouth receipts taxes execute relatively badly on: economic efficiency, fairness, and transparency.[1] via together with transactions at intermediate tiers of construction, these “turnover taxes” don't seem to subsist in keeping with earnings, measures of salary, or any other indicator of consumption energy it truly is focused through most other tax instruments in modern developed economies. in addition, the tax offers a aggressive scholarship to greater groups that can compose their personal inputs as opposed to purchase them. at last, as taxes glean delivered to the various levels of construction they “pyramid” into the final cost, in order that the valuable tax expense on items exceeds the tax prices offered to voters and final patrons.

    within the u.s., most of the uncouth receipts tax adoptions were spurred with the aid of the fiscal pressures of the notable depression of the Thirties.[2] Even by using World warfare II, however, many uncouth receipts taxes had been institute to subsist unconstitutional or had been in any other case repealed, with only 4 states (Indiana, West Virginia, Washington, and Delaware) protecting theirs into the Nineteen Eighties.[3] States that repealed the taxes commonly substituted the revenues with more suitable dependence on company revenue and retail sales taxes. The route become an identical in Europe, the state uncouth receipts tax-fashion turnover taxes were among the foremost courses of taxes to subsist replaced by means of the price-delivered tax within the 1960s and 1970s.

    this text highlights the advantageous judgment of why such frequent and seemingly coordinated abandonment of the uncouth receipts taxes occurred. It additionally reviews the empirical facts of this worry and concludes that inheritance has favorably rewarded this abandonment. eventually, the essay reports the arguments where cases supporting the uncouth receipts taxes would arise, which itself demonstrates that the uncouth receipts taxes should linger an instrument of the pre-WWII era for the USA.

    Illustrating the Case against uncouth Receipts Taxes

    Most are household with the conference among economists to stress taxes that restrict “distortions” or steer pellucid of “inefficiency.” What this really ability is that tax contraptions may noiseless preserve away from enjoying favorites in the market, and this is where the uncouth receipts tax proves to subsist surprisingly disappointing.

    probably the most large decisions dealing with an entrepreneur is whether to purchase their inputs or “make” them by using taking up a bigger portion of the production-to-family unit manner. Inevitably, they are likely to buy some inputs and compose others, but the uncouth receipts tax provides a aggressive skills to the corporations which own the greatest share of the pre-closing sale process—the most vertically built-in.[4]

    as an instance this, let’s trust the case of cleaning soap. main marketers and massive container shops frequently sell their own manufacturer moreover other brands of soap to households, which characterize the “remaining sale” in the process. Households can additionally ascertain different local or identify manufacturers at these stores or different dealers. The manufacture of soap requires many really expert inputs, constituents reminiscent of lye and elementary oils, as well as packaging. If any of those inputs are obtained via exchange rather than in-condo production, then these exchanges can fill the uncouth receipts tax applied to their sale. After the soap is manufactured it can subsist retailed without detain to households. again, if the ownership of the manufacturing differs from the possession of the retailer, then this change is too territory to the uncouth receipts tax. The ultimate alternate from retailer to the family is taxed once more. A brand with fewer of these intermediate exchanges can create an competencies in the course of the tax code below the uncouth receipts tax.

    figure 1 serves for case the uncouth receipts tax within the simplest viable method, the state a uncouth receipts tax of 5 p.c is utilized to a soap maker who buys the components for $100 plus taxes and sells it to a retailer for closing sale. For simplicity, the illustration in motif 1 will anticipate that the soap brand sells on the tax-inclusive cost of $105 for no profit, and that the retailer sells at their tax-inclusive cost for no earnings. The volume of the taxes raises at each stage, because the sale expense contains entire the taxes of entire outdated ranges. Combining the tax on the manufacturer, retailer, and consumer capacity that the 5 p.c uncouth receipts tax expense on a $100 product to the economy is readily taxed at a expense of 15.76 p.c in this instance. To contrast, motif 2 illustrates the case the state the uncouth receipts tax is applied to an organization producing a similar soap however too owns entire of the previous tiers of construction, similar to the shop brands in large container dealers. This company avoids the possession exchanges that create the statutory obligation to ensue the tax except the final sale. For this $100 product there is barely $5 in tax responsibility, which is greater than $10 lower than the case introduced in determine 1. From this, it is obvious why a bigger firm that owns its enter suppliers or with the ability to expand its scope to include enter construction would prefer the uncouth receipts tax, as these competitors much less in a position to this integration are faced with a major disadvantage. within the illustrative case, under the uncouth receipts tax, the higher, vertically-integrated firm of motif 2 had a tax expense of 5 %, whereas the uncouth receipts tax compounded into an effective tax fee of greater than 15 percent.

    figure 1.

    figure 2.

    financial multiply is at some degree tied to the view of economic effectivity, the capacity to top-quality satisfy consumer preferences with the least quantity of input. competition amongst market actors encourages fiscal efficiency with the aid of incentivizing experimentation with both product birth and with organizational constitution. huge territory dealers without detain compete with many small, really expert agents with diverse shop designs, mixes of manufacturers, delivery logistics, and countless different decisions. Ideally, the tax code should noiseless evade becoming an additional a kind of concerns, final impartial within the aggressive system, and not encouraging reorganization or altering of a company’s constitution to capitulate a tax abilities.

    beyond the efficiency and fairness of the coverage, uncouth receipts taxes are too heavily criticized for their lack of transparency. The 5 p.c uncouth receipts tax in determine 1 raised $15.76 in salary on $100 of fiscal product, a superior tax cost of 15.76 percent. to compose employ of an economically neutral tax that yielded an equivalent volume of profits for this case could subsist to levy 15.seventy six % tax on ultimate earnings simplest. It isn't intricate to surmise the political enchantment of headlines reporting a proposed 5 p.c expense in its state of 15.seventy six percent, however is fiction to compose employ of the previous fee as being consultant of the can imbue of govt relative to the size of the fiscal system. The theory that voters could tolerate the collection of $15 in tax earnings with a tax fee of 5 percent that they might reject in the event that they realized the tax expense turned into in fact 15 percent is a violation of transparency.

    These views inform the prima facie case against the uncouth receipts tax under most instances from economists and policy consultants. The aggressive benefits it may bestow to less productive but higher firms with more advantageous production scope is harmful to fiscal efficiency. The tax additionally performs poorly in terms of featuring transparency in representing the cost of executive. These and other issues raised in empirical investigations are the territory of the next section.

    contemporary evidence on uncouth Receipts Taxes

    There are noticeably few reports the state the uncouth receipts tax is the direct territory of hobby. The prima facie case towards the taxes is so strong, and that they were deserted by course of so plenty of the realm for such a very long time, that it is problematic for a student to commit attention to it and subsist rewarded with a recognition for setting up a primary and fascinating research agenda. despite the fact, there's educational research on tax aspects which are without detain crucial to uncouth receipts taxes. In selected, this analysis tends to focus on outcomes of taxes on business-to-enterprise purchases, which is the leading characteristic of a uncouth receipts tax.

