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310-202 exam Dumps Source : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, Part ll
Test Code : 310-202
Test Name : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, Part ll
Vendor Name : SUN
: 558 Real Questions
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licensed Solaris device directors are suggestions expertise (IT) gurus who installation and hold community servers operating one of the crucial Solaris working system, currently obtainable through the Oracle organisation. they're constantly employed by organizations and different corporations with computer networks that use the business's open supply utility items. As programs directors, they might also also supervise different IT body of workers and reply to questions and protection requests from office laborers.schooling Bachelor's diploma in advice know-how or desktop science counseled Job abilities Troubleshooting, analytical considering, multitasking, conversation profits range (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with sun licensed device Administrator credentials Job increase (2014-2024)** eight% for community and computer methods administrators
supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor recordsRequired training
Most techniques administrators have accomplished a Bachelor of Science in information technology, computer Science or a linked field. Core coursework typically includes subject matters in programming languages and techniques, networking and methods design. Solaris certifications can be found in the course of the Oracle enterprise in network, safety and methods administration. necessities include a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for through enrolling in classes on the Oracle Academy or an permitted working towards center, reviewing seminar programs and taking apply tests.potential Required
systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are capable of troubleshoot considerations for tremendous corporations of community gadget users. stressful instances require clear, quick thinking, and can involve working long hours until the difficulty is fastened. The ability to multitask will also be advantageous when managing a couple of project at a time. communication capabilities are key when working with nontechnical team of workers contributors.career and profits Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor information (BLS) envisioned that jobs for equipment administrators in regular will boost by means of a normal pace, eight% from 2014 to 2024. licensed device directors will appreciate miraculous job prospects, as organizations increasingly rely on full-time experts to keep their desktop working systems. in line with Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating methods earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in can also 2016.
KYOTO, Japan, Feb. 6, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- instant instruments fitted with the brand new foreign instant conversation specification Wi-sun FAN (box area network) for the information superhighway of things developed jointly by using the analysis neighborhood of Professor Hiroshi Harada of the Graduate faculty of Informatics, Kyoto college (hereinafter Kyoto institution), Nissin systems Co., Ltd. (hereinafter Nissin methods), and ROHM Co., Ltd. (hereinafter ROHM) became some of the world's first solutions to obtain Wi-solar FAN certification.
BackgroundIn order to understand outside verbal exchange networks similar to wise cities and sensible grids, tremendous, lengthy-distance and cozy network expertise is required. Wi-solar FAN is a brand new specification of Wi-solar, an international radio communications challenge it's the most efficient appropriate to the building of IoTs. it's an interoperable communications networking method for electrical energy, fuel, and water metering, as well as for sensible cities and wise grids in a number of applications corresponding to infrastructure and clever transport systems.
This Wi-solar FAN is an interoperable low-vigour IoT instant verbal exchange know-how that makes use of low-vigour instant transmission technology in keeping with the IEEE 802.15.4g common and multistage routing technology in line with IPv6. On may 16, 2016, the Wi-solar Alliance, which certifies instant verbal exchange standards for IoTs, technical compatibility, and interconnectivity, centered commonplace specifications, and on November eleven, 2016, the three events introduced that they succeeded in fundamental radio tendencies suitable with Wi-sun FAN. The Wi-sun Alliance then announced its Wi-solar FAN certification program on October 3, 2018.
This achievementBased on the results of the fundamental development of Wi-solar FAN, the three parties developed a radio compatible with Wi-solar FAN technical standards and certification program, and handed an IP-based certification look at various using multi-hop, frequency-hopping, and advanced certification protection by using a plurality of distinctive radios from distinctive corporations. This radio has the following functions as described in the Wi-solar FAN Technical specifications.
p>With the IEEE802.15.4/4g/4e applied sciences in a position to sturdy transmission over 1km below the eastern regulation, this radio is fitted with a global regular for cyber web entry, which has been brought in Wi-Fi (TM) programs, and a multi-hop foreign regular that realizes multi-stage relay between radios in response to IP. This makes it convenient to connect sensors, meters, and screens that make up smart cities and sensible metering to the information superhighway.
