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310-345 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator for Sun Cluster 3.2
Test Code : 310-345
Test Name : Sun Certified System Administrator for Sun Cluster 3.2
Vendor Name : SUN
: 310 Real Questions
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licensed Solaris system directors are information expertise (IT) specialists who install and keep community servers working some of the Solaris operating gadget, at the moment accessible throughout the Oracle supplier. they're continually employed by way of agencies and other corporations with computer networks that use the company's open supply application products. As methods directors, they might also also supervise different IT staff and reply to questions and maintenance requests from workplace laborers.schooling Bachelor's degree in suggestions technology or desktop science informed Job expertise Troubleshooting, analytical considering, multitasking, communication profits latitude (2016)* $87,four hundred to $104,762 with sun licensed device Administrator credentials Job growth (2014-2024)** eight% for network and computing device systems directors
supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor recordsRequired training
Most methods directors have completed a Bachelor of Science in information expertise, laptop Science or a connected container. Core coursework usually includes themes in programming languages and tactics, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available in the course of the Oracle agency in community, safety and programs administration. requirements include a passing ranking on an examination, which candidates can prepare for by means of enrolling in classes at the Oracle Academy or an authorized practising center, reviewing seminar packages and taking follow exams.talents Required
systems directors are analytical thinkers who're capable of troubleshoot issues for giant agencies of network device clients. disturbing situations require clear, quick thinking, and may involve working long hours except the problem is fastened. The means to multitask can be useful when managing more than one challenge at a time. verbal exchange competencies are key when working with nontechnical staff members.profession and profits Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor information (BLS) estimated that jobs for device directors in commonplace will boost by means of an average pace, 8% from 2014 to 2024. licensed system administrators will have fun with impressive job potentialities, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time specialists to keep their computer working methods. in line with Payscale.com, licensed methods directors for Solaris working systems earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in may 2016.
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Yen solar to start operation at China flowers
Aaron Lee, Taipei; Joseph Tsai, DIGITIMES
Wednesday 20 February 2019
Taiwan-based mostly cooling solution developer Yen sun know-how will see its flora in Dongguan quickly enter pilot creation for certification with the aid of its car supplier customer and begin mass creation in April with maximum means to reach over 1000000 units a month. The website can be in particular used to fulfill orders from China, while vegetation in southern Taiwan will be serving customers from Europe, the us and Japan, according to Robert Liu, established supervisor of Yen sun's electronic Cooling Division.
Yen sun registered consolidated revenues of NT$290 million (US$9.33 million) for January, rising 17.seventy five% on yr. on account of fewer working hours because of the Lunar New year vacation trips, the enterprise expects the volume to slip on month in February, but to opt for up in March. Some market watchers predict Yen sun's first-quarter consolidated revenues to attain a brand new quarterly list with contributions from cooling and residential equipment products.
Yen sun is planning to expand potential at plant life in southern Taiwan and has constructed new plant life in Dongguan, China to fulfill demand from the automobile sector.
Liu pointed out that carriers are turning to center of attention on designing cars with lighter weight and fewer energy consumption and the method is expected to set off a wave of demand for heat dissipation options. Yen sun's visibility of such orders has already reached the conclusion of 2019 and the enterprise is already starting to design automobiles with purchasers for the subsequent three years.
presently, Yen solar has sixty five% of its revenues contributed by way of its cooling answer products with the leisure coming from home appliance products. Of the revenues from cooling solutions, 38% are from automobile cooling and others laptop cooling.
at the moment, the plant life in southern Taiwan are in a position to make 120,000 units of cooling enthusiasts a month and the enterprise is calling to carry the number to 300,000 gadgets earlier than the conclusion of the first half.
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A Sun staff report
THE LOWELL School Committee consistently does a great job at one thing: pushing away the perfect candidate.
The latest example: Acting Superintendent of Schools Jeannine Durkin, who will not be pursuing the permanent role after doing a masterful job trying to put the budget back together after the previous administration left a dumpster fire behind.
Durkin was apparently livid about comments made at a recent School Committee meeting, sources tell The Sun.
