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310-084 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Web Component Developer for Java. EE5 Upgrade
Test Code : 310-084
Test Name : Sun Certified Web Component Developer for Java. EE5 Upgrade
Vendor Name : SUN
: 119 Real Questions
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SAN RAMON, California, Feb. four, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The Wi-sun Alliance, a world ecosystem of member companies looking for to accelerate the implementation of open requisites-based mostly box enviornment Networks (FAN) and the internet of issues (IoT), today announced that the first wave of contributors have efficiently accomplished interoperability testing to turn into the first solutions to obtain Wi-sun FAN certification.
"specifications and interoperability are key to persevered growth for the IoT business," says Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-solar Alliance. "the provision of certified Wi-solar FAN options provides on their mission to present utilities, cities and service providers adaptable multi-service networks a good way to support make certain interoperability nowadays and for future generations."
The options from Cisco, Itron, Nissin techniques, Kyoto university, Landis+Gyr, Renesas and ROHM handle the wants of utilities, metropolis builders and different provider suppliers to simplify and aid giant-scale, outdoor networks for sensible cities, wise utilities and different IoT rollouts.
Wi-solar FAN is a communications infrastructure for extremely enormous-scale networks, enabling many devices to interconnect on one standard network. All Wi-solar licensed items have been carefully demonstrated by using Allion verify Labs in Taiwan, the primary look at various lab to achieve Wi-solar FAN 1.0 validation, to make sure the gadgets worked collectively effortlessly and securely to be sure fast time to market. Upon a success test completion, authorised products are accredited to display the Wi-sun certified FAN emblem, which shows to users that these items are compliant with open specifications, interoperable, relaxed and scalable and will also be deployed with self assurance. To study greater about Wi-sun product certification, please visit http://www.wi-solar.org.
Wi-sun FAN licensed items:
Cisco: performed the very first Wi-solar FAN 1.0 certification with its IR509 WPAN Industrial Router, which should be deployed into a diverse set of internet of issues purposes including: wise metering, smart grids, distribution automation, supervisory control and data acquisition, and highway lighting fixtures. committed to the Wi-solar program, Cisco has contributed multiple examine bed units for the Wi-solar FAN certification software.
Itron: The Wi-sun FAN certified Itron Bridge5-WS is a key part of the Itron community platform that allows cities and utilities to cost-without difficulty combine industrial IoT and utility control and monitoring devices onto a relaxed, professional and open necessities-based Wi-solar FAN. With this certification, Itron continues its long-time management within the Wi-solar Alliance leading up to this milestone, including tremendous contributions to the construction of the FAN Technical Profile, Compliance check Plan and examine mattress.
Nissin techniques, Kyoto school, and ROHM: Collaborated on the development of the EW-WSN BP35C4, which has carried out Wi-solar FAN certification. The EW-WSN BP35C4 is a multi-goal module compliant with Wi-sun FAN 1.0 router with a UART interface. it is easy to integrate in wise utilities and numerous IoT devices.
Landis+Gyr: The N550 community Node is a vital part of Gridstream® join, the trade main utility IoT answer that grants flexibility for applications akin to AMI, distribution automation, client engagement, wise cities, DER integration and extra. For more information please consult with: https://www.landisgyr.com/solution/gridstream-join/
ProCubed: offered look at various tools for the certification checking out atmosphere together with: 1) ProShark Plus (Wi-sun FAN 1.0 Protocol Analyzer), 2) verify bed Controller (seasoned-Si-sun FAN1.0-915-TBC
Renesas: chosen to provide some of the interoperability test bed devices for the Wi-sun FAN certification program and achieved Wi-sun FAN 1.0 certification with its RF (RAA604S00)+ MCU (RX651) wireless solution.
be certain to consult with us at DistribuTECH 2019The Wi-solar Alliance will show off Wi-solar FAN certified solutions from Cisco, Itron, Landis+Gyr, Nissin systems and Renesas at DistribuTECH 2019 in sales space 11225.
be part of the Wi-sun Alliance and utilities Hawaiian electric, Xcel energy and Avangrid for the smart city/IoT panel session: field enviornment Networks guide Utility and wise metropolis Initiatives on Wednesday, February sixth, 2019, from 1:30 p.m. - three:00 p.m. in rooms 280-282. Panelists will focus on how enthusiasts are becoming a essential component in the creation of smart cities.
