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250-824 exam Dumps Source : Data Protection Troubleshooting for UNIX using NetBackup 5.x
Test Code : 250-824
Test Name : Data Protection Troubleshooting for UNIX using NetBackup 5.x
Vendor Name : Symantec
: 128 Real Questions
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Symantec Corp.'s Backup Exec is a well-liked facts backup program for computing device and networked storage programs. although, as with all application, there are things that can also be set incorrectly or things that may go incorrect which will sluggish performance. within the case of a backup software, a slipup can significantly enhance the time it takes to complete your backup jobs. when you are the use of Backup Exec and your performance is never what it can be, some troubleshooting may well be in order. here's an inventory of potential things to appear out for.Get a baseline: analyze ancient backup logs
delivery with the aid of looking at your old backup job logs and note each the full time required to again up, the size of the backups, and the universal velocity. (Go to the "job video display" tab in Backup Exec and choose "job background.") compare this to the current pace and complete time it takes to comprehensive the job. If there's a major slowdown, you'll deserve to appear more carefully for viable reasons.
damage the procedure down and examine the velocity of each disk or agent being backed up. To do this, set up separate jobs for each disk or agent being backed up and back them up separately. If one disk or agent looks unusually sluggish, drill all the way down to investigate the trigger by way of inspecting the job in element.
examine that the records is not being redirected in other places. Some file systems allow a listing to consist of facts from a file on an additional server within the backup. this can decelerate the total backup technique.
if you are backing up over a network, which you could test the device throughput by using evaluating the Backup Exec logs with the logs of home windows backup (NTBackup) If the Backup Exec logs reflect a lot of situations that do not reveal up in the NTBackup logs, extra analysis is known as for. If remote backups don't seem to be working, are trying backing up from one force to another on the faraway server. examine the logs of the Backup Exec backup and the home windows backup. (This assumes you are analyzing a drive rather than an agent for a software like Microsoft trade.)assess for disk fragmentation
be sure to additionally examine that there don't seem to be loads of small data or directories on the disk. this could decelerate backups in a lot the same means fragmentation does by way of requiring loads of reads to get the suggestions off the disk for backup.
Disk fragmentation can sluggish efficiency of Backup Exec drastically. verify to look how fragmented your disks are and defragment if critical.flip compression on
inform the Backup Exec to compress any information which may also be compressed. Some info, like mpegs and jpegs, can not be compressed. if you suspect the issue could be within the compression, are attempting switching from hardware to application compression, or vice versa.be certain your backup application is never getting in the manner
Antivirus utility can be a particular problem in Backup Exec. Checking every file being backed up for viruses is unnecessary and slows backup efficiency. For more on the interaction between Backup Exec and Norton Antivirus, see Symantec's Backup Exec discussion board. also, the newer models of Backup Exec have a function referred to as Tamper insurance policy that can cause issues with antivirus utility.Tape backup with Backup Exec
if you are backing up to tape, power cycle the tape power or library and the server. This should solve temporary problems. This re-initializes the tape device and resets the tape gadget's state. This might also remedy every little thing from an issue led to by a power glitch to some incorrectly set parameters.
The SCSI part (controllers, cables, terminators, and so forth.) of your backup system can sap efficiency if the parameters are set incorrectly when backing up to tape. determine the documentation and compare the values there with your settings. The check choice should still provide you with a fine ordinary photograph of the condition of the SCSI device. they can do the same factor when backing as much as disk, but because of the random write nature of disk, it would not have the difficulty to the same diploma tape does. Tape wants data fed at a pleasant even velocity that fits the pace of the tape unit for most fulfilling performance. Disk can deal with intermittent slowdowns within the statistics price more advantageous than tape can since it writes randomly.Use the 'examine' option to check the fitness of the SCSI system
The determine operation is often restricted by means of the speed of the SCSI equipment. verify the performance with the aid of inspecting the logs of jobs with check operations in them. If the determine speeds are low, assess the SCSI subsystem for possible bottlenecks.
make certain your controller is rated for the velocity of your tape drive. for instance, an LTO-3 tape power requires a SCSI 320 network. determine that your tape drives are not related to a SCSI RAID controller.
among the many other possible issues with SCSI are unsuitable cabling, unfastened or unhealthy termination and mistaken SCSI BIOS settings. also make certain the "provoke vast negotiation" choice is decided to "yes" when you are the usage of a sixty eight-pin cable connector to your tape drive.
if you're backing as much as disk, examine the Backup to Disk (B2D) folder. The B2D folder's leading use is to stay away from the lack of statistics if a tool fails, however offers a benchmark for Backup Exec towards an extra equipment. You want at least 2 Gb of facts to allow for caches and such. It tends to get rid of problems with the utility and the server being backed up as feasible causes. look at various the B2D velocity via copying at the least 2 Gb of records to the B2D disk by way of dragging and losing the file(s). examine that with the pace of backing up the equal information. If the speed is concerning the same, the difficulty is most likely within the disk subsystem, including the controller.
See Symantec's troubleshooting tip doc for further Backup Exec troubleshooting guidance.
About this creator:Rick cook dinner makes a speciality of writing about issues regarding information storage and information storage management.
The story of Symantec’s recent transformation begins with a strategic aspiration: to place the business as a major disruptor in its chosen sector of cybersecurity. Over the span of 5 years, the business went via two most important divestitures, promoting Veritas to a personal fairness group in 2016, and website security to DigiCert in 2017. The enterprise additionally made two enormous acquisitions, Blue Coat in 2016 and LifeLock in 2017, followed by means of three smaller ones. Symantec then initiated two intensive rounds of restructuring that protected cutting back head count, which laid the groundwork for a subsequent wave of increase.
In doing all this, the company reoriented its goal. It went from selling enterprise software to featuring the world’s main cybersecurity structures for both patrons and world firms, and shifted company fashions from product orientation to subscription-based mostly. The company also went through a deeply felt cultural exchange, including a brand new emphasis on range at the accurate administration level. finally, Symantec changed CEOs twice, discovering strong floor with Blue Coat alumnus Greg Clark on the helm.