This success became performed within the Impulsing Paradigm change via Disruptive technologies software (have an effect on) led through the Council for Science, know-how and Innovation, the cabinet office. This software became shaped by a joint trade-academia consortium called the next-technology Wi-solar Joint research Consortium, Kyoto. The three events, based mostly in Kyoto, are Kyoto institution, which have a track record of standardization and development of IEEE 802.15.four/4g/4e, Nissin programs, which commercializes Wi-sun-compatible communique middleware, and ROHM, which develops communication modules suitable with the commonplace.
define of certification acquisition:Date and time of certification acquisition: January 30, 2019Certification authority: Wi-sun AllianceCertified trying out laboratory: Allion Labs, Inc.Certification quantity: WSA 0171
Future developmentIn the long run, the three parties will take part in an interoperability specification verification experience backed with the aid of the Wi-sun Alliance to make a contribution to trying out for technical conformity and interoperability of the Wi-solar FAN regular, and to promote additional building as industry-academia cooperation initiatives in Kyoto as a way to implement this radio in society. The results were additionally displayed on the Wi-solar Alliance booth in DistribuTECH 2019, the greatest vigour industry-related event in the u.s., which was held in New Orleans on February 5.
further particulars can be found at:http://www.dco.cce.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/PL/PL_2019_01.html
View common content material:http://www.prnewswire.com/information-releases/kyoto-tuition-teaming-with-2-eastern-companies-acquires-world-first-certification-for-wireless-communique-specification-wi-sun-fan-300790447.html
source Kyoto college; Nissin systems Co., Ltd.; ROHM Co., Ltd.
Copyright (C) 2019 PR Newswire. All rights reserved
In a rare show of cohesion at the Baltimore County faculty board meeting Tuesday night, dozens of parents, lecturers and directors encouraged the college board to ask for what college students need in preference to settle for the slimmed-down funds that meets the county govt’s fiscal limits.
A revision to the budget notion two weeks in the past has been criticized for its failure to give pay raises for college employees and for no longer providing the faculties with sufficient academics at a time when enrollment is increasing.
fogeys and directors spoke of county colleges have been underfunded for years, and some counseled that the county executive lift taxes if indispensable.
“We with no trouble can’t expect to proceed to deliver the satisfactory services to a becoming and increasingly advanced pupil physique if funding doesn’t hold pace,” observed Tom DeHart, government director of the union representing principals, universal as the Council of Administrative and Supervisory personnel. “it is time that tax fees, both property or income, be accelerated as they haven’t been in 25 years.”
mum or dad Yara Cheikh mentioned she wishes the board to go to the County Council to argue for more cash.
“Be a pacesetter. … Make the case to their county. raise taxes to give their college students and their academics what they need,” she observed.
Baltimore County Public colleges teachers and union officers rally to ask the board to request a fully funded schooling funds from the county govt.
Ed Vait, a resident, spoke of he believes it's up to the faculty board to promote the price range to the county executive and others.
“You have been elected to this workplace. You weren’t elected by way of the County Council or the county govt,” he stated.
PTA President Jayne Lee asked the board to give up a price range that fogeys desire.
“If the county executive decides to make a reduce, let it's him, now not you,” she observed.
before the assembly, a huge crowd of academics and other school employees gathered outside the board’s administration constructing in Towson to protest the proposed finances cuts. dressed in red, academics at the union rally pointed out the budget shouldn’t be balanced by means of cutting trainer salaries and lecture room funding.
“training is under attack, each person ought to battle returned,” they chanted as they headed into the board assembly.
a couple of college board individuals wondered staff concerning the possibility of saving cash by way of chopping returned on the variety of laptops, in order that now not each pupil is given a device, as is the case this year. college board member Lisa Mack said scholar fulfillment has no longer been increasing at a rate that could justify the expenditure of thousands and thousands of bucks on laptops.
