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310-203 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 Operating System Upgrade
Test Code : 310-203
Test Name : Sun Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 Operating System Upgrade
Vendor Name : SUN
: 449 Real Questions
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licensed Solaris equipment administrators are suggestions expertise (IT) professionals who install and hold community servers operating probably the most Solaris working device, at present obtainable through the Oracle company. they're usually employed by means of organizations and other agencies with computing device networks that use the enterprise's open supply application items. As techniques administrators, they may also additionally supervise other IT body of workers and respond to questions and protection requests from workplace employees.schooling Bachelor's diploma in counsel technology or desktop science counseled Job talents Troubleshooting, analytical considering, multitasking, verbal exchange earnings latitude (2016)* $87,four hundred to $104,762 with solar certified device Administrator credentials Job increase (2014-2024)** 8% for network and desktop systems administrators
source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor recordsRequired schooling
Most systems administrators have achieved a Bachelor of Science in guidance expertise, computer Science or a linked container. Core coursework usually includes issues in programming languages and procedures, networking and techniques design. Solaris certifications can be found throughout the Oracle corporation in network, safety and programs administration. requirements encompass a passing rating on an examination, which candidates can prepare for through enrolling in lessons on the Oracle Academy or an accredited practicing core, reviewing seminar applications and taking follow assessments.expertise Required
methods administrators are analytical thinkers who are capable of troubleshoot considerations for large corporations of community system clients. worrying cases require clear, fast considering, and may contain working lengthy hours unless the problem is mounted. The capacity to multitask will also be advantageous when managing a couple of undertaking at a time. conversation potential are key when working with nontechnical staff participants.career and salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor information (BLS) anticipated that jobs for device directors in universal will boost via an average tempo, eight% from 2014 to 2024. licensed device directors will delight in dazzling job possibilities, as businesses more and more depend on full-time gurus to maintain their desktop operating techniques. in line with Payscale.com, certified methods directors for Solaris operating methods earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in might also 2016.
linked resources: Books
This seller-particular Certification is offered through:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531
skill stage: Intermediate reputation: active
low cost: $1465 (shortest music) training Required
summary:for individuals who operate fundamental gadget administration strategies on the Solaris working gadget and are accountable for administering a networked server operating on the Solaris OS. OCP Solaris certification covers gadget administration potential reminiscent of configuring network interfaces, managing swap configurations, crash dumps, and core data. This certification became previously known as sun licensed device Administrator (SCSA).
preliminary requirements:You should comprehensive one of the permitted teacher-led online or in-category classes ($1420/self look at - $5000). You ought to then move the Oracle Solaris superior equipment Administrator exam ($245). eventually, you must comprehensive the path Submission kind.
continuing requirements:None exact
OCP Pay Chart:
Offline components:both instructor-led and CBT lessons can be found from solar.
See all Oracle Certifications
dealer's web page for this certification
KYOTO, Japan, Feb. 6, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- wireless instruments geared up with the new overseas wireless communication specification Wi-sun FAN (box enviornment network) for the information superhighway of things developed collectively by way of the analysis community of Professor Hiroshi Harada of the Graduate faculty of Informatics, Kyoto college (hereinafter Kyoto institution), Nissin techniques Co., Ltd. (hereinafter Nissin systems), and ROHM Co., Ltd. (hereinafter ROHM) grew to become one of the most world's first options to obtain Wi-solar FAN certification.
BackgroundIn order to know out of doors verbal exchange networks corresponding to smart cities and wise grids, high-quality, lengthy-distance and at ease network expertise is required. Wi-sun FAN is a new specification of Wi-sun, a world radio communications task it truly is the surest suitable to the building of IoTs. it is an interoperable communications networking method for electrical energy, gasoline, and water metering, as well as for sensible cities and smart grids in various purposes akin to infrastructure and clever transport programs.
This Wi-sun FAN is an interoperable low-energy IoT instant communique know-how that utilizes low-power wireless transmission expertise in accordance with the IEEE 802.15.4g standard and multistage routing expertise in response to IPv6. On might also sixteen, 2016, the Wi-solar Alliance, which certifies instant communication specifications for IoTs, technical compatibility, and interconnectivity, centered standard requirements, and on November eleven, 2016, the three events introduced that they succeeded in primary radio traits compatible with Wi-sun FAN. The Wi-solar Alliance then announced its Wi-solar FAN certification application on October 3, 2018.