    The disagreement between the uncouth receipts taxes and other taxes, peculiarly the retail income tax, exists on a spectrum. The simple disagreement between retail revenue taxes and the uncouth receipts taxes is that earnings taxes are meant to exclude business-to-enterprise transactions, yet it has been estimated that via flaws in tax constitution, about forty percent of the expenditures subjected to the retail earnings tax are company purchases.[5]

    in consequence, some prescient instructions about uncouth receipts taxes foster from reports of retail sales taxes and in particular cost-delivered taxes, which replaced the turnover tax in most of the world. As bird and prudent (2008) word,

    The general scholarship among public finance economists is that price-introduced taxes are sophisticated to either retail income taxes or uncouth receipts taxes that raise the equal income…both RSTs [retail sales taxes] and uncouth receipts taxes attend to cascade in the course of the price-brought chain, which distorts the relative expenses of company inputs, in particular capital goods.

    The uncouth receipts tax crucial implications of these studies are reviewed birthright here.

    evidence on Pyramiding

    within the illustration of motif 1, the taxes paid at each turnover component are “shifted ahead” into the sale fee of each decent: the $5 tax paid through the producer is brought into the tax foundation for the retailer, and again into the tax foundation for the family unit. this is known as tax pyramiding, and the illustration employed birthright here assumes 100% ahead transferring. unfortunately, presenting evidence on shifting is tricky for any separate stage, and facts on following every stage is exponentially extra challenging as a result of the complexities of tax codes birthright through the construction procedure, the literally altering nature of the product (e.g., a pencil starts as a tree), the variety of turnover levels within the construction of a selected good, and the discrete facts necessities vital. for example, an empirical analysis with the aid of Besley and Rosen (2009) of the connection between sales taxes and prices for a collection of commodities in 155 American cities institute the fee to upward push by the volume of the tax applied on the retailer-to-family stage for half of their commodities, whereas the different commodities published that increases in these tax quotes resulted in rate raises more suitable than the retail-to-family tax.[6] The authors confess that the outcomes is consistent with tax pyramiding from the taxes being utilized to business-to-company earnings, however they couldn't definitively rule out competing explanations for the finding because they did not fill statistics on the extent to which the inputs had been purchased in diverse markets.

    This quandary changed into overcome through prudent and fowl (2009) in a artful dissect of Canadian provinces.[7] an abominable lot just infatuation the American states, Canadian provinces in the early 1990s levied retail revenue taxes that blanketed enterprise-to-business transactions to a considerable diploma. basically, the authors estimated that 43 percent of the provincial retail income tax revenues came from taxing enterprise inputs. In a collection of tax reforms between 1992 and 1997, four of the nine provinces with retail income tax reformed to as a substitute employ an bill-and-credit score VAT, which radically diminished the application of the tax on business-to-enterprise transactions. the usage of an input-output mannequin, prudent and hen had been in a position to compute the resulting “tax shock” from the production chain in each province from the reforms across different commodities (e.g., food, clothing, transportation, and many others.) and the touch of the reform on valuable tax fees from 1992 to 2005 in each and every province. This design allowed the authors to evaluate a “pass through elasticity” on the degree to which taxes are pyramiding through onto buyers. while the outcomes fluctuate throughout subcategories of charges, the universal estimated upshot is that flux through became 100 percent. among the subcategories, seven of the eight classes discovered some degree of forward moving, and 5 of them stated at least complete ahead transferring.

    facts on economic efficiency and boom

    As described past, the consequences of tax pyramiding compose the uncouth receipts tax a extra economically harmful skill of elevating public profits than different similar tax gadgets as a result of its results on competition and aid use. an Important problem to performing respectable research on this question is that uncouth receipts tax and turnover taxes can too subsist enforced with rudimentary tax administration programs, which introduces the possibility that economic boom itself induces more refined tax systems that enable nations and states to hand over a uncouth receipts tax. In different phrases, it is viable for fiscal growth to trigger uncouth receipts tax abandonment, which would result in the analysis overstating the impact of uncouth receipts tax abandonment on fiscal boom. analysis addressing this issue is a vital stamp of satisfactory evidence.

    Ufier (2014) gives such proof. just infatuation the up to now mentioned examine of Canada, this dissect examines countrywide tax reforms into the VAT.[8] however, in this case Ufier (2014) is tracking 192 international locations between 1965 and 2010, with the leading instances of VAT adoption coming from Europe and South the usa in the 1970s and former Soviet countries within the early 2000s as they sought to displace their personal product turnover taxes.[9]

    Importantly, this paper will pay observant consideration to the initial conclusion to reform into the VAT by course of modeling the resolution to adopt. This stage of the design permits the components of a likelihood that the VAT can subsist adopted in every country-12 months. countries can then subsist matched to a counterpart that turned into similarly inclined to adopt the VAT however that didn't adopt. Ufier finds that there's a climb in GDP per capita growth of two.17 p.c in the adoption 12 months and just under 2 p.c as much as 4 years after adoption. expense inflation is too institute to decline, which can subsist a byproduct of diminished tax pyramiding, however nothing within the scrutinize at design can in reality compose that link. similarly, govt consumption as a share of GDP too declines, which may well subsist a final result of relocating to a more pellucid tax gadget, but once more the scrutinize at is not designed to rule out competing explanations to transparency.

    an identical attempt at this analysis query is performed by course of Adhikari (2015), again following countries over time that reform into the VAT design.[10] The innovation of this study when it comes to its analysis credibility is the implementation of the distinctly unusual synthetic control system (SCM).[11] The SCM works through taking a collection of nations that not ever undertake a VAT, however will too subsist combined through a knowledge-driven technique it's virtually similar to the reform international locations entire through the duration prior to their reform. In concept, if the reforms don't fill any impact on the tracked effects, then these “synthetic” international locations will proceed to augur the adopting nations in the set up-reform duration. amongst unreasonable and higher-middle revenue international locations, the evaluation finds that GDP per worker is 10 to eleven % higher after the reform five to 10 years after the reform.[12] For upper-center salary international locations’ GDP per employee, the outcomes are 25.5 p.c after 5 years and 33.1 % after 10 years. The dissect digs additional into the underlying mechanisms in capital stock and total aspect productiveness and finds the identical large patterns, suggesting that this GDP growth is pushed through enhancements in production efficiency. The Adhikari dissect finds no consequences of any of those variables within the low-middle or low earnings international locations (e.g., Honduras, Columbia, Senegal, etc.), and is a discovering that will subsist mentioned within the subsequent area.

    evidence on Inequality

    it is difficult to distill a separate viewpoint on the uncouth receipts tax in terms of its effects on inequality, and there is no pellucid abstract expectation. through taxing intermediate company-to-enterprise inputs, the uncouth receipts tax is sometimes seen as a company tax and is for this intuition progressive. Of course, as these taxes are pyramided into the last family price, then households that devour a huge % of their income will endure more of the burden and the uncouth receipts tax might subsist an excellent more regressive edition of a revenue tax.

    as far as equity between organizations is concerned, two establishments with the equal receipts but distinctive internet incomes would mug the same uncouth receipts tax bill, with no grief taxing low-margin firms extra heavily than excessive-margin firm. ultimately, the uncouth receipts tax doubtless has distinctive results on different industries depending on how long their construction chain of turnover is, and it is unknown how (if at all) turnover frequency relates to family unit consumption of items.