The culprits: Gerry Nutter and Robert Hoey, who voiced support for a full search for a permanent superintendent.
"I just feel they should open a search and find the best person they can find," Hoey said at the Dec. 16 meeting.
Meanwhile, the ideal candidate who knows the district inside and out was sitting right in front of them.
Less than a week later, Durkin told her staff she would not pursue the permanent role as superintendent.
On Thursday, Durkin said she made the announcement because she "felt that it was really important that the School Committee was afforded to launch the search as soon as possible." She declined to say whether she would pursue a different job within the district.
Many people across the city called it a "shame" and a "disappointment" because she has been doing a tremendous job, by all accounts.
FOR THOSE who are counting, Durkin's decision means the School Committee is about to embark on the fifth superintendent search in about 12 years.
A look back at the debacles:
* Following the departure of the late George Tsapatsaris in 2000 -- just imagine, after more than a dozen years at the helm that one school department insider called the school department's "Golden Age" -- a Blue Ribbon Panel was created and to find his replacement.
Chaired by former School Committee member Michael Gallagher, the panel recommended educator Basan Nembirkow, overlooking internal candidates Deputy Superintendent Helen Flanagan and William Samaras, then the Lowell High School headmaster and now the mayor.
In mid-April, Nembirkow accepted.
But, then, on April 24, in Dan Phelps Sun column, School Committee member Regina Faticanti said: "I think the person who has been elected is not suited to run the school system."
A month later Nembirkow was gone, opening the door for Karla Brooks Baehr, the panel's number two choice.
Surprisingly, Baehr lasted seven years, despite Faticanti's frequent attacks.
When former Lowell High School Housemaster David Conway got elected to the School Committee in 2007, that was it.
Baehr told supporters at the time she could deal with Faticanti. Faticanti and Conway, no way. Post election, The Sun published a story predicting "rough sailing" ahead for Baehr.
* Search two wasn't as juicy. It's what came later that was. In-house candidates Wendy Jack, high school curriculum director and testing director Paul Schlictman were overlooked.
Chris Scott, a Canadian citizen from a tiny Massachusetts school district, was hired. Three (years) and out.
In June 2009, Faticanti pleaded not guilty to charges that she threatened to rip Scott's "arms off, then [her] head."
Faticanti was apparently upset about Scott's idea to possibly privatize the district's food service program, a move that would save money but end a patronage haven.
* Apparently the School Committee learned a lesson about outside candidates as there wasn't much of a search for Scott's replacement. Deputy Superintendent Jean Franco got the job.
But even that ended badly for the more than professional, capable Franco. The School Committee yanked her around on a potential contract extension and she pulled a Nembirkow.
* Search four also overlooked a respected in-house candidate, Jay Lang, who has since left the city and by all accounts is on cruise-control as superintendent in Chelmsford.
The selection process was mired in controversy. Conway, said many, voted for Salah Khelfaoui to spite Lang, who wouldn't satisfy Conway's patronage desires.
The mayor at the time, Rodney Elliott, was attracted to Khelfaoui because he said he didn't want a contract. Committee members Kim Scott and Kristin Ross-Sitcawich joined and the Khelfaoui experiment began.
The next School Committee, pushed by Bob Hoey and Mayor Edward Kennedy, gave Khelfaoui the contract he never wanted. Earlier this year, when the city finally cut ties with Khelfaoui, he was paid nearly $100,000. In a Jan. 9 Sun story, Samaras said: "The payment was part of his contract."
* Search number five is about to begin. Perhaps it's time to dust off another Blue Ribbon Panel?
Gallagher said he'd be interested "if it's done right."
SO WHO will be the next superintendent of schools?
The name floating around a day after Durkin said she was out: Brian Martin, 68, the former head of school at Lowell High School who said it was time to retire in 2017.
A few months after Martin announced his retirement from a long and distinguished career in city government, he said he was diagnosed with multiple myeloma, or bone cancer.
But he has fought hard and made an extraordinary recovery. Now his name has surfaced as a possible superintendent candidate.
