Sales Tel: +63 945 7983492  |  Email Us    
SMDC Residences

Air Residences

Features and Amenities

Reflective Pool
Function Terrace
Seating Alcoves

Air Residences

Green 2 Residences

Features and Amenities:

Wifi ready study area
Swimming Pool
Gym and Function Room

Green 2 Residences

Bloom Residences

Features and Amenities:

Recreational Area
2 Lap Pools
Ground Floor Commercial Areas

Bloom Residences

Leaf Residences

Features and Amenities:

3 Swimming Pools
Gym and Fitness Center
Outdoor Basketball Court

Leaf Residences

Contact Us

Contact us today for a no obligation quotation:


+63 945 7983492
+63 908 8820391

Copyright © 2018 SMDC :: SM Residences, All Rights Reserved.


































































310-812 dumps with Real exam Questions and Practice Test - smresidences.com.ph

Great Place to download 100% free 310-812 braindumps, real exam questions and practice test with VCE exam simulator to ensure your 100% success in the 310-812 - smresidences.com.ph

Pass4sure 310-812 dumps | Killexams.com 310-812 real questions | http://smresidences.com.ph/

310-812 Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer Part 1(R)

Study Guide Prepared by Killexams.com SUN Dumps Experts

Exam Questions Updated On :


Killexams.com 310-812 Dumps and Real Questions

100% Real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with High Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



310-812 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer Part 1(R)

Test Code : 310-812
Test Name : Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer Part 1(R)
Vendor Name : SUN
: 173 Real Questions

How a great deal does it price 310-812 qustions bank with real dumps
I passed the 310-812 exam thanks to this bundle. The questions are accurate, and so are the topics and study guides. The format is very convenient and allows you to study in different formats - practicing on the exam simulator, reading PDFs and printouts, so you can work out the style and balance thats right for you. I personally loved practicing on the exam simulator. It fully simulates the exam, which is especially important for 310-812 exam, with all their specific question types. So, its a flexible yet reliable way to obtain your 310-812 certification. Ill be using killexams.com for my next level certification exams, too.


Get proper knowledge and study with the 310-812 and Dumps!
killexams.com is in reality excellent. This exam isnt clean at all, but I got the pinnacle score. a hundred%. The 310-812 training % includes the 310-812 actual exam questions, the todays updates and more. so you analyze what you really want to know and do now not waste a while on useless things that simply divert your interest from what sincerely desires to be learnt. I used their 310-812 exam simulator lots, so I felt very confident at the exam day. Now i am very glad that I decided to purchase this 310-812 p.c., exquisite funding in my career, I additionally positioned my marks on my resume and Linkedin profile, this is a splendid reputation booster.


Can i get ultra-modern dumps with actual Q & A ultra-modern 310-812 examination?
because of consecutive failures in my 310-812 exam, i was all devastated and thought of converting my area as I felt that this isnt my cup of tea. however then a person informed me to provide one closing try of the 310-812 exam with killexams.com and i wont be disappointed for certain. I idea about it and gave one closing attempt. The ultimate strive with killexams.com for the 310-812 exam went a success as this site didnt put all of the efforts to make matters work for me. It didnt let me exchange my field as I cleared the paper.


am i capable of locate phone number latest 310-812 licensed?
killexams.com has top products for students because these are designed for those students who are interested in the preparation of 310-812 certification. It was great decision because 310-812 exam engine has excellent study contents that are easy to understand in short period of time. I am grateful to the great team because this helped me in my career development. It helped me to understand how to answer all important questions to get maximum scores. It was great decision that made me fan of killexams. I have decided to come back one more time.


actual take a look at questions state-of-the-art 310-812 examination! extraordinary source.
killexams.com question bank was really good. I cleared my 310-812 exam with 68.25% marks. The questions were really good. They keep updating the database with new questions. And guys, go for it - they never disappoint you. Thank you so much for this.


I need dumps of 310-812 exam.
I got a good result with this bundle. Very good quality, questions are accurate and I got most of them on the exam. After I have passed it, I recommended killexams.com to my colleagues, and everyone passed their exams, too (some of them took Cisco exams, others did Microsoft, VMware, etc). I have not heard a bad review of killexams.com, so this must be the best IT training you can currently find online.


can you believe, all 310-812 questions I organized have been asked.
Your questions bank is need of the hour. i have were given 89.1% in the 310-812 exam. excellent needs in your professionals. thank you team. so delighted to clear this exam. Your observe material was extremely useful, clear, consise, covering entire material and suberb stacking of questions to make one strong preparation. thank you again to you and your team.


Do a smart move, prepare these 310-812 Questions and Answers.
I passed 310-812 paper within weeks,thanks to your exquisite QA test material.marks ninety six percentage. i amvery assured now that i can do better in my closing 3 test and honestly use your exercise material and advocate it to my buddies. thanks very much in your fantastic on-line trying out engine product.


fantastic source of tremendous latest dumps, accurate solutions.
It have been years and i used to be stuck on the identical designation, it become like being glued to the chair with fevicol. first of all you believe you studied, just wait desirable matters are available time. however then your patience wears off and you gotta take a stand earlier than its too past due. for the reason that my work entails more often than not dealing with a 310-812 clients base I determined to ace it and become the he knows all about 310-812 dude inside the office. Upon a buddies steering I attempted your 310-812 demo from killexams.com, cherished and it and moved onto a buy. Your exam simulator is gorgeous and today your study package has made me the brand new 310-812 supervisor.


Do you need Latest dumps of 310-812 exam, It is right place?
Extremely useful. It helped me pass 310-812 , specially the exam simulator. I am happy I become organized for these tricks. Thanks killexams.com.


SUN Sun Certified MySQL 5.0

MySQL users typically Unfazed through solar Acquisition | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

customers on the MySQL conference this week noted solar Microsystems' acquisition of the database business might boost MySQL's credibility among senior IT decision makers still skittish about the usage of open-supply software.

there were some, even though, who feared that possession of MySQL by means of a standard IT dealer would slash boom in the neighborhood of MySQL developers, who provide a daily move of patches and new points for the database.

"The main draw back is that the community could reject it [Sun's purchase of MySQL]," noted Yuriy Demchenko, a database administrator and net purposes developer at a big Canadian telecommunications company. "we'll see if the neighborhood continues to develop on the expense it has."

Demchenko spoke of his enterprise, which he did not desire identified because he's not authorized to talk for it publicly, runs primarily Oracle and IBM's DB2 databases, however his branch uses MySQL for "semi-official startup initiatives" that sometimes end up working in creation. He uses the community version of MySQL "since it's free."

The upside of the acquisition is that it'll make bigger-stage executives on the service extra comfortable with MySQL because it is owned by means of a big, good business, Demchenko mentioned. His business already makes use of solar servers.

solar closed its US$1 billion buy of MySQL in February and is internet hosting its first MySQLuser conference this week in Santa Clara, California, the place it launched a close-ultimate edition of MySQL 5.1. It has been at pains to emphasise its guide for open supply and similarities within the organizations' cultures, regardless of their huge difference in size.