The Baltimore County academics union, angered with the aid of a price range proposal that it says squeezes colleges and takes away raises, stated it is planning a collection of protests that would begin subsequent week.
“My individuals are actually irritated,” said Abby Beytin, president of the lecturers association of Baltimore County. “I...
“Nothing helps greater than having small classes, satisfactory teachers to fulfill children’s wants,” she observed. The records “isn't showing me that the funding they made … is paying off.”
directors pushed lower back on the conception of decreasing the computer initiative greater than is proposed subsequent 12 months.
“it's bad to make it an both-or circumstance,” noted interim Superintendent Verletta White, including that students should get both the substances and tools they want as neatly because the lecturers they need.
announcing that she believes her original funds thought, which requested for an 11.2 p.c boost in funding, turned into the funds the board should still approve, White answered numerous board questions, whereas defending the faculty gadget’s positions. Board individuals requested for some further cash, including greater funding for aircon, and for offering more free food to students.
The board didn't take a vote on the funds or make it clear which price range they could pass on to the county council and the county govt. A public hearing on the budget should be held at 7 p.m. Tuesday, and a vote might be held Feb. 19.
After months of little public dialogue, the Baltimore County college board voted Tuesday evening to appoint a company to do a countrywide seek a brand new superintendent.
The board used a piggyback contract to select Ray and colleagues, a company widespread for managing searches for big school methods throughout the...
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Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a single range of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap area is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can be viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a separate disk drive.
Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can be divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.
A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in Figure 4-1. Cylinders can be grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and end points, starting from the outside of the platters to the center of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”
For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would use the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.
When setting up slices, remember these rules:
When they discuss ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to get around some of these limitations in file systems.Displaying Disk Configuration Information
As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can display information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, all slices defined on the disk will be displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but do not know how it is divided into slices, you can show information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps show how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.
Type the following text and press Enter.# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system responds with the following:* /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector Count Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector Count Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.
The following is an example of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector Count Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC
Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must be formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two separate processes:
When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should be noted that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a new disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.
The need to perform a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not need to perform a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you think disk defects are causing problems. The primary reason that you would use format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.
The format utility searches your system for all attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:
In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to do the following:
The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as part of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might need to use the format utility when doing the following:
The following example uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.
The system responds with the following:Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
Specify the disk (enter its number).
The system responds with the format main menu:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - describe the current disk format - format and analyze the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels save - save new disk/partition definitions inquiry - show vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.Table 4-4 Format Main Menu Item Descriptions
Lists all of the system’s drives. Also lets you choose the disk you want to use in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.
Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. Also displays a list of known drive types. Choose the Auto configure option for all SCSI-2 disk drives.
Creates and modifies slices.
Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).
Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:
Information that is found in the format.dat file.
Information from the automatic configuration process.
Information that you type at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.
This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.
x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.
Used to repair a specific block on the current disk.
Writes a new label to the current disk. This is not the same as labeling the disk with volname.
Runs read, write, and compare tests.
Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.
Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.
Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.
Saves new disk and partition information.
SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision level of the current drive. This will also display the disk’s current firmware.
Labels the disk with a new eight-character volume name that you specify. This is not the same as writing the partition table to disk using label.
Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will also exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table name - name the current table print - display the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to display the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121
The columns displayed with the partition table are
Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can be any of the following names that best fits the function of the file system you are creating:
unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot
Flag: Values in this column can be
Size: The slice size specified as
You can use the name and save commands in the partition menu to name and save a newly created partition table to a file that can be referenced by name later, when you want to use this same partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the name command, you’ll provide a unique name for this partition scheme and then issue the save command to save the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the full pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.
After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:partition> label<cr>
You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>
Enter “Y” to continue.
After labeling the disk, type “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:partition> quit<cr>
Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:format> quit<cr>
It’s important to point out a few undesirable things that can happen when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, be careful not to waste disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you decrease the size of one slice and do not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.
Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not warn you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.
The main reason a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must contain slices and must be labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would be to put the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and use that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.
I’ll describe how to use the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would need to have 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would also need to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A small amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot be changed.
Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to be used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first convert it to an SMI label.
Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system displaysPart Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.
The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:Part Tag Flag First Sector Size Last Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704
Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would need to be changed. Use the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:
As root, use the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:# format –e<cr>
The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
The main menu is displayed. Type “label” to label the disk:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - describe the current disk format - format and analyze the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels inquiry - show disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration: SMI Label  EFI Label Specify Label type: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
Exit the format utility.format> quit<cr>
To slice the disk so that it can be used as a ZFS boot disk, follow these steps:
As root, enter the format utility:# format<cr> Searching for disks ... done
Select the disk that is going to be sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>
The system responds withselecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table name - name the current table print - display the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to display the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Enter “modify” to change the partition table:partition> modify<cr>
Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. All Free Hog Choose base (enter number) ? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:Do you wish to continue creating a new partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>
Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:Free Hog partition? 0<cr>
The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will be 0MB:Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>
Because all of the slices have been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will be allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.
When prompted to make this the current partition table, press Enter to use the default value “yes”:Okay to make this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This name is not significant and can be any name.Enter table name (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>
Enter “pr” to display the new partition table:partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.
Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.partition> quit<cr>
As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must have an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems use the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can assign one fdisk partition on a disk to be used for Oracle Solaris.
On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll use the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must be created on the new drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps describe how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:
As root, type “format” to get into the format utility.# format<cr>
The following menu appears:AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
Enter the number corresponding to the new drive and the following menu will be displayed:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk type - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - describe the current disk format - format and analyze the disk fdisk - run the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk analyze - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and display labels save - save new disk/partition definitions inquiry - show vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, please type "y". To partition your disk differently, type "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
If you wish to use the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will return you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will be displayed.Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status Type Start End Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change Active (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
Disks on x86-based systems can be divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the same purposes as disk slices found on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents all of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. Beginning with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can contain an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll describe this more in the next chapter.
Here’s an example of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130
In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.
The next example shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
One more item of note: On standard UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will be lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy all of the data to tape or to another disk.
You can also create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a single command as follows:# fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>
The –B option creates a single fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
The fdisk –B command can also be used to convert a disk label from an EFI to SMI.
To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:
# fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>
The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:* /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
When there are multiple disks of the same type (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to be sliced, you can save time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through all of the steps using the format utility. Use the prtvtoc command to get the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>
Although I’ve been supporting Macs since they came out in 1984 (when I was in high school), I haven’t received any “formal” training. It has mostly been learning by doing, reading the occasional book and now of course, TheAppleBlog. Does formal certification really make a difference as a technician? You tell me.Advertisement
Recently I got into an argument with a vendor that somehow thought a technician who first started repairing Macs sixth months ago trumped my 25 years experience. Did certification make this person a better technician? Having done quite a bit of hiring myself, I’ve too often found that certification only verifies your ability to take a test and may not have bearing in the real world.
Now that the market has changed and everyone seems to be competing for scarce resources, perhaps a certification would be an additional edge? What’s the business strategy for independent Mac technicians wanting more? The answer took a lot of research — even Apple wasn’t able to answer my questions — so learn from my journey.
Credit goes to both Brian Best of BestMacs and Doug Hanley of MacTEK Training, because without them I wouldn’t understand the alphabet soup of ACSP, ACMT, ACTC, ACSA, AASP, ACN and more. Didn’t they all become Mac users to avoid mysterious terms? As many of you know, the ease of the Apple user interface is equalled only by the frustration of trying to understand Apple’s certifications programs. Figuring out this path was much harder than any video game I’ve ever played, but a “game” may be the best metaphor to describe the process.The Game
You begin the “game” as a general Mac user. The three worlds you’ll generally see in the game are IT, Pro Apps, and Sales. As an IT person maybe you have skills, maybe you don’t. Nothing stops you from simply repairing Macs on your own, unless you do things that specifically void the warranty and you get caught doing so. You do not need permission per se from Apple to work on Macs. Many folks are happy at this level collecting coins one by one, but you can’t proceed any further unless you get a certification — the key that unlocks the next level in the game.