additionally do not leave out the increasing the Grid potential Hub on the demonstrate flooring sales space 12031 scheduled for Thursday, February seventh from 10:00 AM -eleven:00 AM. Iker Urrutia from Iberdrola will talk about interoperability applied to smart metering and the way Wi-sun technology is the conversation protocol chosen to handle the challenge for an upcoming project within the state of big apple. Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-solar Alliance will give a top level view of the Wi-solar Alliance organization, the specification for box area Networks, and an update on certification status, technical collaborations with other businesses, and plans for the long run.
about the Wi-solar AllianceThe Wi-solar Alliance is a worldwide non-income member-primarily based affiliation made up of trade main agencies. Its mission is to force the international proliferation of interoperable wireless options for use in smart cities, sensible grids and different information superhighway of things (IoT) applications the usage of open world necessities from companies, comparable to IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With greater than 200 participants worldwide, membership of the Wi-sun Alliance is open to all industry stakeholders and comprises silicon providers, product providers, features providers, utilities, universities, firms and municipalities and local executive organizations. For greater assistance, please discuss with: www.wi-sun.org.
Wi-sun Alliance and the Wi-sun Alliance brand are logos of the Wi-sun Alliance.related links
source Wi-sun Alliance
The solar certified Java Programmer (SCJP) is a professional in regards to the fundamentals of the Java programming language, and qualified SCJPs are popular by way of a wide array of agencies engaged in utility construction. The SCJP examination is also a prerequisite to better-degree certifications in different Java-connected areas, reminiscent of internet components, business add-ons, internet services and mobile applications.training learning Paths accessible via solar, school classes also obtainable Job abilities Programming languages, firm, math knowledge, knowing of abstract concepts Median income (2015)* $seventy nine,530 for computer programmers$ninety eight,260 for application functions developers Job boom (2014-2024)* -8% for desktop programmers19% for software functions builders
supply: *U.S. Bureau of Labor recordstraining information
sun Microsystems offers several 'getting to know Paths' to certification, for college students with minimal prior adventure or these generic with different programming languages. Many other institutions, from technical faculties to universities, offer working towards in Java principles, recommendations and development methods, and all of these classes put together the scholar to be a superior Java programmer, and take the solar certified Java Programmer exam. the two-hour examination ought to be taken at a licensed checking out facility, and there are not any specific prerequisites.capabilities Required
a company figuring out of computer systems, programming languages and advanced programming ideas would put you on the quick music to a career as a sun licensed Java Programmer. students with little programming event however respectable math aptitude, organizational potential and an realizing of summary concepts may still believe taking a newbie's stage path in desktop concepts earlier than the SCJP training. sun offers sun certified Java affiliate (SCJA) working towards for non-technical students, and different introductory computing device courseware is largely purchasable.career and financial Outlook
based on the U.S. Bureau of Labor data (BLS), the median annual revenue in 2015 for purposes utility developers become $ninety eight,260. desktop programmers made a median annual salary of $seventy nine,530 within the identical 12 months, but there became no selected records for sun-licensed Java programmers. Jobs for computing device programmers will decline with the aid of eight% during 2014-2024, whereas application utility builders will see raises of 19% in line with the BLS. Programmers and utility builders experienced in a broad latitude of applied sciences, peculiarly currently popular ones like Java, should still proceed to have the optimal employment possibilities.
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Passionate about learning theory Kathy Sierra has dedicated part of her life to make learners’ lives easier by transforming the way of teaching. Author of the Head First programming book series, trainer, and former blogger, Kathy stands out in their list for her innovative contributions in computer science education.
Sierra has a background as a game designer (for Virgin, MGM, and Amblin Entertainment) and teacher of New Media Interactivity at the University of California Entertainment Studies. Also, she worked as a Master Trainer at Sun Microsystems (the company that created the Java programming language), teaching others how to teach Java and developing certification exams, such as the Sun Certified Web Component Developer. Furthermore, she founded one of the world’s largest Java community websites javaranch.com and was the author of the once popular blog Creating Passionate Users. Over the years, she has dedicated her life to transfer knowledge and inspire others to teach.Head First Book Series
Kathy is the creator together with Bert Bates of the popular Head First series of introductory instructional books published by O’Reilly Media. The goal of the books is to focus in metacognition, most especially in how the brain works and how to exploit it for better learning and memory.