"solar has a comparatively enlightened angle to open source, so I do not see [the acquisition] affecting the neighborhood too plenty," talked about Steffen Higel, a methods engineer with on-line gaming business DemonWare, which is using a edition of MySQL 5.0 to serve up games like "name of responsibility 3."

DemonWare switched from the Ingres database to MySQL a couple of 12 months ago because it found Ingres "horrific" when it comes to help and efficiency, and because Higel and his colleagues had event with MySQL at a school, he observed. It began with the free community version and switched to a paid subscription after DemonWare changed into acquired by using Activision, Higel noted.

he is satisfied with MySQL however would like greater again-up capabilities, which are not due except MySQL 6.0 later this yr. sun mentioned this week it might delay the closing release of MySQL 5.1 by using up to 3 months, however Higel referred to it is "now not a big deal, there's nothing reveal-stopping they want."

Lionel Beaudet, technical supervisor for the French division of Virgin cell, is extra worried by means of Oracle's acquisition of Innobase than by sun's MySQL buy. Innobase makes the default transactional storage engine for MySQL, and the Oracle deal has created some uncertainty for MySQL users.

MySQL is developing a storage engine for MySQL 6.0, referred to as Falcon, and companions are setting up others. Virgin mobile will examine Falcon to look how it performs in case it must make a transition, Beaudet pointed out. Marten Mickos, the former CEO of MySQL and now a sun senior vp, said MySQL lately renewed its license with Oracle, although he would now not say for a way lengthy.

an additional consumer is WePlayTV.com, a startup so that it will quickly launch a carrier for constructing on-line communities around television courses. The sun deal is "a fine component, it adds probably some respectability to the MySQL manufacturer, plus you comprehend now that the company is at all times going to be there," mentioned Silas Martinez, a techniques engineer for WebPlayTV.

"Some people might possibly be hesitant, however as lengthy they see that MySQL remains its personal entity within solar, I don't think it might be a problem," he mentioned.

WePlayTV picked MySQL for its fast performance and potential to scale at cost effective, Martinez spoke of. His company has a coverage to make use of open-source utility on account of the decrease charge and aid from the developer group. he's the use of MySQL 5.0 and was on the show to evaluate MySQL Cluster.

Ron Rosen, founding father of on-line internet affiliate marketing company MyStoreMaker.com, also cited the budget friendly of MySQL compared with true-tier databases like Oracle. He favors the acquisition since it will carry balance to MySQL and its product road map, he said.

"so long as sun would not do anything loopy, everything may still be adequate," he pointed out.

To comment on this text and different PCWorld content material, seek advice from their fb page or their Twitter feed.

OSCON: The saga of MySQL | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

At OSCON in 2006, I followed sessions that mentioned how open supply agencies would fare when large corporations are available in. lower back then there have been best a handful of examples of massive companies deciding to buy small open source businesses. Three years later, we’ve witnessed MySQL AB get swallowed by using sun, best to have solar be swallowed by means of Oracle. Now there are greater open questions than ever and at the least three types of MySQL which are jockeying to proceed the MySQL blood-line. yesterday I attended talks by two of these groups and i need to ask yourself how the MySQL video game will play itself out over time.

the primary speak I attended become: “Drizzle: fame, principles, and Ecosystem” where a number of Drizzle developers shared their thoughts about this task. Brian Aker forked MySQL to create Drizzle a 12 months ago with the premise to create a brand new database that was leaner and more extensible through the use of a micro kernel and plugin mannequin. The latest MySQL codebase had grown overly complicated after a number of aspects had been “hacked in” which made adding more features overly complicated.

The drizzle team, which has a few developers subsidized by way of solar, appears very a whole lot worried in regards to the technical nature of their assignment. As in most open source tasks the developers seem less worried with politics and organizations and more with creating a kick-ass database. i attempted to ask just a few questions to see where they believe that MySQL, Drizzle and MariaDB had been headed, but generally the questions have been now not answered — they reiterated the center of attention on technical excellence. other than having critical company help, Drizzle seems to be pushed with the aid of classic open source ideas. This makes me satisfied, because the future of both MySQL and Drizzle are doubtful on the grounds that Oracle simply bought solar. Given the focus on open supply principles, I’m certain the Drizzle would now not go away should Oracle decide to cease supporting the crew.

The 2d session turned into: “MariaDB: community driven SQL Server” which introduced Monty’s (of MySQL AB repute) new business Monty program AB. unlike the Drizzle group, Monty’s new enterprise has clear corporate desires, complete with fluff and advertising communicate. the brand new company’s fork of MySQL, MariaDB, aims to be a hundred% compatible with the common MySQL. Its designed to be 100% drop in replacement that goes even as far as letting individuals who're certified on MySQL observe their capabilities to MariaDB. despite the fact that Monty program AB differs in just a few points from the common MySQL AB, it in reality seems to comply with a reasonably identical model.

The people engaged on the original MySQL had been not too well represented right here at OSCON. not like Drizzle and MariaDB, MySQL is shrouded in uncertainty considering the fact that no person be aware of what Oracle plans to do with MySQL. given that it MySQL can cannibalize (and probably already has) Oracle’s flagship product, the future of MySQL is very unclear. The mindshare at OSCON obviously belongs to MariaDB and to Drizzle.

Returning returned to my common aspect now, they will see that the acquisition of MySQL AB by way of sun hasn’t worked out at all how all and sundry had hoped. most of the fears raised via my blog publish from three years in the past have manifested during this mess. After MySQL grew to be a sun property, the high-quality of MySQL began to undergo, together with releasing a edition of MySQL that had critical universal bugs. This had not ever took place earlier than and despatched a transparent signal that not all become smartly with MySQL. And the group had a lot of frustrations with sun as sun slowed or stopped accepting patches. Even critical businesses like Google had severe patches to MySQL not noted. certainly the manner had damaged down.

these days they discover ourselves with at least three models of MySQL that all have differing dreams, yet promise to share code with one an additional. Some could be suitable with each different, some spoil new floor. The one component they comprehend for definite that nothing in this online game is certain. unless Oracle makes a statement about the future of MySQL nothing can be clear.

I find it basically interesting that each Drizzle and MariaDB have again MySQL to primary open source roots. Neither neighborhood goes to require fancy licenses or copyright agreements and may totally count on the use of the GPL. Drizzle is devoid of a industrial model in the interim and even Monty application AB will seem like a greater “traditional” open supply business.

Amidst this uncertainty the simplest thing that is apparent to me is that the MariaDB and the Drizzle communities are not anticipating anything else — they're engaged on new enhancing their projects as quick as they could. I in my view suppose that Drizzle gifts probably the most exciting strategy to saving MySQL — it sounds just like the codebase vital a serious overhaul to be able to wreck some building bottlenecks and to allow extra individuals to return and participate within the development process.

besides the fact that I’ve switched to Postgres many moons in the past, I’m completely all in favour of what's at the moment happening with MySQL. The current routine during this space are things that they discussed three years ago with the conclusion of “This will be exciting to monitor!” certainly, it’s unique to observe — I feel we’ll be speakme about this situation for fairly some time to come. Oh, and MySQL users: worry now not — you’re going to be the winners in this whole debacle!