This achievementBased on the results of the basic building of Wi-solar FAN, the three parties developed a radio suitable with Wi-sun FAN technical necessities and certification software, and handed an IP-primarily based certification examine the use of multi-hop, frequency-hopping, and superior certification protection by using a plurality of distinct radios from different agencies. This radio has right here capabilities as described in the Wi-solar FAN Technical standards.
With the IEEE802.15.4/4g/4e technologies able to reliable transmission over 1km beneath the japanese regulation, this radio is equipped with an international commonplace for web access, which has been brought in Wi-Fi (TM) techniques, and a multi-hop international common that realizes multi-stage relay between radios in line with IP. This makes it handy to connect sensors, meters, and monitors that make up sensible cities and smart metering to the web.
This fulfillment became carried out in the Impulsing Paradigm trade through Disruptive applied sciences application (have an effect on) led by means of the Council for Science, technology and Innovation, the cupboard office. This software become formed with the aid of a joint industry-academia consortium referred to as the subsequent-technology Wi-sun Joint analysis Consortium, Kyoto. The three parties, based mostly in Kyoto, are Kyoto school, which have a song record of standardization and development of IEEE 802.15.4/4g/4e, Nissin programs, which commercializes Wi-sun-suitable verbal exchange middleware, and ROHM, which develops verbal exchange modules compatible with the regular.
define of certification acquisition:Date and time of certification acquisition: January 30, 2019Certification authority: Wi-solar AllianceCertified trying out laboratory: Allion Labs, Inc.Certification number: WSA 0171
Future developmentIn the long run, the three parties will participate in an interoperability specification verification experience backed by way of the Wi-sun Alliance to make contributions to trying out for technical conformity and interoperability of the Wi-sun FAN common, and to promote further construction as industry-academia cooperation projects in Kyoto in order to put into effect this radio in society. The results were also displayed at the Wi-solar Alliance booth in DistribuTECH 2019, the greatest power business-related experience within the united states, which became held in New Orleans on February 5.
additional particulars are available at:http://www.dco.cce.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/PL/PL_2019_01.html
View customary content material:http://www.prnewswire.com/information-releases/kyoto-tuition-teaming-with-2-eastern-companies-acquires-world-first-certification-for-instant-conversation-specification-wi-solar-fan-300790447.html
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Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system, currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that use the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may also supervise other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary Range (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2014-2024)** 8% for network and computer systems administrators
Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor StatisticsRequired Education
Most systems administrators have completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements include a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking practice exams.Skills Required
Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for large groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, fast thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The ability to multitask can be helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.Career and Salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in general will increase by an average pace, 8% from 2014 to 2024. Certified system administrators will enjoy excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in May 2016.
Open-source storage software is freely available, but it's the rare IT department that's willing to cobble it together with hardware to build a storage system.
Corporations are more likely to use it by happenstance, acquiring it through storage systems they buy from major vendors, some of which embed open-source technology into their products.
Other companies are game to try software applications served up with support contracts from a scattering of small vendors, such as Zmanda Inc. and Bacula Systems SA in the backup space. And the truly industrious might ferret out nascent open-source storage projects on SourceForge.net.
Still, enterprise IT organizations are typically so worried about data loss that they tend to favor storage products from established vendors. That's why Sun Microsystems Inc.'s new Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage Systems, billed as "open storage appliances" and formerly known by the name Amber Road, have created a stir in the market.
Launched in November, Sun's 7000 family of storage products is based on industry-standard hardware and a software stack that includes a substantial amount of open-source technology.
Sun's open-source software
The Sun stack includes the OpenSolaris operating system, with its default ZFS file system featuring simple administration, end-to-end data integrity and scalability. OpenSolaris supports not only NFS but CIFS, through an in-kernel implementation, to enable file access with Windows-based systems. Users who prefer Samba for file-and-print services to CIFS clients can use that open-source technology.
"In terms of vendors of note, Sun is the only one that's really promoting the open-source storage approach," says Roger Cox, a research vice president in Gartner Research. "What they're trying to do is get various development communities to take their software, Solaris/ZFS, and add some modifications to it, add some value to it and create storage solutions based on that technology, which then allows Sun to make money based on maintenance."