Symantec chief tips officer Sheila Jordan performed — and continues to play — a pivotal position overseeing the redesign and consolidation of the enterprise’s technological infrastructure. Jordan joined Symantec in 2014, quickly after the initiative started. Jordan prior to now served as a senior vice president at Cisco methods and Disney, now not simply in IT however additionally in finance, assisting earnings and advertising. Her technical knowledge and enthusiastic, rely-of-truth approach to simplifying the company’s digital expertise became a model for Symantec’s consumers. She’s also one of Silicon Valley’s most in demand feminine executives, in part on account of her capability to spot tendencies in the trade, and dwell ahead of the curve.
method+business caught up with Jordan in her Mountain View, Calif., office to focus on Symantec’s transformation and the changes taking location in Silicon Valley today.
S+B: How would you describe your function in Symantec’s transformation?JORDAN: i used to be employed back in 2014 to carry assistance know-how lower back in-apartment from a old outsourced mannequin and to construct a global-type IT organization. I knew that would be a major problem, and that i notion it could be lots of enjoyable. at the moment, I had no thought that the total enterprise changed into about to change.
Then got here the Veritas separation. A divestiture of this form is greatly greater complicated than an acquisition. They were becoming two separate agencies with their personal unbiased ecosystems of techniques and programs: WANs, LANs, sites, facts facilities and labs, business aid planning (ERP) methods, purposes, laptops, and mobile gadgets. every thing had to be break up aside, including all the records. They determined to do it in a complete method, to take this probability to beginning cleansing up tactics and simplifying every thing.
In 2016, with the Blue Coat acquisition, they made a similar alternative. They could have just jammed the two agencies collectively, with many legacy and redundant purposes operating concurrently. instead, they selected to simplify.
We strategically modified each point of the company and took the chance to think tactically and long-time period. This resulted in a couple of accomplishments, together with consolidating into one customer relationship management equipment. they are at the moment one unencumber far from consolidating numerous ERPs into one ERP; remodeling their business approaches and removing product SKUs; and streamlining their distribution channels and systems to make doing enterprise with Symantec simpler.
S+B: What needed to occur inner the enterprise to make the transformation be triumphant?JORDAN: individuals talk about “digital transformations” as in the event that they were all about technology. within the grand scheme of issues, the expertise is the effortless part. extra importantly, you deserve to focal point on improving your shoppers’ journey in buying your products and capabilities. for instance, due to the fact that your valued clientele use cell devices, your software interfaces ought to be as mobile-oriented as your clients are. At Symantec, they focused on four factors: speed, alignment, strategic choices, and communique.
S+B: Let’s take these so as. What does focusing on velocity and alignment suggest in follow?JORDAN: We’ve turn into tons faster and more aligned at Symantec. via this alignment, they have been capable of improve a plan that built-in six corporations and divested two. Between April 2017 and November 2018, we went through eight principal application releases, which protected massive alterations to ERP, CRM, and foundational information and reporting programs, with minimal company disruption. this is extraordinary within the ERP world. every most important liberate included a standard of 24 diverse services, from advertising to engineering to finance. This equates to essentially a unlock every other month. They used an agile strategy, with construction, integration, and consumer acceptance all happening concurrently. as a result of the company and IT alignment, the great of each liberate turned into terrific.
We used equivalent the right way to construct their international subscription platform, which is the platform used to sell their cloud SaaS [software-as-a-service] items. To enhance speed and ease, they modeled their person interface on the Amazon event: in exactly just a few clicks your order is accomplished.
shoppers and companions need a seamless event. They don’t need to see internal organizational handoffs. helping the business articulate the customer journey has [given us] a compelling approach to suppose horizontally, and from a customer lens, versus a purposeful view.
We brought IT, the business instruments, and the different functions in sync. for example, when they realized they couldn’t get every thing achieved within the April ERP gadget unencumber, they decided to push some points to might also. This supposed the businesses would have to absorb a guide technique for a short period of time. They agreed to this in enhance as a result of all of us shared their expectations up front and they spent a good period of time on communication.
i'm additionally tremendous happy with the way their engineering, advertising and marketing, and IT groups work together. For the world subscription platform, engineering owns the ordinary cloud, where the security SaaS products get provisioned. advertising owns the navigation, user experience, and content on the site for their direct small- and medium-enterprise consumers. IT owns the ordering and cash programs — and naturally, connects the whole platform collectively. but all of us own and are responsible for the entire event.
In that context, i like that IT individuals are naturally systemic method thinkers; they see horizontally. They know how purchasers adventure the enterprise. they are able to add price in broader agencies by mentioning duplications, gaps, and dependencies.
large decisions and communique
S+B: You noted another ingredient was “strategic choices.” What does that imply?JORDAN: i was relating to the manner they geared up the design and implementation of the transformation activity. There are two councils. each other Friday, a software council that oversees the particulars of the trade technique meets for two hours to go through enterprise and IT considerations. Then, predominant strategic decisions are discussed once a month by using a more senior community: the program board. This board includes the CEO and company unit conventional managers. all the way through these periods, they have modified their pricing structure for small groups, rethought their channel approach, and simplified their product choices.
S+B: How do you're making the councils work?JORDAN: They set expectations during the approach they work. Flawless execution isn't non-compulsory for us. It’s mandatory. We’re all during this together, and we’re all responsible.
for example, they learned to celebrate what they call “reds.” These are the issues that individuals can’t solve on their personal and ought to deliver up on the application councils. in the past, people weren’t at ease saying, “I’m pink this week.” They didn’t need their colleagues to grasp. They had been no longer leveraging the vigour of the room and their colleagues.
We created an environment where it feels secure to walk into a council assembly and say, “I’m red.” It simply ability that you are astray and could want the room’s help, even if it’s a change-off with a colleague or now and again the assist of the exact administration crew, to get again on track. surroundings that tone relieves pressure and stress, raises accountability, accelerates route corrections, and units expectations alongside the manner.
this is the place mutual trust and admire among teams are vital. i will say at a software meeting, “i will be able to’t get that finished for this unlock; it’s inconceivable.” Or, “My team says they checked out it 12 other ways, and it received’t work this time.” but then i can offer to put it within the next unlock and ask them, “What are the implications for you because of this choice?” and comprehend they’ll reply candidly. That kind of alternate-off and negotiation is miraculous. I’ve labored on transformation and integration for 2 years, and i actually don’t suppose there’s been one dramatic moment. There had been many suit debates, however it hasn’t develop into terrible, with pointing fingers or a blame online game. This subculture has allowed us to be so a hit. they are the usage of their crucial elements and mental power to solve real customers concerns and actual business issues.