Oracle raises certification checking out prices | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

How collaboration apps foster digital transformation

While it is hard errand to pick solid certification questions/answers assets regarding review, reputation and validity since individuals get sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets as for exam dumps update and validity. The greater part of other's sham report objection customers come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effortlessly. They never bargain on their review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certainty is imperative to us. Extraordinarily they deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. On the off chance that you see any false report posted by their rivals with the name killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com protestation or something like this, simply remember there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of good administrations because of their advantages. There are a great many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their example questions and test brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.

Back to Braindumps Menu


000-455 questions and answers | COG-700 test prep | PEGACSA dumps | C2180-183 study guide | 156-730 mock exam | C2050-724 bootcamp | P2065-037 real questions | 000-887 braindumps | C2040-406 test prep | 000-820 practice questions | HPE0-S48 questions and answers | HP0-Y43 free pdf | A2010-501 practice exam | P2090-080 questions answers | MB2-719 free pdf | 000-P02 test prep | M2110-233 examcollection | 050-704 braindumps | 1Z0-605 VCE | 000-R11 practice test |


Audit 310-812 real question and answers before you step through exam
Simply experience their Questions bank and feel certain about the 310-812 test. You will pass your exam at high marks or your cash back. They have collected a database of 310-812 Dumps from real exams to allow you to prepare and pass 310-812 exam on the specific first attempt. Basically set up their Exam Simulator and prepare. You will pass the exam.

The best thanks to get success within the SUN 310-812 exam is that you just got to get dependable dumps. they have an approach to guarantee that killexams.com is the most direct pathway towards SUN Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer Part 1(R) test. you will succeed with full surety. you will be able to see free questions at killexams.com before you get the 310-812 exam dumps. Their exam questions are as similar as actual exam questions. The Questions and Answers collected by the certified professionals. they furnish you the expertise of taking the important exam. 100% guarantee to pass the 310-812 real exam. killexams.com Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under; WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders larger than $69 DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders larger than $99 SEPSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders Click http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/310-812

killexams.com allows millions of candidates pass the tests and get their certifications. They have thousands of a hit opinions. Their dumps are reliable, less expensive, up to date and of really best first-class to triumph over the problems of any IT certifications. killexams.com exam dumps are modern day up to date in particularly outclass manner on normal basis and material is released periodically. Latest killexams.com dumps are available in testing centers with whom they are retaining their dating to get ultra-modern cloth.

killexams.com SUN Certification observe courses are setup by way of IT experts. Lots of college students were complaining that there are too many questions in such a lot of practice tests and look at courses, and they're simply worn-out to have enough money any extra. Seeing killexams.com specialists training session this complete version even as nevertheless guarantee that all the knowledge is blanketed after deep research and evaluation. Everything is to make convenience for candidates on their street to certification.

We have Tested and Approved 310-812 Exams. killexams.com affords the most correct and brand new IT exam materials which almost comprise all expertise points. With the useful resource of their 310-812 exam materials, you dont want to waste it slow on analyzing bulk of reference books and simply want to spend 10-20 hours to grasp their 310-812 real questions and answers. And they offer you with PDF Version & Software Version exam questions and answers. For Software Version materials, Its supplied to provide the applicants simulate the SUN 310-812 exam in a real surroundings.

We offer free replace. Within validity period, if 310-812 exam materials which you have bought updated, they will inform you by email to download recent version of . If you dont pass your SUN Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer Part 1(R) exam, They will provide you with complete refund. You need to ship the scanned reproduction of your 310-812 exam file card to us. After confirming, they will quickly come up with FULL REFUND.

killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as beneath;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all assessments on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders extra than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders


If you put together for the SUN 310-812 exam the usage of their testing engine. It is easy to succeed for all certifications inside the first strive. You dont must cope with all dumps or any free torrent / rapidshare all stuff. They provide loose demo of each IT Certification Dumps. You can test out the interface, question quality and value of their practice assessments earlier than you decide to shop for.

310-812 | 310-812 | 310-812 | 310-812 | 310-812 | 310-812


Killexams HP0-823 VCE | Killexams HP0-A24 exam questions | Killexams 000-642 exam prep | Killexams 000-723 examcollection | Killexams 000-132 bootcamp | Killexams C2140-136 Practice Test | Killexams 050-710 dump | Killexams HP2-Z31 questions and answers | Killexams C2040-423 practice questions | Killexams CAT-280 cram | Killexams 9A0-125 questions answers | Killexams MB6-897 braindumps | Killexams GB0-280 free pdf | Killexams HP0-766 brain dumps | Killexams PMI-RMP dumps | Killexams HP0-J42 cheat sheets | Killexams 700-280 study guide | Killexams 000-718 practice exam | Killexams HP3-C17 braindumps | Killexams HP0-451 practice test |


killexams.com huge List of Exam Braindumps

View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


Killexams 920-451 test questions | Killexams CGAP study guide | Killexams 920-173 bootcamp | Killexams 9A0-040 braindumps | Killexams CGFM questions and answers | Killexams C9510-317 brain dumps | Killexams MSC-321 Practice Test | Killexams AACN-CMC exam prep | Killexams AZ-200 study guide | Killexams A00-240 practice questions | Killexams 000-276 test prep | Killexams 156-715-70 exam prep | Killexams DANB practice exam | Killexams HP0-513 free pdf | Killexams 1Z0-460 dump | Killexams HP2-Z18 free pdf | Killexams SCNS-EN real questions | Killexams HP0-690 test prep | Killexams PW0-071 real questions | Killexams S90-05A practice test |


Sun Certified MySQL 5.0 Developer Part 1(R)

Pass 4 sure 310-812 dumps | Killexams.com 310-812 real questions | http://smresidences.com.ph/

MySQL Conference & Expo 2009 Schedule | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Below are the confirmed and scheduled talks at MySQL Conference & Expo 2009 (schedule subject to change).

Customize Your Own Schedule

Create your own schedule using the personal scheduler function. Mark the tutorials, sessions, keynotes, and events you want to attend by clicking on the calendar icon [calendar icon] next to each listing. Then click on "personal schedule" below and get your own customized schedule generated.

Ballroom A

Ballroom B

Ballroom C

Ballroom F

Ballroom G

Ballroom D

Ballroom E

Ballroom H

7:30am Continental BreakfastRoom: Mezzanine

12:00pm LunchRoom: Santa Clara Ballroom


Linux Timeline | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Linux Journal celebrated the publication of its 100th issue in 2002 with the release of the Linux Timeline. It's now 2006, Linux itself turns 15 this year and Linux Journal, a little older, grayer and wiser, is soon to release it's 150th issue. In celebration and in honor of an amazing community's history we're compiling the significant events of 2002 through 2006 (and of course anything from earlier years that they may have previously missed).

We ask you to take a few minutes of time and help record history. Consider this article post a giant whiteboard -- comment on the event or events you find to be most significant in Linux's recent history, you'll likely see their editors doing just the same.

We'll compile the events and re-release the timeline for all to share in the upcoming months.