    The only major scrutinize at of the topic is institute in Alavuotunki and Pirttila (2015), which as soon as once more is examining VAT adoption throughout countries from 1975 to 2010.[13] The result of hobby is salary inequality measured by using the GINI index. To deal with the expertise problem of transpose causality, which would arise if international locations concentrated on innovative reforms additionally adopted VATs, they employ a course that estimates the impact bobbing up from international locations that had been brought on into VAT via neighboring international locations’ VAT adoptions. The authors find no statistically huge upshot on GINI inequality.

    Arguments for uncouth Receipts Taxes

    There are constrained circumstances where economic conception offers a protection of the employ of the uncouth receipts tax, however these instances scrutinize unlikely to exercise to the American states. The clearest argument is a situation where tax administration is so feeble that evasion is rampant or otherwise exists in an informal sector that's complicated for tax authorities to scrutinize at, and the choice policies considered are both tax on profits or product turnover (i.e., uncouth receipts tax).

    This condition assumes that it should subsist substantively easier for these authorities to scrutinize at product turnover than firm profit, and that the tax expense on turnover could subsist a advantageous deal lower due to this fact. Such situations intimate that evasion or avoidance will influence in a tax on earnings producing gigantic “kinks” where the marginal tax rate readily experiences a large soar, whereas a turnover tax would linger low, easy, and eternal relative to aid use. due to this fact, the distortion outcomes of product turnover taxes are wee relative to the distortions regarding hiding revenue.

    Economists fill regarded such arguments for minimum tax schemes as supplements to earnings taxes that exist in numerous constructing international locations (e.g., Argentina, Bolivia, Ivory Coast, Panama, Senegal, and so on.), and there is fresh proof to back it. as an example, in a study of company tax returns in Pakistan between 2006 and 2010, where these tax schemes are employed, most suitable et al. (2015) discovered that the anticipated bunching anticipated below this concept does appear.[14] This theory is too in keeping with Adhikari’s (2015) finding that low profits countries experienced no advantageous properties from reforming to the VAT. youngsters, tax administration across the united states is not missing in a such a course to compose this condition similar.

    A 2nd argument for the uncouth receipts tax is that it may present benefits over a poorly structured alternative tax instrument. for example, as already covered, many states include a pretty advantageous deal of the business-to-business purchases in their retail revenue taxes. at the identical time, many states considerably ignore a substantial portion of the carrier sector. while the uncouth receipt tax is just as capable of ignoring the service sector because the retail income tax, a deliberate enlargement of business-to-business purchases might create a de facto tax on these services, which might in the reduction of one of the distortions in consumer decisions between items and capabilities. provider providers infatuation condominium property agencies, lawyers, and accounting organizations might subsist untaxed on their capabilities to households, however a uncouth receipts tax would create a de facto final tax by course of catching their inputs. There is not any empirical facts to this kind of thought, but economic conception at least would seem to illustrate that the conditions could exist. It is likely, however, that the correlation between product turnover on inputs is barely weakly correlated with many services. it's too a bit of of an advert hoc protection as it is always the case that once you glean rid of the entire improved concepts, whatever continues to subsist no depend how cross fill to subsist the premier idea. it's difficult to reconcile that with the broader dreams of a tax reform.

    Conclusions

    This examination of the thought and proof in economic research creates an impressive case towards the uncouth receipts tax. The constitution of uncouth receipts taxes creates an uneven enjoying container among aggressive producers of identical goods. in particular, the tax favors enterprises that personal a larger share of the production technique.

    Secondly, uncouth receipts taxes additionally prefer corporations with larger web incomes relative to their receipts, a circumstance greater seemingly for topic establishments than unusual entrants. The tax is too attractive to policymakers who exigency to underrepresent the cost of executive with the aid of spreading the tax throughout the product chain. These combined distortions weaken the economic system’s capabilities for boom. There exists observant empirical labor that finds back for these considerations.

    The evidence and view too clarify the background of uncouth receipts tax employ in many of the world. When economies are generally casual or unobservable via the latest tax authorities, the uncouth receipts tax may present fewer distortions than a profits tax. Most American states instantly adopted the tax entire through the exceptional melancholy, and abandoned it promptly thereafter. European nations made abandonment of product turnover taxes a requirement for joining their fiscal union, and establishing and low income nations nowadays proceed to employ it. international locations aspire via reform to steer pellucid of resorting to uncouth receipts taxes as a result of their rigor to growth and development. relocating in the contradictory course should noiseless not subsist a direct of tax reform inside the united states.

    [1] Mikesell, John L., “Gross Receipts Taxes in state govt finances: A assessment of Their background and performance,” Tax basis inheritance Paper quantity fifty three, January 2007.

    [2] Kaeding, Nicole and Erica Wilt, “Gross Receipts Taxes: training from primitive state Experiences,” Tax foundation Fiscal reality No. 523, August 2016.

    [4] A extra huge elaboration on this factor is present in Chamberlain, Andrew and Patrick Fleenor, “Tax Pyramiding: The fiscal penalties of uncouth Receipts Taxes,” Tax foundation special document No. 147, December 2006.

    [5] Ring, Raymond J., Jr., “The percentage of consumers’ and Producers’ items within the accepted earnings Tax,” national Tax Journal, Vol. 42, No. 2, 167-seventy nine; Mikesell, John L., “Misconceptions about cost-delivered and Retail earnings Taxes: Are They barriers to sensible Tax policy?” Public Budgeting & Finance, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1-23.

    [6] Besley, Timothy J. and Harvey S. Rosen, “revenue Taxes and costs: An Empirical analysis,” country wide Tax Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2, 1999, 157-78.

    [7] wise, Michael and Richard M. hen, “The economic Incidence of changing a Retail sales Tax with a value-delivered Tax: proof from Canadian adventure,” Canadian Public coverage, XXXV, number 1, 2009, eighty five-ninety seven.

    [8] Ufier, Alex, “Quasi-Experimental analysis on the results of Adoption of a expense added Tax,” fiscal Inquiry, Vol. fifty two, No. 4, 2014, 1364-seventy nine.

    [9] For extra discussion of this factor, perceive Ebrill, Liam, Michael keen, Jean-Paul Bodin, and Victoria Summers, “The attract of the value-introduced Tax,” Finance & construction, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2002.