Two vendors -- greenBytes Inc. and Nexenta Systems Inc. -- have already picked up the torch and built storage systems based on Solaris and ZFS. But it's too early to tell if Sun will be able to capitalize on the model that made Linux grow in popularity.
"It does have promise," says Cox, "in the sense that this can have a major impact in terms of reducing costs for storage, particularly in today's economic environment with people not having the kind of money they've had in the past. Storage data doesn't stop growing, and they have to replace products that have reached their [end of] lifecycle."
What caught the attention of Gene Ruth, a senior storage analyst at Midvale, Utah-based Burton Group, is the way the ZFS file system has been adjusted to leverage the capability of solid-state disk (SSD). "They're one of the first to offer solid-state disks that are uniquely integrated into the storage system," says Ruth.
ZFS automatically writes new data to the write cache located on an SSD and determines data access patterns and stores frequently accessed data on an SSD, according to Sun.
John Webster, principal analyst at Nashua, N.H.-based Illuminata Inc., says the reseller community isn't typically attracted to Sun storage, yet it appears to like the new open technology. If interest in Sun's new systems grows, that also might spark more interest in open-source storage technology in general, as the storage world continues toward commoditization.
"There's significant momentum developing behind this open-source storage movement. I don't know how far it's going to go. Certainly, there are going to be some resisters, and certainly the IT community isn't going to buy off on this concept overnight," says Webster. "But I think it's going to grow in magnitude and will become a significant threat to the more proprietary forms of storage that they now see. The IT community will always be attracted to functionality at a lower cost."
However, users might not want to be the ones building the systems. Those who do often find they need to spend increasing levels of effort to tune and maintain them, especially if the systems are heavily customized.
Chelmsford, Mass.-based OurStage Inc., a Web site catering to new music, noticed slow storage performance six months after putting together a mixed NAS and iSCSI system using CentOS Linux, which is based on code from Red Hat Inc., running on white-box hardware from Tyan Computer Corp. and Super Micro Computer Inc. Ultimately, the tech team hit a wall in its comprehension of the causes and its attempts to tune around them.
"The farther you go, you have to put more and more work in to get less and less gain," says Mark Niedzielski, infrastructure manager at the Web startup. OurStage, which joined Sun's Startup Essentials program, now runs OpenSolaris on three white boxes and one of Sun's Storage 7210 Unified Storage boxes.
Red Hat's storage capabilities
Sun isn't the only one claiming its operating system is conducive to storage. Red Hat says its Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform (RHEL-AP) offers significant storage capabilities, which are embedded in storage hardware or available as layered software products.
For instance, RHEL-AP's clustered file system -- Global File System (GFS) -- provides cluster-wide, fully synchronized, parallel read/write access to shared storage, according to Nick Carr, Red Hat's marketing director.
RHEL-AP also includes a logical volume manager (LVM) to manage a large, disparate physical storage configuration as a single logical entity. Other capabilities include support for standard RAID levels, cloning, multiple read/write snapshots and multipathing.
Linux can also be used as a server with support for CIFS, NFS and iSCSI block clients, as well as support for Fibre Channel (FC), Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE), iSCSI (host and target), and 10 GB Ethernet, according to Carr.
Users have the option of building their own systems or deploying a pre-built, tested, certified and supported package through a Red Hat subscription.
Open-source storage doesn't stop at the operating and file systems. Zmanda, for example, espouses the Red Hat model and offers a freely downloadable community edition of its Amanda network backup software, as well as an enterprise edition that it has sold as an annual subscription since 2007.
Zmanda CEO and founder Chander Kant says the software, which is based on an open-source project at the University of Maryland, has attracted a following at universities, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs), and even departments at some Fortune 1000 companies. Zmanda, which launched in 2005, finished ahead of plan in the final quarter of last year despite the failing economy, according to Kant.
"In general, what they find in these economic times is that bells and whistles aren't so important for administrators. But they do want a backup solution," says Kant.
Chris Hoogendyk, systems administrator for the biology and geology departments at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, says the main driver for open-source storage was the cost-benefit analysis. He says he typically has to wait for a department to budget for tape libraries.