Ready? Here they go:

August 1991

``Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things).I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months, and I'd like to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won't promise I'll implement them :-) Linus (PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have :-(.''

September 1991

Linux version 0.01 is released and put on the Net.

April 1992

The first Linux newsgroup, comp.os.linux, is proposed and started by Ari Lemmke.

October 1992

Peter MacDonald announces SLS, the first standalone Linux install. At least 10MB of space on disk was recommended.

June 1993

Slackware, by Patrick Volkerding, becomes the first commercial standalone distribution and quickly becomes popular within the Linux community.

August 1993

Matt Welsh's Linux Installation and Getting Started, version 1 is released. This is the first book on Linux.

March 1994

The first issue of Linux Journal is published. This issue featured an interview with Linus Torvalds and articles written by Phil Hughes, Robert ``Bob'' Young, Michael K. Johnson, Arnold Robbins, Matt Welsh, Ian A. Murdock, Frank B. Brokken, K. Kubat, Micahel Kraehe and Bernie Thompson. Advertisers in the premier issue include Algorithms Inc., Amtec Engineering, Basmark, Fintronic (later became VA Research, VA Linux Systems, then...), Infomagic, Prime Time Freeware, Promox, Signum Support, SSC, Trans Ameritech, USENIX, Windsor Tech and Yggdrasil.

Linux 1.0 is released.

June 1994

While at a conference in New Orleans, Jon ``maddog'' Hall persuades Linus to port Linux to DEC's 64-bit Alpha computer processor chip. Less than two weeks later, maddog had also persuaded DEC to fund the project. An Alpha workstation was immediately sent to Linus. ``Digital [DEC] and the Linux community formed the first truly successful venture of suits and Linux geeks working together'', said maddog.

Linux International, a nonprofit vendor organization, is founded by Jon ``maddog'' Hall. Linux International goes on to become a major contributor to the success of Linux, helping corporations and others work toward the promotion of the Linux operating system.

August 1994

Linux trademark dispute: is Linux trademarked? William R. Della Croce, Jr. files for the trademark ``Linux'' on August 15, 1994, and it is registered in September. Della Croce has no known involvement in the Linux community yet sends letters out to prominent Linux companies demanding money for use of the trademark ``Linux''. A lawsuit is filed in 1996 against Della Croce. Plaintiffs in the suit include Linus Torvalds; Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. (publishers of Linux Journal); Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.; Linux International; and WorkGroup Solutions (also known as LinuxMall). The plaintiffs prevail, and in 1997 announce the matter as settled by the assignment of the mark to Linus Torvalds on behalf of all Petitioners and Linux users.

September 1994

Linux is first mentioned in the mainstream press. Wired magazine features an article titled ``Kernel Kid'', by Seth Rosenthal. He writes: ``So, is Linus going to become the Bill Gates of Finland? Maybe not. He claims to be 'by no means a good student' and is in no hurry to graduate since 'Linux has taken a lot of time from my studies, and I like the work I have at the University which keeps me alive.'''

Randolph Bentson reports on the world's first vendor-supported Linux device driver in Linux Journal. Cyclades gave him a multiport serial card in exchange for developing a Linux driver for it.

December 1994

A major tradeshow and conference take notice of Linux. Open Systems World features a Linux track, hosted by Linux Journal. Two days of seminars include Eric Youngdale, Donald Becker, Dirk Hohndel, Phil Hughes, Michael K. Johnson and David Wexelblat as speakers.

April 1995

Linux Expo, the first Linux-specific tradeshow and conference series, launches, thanks to the folks at North Carolina State University and in particular, Donnie Barnes. Speakers include Marc Ewing, Rik Faith and Michael K. Johnson, among others. Linux Expo snowballs and becomes the most popular and well-attended annual Linux show for the next several years (after three years Red Hat takes over organization and becomes the major sponsor). The price for entry into the exhibit hall and a pass to the conferences? $4.

January 1997

First ``Linux virus'' discovered. Called Bliss, it actually works on any UNIX-like OS and offers a helpful--``bliss-uninfect-files-please'' command-line option. Alan Cox points out that Bliss ``does not circumvent the security of the system, it relies on people with privilege to do something dumb'' and reminds users to install digitally signed software from trustworthy sites only and to check signatures before installing.

``In fact it's probably easier to write a virus for Linux because it's open source and the code is available. So they will be seeing more Linux viruses as the OS becomes more common and popular.''--Wishful thinking from McAfee

January 1998

Linux Weekly News begins publication with Jonathan Corbet and Elizabeth Coolbaugh as founders. The very first issue, dated January 22, was just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become.

Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most important events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

Red Hat Advanced Development Labs (RHAD) is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software and an important component of the GNOME Project. RHAD is able to attract developers like ``Rasterman'' (although only for a short time) and Federico Mena-Quintero.

February 1998

The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its high performance, low price and cute form factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by none other than David Miller, the source of much that is good in the Linux kernel.

The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical support award; Red Hat 5.0 also won their Operating System award. But it was the tech support award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been saying that Linux had no support. This was the beginning of the end of the ``no support'' argument.

Eric Raymond and friends come up with the term ``open source''. They apply for trademark status and put up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal effort to push Linux for corporate use.

March 1998

Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the large PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron, etc.) to offer non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed.

April 1998

Linux is covered by the US National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, nontechnical press.

O'Reilly holds the ``first ever'' Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond and Paul Vixie.

May 1998

The Google search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

Big databases start to arrive. Support for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system and by Ardent Software for their O2 object database.

June 1998

``Like a lot of products that are free, you get a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me.''--Bill Gates, PC Week, June 25, 1998

``...these operating systems will not find widespread use in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there be broad third-party application support.''--The Gartner Group says there is little hope for free software.

A Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it also shows Linux to be the only system other than Microsoft Windows NT that is increasing its market share.

IBM announces that it will distribute and support the Apache web server after working a deal with the Apache team.

July 1998

The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, saying that KDE is okay with him. In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves to be popular, despite the complaints from those who do not like the licensing of the Qt library.

Informix quietly releases software for Linux. Meanwhile, Oracle beats Informix to the punch PR-wise and makes a Linux-friendly announcement first, suggesting that they would soon be supporting Linux. Oracle promises to make a trial version available by the end of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a great deal of attention resulted from both Informix's and Oracle's announcements.

Informix announces support for Linux effectively moments after Oracle does so. Sybase later announces their support for Linux also.

Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy story presents Linux in a highly positive manner and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word.

September 1998

LinuxToday.com is launched by Dave Whitinger and Dwight Johnson. The site, later acquired by Internet.com, arguably becomes the most well-read and visited Linux portal of all time.

Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are ``worried'' about free software and suggests that some of the Windows NT source code may be made available to developers. The same month Microsoft goes on to list Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (US Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their real purpose is to influence the upcoming antitrust trial.

October 1998

``For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an easy way of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to begin on October 15. That may be short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could cause Mr. Gates much grief.''--The Economist, October 3, 1998

Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) announce minority investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to be used to build an ``enterprise support division'' within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

Corel announces that WordPerfect 8 for Linux will be downloadable for free for ``personal use''. They also announce a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder.