A few years back, following the departure of former Superintendent Jean Franco, some insiders expected Martin to pursue the top job. But he had settled comfortably into overseeing one of the state's largest high schools.
THE FINDINGS of the recent financial audit of Lowell Public Schools under Khelfaoui did not go unnoticed by Gloucester Public Schools officials -- the district where former Chief Financial Officer for Lowell Public Schools, Gary Frisch now works.
Earlier this month, the coastal district's School Committee discussed the audit at a special meeting and in executive sessions, the Gloucester Daily Times reported Jan. 20.
The audit by CliftonLarsonAllen described a district in "financial crisis" and out of compliance with laws and regulations in "numerous instances."
The 20-page document is critical of Frisch, who employees described as "overwhelmed." It also said Frisch described himself as a certified public accountant on his resume to Lowell Public Schools even though his license had not been renewed since 1997.
In application materials submitted to Gloucester Public Schools and obtained by the Sun, Frisch wrote he holds a CPA license. On his resume under the heading "CPA" he wrote one line: "I passed the CPA Exam in November of 1985."
An attorney retained by Frisch, Jeffrey Renton, told the Gloucester Daily Times, his client has recently "taken steps" to renew his CPA license, though argued this license is not a requirement of a position of this kind.
The job posting for the Gloucester position, also obtained by the Sun, does not include a CPA license among its requirements.
Frisch secured the chief financial officer position in Gloucester Public Schools last summer, leaving the district just days before the beginning of the dramatic, months-long termination process of Khelfaoui.
Neither the Gloucester School Committee nor superintendent have taken action against Frisch following the discussion of the audit, the Gloucester Daily Times reported.
One member of the Gloucester School Committee, Tony Gross, told the Gloucester Daily Times he believes the audit "has real problems," echoing arguments also made by some within Lowell Public Schools who supported Khelfaoui.
He said the Lowell School Committee signed off on budgets and should take responsibility for its challenging finances. Gross also told the Gloucester newspaper that Frisch and Khelfaoui should have been interviewed for the audit.
A DEPUTY in the Lowell Police Department is saying sayonara after not getting the promotion to the top spot last year.
Deputy Superintendent Deborah Friedl, who has been overseeing administrative functions, is retiring on Jan. 31.
She had lost out on the superintendent sweepstakes to Kelly Richardson, who as a deputy was overseeing patrol operations.
Over the long Martin Luther King Jr. weekend, she apparently left the key to her office and a note for Richardson saying she was done. A rather abrupt ending after 30 years.
Friedl has already been paid out to the cap of $30,000 through the sick leave buyback incentive offered by the city. As a result, she will not receive anything further for unused sick time.
For vacation time, she has 448.20 hours of unused vacation on the books. This would result in a payout of $37,599.23, assuming she doesn't use any vacation between now and her formal retirement.
Her pension amount will be known when the Public Employee Retirement Administration Commission approves it.
Back in 2013, Friedl was picked by then-City Manager Bernie Lynch to be the interim superintendent. At the time, both Lynch and Friedl said she would not be a candidate for the permanent position. Six months later, she was a candidate, although she lost out to former Superintendent William Taylor.
DRACUT'S BOARD of Selectmen gave Town Manager Jim Duggan high marks two weeks ago during his performance evaluation, but last week members struggled to come to consensus on how he should be rewarded.
Eventually, they settled on a 2.5 percent pay increase after an awkward moment when two motions for other amounts failed on 3-2 votes. Duggan's salary goes to $174,250 from $170,000.
Some notable takeaways:
* The selectman who gave Duggan the highest mark, Alison Hughes, wanted to low-ball him at 2 percent.
* Despite Duggan's economic development achievements, Selectman Tami Dristiliaris didn't want to give him an extra penny.
* Selectman Joe DiRocco, allegedly a Duggan critic, sided with the majority in granting Duggan a compromise 2.5 percent hike.
* How Duggan processes all this politicking remains to be seen. Will he pull a Nembirkow?
WHAT KIND of government should the town of Chelmsford have?