The space between the lessons and practice is where the learning is made permanent.
The learning principle behind the Head First books is that “first you have to get it and then make sure you don’t forget it”. It’s not about forcing facts into your head and presenting pages of just text. Sierra’s books are based on making the message visual (putting images and words near the graphics they relate), using a personalized style (telling stories and using casual language), and getting the learner to think deeply (by motivation and engagement).
Kathy understood that learning can be frustrating at the beginning but that shouldn’t be a barrier. So, she concentrated in stimulating the apprentice’s brain by using attention-grabbing tactics, such as a thought-provoking page layout, peculiar examples, puzzles, jokes, and some other techniques. The books don’t exhaustively cover every aspect of the languages, but they certainly integrate a great way to approach the unknown.Example Page oh Head First Java Badass Users
At the present time, Kathy is more focused in product development, marketing and user experience. Inside the business of software, she has been helping large companies, small start-ups, non-profit organizations, and educators rethink their strategy to user experience. In one of her most recent books Badass: Making Users Awesome, Sierra talks about the sociological side of the product development — “how to build badass users, not just badass products”. With the premise that every experience has the potential to be transformative, she puts the target in building an approach to help the user have deeper and richer experiences instead of focusing in persuasive marketing strategies.
“Upgrade your user, not your product. Don’t build better cameras, build better photographers.”Trouble at the Koolaid Point
In 2007 Kathy Sierra was a role model for women in tech, she was teaching Java at Sun Microsystems, her books were best sellers and she was flourishing on her design and coding blog posts. But all of a sudden, her public appearances were abruptly suspended, and she withdraw from online activity for several years.
Some time before that, she wrote about the “The Koolaid Point” (a threshold at which enough users become so passionate that others accuse them of drinking the koolaid), the haters or trolls of discussion forums:
You don’t really have passionate users until someone starts accusing them of “drinking the koolaid.” You might have happy users, even loyal users, but it’s the truly passionate that piss off others enough to motivate them to say something. Where there is passion, there is always anti-passion… or rather passion in the hate dimension.
It all started with receiving criticism on technical matters and ended with rape and death threats. Kathy said to have suffered doxxing, swatting, physical assault and stalking, “real-life damage”. This harassment and trolling against Sierra made her back up.
Later I learned that the first threat had nothing to do with what I actually made or said in my books, blog posts, articles, and conference presentations. The real problem — as my first harasser described — was that others were beginning to pay attention to me. He wrote as if mere exposure to my work was harming his world.
Kathy Sierra pushed back the frontiers of knowledge. Her passion for helping others learn and enjoy programming made her have such an impact in the world of computers that many of us are indebted to her. While she might have taken a distance from the public, her lasting influence lives on with every beginner that’s able to have a shot at a career in programming, thanks to her dedication and love.
Language and Runtime Support
Java. Developed in 1995 by Sun. All code is compiled into bytecode and interpreted by a virtual machine (JVM). May also be selectively JIT compiled, depending on the JVM, or fully natively compiled with ancillary products (such as JOVE). Can run on any platform that supports a JVM. IBM supports v1.3 of the J2SE SDK.
VBScript and JScript for Web pages and any COM-based language for server components (typically VB or VC++). Scripts are interpreted, while components are natively compiled. VB code also requires a runtime DLL (MSVBMxx.DLL). VBScript and JScript came into use in 1997, while COM grew out of OLE in 1993.
Any language that supports the Common Language Runtime (20-plus in development). Initially compiled to an intermediate language (MSIL) and then JIT compiled to native code by the CLR at runtime or natively compiled (PreJit) at install time. Code written for the CLR is referred to as managed code. Support for the CLR will be shipped with future OSes starting with Windows XP Server released by the end of 2001.
Standard Java classes found in the J2SE, plus the APIs (JDBC, JSP, EJB, JMS, JAXP, JCA, JFC, JNDI, and so on, as defined in the J2EE specification). In addition, vendors include their own extensions to J2EE for integration and differentiation in the marketplace.