    [10] Adhikari, Bibek, “When Does Introducing a value-delivered Tax boost fiscal effectivity? proof from the artificial control formulation,” Tulane institution department of Economics Working Paper collection, November 2015.

    [11] The artificial manipulate system turned into first introduced in Abadie, Alberto, and Javier Gardeazabal, “The economic charges of battle: A Case dissect of the Basque country,” American fiscal evaluation, Vol. ninety three, No. 1, 2003, 113-32.

    [12] towering revenue international locations in the study encompass: Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, unusual Zealand, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. higher-middle earnings international locations consist of Argentina, Chile, ireland, Mauritius, Panama, Portugal. lower-core and lessen income countries encompass Columbia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Jamaica, Peru, Senegal, Thailand, Uruguay, Bangladesh, Guinea, Kenya, Nepal, and Pakistan.

    [13] Alavuotunki, Kaisa and Jukka Pirtilla, “The penalties of the price-added Tax on Inequality,” United international locations university World Institute for evolution Economics research Paper 2015/111, 2015.

    [14] ideal, Michael Carlos, Anne Brockmeyer, Henrik Jacobsen Kleven, Johannes Spinnewijn, and Mazhar Waseem, “production versus earnings efficiency with confined Tax potential: theory and facts from Pakistan,” Journal of Political economic climate, Vol. 123, No. 6, 2015, 1311-fifty five.


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    Members of the Joint Budget Committee unanimously approved $1 million in upgrades to the Centennial Correctional Facility-South on Thursday, marking another attempt at repurposing the controversial prison designed for solitary confinement.

    Before any inmates could subsist housed at Centennial South, however, the complete legislature would first exigency to vote to recommission the prison.

    The $208 million prison opened in 2010 and closed two years later because the state phased out solitary confinement. It is currently empty, and taxpayers just finished paying it off this year.

    The Department of Corrections has sought funding for years from the legislature to renovate Centennial South, too know as Colorado state Penitentiary II, so it could house the general prison population. In May, the House Judiciary Committee rejected a measure to conclude so.

    In its budget request this time around, the Department of Corrections argued Centennial South is necessary because the DOC is running out of prison space.

    The $1 million would disappear toward upgrading the prison to include recreation yards, cell modifications and day hall furnishings. Federal law requires general-population prisons to provide recreational options for inmates.

    The DOC’s request timeline states that high-security offenders would subsist moved to the prison in July 2019. By April 2022, the draw calls for 506 beds to subsist used for a re-entry program while another 442 beds would subsist devoted to central reception and diagnostic review. The timeline is set so the upgrades to the prison could subsist made by the time the legislature votes on approval.

    Joint Budget Committee staff analyst Vance Roper said prison overcrowding is a matter of simple math: If the legislature continues to create unusual felonies and extend sentences, such as those for gun crimes, this problem will not disappear away.

    “You can only poke so many holes in the bottom of the bucket,” he said.

    As far as their options go, Roper told the committee that using Centennial South, which is already paid off, would subsist a much cheaper option than leasing a private prison or sending prisoners out of state.

    Rep. Bob Rankin, R-Carbondale, said this is “not a conclusion to re-open to complete capacity. … It’s not a policy conclusion of opening a unusual prison. In my intelligence it’s a very narrow conclusion based on risk mitigation.”

    It’s a matter of giving the legislature options, Rankin said, so that Centennial South could subsist available if needed next year. It’s a slouch so “we don’t glean into an emergency situation,” he said.

    Rep. Dave Young, D-Greeley, supported the request for additional funding, but illustrious that if the DOC had implemented more of an Intensive Supervision Program (ISP-I) — a parole monitoring system for offenders using ankle bracelets, curfews and check-ins — then this conclusion could fill been delayed until January so entire the lawmakers could fill voted on it.

    “I wish the department was really finding a pathway forward to employ entire the tools,” he said.

    Civil rights and criminal justice reform groups pushed back quickly on the vote Thursday. ACLU Colorado and the Colorado Criminal Justice Reform Coalition sent a joint letter of opposition to members of the Joint Budget Committee, arguing against the legality of these prison upgrades.

    “Bottom line: The legislature debated this extensively last session,” said Christie Donner, executive director of the Colorado Criminal Justice Reform Coalition. “The overcrowding of prisons isn’t an emergency that just came up. On multiple occasions, the general Assembly declined to conclude this — it rejected a bill to recommission and rejected multiple budgets to slouch in this direction.”

    Ultimately, the joint letter reads, the issue of whether to reopen Centennial South or add additional prison capacity “is a policy conclusion that the legislature needs to determine.”

    Roper, the Joint Budget Committee staff analyst, will present to members again in late December, when he will give more details and data.

    Then, when the legislature comes back in January, the ball will subsist in their court.


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    BIOST 111 Lectures in Applied Statistics (1) NWWeekly lectures illustrating the instant of statisticians in a variety of fields, including medicine and the biological, physical, and companionable sciences. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: jointly with STAT 111; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 111

    BIOST 290 Introduction to Biomedical Research: Study Design and Interpretation (3) NWIntroduces biostatistical concepts necessary for the interpretation, evaluation, and communicaiton of biomedical research. Includes biomedical study design, randomization, graphical data displays, control bias, variability, confounding, interaction, and ethics of human experimentation. Students participate in group and individual projects, group discussions, and oral presentations.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 290

    BIOST 302 Forensic Genetics (3) I&S/NW, QSR B. WEIRIntroduces the territory of forensic genetics through discussion of genetic and statistical issues emerging since the introduction of DNA profiling. Students develop the skills to interpret the evidence of matching genetic profiles; to execute calculations relevant for parentage determination; the identification of remains; and to deem the implications of familial searching of DNA databases. Prerequisite: either BIOST 310, STAT 220, STAT 221/CS&SS 221/SOC 221, STAT 311, Q SCI 381, or Q METH 201. Offered: jointly with PHG 302; W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 302

    BIOST 310 Biostatistics for the Health Sciences (4) QSR HughesIntroduction to statistical methods for students panning on majoring in health sciences. Uses case studies and examples from accepted and scientific literature to interject topics such as data description, study design, screening, estimation hypothesis testing, categorical data analysis, and regression. Emphasizes concepts and interpretation rather than computation or theory. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 310

    BIOST 311 Regression Methods in the Health Sciences (4) QSRIntroduces regression methods for analysis of continuous, binary, and time-to-event (survival) data. Covers linear regression; logistic regression; and proportional hazards regression, entire at an introductory level. Makes employ of examples drawn from the biomedical and health sciences literature. Prerequisite: BIOST 310.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 311

    BIOST 405 Introduction to Health Data Analytics (3)Covers the process of and tolls used in evaluating data using analytical and rational reasoning to examine each component of the health data. Offered: jointly with HIHIM 405.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 405