S+B: What concerning the fourth element you mentioned: communication?JORDAN: i will’t articulate ample how crucial widespread and relevant verbal exchange is. exchange inevitably ends up in concern and uncertainty. The personnel want many snippets of verbal exchange, even if the leaders don’t have all of the answers. They deserve to reassure people, “it’s good enough” or “we’ll get this.” After becoming a member of Symantec and building an international-class IT group with hundreds of contributors around the world, I begun publishing an inner weekly blog — just a couple of paragraphs of crucial activities or tasks, attention, calls to motion, and information. I believe I’ve missed four weeks in 4 years. each time I neglected it, I immediately heard from my employees, “the place is the blog?” americans need to hear what’s going on. In an oblique way i'm creating a community in the IT organization. Infrastructure wants to grasp what's happening in the software space and vice versa. personnel love to recognize their job is critical, and it’s up to leaders to explain the way it all suits collectively.
Bringing Cultures collectively
S+B: What become the cultural change at Symantec like from your standpoint?JORDAN: It [has been] huge. 4 years ago, I doubtless would have observed, “lifestyle is vital. nevertheless it’s no longer vital.” today, I consider work on way of life is integral. Their enterprise mission is to offer protection to the world. anybody in the business can lean in against that commentary; it’s empowering, but you also have to set goals and be clear on the way you are going to satisfy that mission.
S+B: What different cultural considerations did you have?JORDAN: With acquisitions, you have got different cultures to integrate, like having a blended family. Symantec, Norton, Blue Coat, and LifeLock all had distinctive cultures. It’s essential to make the effort to establish the “new way of life” that takes the best of the most suitable from each and every acquisition. This takes time, so it’s crucial to focus on the work that can also be executed automatically. if you’re geared up as it should be, and also you create a mix of the employees from diverse companies, you grow to be with a various team and a lifestyle with distinct perspectives and experiences. perhaps it’s the character of IT, with a significant demand and volume of work, or how the teams have been prepared, however in their case, essentially in a single day, it grew to be irrelevant the place someone came from.
What mattered became that they confirmed up as a cohesive IT firm, fixing Symantec’s complex problems and working towards enhancing efficiency for their customers, partners, and personnel. The work will kind the culture, certainly in case you all consider such as you’re within the same boat, and it'll force the degree of appreciate, trust, and credibility bigger.
S+B: in case you had to suggest an organization going via identical adjustments, is there anything noteworthy you’d tell them concerning the transformation system that you just haven’t mentioned?JORDAN: have fun successes, generally. They managed the restructuring and acquisition whereas concurrently running the business, with quarter-ends, monetary closes, and the entire usual demands on IT to run and operate a multibillion-dollar business. The experience is lengthy, and individuals believe they’ll have a good time when it’s finished. however you’re in no way truly done. It’s going to be continuous change forever. Take time along how to make individuals believe diagnosed and valued. present reasonably-priced celebrations or prepare a group experience. in an effort to give them the incentive and thought to proceed.
feminine leadership in technology
S+B: You’re one of the crucial renowned women in Silicon Valley, at a time when many tech groups are attempting to increase their percentage of female executives. How does this problem come up at Symantec?JORDAN: Their diversity initiative is a huge precedence for their CEO, Greg Clark. It’s important to look male CEOs take this seriously. They’re the ones who have to lead when they delivery to trade deeply held pondering and biases. [Clark is active in CEO Action for Diversity and Inclusion, a coalition of business leaders launched in 2017 to address these issues more effectively. Tim Ryan, PwC’s U.S. chair, is the chair of the group’s steering committee.] Their CHRO, Amy Cappellanti-Wolf, is also super-obsessed with this.
S+B: what is driving this trade? Why now?JORDAN: One element, of direction, is the broadening focus of diversity considerations within the tech industry. The more youthful era is also forcing trade. Millennials think about variety otherwise; they grew up going to faculty with individuals from distinctive geographies and ethnicities, as well as shifting gender norms and expectations. As they convey that intellect-set into their corporations, it ends up in a reverse mentoring for the relaxation of us. The millennials are educating us what it looks like to not have ingrained biases in opposition t different organizations, and i love that.
at this time, ladies make up 26 p.c of the world team of workers at Symantec, which is above commonplace for the industry. in accordance with Steve Morgan of Cybersecurity Ventures, ladies characterize 20 p.c of the global cybersecurity team of workers and [that proportion] continues to grow.
extra, their most recent set of summer interns have been 60 % ladies. That’s tons better, however nevertheless no longer respectable enough.
S+B: Is the gender difficulty different in technology than in other industries?JORDAN: it is, just since the percentage of men is so much greater. once I seek advice from their banking or retail shoppers, for instance, there are greater ladies in all places, at all levels of the company. Of direction, in practically any enterprise, the bigger you go in the hierarchy, the decrease the percent of women tends to be.
S+B: Do you feel that’s altering now?JORDAN: I’ve studied this for years. however some ladies stop advancing of their careers when they hit own lifestyles activities, no matter if it’s having toddlers or caring for growing old folks, many continue to face challenges round lack of mentorship, constrained access to opportunity, or feelings of isolation. They need to create ways for americans to work that healthy existence’s challenges and simultaneously open up an opportunity. once more, millennials set an example. they're becoming up in an international where everything is a provider. they can get some thing they desire: software, food, gasoline, a trip, clothing. They click on and it’s there. quick-ahead 10 years, and we’ll perhaps have an open marketplace of work assignments based mostly merely on advantage. I’ll take on a venture that looks interesting for one enterprise; after which do a different mission for a unique business. In that context, maybe women may have more advantageous access to chance, will event less bias, and received’t opt out at the price they are today.