October 1998

A confidential Microsoft memorandum on Redmond's strategy against Linux and Open Source software was leaked to Eric S. Raymond. Raymond, with his own added commentary, releases the memorandum to the national press over Halloween Weekend. Because of all of the press surrounding the story, Microsoft was forced to acknowledge the now-infamous Halloween Document's authenticity. This was the first time the public heard Microsoft admit Linux was becoming stiff competition.

December 1998

A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market share rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

January 1999

``Microsoft Corp. will shout it out to the world when Windows 2000 finally ships. Linux creator Linus Torvalds announced the arrival of the next generation of Linux, version 2.2, with a simple note to the Linux-kernel mailing list.''--Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Sm@rt Reseller

Samba 2.0 is released. It contains a reverse-engineered implementation of the Microsoft domain controller protocols, allowing Linux servers to provide complete services to Windows networks.

Hewlett-Packard and Compaq announce plans to offer Linux-based systems. Later, Dell also announces plans to begin selling Linux-installed systems. SGI contents itself with providing information on how to bring up Linux on its systems.

Loki Entertainment Software announces that it will port Civilization: Call to Power to Linux.

February 1999

Linux and BSD users unite for ``Windows Refund Day''. They visit Microsoft, hoping to return the unused Windows licenses that they were forced to acquire when they purchased a computer system bundled with the OS.

March 1999

``Like a Russian revolutionary erased from a photograph, he is being written out of history. Stallman is the originator of the Free Software movement and the GNU/Linux operating system. But you wouldn't know it from reading about LinuxWorld (Expo). Linus Torvalds got all the ink.''--Leander Kahney, Wired magazine, March 1999

The first LinuxWorld Conference and Expo is held in San Jose, California. As the first big commercial ``tradeshow'' event for Linux, it serves notice to the world that Linux has arrived; 12,000 people are said to have attended.

Linux Magazine debuts, bringing some additional competition to the Linux print business. Later, other magazines rise and fall including Open, Journal of Linux Technology (JOLT) and Maximum Linux.

VA Research buys the Linux.com domain for $1,000,000 and announces plans to turn it into a Linux portal. Microsoft's rumored bid for the domain is frustrated.

April 1999

``...please imagine what it is like to see an idealistic project stymied and made ineffective because people don't usually give it the credit for what it has done. If you're an idealist like me, that can ruin your whole decade.''--Richard Stallman on GNU/Linux

Al Gore's presidential campaign web site claims to be open source. That claim is gone, but the site still claims: ``In the spirit of the Open Source movement, they have established the Gore 2000 Volunteer Source Code Project; www.algore2000.com is an 'open site'."

HP announces 24/7 support services for the Caldera, Turbolinux, Red Hat and SuSE distributions. They also release OpenMail for Linux.

The Linux FreeS/WAN Project releases a free IPSec implementation, allowing Linux to function as a VPN gateway using what is now the industry standard.

``But the mere fact that there is now an official SEC document that includes the text of the GPL serves as fairly astonishing proof that the rules of the software business really are being rewritten.''--Andrew Leonard, Salon

May 1999

``Those two little words--open source--have become a magical incantation, like portal in 1998 or push in 1997. Just whisper them and all will be yours: media attention, consumer interest and, of course, venture capital.''--Andrew Leonard, Wired

August 1999

First Intel IA-64 ``Merced'' silicon. Although Intel had given simulators to several OS vendors, Linux is the only OS to run on the new architecture on its first day. The Register headline: ``Merced silicon happens: Linux runs, NT doesn't''.

SGI announces the 1400L--a Linux-based server system. SGI also announces a partnership with Red Hat and begins contributing to kernel development in a big way.

Red Hat's initial public offering happens; a last-minute repricing helps to create difficulties for people participating in the community offering. The stock price immediately rises to $50; a value that seems high at the time.

``For the umpteenth time, someone paved paradise, put up a parking lot. For the thousands of Linux coders who've built the utopian open-source movement--offering free help to create a free operating system--the IPO of Red Hat Software was a sure sign of Wall Street cutting the ribbon on the new Linux mall.''--The Industry Standard

Motorola jumps into Linux announcements of embedded systems products, support and training services, and a partnership with Lineo.

Sun acquires StarDivision; it announces plans to release StarOffice under the Sun Community Source License and to make a web-enabled version of the office suite.

September 1999

``'Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corp. in Burlington, New Jersey is spending $1 million or so to buy 1,250 Linux-equipped PCs from Dell, but it won't pay Red Hat a dime for support', says Michael Prince, chief information officer. 'I suppose Red Hat's business model makes sense to somebody, but it makes no sense to us', he says.''--Daniel Lyons, Forbes, May 31, 1999. Then in September, Burlington ended up purchasing support from Red Hat.

The first big Linux stock rush happens. Shares in Applix more than double in volume, reaching nearly 27 million shares--three times the 9 million shares that are actually on the market.

SCO trashes Linux in a brochure distributed in Northern Europe: ``Linux at this moment can be considered more a plaything for IT students rather than a serious operating system in which to place the functioning, security and future of a business. Because Linux is basically a free-for-all it means that no individual person/company is accountable should anything go wrong, plus there is no way to predict which way Linux will evolve.''

Stock in Red Hat hits $135/share. The price seems unbelievably high at the time.

October 1999

Sun Microsystems announces that it will release the source to Solaris under the Sun Community Source License. The actual release drew criticism: ``In a move aimed at Linux, Sun said it will announce Wednesday that it is making the source code for its new Solaris 8 operating system 'open'. Webster's has lots of definitions for the word, including 'not sealed, fastened, or locked'. But when you dig into the details of Sun's announcement, you'll find that what it is offering doesn't come close to meeting the dictionary's definition, let alone that of the Open Source movement.''--Lawrence Aragon, Redherring.com, January 26, 2000

November 1999

``...if there's one thing about Linux users, they're do-ers, not whiners.''--Andy Patrizio,

Red Hat buys Cygnus for almost $700 million in stock. Rumors of other acquisitions by Red Hat begin to circulate and show no signs of stopping.

December 1999

VA Linux Systems goes public after two repricings (originally priced at $11-$13/share). The final IPO price is $30/share; that price rises immediately to $300 before closing around $250. It sets the record for the biggest IPO rise in the history of the NASDAQ.

``Gee. Remember when the big question was 'How do they make money at this?'''--Eric Raymond

January 2000

VA Linux Systems announces SourceForge (although the site had actually been up and running since November 1999). SourceForge also makes the code for its operation available under the GPL. By the end of the year, SourceForge hosted over 12,000 projects and 92,000 registered developers.

Version 1.0 of Red Flag Linux is released in the People's Republic of China.

Transmeta breaks its long silence and tells the world what it has been up to--the Crusoe chip, of course.

The Linux Professional Institute announces the availability of its first Linux professional certification exam.

Linux wannabe press releases flow from companies trying to ride on the success of Linux stocks. Vitamins.com, for example, posts the following: ``Vitamins.com has further distinguished itself in the competitive Internet health industry race by being one of the first to integrate the Linux Operating System, produced by Red Hat, the leading developer and provider of open-source software solutions.''