    BIOST 406 Research Design and Statistics for HIHIM (3)Explores healthcare and research statistics. Addresses hospital statistics, used to compute usage levels of heathcare resources and outcomes of clinical operations, and research statistics, used to summarize and represent significant characteristics of a data set, and to compose inferences about a population based on data collected from a sample. In addition, principles of research are described, including the Institutional Review Board process. Offered: jointly with HIHIM 425/STAT 406.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 406

    BIOST 425 Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics (3) NWOverview of nonparametric methods, such as rank tests, goodness of lucky tests, 2 x 2 tables, nonparametric estimation. Useful for students with only a statistical methods course background. Prerequisite: Either STAT 311 and STAT 340, STAT 390, or STAT 391. Offered: jointly with STAT 425.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 425

    BIOST 499 Undergraduate Research (1-10, max. 30)Supervised reading programs; library and territory research; special projects.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 499

    BIOST 502 Introduction to Statistics in Health Sciences (4)Description and examples of common concepts in biostatistics. Probability, point and self-possession interval estimation, hypothesis testing including two-sample and paired t and chi-square tests, introduction to simple linear regression. Emphasizes applications in health sciences. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 502

    BIOST 503 Application of Statistics to Health Sciences ([0-3]-, max. 3)Standard statistical techniques presented with examples drawn from the health sciences literature. faultfinding interpretation of research results, and introduction to the computer for data processing and statistical analysis. Prerequisite: BIOST 502 or equivalent. Offered: Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 503

    BIOST 508 Biostatistical Reasoning for the Health Sciences (4)Provides a broad overview of biostatistical methods. Students are introduced to the data summaries and presentation, statistical inference (including hypothesis testing, p-values, and self-possession intervals), sample size calculation, and modeling approaches such as linear regression analysis. Includes hands-on data analysis. Prerequisite: EPI 511 or instructor's consent Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 508

    BIOST 509 Introduction to R for Data Analysis in the Health Sciences (2)Introduction to R for data analysis. Covers installing R; scripts; reading in data and writing output; using assist files; using functions; writing functions; graphics; R packages; data manipulation; loops; permutation tests; bootstrapping; and fitting models. Prerequisite: upper-division course in statistics or consent of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 509

    BIOST 510 Biostatistics in Dentistry (3)Introduction to concepts and methods of descriptive and inferential statistics with applications in dentistry emphasized. Topics include comparison of means and proportions, hypothesis testing, self-possession intervals, non-parametric methods, linear regression, and correlation. Prerequisite: enrollment in School of Dentistry or consent of instructor. Instructors: Spiekerman Offered: jointly with OHS 568; S.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 510

    BIOST 511 Medical Biometry I (4)Presents the principles and methods of data description and elementary parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis. Examples from the biomedical literature, and real data sets are analyzed by the students after a brief introduction to the employ of standard statistical computer packages. Statistical techniques covered include description of samples, comparison of two sample means and proportions, simple linear regression and correlation. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 511

    BIOST 512 Medical Biometry II (4)Multiple regression, analysis of covariance, and an introduction to one-way and two-way analyses of variance: including assumptions, transformations, outlier detection, dummy variables, and variable selection procedures. Examples drawn from the biomedical literature with computer assignments using standard statistical computer packages. Prerequisite: either BIOST 511 or BIOST 517, or equivalent. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 512

    BIOST 513 Medical Biometry III (4)Analysis of categorical data including two sample methods, sets of 2 x 2 tables, R x C tables, and logistic regression. Classification and discrimination techniques. Survival analysis including product restrict estimates and the Cox proportional hazards model. Prerequisite: BIOST 512 or consent of instructor. Offered: Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 513

    BIOST 514 Biostatistics I (4)Presentation of principles and methods of data description; graphics; point, self-possession interval estimation; hypothesis testing; relative risk; odds ratio; Mantel-Haenszel; chi-square test. Examples drawn from biomedical literature; real-data sets analyzed using statistical computer packages. Prerequisite: biostatistics majors or consent of instructor. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 514

    BIOST 515 Biostatistics II (4)Introduction to linear models; multiple regression, correlation; residual analysis; dummy variables; analysis of covariance; one-, two-way analysis of variance; randomized blocks; fixed, random effects (repeated measure, factorial designs); multiple comparisons . real biomedical data sets analyzed. Prerequisite: BIOST 514, biostatistics major, or consent of instructor. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 515

    BIOST 516 Statistical Methods in Genetic Epidemiology (3)Theory and application of statistical techniques used in genetic epidemiology. Includes discussion of association studies, linkages and segregation analyses. Examples stressed with reference to assumptions and limitations. Prerequisite: either BIOST 513 or BIOST 518; PHG 511/EPI 517; or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with EPI 535/PHG 519.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 516

    BIOST 517 Applied Biostatistics I (4)Introduction to the analysis of biomedical data. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis for discrete, continuous, and right-censored random variables. Analytic methods based on elementary parametric and non-parametric models for one sample; two sample (independent and paired), stratified sample, and simple regression problems. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 517

    BIOST 518 Applied Biostatistics II (4)Multiple regression for continuous, discrete, and right-censored response variables, including dummy variables, transformations, and interactions. Introduction to regression with correlated outcome data. Model and case diagnostics. Computer assignments using real data and standard statistical computer packages. Prerequisite: BIOST 517 or consent of instructor. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 518

    BIOST 519 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I (3) B. GuthrieFirst in a train of 2 courses. Increases scholarship of epidemiological principles by introducing methodological approaches to handling common problems in epidemiologic research that extend beyond the scope of traditional methods. Prerequisite: EPI 512 and EPI 513 Offered: jointly with EPI 515.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 519

    BIOST 520 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods II (4) B. GUTHRIESecond of a train of 2 courses whose objective is to deepen students' scholarship of epidemiological principles by introducing methodological approaches to handling common problems in epidemiologic research that extend beyond the scope of traditional methods. Prerequisite: EPI 515. Offered: jointly with EPI 516.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 520

    BIOST 522 Statistical Inference for Biometry I (4)This is the first in a two-course sequence that introduces the theory of statistical inference that provides foundations to common biostatistical methods. Topics of the sequence include basic concepts of probability, parametric distributions, exact and asymptotic sampling distribution of statistics, maximum likelihood estimation, unbiased estimating equations, theory of hypothesis testing and Bayesian inference. Prerequisite: either STAT 395, STAT 421, STAT 423, STAT 504 or BIOST 514 (can subsist taken concurrently) Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 522

    BIOST 523 Statistical Inference for Biometry II (4)This is the second in a two-course sequence that introduces the theory of statistical inference that provides foundations to common biostatistical methods. Topics of the sequence include basic concepts of probability, parametric distributions, exact and asymptotic sampling distribution of statistics, maximum likelihood estimation, unbiased estimating equations, theory of hypothesis testing and Bayesian inference. Prerequisite: BIOST 522 or consent of instructor Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 523