The first certification most go for is Apple Certified Support Professional (ACSP) which used to be known as an Apple Certified Help Desk Specialist (ACHDS). This certifies your ability to understand the operating system and is earned based on the OS version. Therefore, you are an Apple Certified Support Professional in 10.5 (or soon 10.6). Each OS requires certification, but your certification does not expire. Therefore, if you are a ACHDS in 10.3, you can call yourself certified without understanding 10.5 at all. Your can take the test without training (many do), self-study via materials from Peachpit, or attend an instructor-lead course at an Apple Authorized Training Center (AATC). MacTek is one of those centers. You’ll take the test at a Prometric testing center and pay around $200. The test takes about 90 minutes or so and you get the results immediately.Apple Consultants Network
While certification is the means, the end you may be reaching for is the ability to join the Apple Consultants Network (ACN). Joining the ACN requires any Apple certification, such as the ACSP discussed above, or any number of other certifications (described below, though one source says not all certifications are valid, so beware). Keeping with the video game analogy, the ACN is like an entire new area of the video game you want to explore, but the boss that must be defeated first is Apple, and your weapon is a certification!
After getting a certification you can then apply to join the ACN. The application fee is $60 and the actual fee to join is $395 as a sole proprietor. The full requirements are here. You’ll get lots of benefits such as product discounts as well as the ability to network with other Macintosh consultants. As an ACN, Apple store employees may hand out your card to customers in the store. Now your business can really expand as every Apple store customer is a potential customer for you.
ACN membership is great and many stay at this level of the “game” using the ACN membership as a multiplier for their income. However, you still can’t do hardware repairs under warranty nor order Apple parts. As with the video game, you’re stuck at this level unless you explore further and try to defeat the next boss. Apple always controls the rules. Accept it as part of the game. Fail to accept it and you’ll get slapped back to the beginning of the game quicker than you can click the home button.Server Administration Certification
From this point, you have a couple directions you can go. You can focus on repair and service, or you can focus on server or advanced software administration (many folks will do both). I will discuss the server administration certifications and the hardware services certifications. You can think of each of these as two separate worlds in the game. You can choose one or the other, or explore them both.
The first level server administration certification is another 4-letter acronym: ACTC: Apple Certified Technical Coordinator. In addition to passing the test for ACSP, you’ll face the Server Essentials test. This extends your workstation abilities to servers. An even higher level of certification within the server realm is an ACSA — Apple Certified Systems Administrator. For the ACSA, you’ll need to pass four tests: Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security for 10.6 (or Advanced System Administration for 10.5).
Apple also offers the ACMA (Apple Certified Media Administrator) which includes Server Essentials, Xsan, Final Cut Server and as an option, Support Essentials, Deployment, Directory Services, or Final Cut Level 1. Other certifications are not necessarily IT related and are software-focused. That’s a realm I’m not exploring as they chose the IT track at the beginning of the game.Hardware Repair Certification
Moving on from server administration to actual Apple hardware repair, the primary certification you will earn is the Apple Certified Macintosh Technician (ACMT), formerly the Apple Certified Portable Technician (ACPT) and Apple Certified Desktop Technician (ACDT). This certification means you are theoretically qualified to do warranty repairs on Apple Macintosh equipment. The skills required for ACMT are those of hardware repair and software troubleshooting. You don’t need an ACSP to be an ACMT, but many people earn both. The educational process for hardware repair is more intense and it’s less likely you’ll pass the test without some training. At this level, you can also go to an AATC and pay about $4,800 for both the hardware and software aspects of the course, or your can purchase self-study materials from Apple called “Apple Care Technician Training” for $299.Apple Authorized Service Provider
Similar to how passing the ACSP allows you to join the Apple Consultants Network, passing the ACMT allows you to enter the realm of an Apple Authorized Service Provider (AASP). You may not automatically become one though, and only AASP’s get reimbursement from Apple for warranty work. However, being an ACMT is very helpful if you want to get a job as an AASP. You may also apply to do warranty repairs for your larger organization of over 50 Macs via the Self-Service program. If you want to advance to being able to do warranty repairs for anyone, you’ll face that same boss again, Apple. Note that becoming an ACMT will not necessarily earn you any more money than an ACSA or ACTC. Facing the next boss may be too expensive and too restricting, but if you do want the next level, read on.