February 2000

The latest IDC report suggests that Linux now ranks as the ``second-most-popular operating system for server computers'', with 25% of the server operating system sales in 1999. Windows NT is first with 38% and NetWare ranks third with 19%. IDC previously predicted that Linux would get up to the number two position--in 2002 or 2003. The revolution appears to be well ahead of schedule.

VA Linux Systems acquisition of Andover.net in a high-profile purchase that values Andover shares at 0.425 of VA's, or roughly $50/share. Andover.net is the owner of the popular web sites Slashdot.org and Freshmeat.org.

LinuxMall.com and Frank Kaspar and Associates also have made plans to merge. LinuxMall.com has been at the top of the retail side of Linux almost since the very beginning; Kaspar is one of the largest distribution channels.

Red Hat wins InfoWorld's ``Product of the Year'' award for the fourth time in a row.

March 2000

``The law in open code means that no actor can gain ultimate control over open-source code. Even the kings can't get ultimate control over the code. For example, if Linus Torvalds, father of the Linux kernel, tried to steer GNU/Linux in a way that others in the community rejected, then others in the community could always have removed the offending part and gone in a different way. This threat constrains the kings; they can only lead where they know the people will follow.''--``Innovation, Regulation, and the Internet'' by Lawrence Lessig for The American Prospect.

A new version of LILO is posted that is able to get past the 1024-cylinder boot limit that has plagued PC systems for years.

The latest Netcraft survey shows Apache running on just over 60% of the Web.

Caldera Systems goes public after a short delay, on March 21. The stock, which was offered at $14/share, began trading at $26 and closed at $29.44. It thus registered a 110% gain on its first day.

``Caldera knows of no company that has built a profitable business based in whole or in part on open-source software.''--Caldera SEC filing

Walnut Creek (the parent company for Slackware) and BSDi announce their merger. Yahoo! will be taking an equity investment in the new company.

Motorola Computer Group announces the release of its HA Linux distribution. This distribution is aimed at telecommunications applications that require very high amounts of uptime; it includes hot-swap capability and is available for the i386 and PowerPC architectures.

The Embedded Linux Consortium is announced. Its goal is ``to amplify the depth, breadth and speed of Linux adoption in the enormous embedded computer market''. The initial leader will be Rick Lehrbaum, the man behind the LinuxDevices.com and DesktopLinux.com web sites, among other things.

Ericsson announces its ``Screen Phone HS210'' product--a Linux-based telephone with a touchscreen that can be used for e-mail, web browsing, etc. Ericsson and Opera Software also announce that Ericsson's (Linux-based) HS210 Screen Phone will incorporate the Opera web browser.

April 2000

Code is ruled to be speech. On April 4, 2000, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit published its decision regarding Peter Junger's challenge to the Export Administration Regulations that prevented him from posting information on the Internet that contained cryptographic example code. Most critical in the ruling: ``Because computer source code is an expressive means for the exchange of information and ideas about computer programming, they hold that it is protected by the First Amendment.''

Andy Tanenbaum releases the the Minix operating system under the BSD license. Had Minix been open source from the beginning, Linux may never have happened.

May 2000

SuSE releases the first supported Linux distribution for the IBM S/390 mainframe.

``Approximately 140 distribution companies exist across the globe. They believe all but the top five will be bought, will go out of business or will be relegated to insignificance. Market-share leaders are currently defined around geographic boundaries. Red Hat has the largest global brand recognition and leading North American market share; SuSE leads in Europe, Turbolinux leads in Asia, and Conectiva leads in South America.''--Keith Bachman, an analyst for WR Hambrecht, predicting in The Red Herring

June 2000

Commercial considerations help prompt the relicensing of MySQL under the GPL. Now the two freely available databases that are widely used in the Linux and Free Software communities, PostgreSQL and MySQL, meet the Debian Free Software Guidelines and the Open Source Guidelines. In addition, Progress Software forms a new company, NuSphere, just for the purpose of supporting MySQL.

July 2000

``In a world of NDA-bound business agreements, Debian is an open book. In a world of mission statements, Debian has a social contract. At a time when commercial distributors are striving to see how much proprietary software they can pack into a box of Linux, Debian remains the bastion of software freedom--living proof that you can have a fully functional and usable operating system without needing any proprietary code.''--Evan Leibovitch, ZDNet

Sun announces that StarOffice is to be released under the GPL. The code is going to be reworked, integrated with Bonobo and GTK, and released as a set of reusable components. StarOffice will also be reworked to use a set of open XML-based file formats.

Oracle's Linux-based internet appliance system hits the shelves. The ``New Internet Computer'' (NIC) is the latest result of Larry Ellison's long personal crusade to make non-Microsoft systems available to the world. It's aimed at people who only want access to the Net; as such, it's essentially a $199 (without monitor) X terminal.

Reports first appear that SCO may be purchased by Caldera. Later in 2000 Caldera and SCO announce their intent for Caldera International to be formed from Caldera's existing operation and two of SCO's three divisions.

Ted Ts'o steps forward to become the new 2.4 status list maintainer. Alan Cox was doing the job until he said that it was time to ``find someone else to maintain it''. Ted Ts'o responded to Linus' subsequent call for a new status list maintainer.

August 2000

HP, Intel, IBM and NEC announce the ``Open Source Development Lab'', which makes large hardware available to Linux developers for benchmarking and testing.

September 2000

``I'm a bastard. I have absolutely no clue why people can ever think otherwise. Yet they do. People think I'm a nice guy, and the fact is that I'm a scheming, conniving bastard who doesn't care for any hurt feelings or lost hours of work if it just results in what I consider to be a better system.''--Linus Torvalds trying to change his image.

The RSA patent expires, allowing for secure web transactions without proprietary software.

Trolltech releases the Qt library under the GPL, putting a definitive end to a long-running and unpleasant license flame war.

The CueCat fiasco begins. Digital Convergence attempts to shut down programmers who have written Linux drivers for its CueCat bar code scanner. The company has given out large numbers of these scanners for free, expecting people to use them with its proprietary software and web site. The threats cause the drivers to become marginally harder to find for a short period, after which the company declares victory and moves on.

October 2000

Microsoft says that penguins can mutate in a European print ad that quickly becomes famous.

December 2000

``I was dumbfounded to discover that installing Linux was easy. Why? Well, the world has changed. No more do you have to understand everything about Linux before you install it, downloading the many chunks of code necessary to run a complete system and getting them all to work together. That was BSW--before shrink-wrap. With companies such as Red Hat and Corel putting all the software you need in a box, the pain is (nearly) gone.''--John Schwartz, Washington Post

IBM announces plans to invest $1 billion in Linux in 2001.

January 2001

The long-awaited 2.4.0 kernel was released on January 4.

The US National Security Agency (NSA) releases SELinux under the GPL. SELinux offers an additional layer of security checks in addition to the standard UNIX-like permissions system.