    BIOST 524 Design of Medical Studies (3)Design of medical studies, with stress on randomized controlled clinical trials. warp elimination, controls, treatment assignment and randomization, precision, replication, power and sample size calculations, stratification, and ethics. Suitable for graduate students in biostatistics and for research-oriented graduate students in other scientific fields. Prerequisite: BIOST 511 or equivalent, and one of BIOST 513, BIOST 518, STAT 421, STAT 423, STAT 512, or EPI 512; or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with STAT 524; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 524

    BIOST 525 Advanced Methods for Global Health III (4) R. Reiner, B. WagenaarIntroduces advanced methods for quantitative evaluation approaches in global health. Topics include process evaluations, global health data systems, selecting confiscate study designs, cluster randomized trials/extensions of common randomized designs, and quasi-experimental designs such as difference-in-differences, interrupted time-series, and regression discontinuity. Prerequisite: EPI 512 and EPI 513; BIOST 517 and BIOST 518 (or equivalent statistics courses) Offered: jointly with EPI 556/G H 537; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 525

    BIOST 526 Bayesian Biostatistics (3)Introduction to Bayesian methods for data analysis; Bayesian reasoning, prior elicitation, inference and conclusion making, and computation applied to biomedical research. Prerequisite: any course in statistics at the 400-level or higher or instructor's permission. Offered: jointly with EPI 540/PHARM 526; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 526

    BIOST 527 Nonparametric Regression and Classification (3)Covers techniques for smoothing and classification including spline models, kernel methods, generalized additive models, and the averaging of multiple models. Describes measures of predictive performance, along with methods for balancing warp and variance. Prerequisite: either STAT 502 and STAT 504 or BIOST 514 and BIOST 515. Instructors: Minin, Raftery, Richardson, Wakefield Offered: jointly with STAT 527; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 527

    BIOST 529 Sample Survey Techniques (3)Design and implementation of selection and estimation procedures. stress on human populations. Simple, stratified, and cluster sampling; multistage and two-phase procedures; optimal allocation of resources; estimation theory; replicated designs; variance estimation; national samples and census materials. Prerequisite: either STAT 421, STAT 423, STAT 504, QMETH 500, BIOST 511, or BIOST 517, or equivalent; or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with CS&SS 529/STAT 529.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 529

    BIOST 531 Statistical Methods for Analysis with Missing Data (3) ChanCovers statistical methods for the analysis of missing data, including likelihood-based, weighted GEE, multiple imputation, and Bayesian approaches. Uses computational tools such as EM algorithm and Gibbs' sampler. Covers both ignorable and non-ignorable missing-data mechanisms as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. Primarily uses data arising from epidemiologic studies. Offered: jointly with EPI 531.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 531

    BIOST 532 Research Ethics in the Data Sciences (2) E. SheppardExposes students to ethical issues in the conduct of biomedical research, particularly the computation, interpretation, and communication of statistics. Provides the scholarship and resources needed to exercise statistics ethically in this domain. Helps students formulate justified responses to ethical challenges, and nurtures a sense of professional responsibility to swipe action. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: Sp, even years.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 532

    BIOST 533 Theory of Linear Models (3)Examines model structure; least squares estimation; Gauss-Markov theorem; central restrict theorems for linear regression; weighted and generalized least squares; fixed and random effects; analysis of variance; blocking and stratification; and applications in experimental design. Prerequisite: STAT 421 or STAT 423 or BIOST 515; and STAT 513; and a course in matrix algebra. Offered: jointly with STAT 533; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 533

    BIOST 534 Statistical Computing (3)Introduction to scientific computing. Includes programming tools, modern programming methodologies, (modularization, object oriented design), design of data structures and algorithms, numerical computing and graphics. Uses C++ for several substantial scientific programming projects. Prerequisite: experience with programming in a towering even language. Offered: jointly with STAT 534; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 534

    BIOST 536 Categorical Data Analysis in Epidemiology (4)Summary of univariate categorical data analysis; introduction to multivariate analysis of categorical epidemiologic and health sciences data using multiplicative models. experience at interpretation; familiarity with available software programs gained by analysis of bona fide data and critiques of published analyses appearing in literature. Prerequisite: BIOST 515; EPI 513 and either BIOST 513 or BIOST 518; or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with EPI 536; A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 536

    BIOST 537 Survival Data Analysis in Epidemiology (4)Introduction to multivariate analysis of survival data using multiplicative models. Application to epidemiologic and health sciences studies. Familiarity with interpretation and available software computer programs gained by analysis of bona fide sets of data and critiques of published analyses appearing in the literature. Prerequisite: BIOST 536 or EPI 536. Offered: jointly with EPI 537; W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 537

    BIOST 540 Longitudinal and Multilevel Data Analysis (3)Introduction to regression modeling of longitudinal and clustered data from epidemiology and health sciences. Interpretation and familiarity with software gained by analysis of data and critiques of published analyses. Prerequisite: either BIOST 513, BIOST 515, BIOST 518, BIOST 536, or consent of instructor. Offered: Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 540

    BIOST 544 Introduction to Biomedical Data Science (4)Provides an introduction to biomedical data science with an stress on statistical perspectives, inducing the process of collecting, organizing, and integrating information toward extracting scholarship from data in public health, biology, and medicine. Prerequisite: either BIOST 511 or equivalent; either BIOST 509 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 544

    BIOST 545 Biostatistical Methods for huge Omics Data (3)This "hands-on" course introduces statistical methods for high-dimensional omics data, as well as the R programming language and the Bioconductor project as tools to extract, query, integrate, visualize, and dissect real world omics data sets. Prerequisite: BIOST 512, 514, or 517. Offered: jointly with GENOME 545/PHG 545.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 545

    BIOST 546 Machine Learning for Biomedical and Public Health huge Data (3)Provides an introduction to statistical learning for biomedical and public health data. Intended for graduate students in SPH/SOM. Prerequisite: BIOST 511 or BIOST 512 and familiarity with R. Offered: Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 546

    BIOST 550 Statistical Genetics I: Mendelian Traits (3)Mendelian genetic traits. Population genetics; Hardy-Weinberg, allelic variation, subdivision. Likelihood inference, information and power; quiescent variables and EM algorithm. Pedigree relationships and gene identity. Meiosis and recombination. Linkage detection. Multipoint linkage analysis. Prerequisite: STAT 390 and STAT 394, or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with STAT 550; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 550

    BIOST 551 Statistical Genetics II: Quantitative Traits (3)Statistical basis for describing variation in quantitative traits. Decomposition of trait variation into components representing genes, environment and gene-environment interaction. Methods of mapping and characterizing quantitative trait loci. Prerequisite: STAT/BIOST 550; STAT 423 or BIOST 515; or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with STAT 551; A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 551