Getting to that AASP level is really the final level of the game. You’ll need to have an ACMT on staff and follow stricter requirements than joining the Apple Consultants Network. Generally you’ll need a real store front and not be a one-person operation. Apple grants exceptions (doesn’t every game have cheat codes?), but don’t count on it. Once you have your AASP you can be listed with Apple as a service provider and get reimbursed for warranty repairs.
So I’ve loaded the game and pressed Start. Is certification worth it? What about ACN or AASP? Which training should I go for? Is instructor lead training worth it? Any training vendors willing to sponsor me? What about the self-study programs? Share with me your experiences in the game and let’s develop a definitive guide including “cheat codes.”Apple-authorized Organizations
ACN (Apple Consultants Network)What it is: Network on Apple professionals, receives discounts and assistance from Apple, and can be referred from Apple retail stores.Requirements: Any certification.
AASP (Apple Authorized Service Provider)What is it: Business that is permitted to do Apple warranty repairs for reimbursement and order parts from Apple.Requirements: Have an Apple Certified Macintosh Technician on staff, among other requirements.Certifications
Apple Certified Support Professional: Basic understanding of the client Mac operating system and troubleshooting.
Apple Certified Technical Coordinator: Deeper understanding of the Mac OS, including the Mac OS X Server and Server Essentials.
Apple Certified Systems Administrator: Even greater technical understanding of the Mac OS X Server, including passing tests on Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security.
Apple Certified Media Administrator: This is a sister track of the “Apple Certified Systems Administrator” with a focus on the needs of media management, and includes training in XSan or Final Cut.
Apple Certified Macintosh Technician: You can do Apple hardware repairs, both in and out of warranty. Required to start (or get a job with) an Apple Authorized Service Provider, or self-service your large organization.
In-Depth10 Common IT Security Blunders (and How To Avoid Them)
While IT managers are trained early on to avoid obvious threats, many still fail to watch out for the basics. From password issues to excessive auditing to not using Group Policy, here's a list of 10 things to make sure your shop is taking care of.
No matter how hard they fight, cyber threats are ever on the rise. Microsoft and the federal government are stepping up their war on organizations driving botnets. This is part of the problem. One of the biggest threats comes from within and failure to prepare for those battles is asking for trouble.
Even if you think your shop is doing all it can to avoid common security threats, you'd probably be surprised at how easily an outsider can find common -- even silly -- mistakes.
IT pros are overworked. It's only natural that even a top dog makes the occasional blunder. Over the years I've found many oversights in otherwise tightly secure organizations.
Here are some of the more common security mistakes I've run into.
1. Using Default PasswordsIT pros have long been told to use secure passwords and change them regularly. This idea seems to go out the window when it comes to network appliances. I've lost count of the number of times I've run into network appliances in production environments using default passwords.
Default passwords are a huge risk simply because they allow appliances to be easily compromised. This is especially true for network access points, but also applies to firewall appliances, intrusion-detection appliances and just about any other type of hardware appliance.2. Setting up Weak PasswordsA few years ago, a neighbor asked me to set up his wireless network. When it came time to enter the passphrase, I left the room and let him enter the phrase in private. Although I told my friend to use a strong passphrase, I had a hunch he'd use the name of his favorite sports team.