Win32, COM, MFC, ATL, and ASP. Five primary programming models that contain APIs that developers use in building solutions.
Services Framework. A hierarchical set of managed classes arranged in namespaces. Provides a consistent programming model and unifies the APIs needed to build solutions.
Java Package. Collection of Java classes assembled as a unit and arranged hierarchically. Weak versioning. Server-based deployment uses XML-based deployment descriptors, which are read and handled differently by each vendor's implementation. WebSphere includes an application assembly tool to handle this process.
DLL, EXE. DLLs contain a collection of functions with weak versioning. EXEs represent an executable program with weak versioning. COM components are housed in DLLs, rely on the registry, and support immutable interfaces but no runtime version checking. Server-based installation accomplished through third-party utilities such as InstallShield.
Assembly. Unit of deployment, security, and versioning. Includes built-in PKI support and metadata to tightly control binding of assemblies at runtime. Support exists in the class loader of the CLR for consistency and version checking. Server-based deployment can be done in a no-impact fashion by simply copying the relative paths that contain the application. Applications also can explicitly share components. Support for the Windows Installer included in VS.NET.
Active Server Pages (ASP 2.0). Technology introduced by MSFT in 1997 in which pages containing server-side code are interpreted by an ISAPI server extension and can use simple HTTP caching through headers. No native support exists for different devices, and there are no client-state services other than cookies. ASP runs primarily on IIS 4.0/5.0 but has been ported to other platforms (see Chili!Soft, purchased by Sun). Performance of JSP and ASP is similar on similar hardware platforms.
ASP.NET. ASP.NET pages are compiled into MSIL either statically or on the fly when a request is made. Server control architecture allows abstraction for different devices and state storage across HTTP POST events. Server controls allow developers to create "adaptive controls" to render HTML, WML, and so on as appropriate for the client platform. Runs on IIS 4.0/5.0. Beta performance tests indicate a 200–300% improvement over JSP and ASP.
Web Server Processing
HttpServlets provide a request/response model available to Java classes in addition to session-state services keyed with a client cookie. JSPs often call servlets as the controller that acts as the broker between presentation and business service layers to provide separation between the HTML and Java code. Because of the complexity of writing servlets many "two-tier Web apps" simply have the servlets make direct calls to the underlying database via JDBC. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain. The servlet engine is included in WAS and includes a JDBC connection manager that handles database connection pooling. WAS 4.0 is v2.2–compliant.
The ASP runtime implemented in the ISAPI server extension provides a request/response model in addition to session- (keyed with a client cookie) and application-state services. ASP pages often call business services directly implemented as COM components, although many "two-tier Web apps" simply have the ASP pages make direct calls to the database via ADO. This leads to spaghetti code that is difficult to debug and maintain.
The HTTP Runtime in ASP.NET provides an extensible mechanism by which developers can hook into the processing of resources on the Web server through HTTP Modules. Provides very tight integration with the Web server. Also supports a request/response model and application- and session-state services. Session-state services can be deployed on a separate server to increase scalability. Provides a sophisticated caching mechanism for pages and programming code. Provides complete separation of HTML code and programming logic through code behind.
Enterprise Java Beans (EJB). Part of the original J2EE specification in 1998. Java classes that are deployed in component-oriented middleware (a container) that provides interception and adds services such as distributed transactions (using the Java Transaction Service [JTS] based on the OMG and using IIOP), security, and database connectivity. The container can run on the same server or remotely. EJBs come in two flavors: entity beans and session beans. Entity beans map to the state of an object as represented by a row in a database. Entity beans provide the mapping to the database and caching of the entity. Entity beans come in two styles: Container Managed Persistence (CMP) and Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). CMP beans allow the container to manage loading and saving the database information, whereas BMP beans provide methods for the developer to insert JDBC code directly. Session beans come in two flavors: stateful and stateless. Stateful beans maintain a conversation with a single client, whereas stateless beans can be reused by multiple clients, with the container handling the allocation. WAS 4.0 is EJB 1.1–compliant.
Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS). Provides component-oriented middleware for COM components introduced in 1996. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions through the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator service (MSDTC), security, and object activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Programmers take advantage of MTS services through the use of an API. Only components built in VC++ are free-threaded and thus perform better. No support for automatically mapping database rows to object instances exists.