    BIOST 552 Statistical Genetics III: Design and Analysis (3)Overview of probability models, inheritance models, penetrance. Association and linkage. The lod score method. Affected sib method. Fitting involved inheritance models. Design mapping studies; multipoint, disequilibrium, and fine-scale mapping. Ascertainment. Prerequisite: STAT/BIOST 551; GENOME 371; or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with STAT 552; W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 552

    BIOST 555 Statistical Methods for Spatial Epidemiology (3)Motivates the exigency for, and describes methods for the analysis of spatially indexed epidemiological data. Covers four major topics: clustering and cluster detection, disease mapping, spatial regression, and an introduction to geographical information systems. Considers both point-references and spatially aggregated data. Offered: jointly with EPI 555/G H 534.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 555

    BIOST 556 Introduction to Statistics and Probability (5)Overview of probability; conditional probability and independence; Bayes Theorem; discrete and continuous random variables including jointly distributed; key distributions including the household and its spin offs; properties of expectation and variance; conditional expectation; covariance and correlation; Central restrict Theorem; law of large numbers; Parameter Estimation. Offered: jointly with DATA 556/STAT 556; A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 556

    BIOST 557 Applied Statistics and Experimental Design (5)Inferential statistical methods for discrete and continuous random variables including tests for disagreement in means and proportions; linear and logistic regression; causation versus correlation; confounding; resampling methods; study design. Prerequisite: STAT/BIOST/DATA 556 or instructor's permission. Offered: jointly with DATA 557/STAT 557; W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 557

    BIOST 558 Statistical Machine Learning for Data Scientists (5)Bias-variance trade-off; training versus test error; overfitting; cross-validation; subset selection methods; regularized approaches for linear/logistic regression: ridge and lasso; non-parametric regression: trees, bagging, random forests; local regression and splines; generalized additive models; back vector machines; k-means and hierarchical clustering; principal components analysis. Prerequisite: STAT/BIOST/DATA 557, or consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with DATA 558/STAT 558; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 558

    BIOST 561 Computational Skills for Biostatistics I (1)Provides an introduction to statistical computing with R. Emphasizes advantageous programming techniques useful in statistical analysis. Prerequisite: biostatistics and statistics graduate student. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 561

    BIOST 562 Computational Skills for Biostatistics II (1)Provides an introduction to statistical computing with R. Emphasizes advantageous programming techniques useful in statistical analysis. Prerequisite: either BIOST 561 or consent of instructor. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 562

    BIOST 563 Computing and Research (2)Provides an introduction to statistical computing with R. Emphasizes advantageous programming techniques useful in statistical analysis. Prerequisite: either BIOST 562 or consent of instructor. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: S.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 563

    BIOST 565 Statistical Evaluation of Biomarkers (3)Covers evaluation of biomarkers for diagnosis; decision-theoretic assessment tools; measures of the incremental value of a unusual biomarker; evaluation of risk prediction models; evaluation of biomarkers for prognosis or for guiding therapy; statistical learning for developing a diagnostic/prognostic score; and clinical ordeal designs for biomarker guided decisions. Prerequisite: BIOST 515; either BIOST 518 or both BIOST 512 and BIOST 513; or equivalent.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 565

    BIOST 570 Advanced Regression Methods for Independent Data (3)Covers linear models, generalized linear and non-linear regression, and models. Includes interpretation of parameters, including collapsibility and non-collapsibility, estimating equations; likelihood; sandwich estimations; the bootstrap; Bayesian inference: prior specification, hypothesis testing, and computation; comparison of approaches; and diagnostics. Prerequisite: STAT 512 and STAT 513;BIOST/STAT 533 or STAT 421/STAT 502 and STAT 423/STAT 504; a course in matrix algebra. Offered: jointly with STAT 570; A.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 570

    BIOST 571 Advanced Regression Methods for topic Data (3)Covers longitudinal data models, generalized linear and non-linear mixed models; marginal versus conditional models; generalized estimating equations, likelihood-based inference, REML, BLUP, and computation of integrals; Bayesian inference: Markov chain Monte Carlo; covariance models, including models for split plot designs; comparison of approaches; and diagnostics. Prerequisite: BIOST570/STAT 570. Offered: jointly with STAT 571; W.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 571

    BIOST 572 Advanced Regression Methods: Project (3)Student presentations and discussion on selected methodological research articles focusing on regression modeling. Prerequisite: STAT 571. Offered: jointly with STAT 572; Sp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 572

    BIOST 576 Statistical Methods for Survival Data (3)Statistical methods for censored survival data arising from follow-up studies on human or animal populations. Parametric and nonparametric methods, Kaplan-Meier survival curve estimator, comparison of survival curves, log-rank test, regression models including the Cox proportional hazards model, competing risks. Prerequisite: STAT 581 and either BIOST 515, STAT 473, or equivalent. Offered: jointly with STAT 576.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 576

    BIOST 578 Special Topics in Advanced Biostatistics (*, max. 30)Advanced-level topics in biostatistics offered by regular and visiting faculty. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Offered: jointly with STAT 578; AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 578

    BIOST 579 Data Analysis and Reporting (2, max. 8)Analysis of real data to confess scientific questions. Common data-analytic problems. Sensible approaches to involved data. Graphical and tabular presentation of results. Writing reports for scientific journals, research collaborators, consulting clients. Graduate standing in statistics or biostatistics. Offered: jointly with STAT 579; SpS.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 579

    BIOST 580 Seminar in Biostatistics (*, max. 30)Presentation and discussion of special topics and research results in biostatistics. Speakers include resident faculty, visiting scientists, and advanced graduate students. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 580

    BIOST 581 Statistical Genetics Seminar (1, max. 30)Presentations and discussion of special topics and research results in statistical genetics. Students, posdocs, and faculty present their labor and papers from the literature. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 581

    BIOST 582 Student Seminar (1, max. 30)Student seminar train for collaboration, exchange of ideas, and exposure to different stages of performing independent research. Encourages both students and faculty to give presentations including RA work, extended class projects, master's theses, dissertation progress, data analysis, exercise talks, and journal articles. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 582

    BIOST 588 Special Topics in Biostatistical exercise (1-10, max. 30)Selected topics in biostatistical practice.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 588

    BIOST 590 Biostatistical Consulting (3, max. 6)Training in consulting on the biostatistical aspect of research problems arising in the biomedical field. Students, under the supervision of a faculty member, participate in discussions with investigators leading to the design and/or the analysis of a quantitative investigation of a problem. With experience, independent associations of student and research worker are encouraged, with subsequent review by faculty of resulting design and analysis. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 590

    BIOST 595 Biostatistics Master's Practicum (1-12, max. 12)Supervised exercise experience providing students an opportunity to learn how biostatistics is applied in a public health setting and in the formation of public health policy. Prerequisite: BIOST 514; BIOST 515; BIOST 536; BIOST 537.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 595

    BIOST 598 Techniques of Statistical Consulting (1)Seminar train covering technical and non-technical aspects of statistical consulting, including skills for effective communication with clients, report writing, statistical tips and rules of thumb, issues in survey sampling, and issues in working as a statistical consultant in academic, industrial, and private-practice settings. Prerequisite: entry code. Offered: jointly with STAT 598; ASp.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 598

    BIOST 600 Independent Study or Research (*-)Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 600

    BIOST 700 Master's Thesis (*-)Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 700

    BIOST 800 Doctoral Dissertation (*-)Offered: AWSpS.View course details in MyPlan: BIOST 800


    Education apex Addresses ‘A Nation At Risk’ 35 Years Later | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    April 12, 2018 | :

    WASHINGTON — In commemoration of the 35th anniversary of the Reagan administration’s seminal report, “A Nation at Risk,” a bipartisan group of policymakers and education and trade leaders gathered at the Reagan Institute apex on Education (RISE) to contend the challenges and progress across the American education landscape since 1983.