Later that night I connected to his wireless network from my house and after two or three tries was able to guess his passphrase. Once connected, I attached to his network printer and printed a message that his network was insecure and to call me when he was ready to fix it.
The point is that wireless passphrases are vulnerable to the same types of attacks as insecure passwords. Therefore, you should make a point of using strong wireless passphrases or at the very least avoiding those that others can guess.
3. Central Administrator AccountsI used to work in a place where the entire administrative staff shared a single generic Administrator account. They had a disgruntled employee on the staff and she was constantly doing things to sabotage the network. Their audit logs showed her various actions as being performed by Administrator. Needless to say, a generic audit log entry wasn't enough for disciplinary action.
The IT manager was reluctant to create individual Administrator accounts, fearing multiple administrative accounts would increase the chances of a security breach. This meant the disgruntled administrator was able to continue with her shenanigans for quite some time.
Ever since, I've recommended to clients that they create two separate accounts for each member of the administrative staff. Both of these accounts should be personally identifiable. One account should lack administrative privileges and be used for all day-to-day activities. The other account should contain administrative privileges, but should only be used for administrative actions. Using this technique lowers the risk of a security breach, while ensuring that any administrative actions can be tracked back to the administrator who performed the action.
4. Failing to Utilize Group Policy SecurityI recently read an article in which the author cautioned administrators to use Group Policy settings sparingly. It made the case that the more Group Policy settings are enabled, the longer the login process takes.
While I'm all for expediting the login process, I recommend taking full advantage of Group Policy security settings. Group Policy settings are the primary mechanism for ensuring the computers on your network adhere to your corporate security policy. Furthermore, if you need to make a change to your security, it's a lot more practical to modify a Group Policy setting than it is to try to update each computer individually.
5. Not Making Use of Local Security PoliciesAlthough Group Policies are important, it's also important to make use of local security policies. Local security policies are often overlooked because they exist at the lowest level of the Group Policy hierarchy. It's usually considered a better practice to implement policy settings at a higher level, such as at the domain or Organizational Unit (OU) level of the Group Policy hierarchy. Even so, using local security policies is important.
This is the case because higher-level Group Policy settings only apply once a user logs in to a domain. If someone happens to log in to a workstation using a local account, then none of the higher-level Group Policy settings will be applied. The workstation's only defense at that point is the local security policies.
I'll be the first to admit that if someone logs into a workstation with a local account, then they can disable the individual elements within the local security policy. However, that only becomes a concern if the person who's logging in has malicious intent. There are plenty of perfectly legitimate reasons why someone might need to log into a workstation using a local account (such as to perform a repair or system maintenance). In these types of situations, the local security policy helps provide basic security.
6. Forgetting About Certificate ExpirationsI have to confess this is one bonehead move I'm personally guilty of. Recently I took a couple weeks off and went to South America to do some extreme caving and scuba diving. While I was gone I left my smartphone turned off. When I got back to the United States, I turned my phone on, but couldn't get any e-mail.
I assumed my server must have crashed, or that my power or Internet connection was out. Living in the sticks, I lose Internet and electricity all the time, so I didn't panic.
When I finally got to my house 12 hours later, I found everything on my network functioning perfectly. While going through the troubleshooting process, I found the digital certificate for my Exchange Server had expired. The certificate was valid for five years, and just happened to expire while I was on vacation. Now I'm in the habit of documenting certificate expiration dates and setting up automated reminders to renew certificates before they expire.
7. Excessive AuditingI took my first Windows certification class back in the '90s, and will never forget the lesson on event auditing. I was utterly amazed by the granularity with which events could be audited. At the same time, I was bewildered as to why enabling auditing was a manual process. I asked why Microsoft didn't enable all the auditing mechanisms by default. The instructor's response holds just as true today as it did back then.