March 2001

The Linux 2.5 kernel summit is held in San Jose, California; it is, perhaps, the most complete gathering of Linux kernel hackers in history.

April 2001

IBM gets into trouble over its ``Peace, Love and Linux'' graffiti in several cities.

``Slackware has always made money (who else producing a commercial distribution can say that?), but with BSDi they ended up strapped to a sinking ship.''--Patrick Volkerding

May 2001

Sony's PlayStation Linux kit, shipped in Japan, sells out in eight minutes despite a doubling of the available stock.

June 2001

Sharp announces its upcoming Linux PDA based on Lineo's Embedix system.

VA Linux Systems exits the hardware business, choosing to focus on SourceForge instead. Later VA drops the word ``Linux'' from its name altogether, relaunching as VA Software Corporation.

``In a press release issued Wednesday afternoon, VA Linux CEO Larry M. Augustin called the shift in strategy a logical move. 'Our differentiating strength has always been their software expertise', Augustin said''.--Wired. You only thought VA was a hardware company.

July 2001

Free Dmitry! Dmitry Sklyarov is arrested in Las Vegas after Adobe complains about the Advanced eBook Processor. The following month he is charged with DMCA violations and conspiracy: the potential penalties add up to 25 years in prison. Dmitry's defense is based on constitutional challenges to the DMCA, on free speech and jurisdictional issues. Later in the year, charges are dropped, conditional on one year of good behavior and testimony in the ElcomSoft trial.

``Although Adobe withdrew its support for the criminal complaint against Dmitry Sklyarov, they respect the grand jury and federal government's decision to prosecute the company, ElcomSoft, and as a law-abiding corporate citizen, Adobe intends to cooperate fully with the government as required by law.''--Adobe's position

November 2001

Sharp Electronics Corporation begins a special Linux developer prerelease of the Zaurus PDA to attract free software developers to the hot new platform.

February 2002

Avaya, the former PBX and enterprise systems division of Lucent, announces Linux-based PBX systems.

``So there are some--and I'd list myself among them--who believe that the return to Earth is a good thing. There's nothing wrong with making a buck, but Linux doesn't benefit from being elevated beyond reality on a shaky foundation.''--Evan Leibovitch takes a look at the post-rush world of Linux.

We would like to recognize their indebtedness to Rebecca Sobol and Jonathan Corbet at Linux Weekly News, for allowing us to borrow heavily from the timeline featured on their site and for their accurate and gracious historical editing.


From HTTP Messages to PSR-7: What’s It All About? | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This article was peer reviewed by Andrew Carter. Thanks to all of SitePoint’s peer reviewers for making SitePoint content the best it can be!

The PHP Framework Interoperability Group (PHP-FIG) has relatively recently approved another proposal, the PSR-7: HTTP Messages Interface. The document crystallizes HTTP messages into 7 interfaces which a PHP library should implement if they subscribe to the specification. In PSR-7 By Example, Matthew Weier O’Phinney, editor of the PSR, gives an interesting overview of the specification. So what is it?

Image of digital question mark, indicating confusion and pending explanation

If you type bbc.co.uk in your browser, you go straight to the homepage of the BBC, but a number of things might have taken place between the time the browser sent an HTTP request to the server and it getting a response back.

Here’s a sample raw request.

GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: bbc.co.uk User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0) Accept: */* Referer:

It’s always made up of a request line (GET / HTTP/1.1), a number of header field lines listed as <key>: value, a single empty line and an optional body for any data payload (for example query parameters or post data).

The blank line after the zero or more header lines must be a CRLF by itself. This means 2 characters – an ASCII 13 (Carriage Return), followed by ASCII 10 (Line Feed) or \r\n.

Let’s send this request from the command line via curl and see the response:

curl -i -H "Host: bbc.co.uk" -H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)" -H "Accept: */*" -X GET http://bbc.co.uk HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently Content-Type: text/html Date: Sun, 02 Oct 2016 20:49:42 GMT Location: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ Connection: Keep-Alive Content-Length: 0

Moved? There was a redirect. Then, let’s follow the trail and make a request to http://www.bbc.co.uk/ instead:

curl -i -H "Host: www.bbc.co.uk" -H "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)" -H "Accept: */*" -X GET http://www.bbc.co.uk | less HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: nginx Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 ETag: W/"29c44-MXo+6t7MoPRad358MSWqwA" X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN x-origin-route: xrt-ext Content-Length: 171076 Date: Sun, 02 Oct 2016 20:54:27 GMT Connection: keep-alive Set-Cookie: BBC-UID=15c73fe11704a0731344da5ec13869204c1a22a0c7b444d60a708762e631ac0c0Mozilla/5.0%20(compatible%3b%20MSIE%209.0%3b%20Windows%20NT%206.1%3b%20Trident/5.0); expires=Thu, 01-Oct-20 20:54:27 GMT; path=/; domain=.bbc.co.uk X-Cache-Action: HIT X-Cache-Hits: 1223 X-Cache-Age: 55 Cache-Control: private, max-age=0, must-revalidate Vary: Accept-Encoding, X-CDN, X-BBC-Edge-Scheme <!DOCTYPE html> <!--[if lte IE 9]> <html lang="en-GB" class="no-js no-flexbox no-flexboxlegacy"> <![endif]--> <!--[if gt IE 9]><!--> <html lang="en-GB" class="no-js"> <!--<![endif]--> <head>

That’s more like it. The first line, HTTP/1.1 200 OK, is the status line. Then they have headers, in a similar pattern to requests – <key>: value, an empty line, and the response body. Note: They passed the output through less so that they can see the first part of the response.

Requests and responses can be broken down into a message line, a number of header lines and body lines. The commonalities can be abstracted in an interface (MessageInterface) which the request (RequestInterface) and response (ResponseInterface) can extend with their distinct flavor of HTTP message.

PHP doesn’t only run within a web environment, and web requests might have originated from APIs. The ServerRequestInterface was designed to take care of other types of HTTP requests.

The other three interfaces are a further abstraction of specific aspects in messages. Looking back at the request message line:

GET / HTTP/1.1

This comprises:

  • METHOD: Although RFC 2616 defines safe and idempotent types of methods, for general applications, it’s sufficient to identify them by name – GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE, OPTIONS, HEAD and TRACE. CONNECT is reserved for use with a proxy that can dynamically switch to being a tunnel e.g. SSL tunneling.

  • TARGET: This is the URI or their request target, and things get a bit interesting here as they can have:

  • origin-form – path and query string of the URI. The query string may or may not be present.
  • absolute-form – an absolute URI.
  • authority-form – the authority part of a URI, made up of a maximum of 3 parts – user-info (optional), host and port (optional). The user-info may require a password too – user:password. They end up with a pattern of user:password@host:port. The user-info may also have require an
  • asterisk-form – just the string, *
  • We end up with scheme:[//[user:password@]host[:port]][/]path[?query][#fragment]. This part of the request message was abstracted to the UriInterface.