    With an stress on then-President Ronald Reagan’s message that it is the responsibility of entire citizens to restore excellence in America’s schools, climb highlighted focal areas for educators and officials at the federal, state and local levels to multiply access to property education, lifelong learning experiences and other opportunities that create pathways to fulfilling careers for students.

    Romy Drucker (left) with panelists Condoleezza Rice and Janet Napolitano.

    Frederick J. Ryan Jr., chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Institute, said education is the institute’s first focus. He said the institute will examine five major objectives the initial “A Nation at Risk” report focused on: leadership, improving teaching, improving educational content, raising standards and expectations and adding time to the school day.

    A primary concern for education leaders today is that a zip code can determine whether a student receives a property education, said Dr. Condoleezza Rice, former U.S. Secretary of state and former provost of Stanford University. In the opening plenary, “The Learning Society,” she warned that the United States could become two societies: one that is competent and another that is not.

    “A democracy really cannot thrive and survive” without property education,” Rice said, adding that education is “the unusual frontier” in the civil rights struggle.

    University of California president Janet Napolitano echoed Rice’s sentiment. She said a collective investment and a “joint interest” in property education for entire students “is a value for the country” and will assist each individual gain the complete measure of their talents, subsist socially engaged and enter fulfilling careers.

    Rice said that as science, technology, engineering and mathematics education increase, she hopes leaders conclude not lose sight of the share of education that enhances “humanness” — the arts. She too urged lifelong learning, saw leaders should inspire students to “explore the purview of human scholarship and preserve finding ways to conclude it.”

    Both Rice and Napolitano urged leaders to set towering expectations for students throughout their academic endeavors, and to reduce the cost of higher education. Money for public education should subsist at the top of the federal government’s funding list, Napolitano said.

    Addressing other topics ranging from immigration and gun safety to political polarization caused by companionable media, the two panelists said a bipartisan worry to find “common sense” solutions will subsist necessary.

    “We don’t fill an option,” Rice said. “No country can conclude more harm to America than [us] if they don’t educate their children.”

    Throughout the summit, education leaders and policymakers examined the progress made in education over the last 35 years and discussed current challenges facing the educational system.

    Dr. Milt Goldberg, former executive director of the National Commission on Excellence in Education — the commission that published “A Nation at Risk” — was blunt.

    “We are noiseless a nation at risk,” he said. “We fill made some major changes, but they are not as considerable as I would fill liked.”

    Saying that education should subsist a national priority and a state responsibility, panelists offered different perspectives on the degree of responsibility local school systems should fill in teaching and preparing students – particularly students who may exigency additional support.

    Teachers and how they are prepared are a “critical element” of a student’s overall learning experience, said Peggy Brookins, president and chief executive officer of the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS).

    Teachers closely understand the concerns of students and exigency more resources, back and a voice at the table, Brookins said. “Every child deserves an accomplished teacher.”

    Due to an education system that has struggled in recent years to produce people who fill the skills to fill the nearly six million currently available jobs in the country, businesses and industries are now seeking collaborations with education systems, said Rep. Dr. Virginia Foxx, R-N.C.

    Patricia Levesque, chief executive officer of the Foundation for Excellence in Education, said educators at the K-12 and post-secondary levels should labor to ensure that students fill access to programs that proffer college credit and industry certificates.

    “That rising tide of mediocrity is about to drown us,” Golberg said, referencing a line from the initial “A Nation at Risk” report. “Education is not an idiosyncratic thing.”

    A session on the “new basics” of education for the next generation of Americans underscored a growing focus for educators today: using technology to prepare students for the jobs of tomorrow.

    “Let’s not press the reset button. Let’s scrutinize forward,” said Mary Snapp, corporate vice president and lead for Microsoft Philanthropies. “Computational thinking is the unusual basic.”

    Educators too should subsist teaching students “digital citizenship,” said Richard Culatta, chief executive of International Society of Technology in Education. Such instruction would enable students to deem how they can employ technology as a means to improve their community and the world, he said.

    Culatta’s view of an “equitable public education” involves using technology to map and provide next steps that are relevant and tied to students’ passions and needs, making education a personalized learning experience,

    On higher education leaders’ roles for preparing students for the future workforce, American Council on Education president Dr. Ted Mitchell said institutional leaders must slouch beyond the purview of a system that largely focuses on the residential, traditional students age18 to 24.

    An obligation to meet the unique needs of adult learners as well as first-generation students is critical, several speakers said.

    U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos added that “we exigency to swipe down the silos” that fill separated four-year institutions and career and technical education. She cited dual-enrollment opportunities, apprenticeships and other CTE endeavors as ways to provide students with nontraditional pathways to a career and lifelong learning.

    Noting some resistance to efforts relative to CTE, DeVos said businesses collaborating with educational institutions “has to subsist a two-way street.”

    Former secretaries of education Arne Duncan, John B. King Jr., Rod Paige and Margaret Spellings closed the summit, offering predictions for education in America and the labor to noiseless subsist done.

    Some expressed concerns about  lack of urgency on education reform and a failure to identify pellucid educational goals within the current presidential administration.

    “We’ve failed to compose education an issue that anyone votes about,” Duncan said.

    Spellings called for people to mediate about “what it is that will unite us” on the education front for entire learners in America. She suggested reinvigorating a coalition between the trade and civil rights communities to compose progress on education reform.

    “Every problem in education is being fixed somewhere,” King said. “The question is, conclude they fill the will to swipe things to scale?”

    Paige encouraged the media to play a role in bringing education’s challenges and successes to the forefront of the nation’s consciousness.

    Dr. Jill Biden, wife of former Vice President Joe Biden, issued a reminder about the purpose of education.

    “When they give their students the gift of education, they employ it to lift up their families and towns,” she said. “Education isn’t about red or blue. It’s about their kids. It’s about their economy. It’s about their future.”

    Tiffany Pennamon can subsist reached at tiffany@diverseeducation.com. You can ensue her on Twitter @tiffanypennamon.



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