Auditing every possible event is a bad idea for a couple of reasons. First, excessive auditing can degrade a server's performance. CPU and disk resources are consumed by the auditing process, but when auditing is performed in moderation the resource consumption is no big deal. However, when you audit an excessive number of events, the auditing process can have a noticeable impact on the server's performance.
A more important reason for auditing in moderation is that, when you audit an excessive number of events, the event logs can quickly become huge. When this happens, it's nearly impossible to pinpoint the events you're truly interested in. Important security alerts blend in with all of the meaningless events that have been logged. That being the case, you should only log the events that are most relevant and would provide the most useful forensic information if an attack should occur.8. Writing Down PasswordsWhen I first started working in IT, I lost count of the people who told me you should never, ever write down a password. In many ways this rule makes sense. After all, if you write down passwords there's a chance those passwords could find their way into the wrong hands. But I think the idea of never writing down passwords is incredibly shortsighted.
I agree user account passwords that are used on a day-to-day basis should not be written down. After all, these types of passwords expire on a regular basis and are easy enough to reset. However, there are other passwords that tend to be a bit more permanent and are used much less frequently.
One example is my wireless router password. I probably haven't logged into my router's Web interface in at least a year. I'm not even positive I remember the password correctly. That's why I have the router's password written down and locked in a safe with the rest of my network documentation. That way, if a problem ever does occur, I don't have to worry about trying to remember an obscure password that I haven't used in a while.
I recommend writing down semi-permanent and rarely used passwords. Of course, this is assuming you have a way to adequately protect the paper containing the passwords.
9. Ineffective Service Account MaintenanceIn a Windows Server environment, system services are associated with a security account. Services can't start unless the service account is successfully authenticated. Most services make use of the Local System Account, but some services (such as the ones used by SharePoint 2010) require actual user accounts. In these types of situations, there are two mistakes that are commonly made.
One common mistake is creating an all-purpose service account. This is a mistake because service accounts are almost always assigned special permissions. These permissions allow the corresponding service to perform its intended tasks. When a single account is assigned to multiple services, the service account might begin to accumulate permissions that are far beyond those required to perform any one, single task. These excess permissions could allow an attacker to exploit a service to gain control of the system.
The other common blunder related to service accounts is that administrators often require service account passwords to be changed on a regular basis. There's nothing wrong with resetting service account passwords, but you won't typically receive a reminder that the account is about to expire, and you'll have to update the service itself to use the new password. This usually means shutting down the service for a moment.
Service accounts can be a favorite target for hackers because they tend to use static passwords and might have permissions that exceed those of even an administrator (service accounts are typically able to act as a part of the OS, while admins are not). As such, it's a good idea to dedicate each service account to one specific service and give your service accounts names that disguise their true purposes. I recommend giving your service accounts names that blend in with your user accounts. For example, you might name a service account JSmith.
10. Failing to Have an Incident Response PlanBy far the most serious -- and yet one of the most common -- security blunders is not having an incident response plan. Imagine you walked into the office tomorrow and found you've been hacked. What do you do?
If you had to stop and think about it, you just demonstrated my point. It's important to develop a formalized incident response plan before a security breach occurs, so you and your staff will know exactly what to do. Initial actions you might take include disconnecting network cables, reviewing audit logs, verifying the integrity of your data and rebuilding affected servers.
The appropriate response will vary from one organization to the next, and it's critically important to come up with a security incident response plan that fits your organization's needs.
Brien Posey is a 16-time Microsoft MVP with decades of IT experience. As a freelance writer, Posey has written thousands of articles and contributed to several dozen books on a wide variety of IT topics. Prior to going freelance, Posey was a CIO for a national chain of hospitals and health care facilities. He has also served as a network administrator for some of the country's largest insurance companies and for the Department of Defense at Fort Knox. In addition to his continued work in IT, Posey has spent the last several years actively training as a commercial scientist-astronaut candidate in preparation to fly on a mission to study polar mesospheric clouds from space. You can follow his spaceflight training on his Web site.
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