S+B: Does having a enhanced feminine presence make a change within the way a company handles a transformation?JORDAN: You often read that it does, since it is declared that women are usually more empathetic than guys. however that may well be a stereotype. To force transformation, you want diverse thinking, regardless of age, gender, ethnic history, sexual orientation, or another selected traits.
What concerns most is the job they ought to do. i'm the CIO for Symantec. I don’t cover my identity as a girl; I wear attire, jewelry, and make-up, and that i definitely can in my view relate to the regular challenges of a working mother with young toddlers. despite the fact, the proven fact that I’m a feminine doesn’t encourage any of my choices as CIO.
The way forward for Cybersecurity
S+B: How would you describe the outcome of Symantec’s transformation?JORDAN: Symantec now has two strategic company devices. Their business enterprise approach is in line with Symantec’s integrated cyber-defense platform. On the client side, with the acquisition of LifeLock, we’ve centered approaches for americans to independently protect their identities and their privacy. We simply delivered Norton privacy supervisor, an app that helps consumers take into account and take manage of their privacy and protect themselves on-line. We reside in a brand new digital world the place people are consistently sharing their personal advice, and that counsel may be mined for income. via this app, they offer their valued clientele the way to offer protection to their statistics and their privateness, for themselves and their families.
The interesting part of their method is that it addresses the old fragmentation of the safety trade. Many CSOs have referred to that they’re loaded up on safety equipment of their ambiance. truly, their recent web possibility security file (ITSR) indicated that on commonplace — in a large commercial enterprise enterprise — there are between sixty five and eighty five safety tools. Eighty-5 equipment! Now that’s reasonably fragmented. I accept as true with Symantec is completely positioned to eliminate that complexity and enrich effectivity with the aid of delivering their built-in cyber-defense platform. finances-wise, this carrier typically lowers expenses for their purchasers — it’s less demanding technically and it saves them money.
We additionally be aware of that client and enterprise safety are interrelated. If particular person personnel develop into extra aware about protection concerns and walk in the door more secured, with less possibility of compromise, that makes the job of any CIO more straightforward.
S+B: How do you music the external developments when it comes to threats?JORDAN: Symantec operates the world’s largest civilian threat intelligence community, and probably the most complete collections of cybersecurity threat solutions. They even have heaps of engineers in the firm, including those working at once on the products, who are engaged in risk intelligence. Symantec is chargeable for seeing and detecting issues before any one else does, and we’re the usage of that intelligence to warn others.
Cybercriminals have become smarter. If widely wide-spread cybersecurity is like locking the front door of your home, they’re discovering how you can are available in the facet door, a window, or a crack in the molding. and that they’re often lingering undetected and striking out, just watching. You don’t even be aware of they’re interior until they act.
Cyber products now need to have a big quantity of artificial intelligence and desktop getting to know built in. They must go to new lengths to give protection to essentially the most delicate records of an commercial enterprise, similar to payment card business [PCI] data, bank card suggestions, and now — with GDPR [General Data Protection Regulation] in effect — privateness facts. In earlier instances, a protection operations core analyst used to investigate the records logs after a breach, looking for clues. nowadays, they deserve to get at that needle within the haystack a great deal extra right away.
S+B: How should good management be thinking about these issues?JORDAN: security represents a big risk to any business. We’ve seen all too many circumstances the place, if it’s no longer managed smartly, it could actually have destructive implications. “Are they cozy?” is an easy question. The answer is extraordinarily complex. as an example, how do you make sure each employee is protection mindful? What are you doing to avoid someone from unintentionally leaving a laptop in the incorrect region?
“if you repair your cybersecurity, you’re just about cleaning apartment; you now know your infrastructure, functions, and information much more advantageous.”
In established, boards should spend extra time talking about safety. In many ways, it's as essential as the financials of an organization. The security posture may still no longer be delegated to a subcommittee. every member of the board really must take into account the safety posture of their company. on the C-suite stage, cybersecurity is commonly assigned to the CIO or chief safety officer, but the accountability of protection must be broader. protection is a company method. simply as with different enterprise thoughts, you ought to consider executive alignment, method, coverage, conversation, and, of course, know-how.
It’s no longer practically insurance plan. there's a price and effectivity play concerned. Your legacy servers and methods may get used handiest as soon as 1 / 4, however they take a seat there daily with no monitoring, presenting one more way for unhealthy guys to enter. should you repair your cybersecurity, you’re practically cleansing condo; you now know your infrastructure, purposes, and information tons stronger. which you can design your methods from the floor as much as be greater security conscious, resilient, and easier to make use of.
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This chapter, from Upgrading and Repairing Networks, 5e, looks at the network's logical and physical design to assist your planning when creating a new network.This chapter is from the book
Many types of networks were discussed in Chapter 1, "A Short History of Computer Networking," from ARPANET to TCP/IP. And in Chapter 2, "Overview of Network Topologies," you learned about the various topologies you can employ when designing and creating a local area network (LAN), and they also looked at some scenarios in which several networks were connected to form a wide area network (WAN). In this chapter, they will look at another aspect of creating a network: the network's logical and physical design. The physical aspects of your LAN will depend on the underlying physical transport technology—Ethernet or Token-Ring, for example, or possibly ATM, which is supported as a LAN protocol in products such as Windows 2000/XP, Windows Server 2003, and Linux. Depending on which technology you use, there will be one or more LAN topologies from which to choose.
Before you can begin to design a physical network, however, you first must determine your needs. What services must you provide to your user community? What are the resources you'll need? If you have to compromise, what will it take to satisfy the most users or to provide the more important services? You then will have to take into account network protocols, applications, network speed, and, most important, network security issues; each of these figures into a network's logical design. Another important factor your management will probably force you to consider is cost—you can't forget the budget. These factors make up the logical design for your network. You first should decide what you need and what it will take to provide for those needs.
If you are creating a new network and purchasing new applications, you will probably spend most of your time considering the licensing and other financial costs (training users, network personnel, and so on). If you are upgrading older applications, several other factors come into consideration. Many applications that were coded using COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, and other languages that helped jumpstart the computer age may have built-in network functionality based on older proprietary network protocols. If this is the case with your network, you have to consider several things. What will it cost to update thousands of lines of code (or more) to more modern versions of the same programming language? What will it cost to upgrade these programs to newer object-oriented languages? To save money, can you upgrade part of your network and use gateway hardware/software to connect to older network components?