Well, if you ask Joe Ready, one that's a bit different from the one it's had for many years.
Ready, a Precinct 1 Town Meeting representative, went on Warren Shaw's show on WCAP last Saturday and floated the idea of moving to a government with an elected mayor instead of a town manager.
Clarifying his comments Friday, Ready said it has nothing to do with Town Manager Paul Cohen's performance, but a feeling that town government overall could be more responsive to the community's needs. Ready pointed to past debacles involving the Building Department -- such as last year's American flag fiasco -- that he feels could have been rectified very differently. (Though he acknowledges that the department has "done a complete 180" since Shaun Shanahan took over as building commissioner.)
Ready, the son of the late selectman, Dennis Ready, said he likes the idea of an elected mayor and a council of at-large and precinct reps. But he believes what would most likely work best for Chelmsford is a stronger Board of Selectmen that could override the decisions of a town manager or administrator when they feel it's needed. He said he'd also like to see Town Meeting reduced from 162 reps to 27 -- so that those in the seats must demonstrate they are motivated and informed on the issues -- or completely opened up to all residents so they can make a difference when something affects them.
Ready said he looks at how many elected seats in town are virtually unopposed year after year, and feels that happens because people know they have "no power, no ability to make effective change." He said he'd also support bringing back stipends to help support the work of elected officials and open up candidacy to those who might not otherwise be able to make the commitment.
It should be noted that the elder Ready was on the board that hired Chelmsford's first town manager, Bernie Lynch.
FIVE WILMINGTON residents have pulled their nomination papers for the upcoming Annual Town Election.
Greg Bendel and Kevin Caira are both seeking re-election for a second term on the Board of Selectmen.
Jo Newhouse is running for School Committee. Newhouse was appointed to fill out the term for School Committee member Peggy Kane, who stepped away in June. Jesse Fennelly has also pulled papers for School Committee. Fennelly ran unsuccessfully in last year's School Committee race. He also applied for the appointment to finish Kane's term. In addition to Newhouse's seat, School Committee members Julie Broussard and Tom Talbot have expiring terms as well.
Robert Peterson Sr. has pulled papers to run for re-election on the Shawsheen Tech School Committee.
All three races are for three-year terms. Nomination papers are due back to the Town Clerk's Office by 5 p.m. on Friday, March 8.
IN TEWKSBURY, there are seven boards and committees with expiring seats. The Board of Selectmen, School Committee, Board of Library Trustees and Board of Health each have two expiring seats. The Planning Board, Housing Authority and Shawsheen Tech School Committee each have one expiring seat.
Town Moderator Jayne Wellman Miller has pulled papers for the Board of Selectmen. She made history in 2017 when she became the town's first woman to serve as moderator and is a past School Committee member. If elected to the Board of Selectmen, Miller would have to step away from her role as town moderator. Selectmen Anne Marie Stronach and Todd Johnson are both running for re-election.
Erin Knyff is once again running for School Committee. She previously ran for School Committee in 2016.
Patricia Meuse, who was an unenrolled candidate for state representative in the 19th Middlesex District race, is running for re-election on the Shawsheen Tech School Committee.
Vincent Fratalia is running for re-election on the Planning Board. John Deputat is running for a seat on the Housing Authority. George Ferdinand and Anthony Boschetti are running for re-election on the Board of Health. Kylee Perrotta, Maria Zaroulis and Sandra Creamer are also running for the Board of Health. Joseph Frank is running for re-election on the Board of Library Trustees.
The deadline to submit nomination papers to the Town Clerk's Office is 5 p.m. on Tuesday, Feb. 19.
This week's Column was prepared by Reporters Rick Sobey and Elizabeth Dobbins, in Lowell; Alana Melanson in Chelmsford; Kori Tuitt in Tewksbury and Wilmington; and Enterprise Editor Christopher Scott.
A couple of patterns that could cause Java heap exhaustion were identified from years of research at IBM. One interesting scenario was observed when Java applications generated an excessive amount of finalizable objects whose classes had non-trivial Java finalizers.