Component Services (COM+ 1.0). Released with Windows 2000 in 2000 and provides component-oriented middleware for COM components. Provides interception and adds distributed transactions, security, object construction, object pooling, queued components (for asynchronous integration with MSMQ), loosely coupled events for publishing and subscribing to components, and activation support. Objects can be both stateful and stateless, depending on administrative settings. Although built for COM, .NET programmers create serviced components in .NET by deriving their class from a system class and decorate it with attributes to describe the services that it uses. The system class then communicates with COM+ via Win32 and COM APIs. No support for automatically mapping database rows to object instances exists. (The IMDB product that was removed from prerelease versions of COM+ would have served a similar purpose as entity beans, although the ADO.NET DataSet object serves a similar purpose.)
JDBC. Data Access API that allows SQL access to a tabular data source via drivers (there are currently 159 listed on Sun's site under 4 different types, ranging from JDBC to ODBC bridges to fully native-protocol Java implementations). Various drivers support connection pooling, distributed transactions, and rowsets, and some are J2EE-certified. The API is similar to the Win32 implementation of ODBC. JDBC 2.0 is the spec under J2EE 1.2, but 3.0 has been defined. Note that when using entity beans with CMP, the container provides the mapping to the database tables through a vendor-specific mechanism. WAS 4.0 supports JDBC core v2.1 and Extensions 2.0. WAS includes providers for DB2, MSSQL, Oracle, Informix, and Sybase.
ADO/OLE DB. OLE DB is both a specification for COM interfaces that database vendors implement (OLE Providers) and a set of services (such as cursor processing and connection pooling) implemented in Windows to provide data access to a variety of data sources. ADO is a simplified automation layer that sits on top of OLE DB to provide data access to scripting languages and COM-based languages such as VB. Although typically used for tabular data access, both ADO and OLE DB can be used to access nonstructured data such as email and XML. OLE DB also can be used to access data through the plethora of available ODBC drivers.
ADO.NET. A set of managed classes that provides access to data sources through what are called managed providers. These include TDS (SQL Server), OLE DB providers, and ODBC drivers. Each managed provider implements connections and connection pooling, commands/parameters, forward-only cursor processing, transaction processing, and error handling. ADO.NET also includes a middle-tier data cache object called a DataSet that provides an XML-based cache of data that can be used to bind to controls and synchronize changes to a data source through an adapter object implemented by the managed provider. Designed to support a loosely connected model with built-in XML representation of the data and XSD representation of the schema. Developers can work with relational data as XML data, and vice versa through the XMLDataDocument class.
Java Messaging Services (JMS). JMS is a set of client interfaces to message-oriented middleware (MOM) products that supports both message queues and publish-and-subscribe metaphors. MOM vendors implement JMS providers. JMS includes a specification for a new type of EJB, message beans. WAS includes the (WebSphere MQ) MQSeries JMS provider. WAS 4.0 is compliant with the 1.0.2 specification and includes support for JMS-XA distributed transactions across MQSeries-enabled systems and databases. Need to obtain WebSphere MQ separately.
Microsoft Message Queue Server (MSMQ). A MOM server product running on NT 4 and W2K that supports message queues but does not include a publish-and-subscribe feature built into the product. The product includes a COM-based API for sending and receiving messages and administering queues. Supports distributed transactions through MSDTC. MSMQ is built into Windows NT 4.0 Server.
System.Messaging. A set of managed classes that provide the administrative and client APIs for working with MSMQ servers. MSMQ is built into Windows 2000 Server. It should be noted that developers can access MSMQ through queued components (QC) supported by COM+ 1.0. QC acts as an abstraction layer to allow clients to asynchronously make method calls on components that are backed by MSMQ.
Java Foundation Classes (JFC). JFC includes the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) and Swing as Java APIs for building GUII applications. Swing is a more abstract API and includes a "look and feel" for developing the same GUI on multiple platforms or adhering to a platform standard. Advanced graphics can be created with the Java2D and 3D APIs. GUI apps run as standalone applications or applets running in a browser.