Because of the costs associated with coding applications that were created many years ago, and the expenses that will be required to update them to modern programming languages, you may be forced to maintain legacy applications for a few years while replacement applications are designed and created. You may find a packaged application that can be used to replace older programs. This problem will apply mostly to proprietary computer architectures, instead of Windows or Unix platforms. If you can simply make minor changes and compile the source code so that it will run on a newer operating system, your costs will be much less than if you have to re-create the applications your users need from scratch. Another cost associated with upgrading to new programs is training users and help-desk personnel.
When you plan a logical network design, you can start from one of two places. You can design and install a new network from scratch, or you can upgrade an existing network. Either way, you should gather information about several important factors before you begin the logical design. For example, depending on the services that will be provided to clients, you might need to analyze the possible traffic patterns that might result from your plan. Locate potential bottlenecks and, where possible, alleviate them by providing multiple paths to resources or by putting up servers that provide replicas of important data so that load balancing can be provided. The following are other factors to consider:
This seems like a very simple question. However, I'm not saying, "What are your clients' names and how well do you know their children?" I am referring instead to your knowledge of the job descriptions for the users on the network. You need to assess work patterns for various departments so that you can appropriately place servers, high-bandwidth links, and other such things in the appropriate physical location of the network. If most of the network traffic you expect to see will come from the engineering department, you'll need to provide that department with a large data pipe. In Chapter 4, "Upgrading Strategies and Project Management," you'll find more information about surveying the user community to come up with a plan that places resources where they are needed.What Kinds of Services or Applications Will the Network Offer?
Of course, everyone knows that the most important function of a network today is to support multiuser gaming. Seriously, though, you need to make a list of the kinds of applications currently in use, as well as a list of those requested by users. Each application should have a written risk assessment document that points out potential security problems, if any. Typical network applications today include FTP, telnet, and, of course, browsing the Web. There are "secure" versions of these applications and there are versions that leave a door wide open into your network. Whatever list of applications you chose to support over the network, keep in mind two things:
A commonly overlooked method for getting data files out of a network and onto the Internet is to simply send the files as an attachment to an email. So if you think you've blocked file transfers by disabling FTP access through the firewall, this example should show that you really do need to do a thorough evaluation of any new application or service you will allow on the network. New applications should be justified with facts that show why they are needed. If an existing application can be used to accomplish the same goal, why do you need another application? Should you retire the older application and use a newer one? Pay attention to the details. And don't forget to test new applications to ensure that they perform as expected. The same goes for older applications—will they work on the new or upgraded network?
Lastly, do you monitor network usage? Do you want to permit users to spend their days browsing the Net, or checking personal email while at work? Many companies have policies that apply to using the telephone for personal business. Do you overlook this situation when giving users email capability? Are you preventing access to sites that are obviously not business-related?What Degree of Reliability Do I Require for Each Network Link?
Just how much downtime is acceptable? For most users, the answer would be zero. Important components of your network, such as file servers, should have fault tolerance built in from the bottom up. In large servers, you'll find dual-redundant power supplies (each connected to a separate UPS), and disk arrays set up using RAID techniques to provide for data integrity in the event that a disk goes south. If a link between two offices needs to be up 100% of the time, you should plan for multiple links between the two sites to provide a backup capability. In this case, you also can justify the cost of the extra link by using load balancing so that network response time is improved. And, if you are using multiple links to remote sites, it's always a good idea to have more than a single path to the site. At one site this author worked at, there were redundant power lines bringing electricity into the site—side-by-side. If a tree falls, will it bring down one or both of those power lines?
Another technology that can be used to provide an extra layer of redundancy, as well as high-speed access to storage devices, is the Storage Area Network (SAN). A SAN is a network that is separate from the LAN and contains only storage devices and servers that need to access those devices. Because the network bandwidth is not shared with LAN users, multiple servers can access the same storage. If one server fails, other servers can be configured to provide redundant access to the data. Also, the same RAID and other redundancy techniques used for storage devices that are directly attached to a server (such as the SCSI hardware and protocols) can be used on a SAN.
The terms RAID and UPS are important in today's networks, as is the concept of load balancing and dual-redundant power supplies in large networks. You can find out more about RAID (Redundant Array Of Independent Disks) and UPSs (uninterruptible power supplies) by reading Chapter 5, "Protecting the Network: Preventative Maintenance Techniques." For more information about SANs, see Chapter 11.
The old saying "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" doesn't apply to networks. You should always be proactively looking for potential single points of failure and doing something to fix them. By building redundancy into the network design at the start, you'll save yourself a lot of grief in the future.
Chapter 5 can give you more suggestions about using clustering, backups, uninterruptible power supplies, and other techniques that can keep the network up and running.Choosing a LAN Protocol
Today the de facto protocol of choice has to be TCP/IP. However, other protocols have their place in some vertical markets. In this book, they talk about NetWare. NetWare has been around so long that you might find you have no choice when designing an upgrade but to keep using IPX/SPX, depending on the applications your network uses. However, even NetWare has moved toward using TCP/IP as the underlying protocol. This is basically the case for version 5.x and 6.x of NetWare. Older NetWare networks should upgrade, if possible, to one of these newer versions. If you will be connecting the network to the Internet, TCP/IP will be a necessity. Even if you don't expect to have an Internet connection, you'll find that choosing TCP/IP is a more practical choice today because most applications work with it and there is a large market of trained professionals who can be hired to manage a network built on TCP/IP. NetWare 6.x provides backward compatibility with IPX/SPX for the most part, but newer features such as the iPrint—which uses the Internet Printing Protocol—require TCP/IP.
In addition to transport protocols such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX, you must consider application protocols that can be used on the network. For example, to simplify administering configuration information for a large number of computers, you might want to use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which is discussed in Chapter 28, "BOOTP and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)." If you want to provide a central name resolution service, you might choose the Domain Name Service (DNS), which is covered in Chapter 29, "Network Name Resolution." If you are going to operate a Windows network that has pre–Windows 2000/XP clients, you might need to use the Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) for backward compatibility.