What Is a Java Finalizer?A Java finalizer performs finalization tasks for an object. It's the opposite of a Java constructor, which creates and initializes an instance of a Java class. A Java finalizer can be used to perform postmortem cleanup tasks on an instance of a class or to release system resources such as file descriptors or network socket connections when an object is no longer needed and those resources have to be released for other objects. You don't need any argument or any return value for a finalizer. Unfortunately the current Java language specification does not define any finalizers for a Java class or interface when a class or interface is unloaded. Let's take a closer look at finalize() method of java.lang.Object that provides an instance method, finalize() for finalization:
protected void finalize() throws Throwable
When a Java object is no longer needed, the space occupied by the object is supposed to be recycled automatically by the Java garbage collector. This is one of the significant differences in Java and is not found in most structural programming languages like C. If an instance of a class implements the finalize() method, its space cannot be recycled by the garbage collector in a timely fashion. Worst case, it may not be recycled at all.
Any instances of classes that implement the finalize() method are often called finalizable objects. They will not be immediately reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when they are no longer referenced. Instead, the Java garbage collector appends the objects to a special queue for the finalization process. Usually it's performed by a special thread called a "Reference Handler" on some Java Virtual Machines. During this finalization process, the "Finalizer" thread will execute each finalize() method of the objects. Only after successful completion of the finalize() method will an object be handed over for Java garbage collection to get its space reclaimed by "future" garbage collection. I did not say "current," which means at least two garbage collection cycles are required to reclaim the finalizable object. Sounds like it has some overhead? You got it. They need several shots to get the space recycled.
Finalizer threads are not given maximum priorities on systems. If a "Finalizer" thread cannot keep up with the rate at which higher priority threads cause finalizable objects to be queued, the finalizer queue will keep growing and cause the Java heap to fill up. Eventually the Java heap will get exhausted and a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError will be thrown.
A Java Virtual Machine will never invoke the finalize() method more than once for any object. If there's any exception thrown by the finalize() method, the finalization of the object is halted.
You are free to do virtually anything in the finalize() method of your class. When you do that, please do not expect the memory space occupied by each and every object to be reclaimed by the Java garbage collector when the object is no longer referenced or no longer needed. Why? It is not guaranteed that the finalize() method will complete the execution in timely manner. Worst case, it may not be even invoked even when there are no more references to the object. That means it's not guaranteed that any objects that have a finalize() method are garbage collected. That's a potential hazard from a memory management perspective and, needless to say, there is considerable overhead for queuing, dequeuing, running the finalize() method, and rescanning the object in the next garbage collection cycle.
If you want to run cleanup tasks on objects, consider finalizers as a last resort and implement your own cleanup method, which will be more predictable. It's very risky to rely on finalizers for postmortem cleanup tasks, especially if your finalizable objects have references to native resources.
Hands-on Experience with Java FinalizerWe can easily simulate this scenario with a couple of test applications and take a look at dumps and traces to see what's happening inside of the Java heap and threads for hands-on experience.
Let's build a couple of Java classes to recreate typical scenarios.
In ObjectWYieldFinalizer, they can implement the method finalize() with Thread.yield() so that finalize() cannot complete its execution (see Listing 1) (Listings 1-7 can be downloaded here.)
The Thread.yield() method prevents the currently executing thread from running and allows other threads to execute. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, it will pause its execution.
In ObjectWExceptionFinalizer, the finalizer() method immediately throws a java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException. If the Finalizer thread calls this finalize() method, the object finalization won't be completed because of the exception and there's no second chance to run the finalize() method (see Listing 2).
In ObjectWEmptyFinalizer, they don't implement any code in the finalize() method (see Listing 3). ObjectWOFinalizer doesn't have any finalize() method (see Listing 4).
Let's run each of the classes to see what happens. Sun's Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can be used with the following options for the class TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.