Win32/ActiveX. Applications written in VB, VC++, or other Windows development tools. Ultimately these tools make calls to the Win32 API for the underlying window management. ActiveX is a COM-based technology for building reusable binary visual components (.ocx) across development environments. Applications run as standalone applications or as ActiveX controls hosted in MSIE. Advanced graphics are available through the DirectX set of COM-based APIs.
Windows Forms. Set of managed classes that allow for the creation of forms-based applications. Takes advantage of new Windows 2000 features such as nonrectangular forms. Includes a managed control architecture to build reusable visual controls. Third parties will provide wrappers for DirectX functionality. Windows Forms–based applications can run as standalone applications or can be hosted in MSIE on clients with the CLR installed.
J2EE Connector (JCA). JCA is a specification based on the IBM Common Connector Framework (CCF). WAS contains WAS adapters used to connect to packaged applications such as JDEdwards, SAP, Peoplesoft, and so on. These are JCA-compliant and are shipped with VisualAge for Java. You can also build new adapters using the MQSeries adapter offerings. WAS AE multiserver version only.
SNA Server 4.0. Server product that includes OLE DB and ODBC support for AS/400 and DB2. Also includes COM Transaction Integrator (COMTI) for working with CICS and IMS transactions as if they were COM objects. Includes MSMQ-MQSeries bridge and host printing services, among others. Basically, this is COM-based integration, and there are also connectors to packaged products such as the SAP DCOM Connector.
Host Integration Server 2000. Update of SNA Server. Also includes integration with Commerce Server, BizTalk, Active Directory, and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). BizTalk also supports application-integration components (AIC) that can be built to integrate with packaged applications; for example, there is a SAP R/3 AIC available.
Java API for XML Parsing (JAXP). An API and abstraction layer to deal with various XML parsers. Not included in the J2EE 1.2, but 1.0 is in 1.3. v1.1 supports XSLT and DOM Level 2 and SAX v2.0. IBM has a 100% Java validating XML parser with JAXP support available on its Web site. WAS includes support for DOM 1.0, SAX 1.0, and XSLT 1.0.
MSXML. Microsoft's COM-based XML parser, included as a standalone addition to the OS and in products such as MSIE. Version 3.0 sp1 is the current version, with v4.0 as a technology preview on the MSDN Web site. V3.0 supports XSLT, XPath, and SAX2. Implements much of the DOM functionality specified by the WS3C, in addition to SAX support for event-based processing of large XML documents.
System.Xml. A set of managed classes that implement the DOM, XSLT, and XPath specifications by the W3C. Supports both a tree-based model (DOM) and an innovative stream-based approach for parsing XML documents. Also contains a class that maps XML documents to the ADO.NET DataSet class to provide XML-based access to relational data.
WAS ships with the Apache SOAP 2.2 tool support. The toolkit is SOAP 1.1–compliant. Can expose Java classes, EJBs, BSF scripts, or DB2-stored procs as a Web Service. Includes a command-line utility to publish EJBs as SOAP services. Development tools contain wizards to create WSDL from an existing Java application or read WSDL to create a server stub or client proxy. UUDI4J support is also included for client-side interaction with UDDI registries.
SOAP Toolkit 2.0. Downloadable. Current release is sp2. Provides a COM wrapper for implementing Web Services. Wizard exposes COM objects as a Web Service using ASP or IIS ISAPI extensions. Support for WSDL 1.1. A separate UDDI SDK is available for download, and provides a COM API for building and querying a UDDI registry. The toolkit integrates into VS 6.0 so that creating Web Services from COM components is straightforward.
.NET Framework. SOAP 1.1 is implemented in a variety of the base class libraries and, therefore, is very tightly integrated from both consumer and implementer perspectives. Allows individual methods in managed classes to be exposed as Web Services through an attribute of the framework. Automatic creation of WSDL from XSD schemas and managed classes. Automatic creation of managed client proxies from WSDL through the command line and UI in VS.NET with full Intellisense. A separate UDDI SDK is available for download that provides managed classes for building and querying a UDDI registry.
Remote Method Invocation (RMI)-Internet InterORB Protocol (IIOP). Provides the programming model (RMI) and the protocol layer for (CORBA IIOP) Java-to-Java communication. Servlets and applets communicate with EJBs via RMI. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
DCOM. Extension of COM for component communication across the network using any of the Windows NT network protocols. Includes remote activation and security features. Remoting of object instances must be specifically programmed into the COM objects themselves. Assumes a tightly bound model that creates firewall issues and is not well suited to the Internet.