So when thinking about a network protocol, remember that it's not just one protocol you need to worry about. After you've decided which protocols are necessary, research the security implications of each.It's Virtually Universal: TCP/IP
For all practical purposes, the standard LAN protocol today is TCP/IP. This is partly due to the rapid growth of the Internet, and the necessity of most businesses of having a Web presence, as well as the large number of vendors that have adopted this protocol suite. If your LAN is still using an older proprietary network protocol, you should seriously consider what it would take to upgrade to TCP/IP. Currently, TCP/IP version 4 is the most widely used protocol. In the future you can expect that the next version (IPv6) will start to find its way from the core of the Internet out to the edge, where your network resides. While technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) are widely employed to remedy the problem associated with the limited address space provided by IPv4, IPv6 will enable a much larger address space. Combine that with Network Address Translation, and the long-term bets are going to be on IPv6, or possibly some of the features that are part of IPv6. In addition to giving you a larger address space, IPv6 includes other important features. Those that will affect your network the most are security mechanisms, which will only become more important as Internet commerce continues to grow.
For a detailed introduction to TCP/IP, see Chapter 24, "Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite"; Chapter 25, "Basic TCP/IP Services and Applications"; and Chapter 27, "Troubleshooting Tools for TCP/IP Networks."
There is one very important reason you should consider TCP/IP as a LAN protocol: There are more trained professionals knowledgeable in TCP/IP than any other LAN protocol at this time. It is interesting to note that in Windows NT 3.51, the default network protocol was Microsoft's implementation of IPX/SPX (NWLink). In Windows NT 4.0 (and successive operating systems, from Windows 2000, XP, and Server 2003), the default network protocol is TCP/IP.
If your network is composed of several operating systems, from Windows to NetWare to Unix and Linux, then the bottom line is that TCP/IP is the lowest common denominator that will allow the easiest connectivity and interaction between all of these. Even Microsoft's now-legacy NetBIOS/NetBEUI protocols have been adapted to run over TCP/IP.Novell's NetWare Version 6.5
NetWare was perhaps the first attempt at seriously providing a LAN protocol that was easy to use. The basic file and print services offered by early versions of NetWare were much better than other solutions available at that time. After it became established in the business community, NetWare became the network solution of choice in many business environments that used the PC. Microsoft countered this success with its LANManager products, which were also marketed by other vendors in their own way, such as the Pathworks solution from Digital Equipment Corporation.
Today NetWare is a totally revamped solution to LAN connectivity. It provides many new features that are addressed to specifically make use of the Internet, and allow mobile users to connect to their home networks, as well as to enable NetWare users to make connections to outside networks. For example, the iPrint feature enables NetWare users to print to a printer on a remote network. For example, instead of sending a catalog that may be out of date in a month or so, you can use iPrint to periodically send specific information relevant to each customer, by printing it directly to the customer's printer.
And NetWare's iFolder allows mobile users to synchronize data stored on remote computers (such as a laptop computer) with the data stored on the company's network. Microsoft and other vendors offer similar features. However, the point to remember is that if you already are a NetWare user, you don't have to throw out your existing investment and move to a Microsoft network, or even a Unix/Linux environment. NetWare has changed as the market has changed, and you might find it less expensive to upgrade to NetWare 6.5 than to migrate to another platform. The bottom line involves not just the cost of migrating to another operating system, but the costs involved with retraining your network administrative personnel in new technology.
Because NetWare 6.5 is so tightly integrated with the IP protocol, and also offers backward compatibility with IPX/SPX, admins for existing NetWare networks should consider upgrading to NetWare 6.5 as well as considering other options.
If you want to move to Linux, Novell makes it easy by incorporating an enhanced version of NetWare 6.5 and SuSE Linux into its Novell Open Enterprise Server. Open Enterprise Server supports both Linux and NetWare-specific software and features, enabling you to move to Linux gradually.Other LAN/WAN Protocols
The distinction between LAN and WAN (wide area networking) protocols is beginning to blur. Ethernet was once considered to be a LAN protocol. As time has passed, other technologies, such as Token-Ring, have become minor players in the LAN world. Yet the opposite is true of Ethernet. It has grown from a modest specification endorsed by Intel, DEC, and other vendors, such that it now can be considered a WAN protocol. The capabilities introduced by current LAN technologies are beginning to erode the differences between a LAN and a MAN (metropolitan area network). When the fourth edition of this book was published, Gigabit Ethernet was starting to fall into the inexpensive range of network topologies. That trend has continued and now 10Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) is frequently being used in enterprise data centers. Today you may be using 100BASE-T for connecting client computers to the network, and Gigabit Ethernet to connect network segments via the network backbone. In some cases your network might even be exclusively based on 10GbE.
What does this mean to a network administrator today? With 10Gigabit Ethernet, you can use TCP/IP not only to create a local area network backbone, but to extend that reach to a metropolitan area network. And because TCP/IP is so intertwined with Ethernet, you can achieve an end-to-end MAN link that uses TCP/IP over faster Ethernet connections. Instead of employing more expensive solutions, such as SONET, you can now connect branch offices in the same geographical area using just TCP/IP.
You may not have to worry about installing expensive equipment used by SONET and other typical MAN protocols. Still, for the long haul—for example, between different cities—other protocols such as ATM and Frame Relay will come into play.
For more information about SONET, ATM, and Frame Relay, see Chapter 15, "Dedicated Connections."
When it's time to implement a disaster recovery plan, storage administrators are faced with the task of protecting important corporate data off site and making adequate preparations to resume normal business operations in the event of an emergency. This may seem like a reasonably straightforward objective, but choosing the right infrastructure can prove unwieldy. A wide proliferation of storage technologies make the choice of platform difficult, and software choices must often accommodate a heterogeneous storage environment that is frequently separated by a large geographic distance. This article outlines many of the tools and technologies that are currently available for disaster recovery (DR) applications and examines some future directions of DR.