/sun1.6.0_10/bin/java -Xmx50m -verbosegc -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError TestObjectWYieldFinalizer > verbosegc.txt
It looks very complicated. Why do they need those command-line options? Well, without those options, they only get a little information about Java garbage collection activities like this:
[Full GC 50815K->45644K(50816K), 0.2276940 secs][Full GC 48780K->46415K(50816K), 0.2233279 secs][Full GC 49551K->49551K(50816K), 0.2396315 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1886312 secs][Full GC 50815K->49219K(50816K), 0.1964926 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1865343 secs][Full GC 50815K->50815K(50816K), 0.1836961 secs]
We only get a type of garbage collection (Full GC), total Java heap usage before garbage collection (50,815K), total Java heap usage after garbage collection (45,644K), a high watermark of total Java heap (50,816K), and time spent in the garbage collection (0.2276940 secs).
High watermark is the size of the current Java heap. The Java heap can expand its size up to a maximum size or contract to manage Java heap effectively.
The -XX:+PrintGCDetails option lets the JVM provide information on each generation in the Java heap.
We can see Java heap usage and the time (in seconds) spent in Java garbage collection of each new generation, tenured generation, and permanent generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option in the following example:
[GC [DefNew: 3520K->3520K(3520K), 0.0001143 secs][Tenured: 43897K->47295K(47296K), 0.2110999 secs] 47417K->47415K(50816K), [Perm : 17K->17K(12288K)], 0.2115593 secs][Times: user=0.22 sys=0.00, real=0.22 secs]
In tenured generation, Java heap usage was 43,897KB before this Java garbage collection. Java heap usage reached 47,295KB after Java garbage collection; 47296K is the size of the high watermark of the tenured generation; 0.2110999 second was spent to collect the tenured generation. Unfortunately they do not see the maximum size of each generation with the -XX:+PrintGCDetails option alone.
With -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps, they can get a timestamp for each garbage collection like this:
1.393: [GC 1002K->106K(5056K), 0.0001036 secs]
This garbage collection started 1.393 seconds after the JVM started.
The -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option provides extensive information about each Java garbage collection (see Listing 5).
We can even see the address range of each generation. Unfortunately there's no timestamp for each garbage collection with -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC option alone.
The last option, -XX:-HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError allows the JVM to dump the Java heap to a file when an allocation from the Java heap cannot be satisfied or a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError is thrown. This option was introduced in Sun Java 1.4.2 update 12 and Sun Java 5.0 update 7.
If you want to experiment with IBM's Java Virtual Machine, all you need is a -verbosegc command-line option. You do not need any of these: -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintHeapAtGC, or -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError.
Let's take a look at what happened to the class while they talked about Sun JVM's command-line option. We've got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError from TestObjectWYieldFinalizer:
Exception in the thread "main" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap spaceat java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(Finalizer.java:72)at java.lang.Object.<init>(Object.java:20)at ObjectWYieldFinalizer.<init>(ObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:2)at TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.main(TestObjectWYieldFinalizer.java:11)
"java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space." That means they got Java heap space exhaustion. The JVM could not allocate any more Java heap while running the method java.lang.ref.Finalizer.register(), which is on line 72 of Finalizer.java. Finalizer.java? Of course, they did not write Finalizer.java. That's a part of the JVM. They can also check verbosegc.txt to which they redirected the garbage collection trace (see Listing 6).
About 3.711 seconds after the JVM started, they got java.lang.OutOfMemoryError. The Java heap dump is written to pid124.hprof.
Analysis of Java Garbage Collection TracesWe can use a tool to analyze this trace. The IBM Pattern Modeling and Analysis Tool for Java Garbage Collector (PMAT) is one of top five technologies at alphaWorks. I have implemented patented algorithms to predict future failures related to Java heap exhaustion in this tool. Please refer to United States Patent No. 7,475,214 if you are interested in the algorithms. Although they don't need these algorithms to investigate simple problem like this, you might be able to find situations where you could get some insight from fortune tellers. They can get a copy of the tool here.
PMAT parses verbose garbage collection (GC) trace, analyzes Java heap usage, and recommends possible solutions based on pattern modeling of Java heap usage.
The following features are included:
The tool can also parse Sun's Java garbage collector traces, including the following:
We can start version 3.2 of the tool with a jar file in the download package. (V3.2 was the latest version when this article was written.)