.NET Remoting. Implemented in a set of managed classes. Allows managed code to communicate across app domain boundaries. Can communicate via HTTP or TCP channels. Supports remoting of object instances via binary or SOAP protocols. Supports singletons and client activation. The use of HTTP and SOAP promotes a loosely coupled architecture that does not incur firewall problems.
Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). Programming interface that provides access to directory services such as DNS, LDAP, Novell (NDS), and CORBA COS through vendor-specific providers.
WAS 4.0 is JNDI 1.2–compliant for EJB lookup. The IBM SecureWay Directory 3.2.1 product is included in WAS for access to Active Directory, Lotus Domino, and NDS.
Active Directory Services Interface (ADSI). COM programming interface that supports access to NT, LDAP, and Novell (NDS) directory services through vendor-specific providers.
Active Directory and System.DirectoryServices namespace. Windows 2000 Server includes the distributed directory used in a Windows 2000 domain while the managed classes, in DirectoryServices provide a wrapper around the ADSI interfaces to programmatically access a directory.
WebSphere Studio, Visual Age for Java. Both ship with WAS. Studio is used to build the visual representation of Web pages and JSPs, while Visual Age is used for Java coding of servlets, beans, and EJBs.
Visual Studio 6.0, released in 1998 (three IDEs). Separate IDEs exist for VC++/Visual Interdev for ASP development, and VB for form and component development. Graphical Web development.
Visual Studio.NET. Single IDE that supports unified debugging, project management, Intellisense, Server Explorer, graphical editor for the Web and forms, class view, dynamic help, add-ins, and scripting. Can be used to build console applications, Windows Forms, Web Forms, Web Services, Windows Services, and components. Third-party compiler vendors can plug into VS.NET.
ebXML. An industry specification (not a shipping product) for performing business-to-business transactions using XML and the Web. Includes some support for SOAP. Not implemented in WAS. Would need to roll your own infrastructure perhaps using Web Services.
No support on NT 4. Would need to roll your own infrastructure using the SOAP Toolkit and Windows services.
BizTalk Server 2000, released in 2000. A separate server product that provides a messaging/scheduling engine and business process orchestration facilities. Messaging includes support for EDI, SOAP, and Rosettanet grammars, in addition to others.
For organizations that must have platform neutrality, J2EE is the only alternative. The Java language is becoming more widely accepted. Vendors such as IBM offer a single-vendor solution when dealing with legacy applications. Separation of application logic and presentation exists, although, in practice, this is underutilized. EJB model includes automatic database-mapping facilities through CMP.
Large base of VB/ASP developers, resulting in reduced costs. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Software costs are low. Multiple language support through COM. Tight integration with the dominant client platform (Windows).
Multiple languages supported with a common set of class libraries. Unified programming model with the Services Framework. High productivity development environment. Web application performance. Runs on commodity servers that can be scaled out. Separation of application logic and presentation exists. Greater integration with XML and Web Services protocols. Tight integration with the dominant client platform (Windows).
Single-language solution. Smaller base of developers. EJBs are complex and not widely used. Thus, JSPs are overused, resulting in spaghetti code. Varying levels of J2EE conformance across vendors. The need to use vendor-specific features leads to vendor lock-in. Performance varies due to vendor-specific implementations. Software cost is generally higher, developer costs are higher, and deployment time is increased.
Highly fragmented programming model. COM infrastructure is unwieldy, leading to DLL hell and versioning problems. ASP pages that do not utilize COM for business and data-access services lead to spaghetti code. Single-vendor solution.
Not a shipping product. OO nature of CLR makes development initially more complicated for VB/ASP developers. Single-vendor solution. Does not support an automatic mapping of database rows to objects as with CMP, although there is widespread disagreement within the industry as to whether entity beans are desirable because they do not promote transactional consistency and are questionable in terms of performance. For more information, see Roger Session's Web site.
COVER STORYCapturing the private cloud
For large organizations, keeping resources in-house could be the way to go — if you can clear a few hurdles
The information technology industry is all abuzz over cloud computing, but government agencies might need to sit on the sidelines until vendors work out security and procurement issues. All those benefits that accrue with this new approach to computing — flexibility with resources and savings with consolidation — will have to wait.