"Open source doesn't cost you an arm and a leg and, in this case, it's mature enough that it has everything you need," says Hoogendyk, who's been responsible for backup on network systems since 1992. "In addition, there's a whole issue that you've got an open and fairly large community of people who help each other and provide information and contribute to the development. And if you have any questions about how it works, you can actually open it up and look at the code."
Hoogendyk has been using the community edition of Zmanda for approximately two years and now does part-time consulting on behalf of Zmanda, providing support on its online forums.
Kant says the biggest reason customers turn to Zmanda, other than cost, is its support of open and standard formats for storing data -- tar for Linux and Unix, and ZIP for Windows. He adds that Zmanda also uses industry-standard compression and encryption algorithms.
"Systems administrators can recover their data with standard operating system utilities, even if their software isn't around," says Kant.
Zmanda's software runs on Linux or Solaris servers, and an agent runs on every system that a user wants to use. The product will use the backup media of the customer's choice, whether tape, disk array or the storage cloud, including Amazon's Simple Storage Service (S3), says Kant.
"Backup is considered a mature market, but as tapes come out of favor and technologies like backup to disk and the storage cloud become more popular, that creates a huge opportunity for vendors like us," adds Kant.
Backup software isn't the only area that open source has touched in storage. Sun, for instance, also has an open-source Storage Archive Manager that's tightly integrated with its high-performance, 64-bit Solaris SAN-based Quick File System (QFS) file system, which is also open source. Sun also maintains and supports the Lustre clustered file system.
Among the other open-source offerings are FreeNAS software, which includes support for CIFS, NFS, iSCSI and software RAID; and Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System (SMART) tools.
"For this year, there'll be a lot of talk and awareness centered around the value proposition of using open source to avoid costs. However, there needs to be better articulation of the total cost of ownership, [intellectual property] ownership and transfer," says Greg Schulz, founder and senior analyst at StorageIO Group in Stillwater, Minn. "Five years out, they should certainly see more uptake in open-source solutions in general and particularly where open-source technologies are integrated or part of commercial packaged solutions."
Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.
This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.This chapter is from the book
After completing this chapter, you'll be able to
Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.
State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.
State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.
State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's work environment at login.
To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:
User account configuration files;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;
User shells; and
User account commands.
Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.The Password File
The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell
These fields are:
username—the name that identifies the user account.
password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this field signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.
uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to use values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with all of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes usernames.
gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. Like the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-field—this is the user's real name (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).
home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.
login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this field is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can be read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must be kept secret in this file. A sample password file looks like this:root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:100:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/:
Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account name field for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the last character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is also used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.
It is possible and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the same UID. Each username will have its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will display the first username found in the password file matching the UID.
When a new account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.The Shadow File
The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag
These fields are:
username—this is the same username found in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this field contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of last password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was last changed).
min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can be changed.
max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.
inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a field reserved for future use.
The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could perform a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.
A sample shadow file looks like this:root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: listen:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::
Note that some of the accounts in the example shadow file have "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one way of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could put other text in the password field to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.
When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This also occurs if root changes a user's password.
Think About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords found in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?
For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to work properly, /etc/passwd must be world readable. Prior to the use of /etc/shadow, all users' encrypted password strings were also publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an opportunity to discover other users' passwords. By moving the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can be read only by root), the ability to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.
First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not have a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was found in the password file, in the second field that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.
Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file also had no password-aging capability.
The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the old shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it support password aging.The Group File
The group file contains a listing of all of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:groupname:password:gid:user-list
These fields are:
groupname—this is the name of the group.
password—this is an optional password for the group.
gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to use values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with all of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes group names.
user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.
A sample group file follows.root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
Note the password field in the group "staff." Groups can be password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to put the group password in for you.
Hint: You can take a password string from the shadow file and use the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will be the same as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.
When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will be challenged for the group's password when they have entered the newgrp command.Primary and Secondary Groupids
Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.
Each user account also has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that include the username in their lists of members.
There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can be in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).
What happens if you need to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same name and group number—and list the additional members there.
The primary and secondary groupids directly impact file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.
Think About It . . .
What would be the effect if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?
The additional entry would have no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.The Root Account
The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and permission settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can perform administrative tasks.
The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.
Think About It . . .
What would be the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What advantage might there be of putting root's entry at the end of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?
Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.
One advantage of putting root at the end of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would show that other user as the owner of root processes and files.
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