# /usr/java5/bin/java -Xmx200m -jar ga32.jar
The tool provides a headless mode but let's bring up the graphical user interface mode for easy demonstration. They can click on the "N" icon to open Sun's trace file. They can click on "I" for IBM's trace file as seen in Figure 1.
We can see in Figure 2 the analysis result and recommendation virtually instantly.
Open-source storage software is freely available, but it's the rare IT department that's willing to cobble it together with hardware to build a storage system.
Corporations are more likely to use it by happenstance, acquiring it through storage systems they buy from major vendors, some of which embed open-source technology into their products.
Other companies are game to try software applications served up with support contracts from a scattering of small vendors, such as Zmanda Inc. and Bacula Systems SA in the backup space. And the truly industrious might ferret out nascent open-source storage projects on SourceForge.net.
Still, enterprise IT organizations are typically so worried about data loss that they tend to favor storage products from established vendors. That's why Sun Microsystems Inc.'s new Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage Systems, billed as "open storage appliances" and formerly known by the name Amber Road, have created a stir in the market.
Launched in November, Sun's 7000 family of storage products is based on industry-standard hardware and a software stack that includes a substantial amount of open-source technology.
Sun's open-source software
The Sun stack includes the OpenSolaris operating system, with its default ZFS file system featuring simple administration, end-to-end data integrity and scalability. OpenSolaris supports not only NFS but CIFS, through an in-kernel implementation, to enable file access with Windows-based systems. Users who prefer Samba for file-and-print services to CIFS clients can use that open-source technology.
"In terms of vendors of note, Sun is the only one that's really promoting the open-source storage approach," says Roger Cox, a research vice president in Gartner Research. "What they're trying to do is get various development communities to take their software, Solaris/ZFS, and add some modifications to it, add some value to it and create storage solutions based on that technology, which then allows Sun to make money based on maintenance."
Two vendors -- greenBytes Inc. and Nexenta Systems Inc. -- have already picked up the torch and built storage systems based on Solaris and ZFS. But it's too early to tell if Sun will be able to capitalize on the model that made Linux grow in popularity.
"It does have promise," says Cox, "in the sense that this can have a major impact in terms of reducing costs for storage, particularly in today's economic environment with people not having the kind of money they've had in the past. Storage data doesn't stop growing, and they have to replace products that have reached their [end of] lifecycle."
What caught the attention of Gene Ruth, a senior storage analyst at Midvale, Utah-based Burton Group, is the way the ZFS file system has been adjusted to leverage the capability of solid-state disk (SSD). "They're one of the first to offer solid-state disks that are uniquely integrated into the storage system," says Ruth.
ZFS automatically writes new data to the write cache located on an SSD and determines data access patterns and stores frequently accessed data on an SSD, according to Sun.
John Webster, principal analyst at Nashua, N.H.-based Illuminata Inc., says the reseller community isn't typically attracted to Sun storage, yet it appears to like the new open technology. If interest in Sun's new systems grows, that also might spark more interest in open-source storage technology in general, as the storage world continues toward commoditization.
"There's significant momentum developing behind this open-source storage movement. I don't know how far it's going to go. Certainly, there are going to be some resisters, and certainly the IT community isn't going to buy off on this concept overnight," says Webster. "But I think it's going to grow in magnitude and will become a significant threat to the more proprietary forms of storage that they now see. The IT community will always be attracted to functionality at a lower cost."
However, users might not want to be the ones building the systems. Those who do often find they need to spend increasing levels of effort to tune and maintain them, especially if the systems are heavily customized.
Chelmsford, Mass.-based OurStage Inc., a Web site catering to new music, noticed slow storage performance six months after putting together a mixed NAS and iSCSI system using CentOS Linux, which is based on code from Red Hat Inc., running on white-box hardware from Tyan Computer Corp. and Super Micro Computer Inc. Ultimately, the tech team hit a wall in its comprehension of the causes and its attempts to tune around them.