Or will they? At the Federal IT on a Budget Forum in Washington recently, Jim Whitehurst, president and chief executive officer of Red Hat, urged agencies to build their own clouds.
"There is a significant amount of value in a cloud infrastructure for a single entity that is running multiple programs and multiple data centers," Whitehurst said. If an agency is running more than 1,000 servers, it could save money and become more flexible with its processor resources by building an internal cloud computing infrastructure, he said. A private cloud could offer almost all the benefits of a public cloud but without the attendant security and privacy headaches.
"What is the benefit of a public cloud? For most large agencies in the government or even medium-sized agencies, there is a not a lot of purchasing cost advantage with going to a third-party cloud," Whitehurst said. "The real benefit is getting high utilization of your existing infrastructure and flexibility around that."
Whitehurst said Red Hat has more than 50 enterprise customers with private clouds. "They are seeing huge benefits [by] running clouds themselves," Whitehurst said. One customer he spoke with, a chief information officer of a large organization running 25,000 processors, told him that public-cloud services such as Amazon.com would not provide much of a cost advantage to his organization because his company could obtain servers at almost the same cost as those providers.
In March, IT analyst firm McKinsey & Co. released a report arguing that although small and midsize organizations could save money by using public-cloud services, large organizations could save money by keeping their processing needs in-house.
The firm estimated that if an organization could consolidate servers and keep the operational costs of the resulting data center to $45 per month per CPU, it could enjoy this computational power at a rate that would be less expensive than the cost of running operations on, say, Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud.
"The cloud is just a fancy term for globally accessible resource pool," said Maj. Carl Brodhun, a lead information architect for the Marine Corps' Systems Command, who spoke at the forum about the Marines’ private-cloud deployment. "The key to cloud computing is the business processes that allow people to leverage the technical advancements associated with virtualization."
Private cloud reporting for duty
How do you set up a cloud? Most, though not all, of the technologies are available for an organization to put together a computing-as-a-service offering.
To set up a private cloud, an agency would pool all its servers and offer the processing power to each department, Whitehurst said. Although such a step is easier said than done, some agencies are attempting this approach, or at least parts of it.
Rather than build a cloud computing infrastructure, the Army Research Laboratory is re-engineering its application layer in a cloudlike fashion.
"Although we're not doing virtualized compute resources, their application architecture represents a lot of what you'd like to see in a cloud — we're doing real-time provisioning, service-level agreements...dynamically monitoring services," said Dennis Reedy, a system architect and adviser for ARL supporting contractor Altus Engineering, speaking at the JavaOne conference held recently in San Francisco.
The lab is updating its Modular Unix-based Vulnerability Estimation Suite. Version 3 of MUVES is a complete rewrite of a general-use modeling and simulation application that ARL has used for the past 20 years. Among other uses, the agency employs the software to measure how much damage bullets, bombs and other projectiles can do to vehicles.
Unlike the previous version of MUVES, the new software will be a distributed architecture, one in which different functions of the applications are broken into tiers, which then could be run on different workstations or servers. The software will be "composed over numerous services on a local network," said ARL computer scientist Ronald Bowers, who also spoke at the JavaOne presentation. The client software, which resides on the user's workstation, interacts with gateway software, which pieces together the needed components from various services elsewhere on the network, including other workstations. To confront the persistence problem, material that is not currently needed is moved to storage.
For an organization to build a private cloud, the first step will be to consolidate the servers. They could be consolidated into a single data center for management efficiency. A second data center could be set up as backup.
Most, although not all, cloud providers use some form of server virtualization technology, such as commercial offerings from Citrix Systems, VMware or Microsoft. The general idea is that each physical server could host multiple virtual servers, or virtual containers, each running an application. The software being placed in a cloud has to be installed in virtual containers, and all the virtual containers need to be placed in a repository, where they can be called up as needed.
These virtualization tools all have management consoles, which allow administrators to keep an eye on the virtualized machines, initiate new instances of applications and move them from one server to another. Some of those applications offer some automation capabilities, though an organization would need to script the workflow for automated operations. In addition, load balancers would be needed in the front end to distribute the work across multiple virtual machines.
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