Setting recovery objectives
Before any disaster plan can be implemented, it is absolutely critical to establish the recovery requirements. This involves a thorough understanding of your applications and the way they relate to everyday business.
Data classification plays a part in disaster planning. Not all data is created equal -- the company's Oracle database or Exchange platform may be mission-critical, but a repository of PowerPoint presentations may not be essential to the business in the event of disaster. The first step is to identify the applications and data sets that should be protected by a DR plan. Classifying data for DR carries a twist. "Storage classification is more around usage, access and so forth, while DR is more around linkage to business functions, risk mitigation and survivability versus how the storage is being used," says Greg Schulz, founder and senior analyst at StorageIO Group.
Once you understand the applications that need DR protection, you'll need to set a recovery point objective (RPO) and recovery time objective (RTO) for each one. The RPO essentially defines how much data you can afford to lose, while the RTO defines just how much time you have to recover from the disaster. RPO, and to a lesser extent RTO, will influence the technologies and costs involved in your DR plan. "For example, think about American Express having to tell Macy's it just lost the last 1,000 transactions that came out of its stores," says Pierre Dorion, senior business continuity consultant at Mainland Information Systems Inc. "It wouldn't send Amex [American Express] filing for Chapter 11, but it sure would leave them with a serious black eye!"
Making DR work
No two DR plans are identical. Each strategy must be formulated to match unique business needs and legal requirements while accounting for the most likely "disaster" scenarios. While needs and plans can vary dramatically, most draw from the same selection of underlying technologies. A DR plan will often include a mix of several different technologies.
Backup. Traditional backups are still the foundation of many DR plans, leveraging existing tape drives or libraries to copy crucial files to tape media that can then be taken off site to a protected location. Disk-based backups are systematically replacing tape, bringing better speed and reliability to the backup process. Backups can be made to any disk array or other platform, but virtual tape has emerged as a popular alternative when disk technology must emulate tape. Backups can be made locally on site but can also be made to off-site locations across a WAN link.
Mirroring/replication. This disk-to-disk process simply creates a data copy between two disk platforms. When trouble strikes the original copy, data can be restored from the replicated copy -- or possibly even accessed directly from the mirror. As with backups, mirroring between disks can be handled locally within the data center or between disks across a WAN link. Most storage array products provide mirroring/replication software utilities bundled with the product.
Snapshot. A snapshot creates an index of all data locations on the storage platform and tracks any subsequent changes to the data at each location. Over time, a running log of storage changes develops, allowing administrators to restore files and folders that may become lost or corrupted. Since the amount of storage space needed to maintain an index file is limited, it is only possible to store a finite number of snapshots. Consequently, snapshots are typically employed as a short-term protective tactic. Snapshots are basically just a list of data locations and do not back up data to a second location, so it is still important to protect data through periodic backups or replication.
WAN/WAFS. Disaster planning usually demands that data copies be stored in a location separate from the original -- if fire destroys the data center, a viable copy of the data is still available. Today, WAN links are used to backup or restore data directly between remote sites. For example, remote offices might back up their servers to the primary data center each night using fractional T3 WAN links, mobile users can back up their laptops to the data center across the broadband Internet or a data center might replicate its main servers to a backup data center across an OC3 connection.
WAFS is an emerging technology for IT centralization, allowing remote offices "local-like" access to applications and data from the primary data center across a WAN link. WAFS is not directly considered a DR technology, but has an impact on remote office IT consolidation, which will influence DR strategies.
Virtualization. The demand for duplicate equipment can impose a significant cost for DR users. For example, an EMC Corp. Centera in the primary data center may need another EMC Centera at the remote location. Virtualization technology abstracts the hardware, usually allowing data to reside and operate on different hardware at the remote location. This gives organizations the option to deploy used or available hardware, rather than purchasing identical storage hardware for the remote site.
CDP. Continuous data protection maintains a running log of storage changes based on key events or even down to individual I/O operations. This type of continuous operation reduces the RPO to almost zero, and administrators can recover lost or corrupted data from disk in an extremely short timeframe -- keeping RTO short. CDP is not generally intended as a DR technology but is increasingly employed to protect busy networks (e.g. retail or data processing operations) against lost transactions. As with snapshots, data on a CDP platform still needs to be backed up.
CAS. Data that requires only occasional access is sometimes archived to a disk-based content-addressed storage (CAS) device. Unlike ordinary disk platforms, CAS devices typically include security features to prevent file alteration/tampering, compliance features to ensure file availability for a prescribed retention period and data deduplication (a.k.a. "intelligent compression") features that optimize disk space utilization by eliminating redundant data. CAS devices are mainly intended for long-term archival storage but are sometimes used for disk-based backup purposes.
Turning to tools
Any DR strategy has to start with a solid plan, but it's the hardware and software that turn plans into reality. Hardware goes beyond the disks, supporting advanced storage features like mirroring/replication, snapshots or CDP. Hardware also plays a vital role in moving data across a WAN, allowing synchronous or asynchronous data movement and often providing compression and data deduplication capabilities that optimize bandwidth use.
Analysts point to the DMX from EMC as a leading enterprise storage product for DR, citing robust storage and mirroring/replication that handles multisite configurations. The DMX also supports synchronous and asynchronous data movement and multivolume data handling to maintain data integrity between multiple sites. Other leading storage hardware products for DR include the NearStor virtual tape library (VTL) from Network Appliance Inc., and the TagmaStore storage array from Hitachi Data Systems Inc.
Cisco Systems Inc. is another notable DR hardware vendor, providing a variety of network routers and switches that support local, metropolitan and wide-area data movement using technologies like SONET/SDH, DWDM and IP -- important technologies for synchronous and asynchronous data movement. Brocade Communication Systems Inc. also specializes in switching hardware, such as the SilkWorm family of director switches.
Tape still plays a role in DR for many organizations. Products like the L1400M tape library from Sun Microsystems Inc. (StorageTek) and the PX720 tape library from Quantum Corp. handle backup and archiving within the data center and between sites.
Heterogeneous support is increasingly important when selecting storage equipment, ensuring that a new manufacturer's product will interoperate properly with existing products in the data center. In many cases, heterogeneous products can be configured and maintained using existing management software, easing integration problems for new systems. Products are often evaluated in advance to guarantee interoperability.