  • VERSION: There’s limited choice here as HTTP/1.1 is the current version. Prior to that, they had HTTP/1.0, and the next draft version is HTTP/2.0

  • Also, file uploads required special attention. In non-SAPI environments, the $_FILES environment variable is empty and in some situations such as non-POST requests, $_FILES isn’t populated at all. The UploadedFileInterface was designed to allow for a more consistent interaction with files.

    The message (request or response) needs to be able to handle large data efficiently for both client and server. PHP has had streams built in since 4.3.0. The StreamInterface part of PSR-7 provides a wrapper around common operations and serialization of an entire stream to a string.

    Challenges

    The path to PSR-7 was paved with strong debate and differing opinions at every step of the way.

  • Immutable objects – The immutability or mutability of objects was one of the most hotly-debated points, and PSR-7 eventually settled for this:

    The proposal models messages and URIs as value objects.

    Messages are values where the identity is the aggregate of all parts of the message; a change to any aspect of the message is essentially a new message. This is the very definition of a value object. The practice by which changes result in a new instance is termed immutability, and is a feature designed to ensure the integrity of a given value.

    What this means is that each time you make any change to a message object, you end up with a new copy. The complexity of URI, headers and streams require an assurance that a full adoption of immutability by all collaborators offered to the designers of the interfaces.

    With immutability, any state change you make requires you to assign the result.

    $request = $request->setHeader('Cache-Control', 'public');

    Any method that changes the state of the current message returns an instance of it with the changes made. As long as a result assignment is made, you can chain any number of changes in a fluent-like syntax.

    $request = $request ->setHeader('Cache-Control', 'public') ->addHeader('Cache-Control', 'max-age=18600') ->setStatus(200);

    The methods having the prefix “with” must conform to the immutability requirement. A concern is that supporting mutability in one of the message interfaces means enforcing it across all the other interfaces.

    On the other hand, it has been highlighted that PSR-7 Objects Are Not Immutable as they are generally thought to be. It’s worthy of note that similar HTTP object implementations in Ruby and Node are mutable by design. So, PHP is in good company.

  • Nomenclature – These objects are designed as interfaces. Isn’t calling it MessageInterface superfluous? A method signature taking a request and response ends up being too long. Compare the following:

    public function __invoke(ServerRequestInterface $request, ResponseInterface $response, callable $next) : ResponseInterface { } public function __invoke(ServerRequest $request, Response $response, callable $next) : Response { }

    Aliasing is the suggested solution for those who prefer to drop the Interface suffixes.

  • Middleware – We’ve got the message interfaces which are like the ingredients for making a cake, perfectly measured out. I want a cake to consume but I don’t know how to bake. How about a recipe? PSR-7 only prescribes a standard for the definition of a request and response. How do they move from request to response? That “middleman” that does the leg work between the request and response is called middleware.

    The next step would be a unification of how to plumb PSR-7 interfaces so that applications and frameworks that conform to them can be completely swappable. This part of the debate which borders on providing a template for an interoperable implementation of PSR-7, has been moved to the separate PSR-15: HTTP Middlewares.

  • Usage

    A number of libraries and frameworks have added support for PSR-7 in different ways.

  • Symfony – The HttpFoundation Component is one of the most popular OOP abstractions of the HTTP specification prior to PHP-FIG. With the emergence of PSR-7, Symfony opted for a PSR-7 Bridge which converts HttpFoundation objects from and to objects which implement PSR-7 message interfaces.

  • Zend Framework (ZF) – They came up with a Composer package, zendframework/zend-diactoros, of implementations of the HTTP message interfaces, not surprising as the editor of PSR-7 is the ZF Project Lead. Diactoros goes a step further by including a server that is similar to the one provided by http.Server in NodeJS.

  • Slim – PSR 7 and Value Objects describes a flexible approach that makes Slim accept any implementation of PSR-7. That is, if the one provided by Slim doesn’t suffice.

  • Guzzle – Being an HTTP client library, PSR-7 is of great relevance to this library. They built the guzzlehttp/psr7 Composer package, a message implementation of PSR-7, which they rely on. Guzzle and PSR-7 gives an excellent overview of their take on the specification.

  • Aura – They’ve included Aura.Router, a web router implementation of PSR-7 in their collection of independent library packages. All router objects are managed by a RouterContainer from which you retrieve an instance of a Map object. Each method of this Map object may accept an HTTP message interface as one of its arguments.

  • HTTPlug – A package of interfaces that allow library and application developers to create HTTP clients that are fully compatible with PSR-7. The HttpClient sends a PSR-7 Request and returns a PSR-7 response. See Breaking Free from Guzzle5 with PHP-HTTP and HTTPlug for a practical way of using this package.

  • Packagist has a list of PSR-7 implementations with a wide range of popularity or acceptance. However, a developer still has the following usage options:

  • Direct – As the specification states, while Psr\Http\Message\MessageInterface MAY be implemented directly, implementors SHOULD implement Psr\Http\Message\RequestInterface and Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface. The simplest way is to install the package with Composer.

    composer require psr/http-message
  • Indirect – The interfaces are used indirectly through an adapter. For example, PSR-7 support in Symfony is through the PSR HTTP Message Bridge, a library designed to convert Symfony Request and Response objects into objects that are fully compatible with PSR-7, and from PSR-7 back to Symfony objects.

  • Partial – You might be interested in the more generic interfaces such as StreamInterface, UriInterface and UploadedFileInterface. Nothing stops you from implementing them in a non-HTTP messages context. The package is available on Packagist and Composer is your friend.

  • Conclusion

    The PHP community should be applauded for coming together on the fundamental principle of how they interact with and manage HTTP requests and responses. PSR-15 transcends this and the intensity of the debate surrounding middlewares will not go away very soon, neither should the draft be expected to be accepted quickly. In the meantime, PSR-7 is there for all to embrace.

    What do you think about PSR-7? Do you use it and subscribe to it, or do you feel like it’s just a layer of complication? We’d like to hear from you!

    Deji, a Zend Certified PHP Engineer, works as a Software Engineer with the British Council in London. He's passionate about Open Source, contributes to Drupal and speaks at Drupal Camps. He has worked as a dentist, teacher of English as a Foreign Language and radio journalist. Oh yes, he's four times a dad and supports Arsenal FC.



    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.com/demo-download/310-812.pdf
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12916517
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2018/01/kill-your-310-812-exam-at-first-attempt.html
    Wordpress : https://wp.me/p7SJ6L-2yw
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/x3khg1ddsdhyoumgdb18j1mttupkmw8x






    Back to Main Page





    Killexams exams | Killexams certification | Pass4Sure questions and answers | Pass4sure | pass-guaratee | best test preparation | best training guides | examcollection | killexams | killexams review | killexams legit | kill example | kill example journalism | kill exams reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review | review quizlet | review login | review archives | review sheet | legitimate | legit | legitimacy | legitimation | legit check | legitimate program | legitimize | legitimate business | legitimate definition | legit site | legit online banking | legit website | legitimacy definition | pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | certification material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure exams | pass4sure reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure security | pass4sure cisco | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure braindumps | pass4sure test | pass4sure torrent | pass4sure download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |

    www.pass4surez.com | www.killcerts.com | www.search4exams.com | http://smresidences.com.ph/