"The farther you go, you have to put more and more work in to get less and less gain," says Mark Niedzielski, infrastructure manager at the Web startup. OurStage, which joined Sun's Startup Essentials program, now runs OpenSolaris on three white boxes and one of Sun's Storage 7210 Unified Storage boxes.
Red Hat's storage capabilities
Sun isn't the only one claiming its operating system is conducive to storage. Red Hat says its Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform (RHEL-AP) offers significant storage capabilities, which are embedded in storage hardware or available as layered software products.
For instance, RHEL-AP's clustered file system -- Global File System (GFS) -- provides cluster-wide, fully synchronized, parallel read/write access to shared storage, according to Nick Carr, Red Hat's marketing director.
RHEL-AP also includes a logical volume manager (LVM) to manage a large, disparate physical storage configuration as a single logical entity. Other capabilities include support for standard RAID levels, cloning, multiple read/write snapshots and multipathing.
Linux can also be used as a server with support for CIFS, NFS and iSCSI block clients, as well as support for Fibre Channel (FC), Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE), iSCSI (host and target), and 10 GB Ethernet, according to Carr.
Users have the option of building their own systems or deploying a pre-built, tested, certified and supported package through a Red Hat subscription.
Open-source storage doesn't stop at the operating and file systems. Zmanda, for example, espouses the Red Hat model and offers a freely downloadable community edition of its Amanda network backup software, as well as an enterprise edition that it has sold as an annual subscription since 2007.
Zmanda CEO and founder Chander Kant says the software, which is based on an open-source project at the University of Maryland, has attracted a following at universities, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs), and even departments at some Fortune 1000 companies. Zmanda, which launched in 2005, finished ahead of plan in the final quarter of last year despite the failing economy, according to Kant.
"In general, what they find in these economic times is that bells and whistles aren't so important for administrators. But they do want a backup solution," says Kant.
Chris Hoogendyk, systems administrator for the biology and geology departments at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, says the main driver for open-source storage was the cost-benefit analysis. He says he typically has to wait for a department to budget for tape libraries.
"Open source doesn't cost you an arm and a leg and, in this case, it's mature enough that it has everything you need," says Hoogendyk, who's been responsible for backup on network systems since 1992. "In addition, there's a whole issue that you've got an open and fairly large community of people who help each other and provide information and contribute to the development. And if you have any questions about how it works, you can actually open it up and look at the code."
Hoogendyk has been using the community edition of Zmanda for approximately two years and now does part-time consulting on behalf of Zmanda, providing support on its online forums.
Kant says the biggest reason customers turn to Zmanda, other than cost, is its support of open and standard formats for storing data -- tar for Linux and Unix, and ZIP for Windows. He adds that Zmanda also uses industry-standard compression and encryption algorithms.
"Systems administrators can recover their data with standard operating system utilities, even if their software isn't around," says Kant.
Zmanda's software runs on Linux or Solaris servers, and an agent runs on every system that a user wants to use. The product will use the backup media of the customer's choice, whether tape, disk array or the storage cloud, including Amazon's Simple Storage Service (S3), says Kant.
"Backup is considered a mature market, but as tapes come out of favor and technologies like backup to disk and the storage cloud become more popular, that creates a huge opportunity for vendors like us," adds Kant.
Backup software isn't the only area that open source has touched in storage. Sun, for instance, also has an open-source Storage Archive Manager that's tightly integrated with its high-performance, 64-bit Solaris SAN-based Quick File System (QFS) file system, which is also open source. Sun also maintains and supports the Lustre clustered file system.
Among the other open-source offerings are FreeNAS software, which includes support for CIFS, NFS, iSCSI and software RAID; and Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System (SMART) tools.
"For this year, there'll be a lot of talk and awareness centered around the value proposition of using open source to avoid costs. However, there needs to be better articulation of the total cost of ownership, [intellectual property] ownership and transfer," says Greg Schulz, founder and senior analyst at StorageIO Group in Stillwater, Minn. "Five years out, they should certainly see more uptake in open-source solutions in general and particularly where open-source technologies are integrated or part of commercial packaged solutions."
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