Backup software and DR
Software tools also deserve serious consideration in any DR plan, bringing organization and management features to the users that must implement and oversee DR operations. Although there are many types of backup software available for the enterprise, the tools used for DR must be particularly easy to use, especially in terms of rapid recovery. DR software must also be flexible, adaptable, interoperable and scalable. In short, it must be able to grow and change as the DR environment evolves.
NetBackup from Symantec Corp. (Veritas) is perhaps the most recognized backup tool for DR applications. Capable of working with disk and tape platforms, NetBackup can operate enterprise-wide backup and recovery tasks regardless of geographic location using a single console under UNIX, Windows, Linux and NetWare. NetWorker from EMC Legato, Tivoli Storage Manager from IBM and Galaxy Backup & Recovery from CommVault Systems Inc. are three other notable backup/recovery products selected for DR tasks.
DR planning software
However, software considerations go beyond backup. Software tools are available to help organizations develop and maintain their DR plan. In most cases, these tools are intended to track hardware in the production and DR environments, ensuring that storage arrays, SAN switches, tape drives, servers and other devices are all available and functioning as expected. TeraCloud Corp.'s Storage Framework and Onaro Inc.'s SANScreen are two notable products that gather and report this type of information. Sentric's Destiny product is an emerging product that classifies and reports data on email servers, file servers and database servers.
Aside from infrastructure tracking tools, there are several tools available that can actually help organizations develop and manage their specific plans. For example, RecoveryPlanner from RecoveryPlanner.com provides DR planners with Web-based software for plan creation, distribution and management over the Internet. It also includes notification services, so responsible individuals can be kept informed throughout the disaster and recovery process. Similarly, Strohl Systems Group Inc. offers its Living Disaster Recovery Planning System software to help users develop comprehensive business continuity plans.
The future of DR
Disaster recovery strategies are shifting away from "backups" and moving toward the concepts of "recovery" and "continuance." The trend toward continuance should continue as organizations set their sights on uninterrupted business operations. Part of this trend is due to the continued evolution of technology in storage platforms like VTL, CDP and snapshots. This is further supported by improved bandwidth utilization using features such as intelligent compression (a.k.a. data deduplication), allowing companies to exchange more data over greater distances in less time. For example, data can be backed up directly to a VTL located hundreds of miles away, then transferred to a tape library for off-site tape storage.
Analysts see the move toward lower costs, better integration and easier management. Emerging products like Bycast Inc.'s StorageGRID are recognized for storing and replicating data between multiple sites. "I believe this is the future of DR in terms of delivering data where and when you need it so that even a geographic disaster is not the same level of concern it is now," says Jerome Wendt, independent storage analyst. Analysts also look to startups to significantly accelerate replication speeds in 2007.
Virtualization is also likely to play a central role in future DR strategies. By adopting virtualization, hardware requirements become less stringent between sites -- with fewer potential configuration and set up problems to impair recovery. "Server virtualization is a huge enabler of DR," says Stephen Foskett, director of strategy services at GlassHouse Technologies Inc. "Many companies are sending VMware images off site so that they don't have to have exactly the same hardware waiting for them on the other end."
Consider the role of third-party DR service providers. Although DR services have not been terribly popular over the last few years, a resurgence may be on the horizon. "SunGard, Iron Mountain Inc. or IBM Global may come back into favor because organizations may not have a second location," says Brian Babineau, analyst at the Enterprise Strategy Group. He suggests that the economics of outside DR services may make sense for smaller enterprises that lack the budget and staff to deploy and maintain an in-house DR system.
WESTBOROUGH, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--ExaGrid Systems, Inc., the leader in cost-effective and scalable disk-based backup solutions with data deduplication, today announced that it received US Patent no. 8,412,848, building on the company’s history of innovation to solve data protection problems for its customers. The patent covers ExaGrid’s unique Zone-level deduplication method, a core component of ExaGrid's deduplication technology.
ExaGrid’s zone-level deduplication enables customers to benefit from a unique combination of seamless scalability, support for the widest range of backup applications, and faster backup and restore performance.
“This latest patent is further confirmation of the uniqueness of ExaGrid’s technology, which provides performance and scalability while also working with a wide range of backup applications,” said Dave Therrien, founder and chief technical officer of ExaGrid. “ExaGrid continues to build on its long history of developing innovative technology and applying those innovations to difficult data protection challenges for their customers. Their growing intellectual property portfolio extends their technology lead in disk backup with deduplication and enables ExaGrid to offer their customers the fastest backup and restore performance, and most seamless scalability with support for the broadest range of backup applications and utilities. This latest patent again acknowledges the uniqueness of their technology, and reinforces ExaGrid’s place as a leader in the market for highly scalable disk-based backup.”
ExaGrid’s disk backup system with data deduplication supports the industry’s leading backup applications and utilities, including Acronis, CA ARCserve, Bridgehead, CommVault Simpana, Dell/Quest vRangerPro, HP Data Protector, IBM iSeries/Laservault, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, Idera SQL Safe, Linux/Unix dumps, Microsoft SQL dumps, Oracle RMAN dumps, PHD Virtual, Redgate, Symantec Backup Exec, Symantec NetBackup, Unitrends, Veeam Backup and Replication, VMware Backup and many others.
About ExaGrid Systems, Inc.:ExaGrid offers the only disk-based backup appliance with data deduplication purpose-built for backup that leverages a unique architecture optimized for performance, scalability and price. ExaGrid is the only solution that combines compute with capacity and a unique landing zone to permanently shorten backup windows, eliminate expensive forklift upgrades, achieve the fastest full system restores and tape copies, and rapidly restore files, VMs and objects in minutes. With offices and distribution worldwide, ExaGrid has more than 6,000 systems installed at more than 1,700 customers, and more than 320 published customer success stories.
ExaGrid is a registered trademark of ExaGrid Systems, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
For more information, contact ExaGrid at 800-868-6985 or visit www.exagrid.com. Visit “ExaGrid’s Eye on Deduplication” blog: http://blog.exagrid.com/.
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