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250-365 Data Protection Administration for Windows (NBU 6.5)

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250-365 exam Dumps Source : Data Protection Administration for Windows (NBU 6.5)

Test Code : 250-365
Test Name : Data Protection Administration for Windows (NBU 6.5)
Vendor Name : Symantec
: 324 Real Questions

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Symantec Data Protection Administration for

assessment: Symantec Endpoint insurance plan 12

I actually have a confession to make: I’m no longer constantly blown away by way of the antivirus software I evaluate.

over the years, I even have learned to predict certain issues from these functions, and that i have not been terribly stunned through most models that have crossed my desk.

actually, definitions evolve, and the means of detection increase. but for the most half, antivirus software works its magic by way of comparing what it sees with a static set of definitions, then taking motion when it identifies a fit. The interface may additionally turn into extra intuitive, deployment more painless and detection more correct, but the manner itself is still largely unchanged.

however the latest generation of Symantec Endpoint insurance policy (v.12) became a pleasing shock. With SEP, Symantec changed direction.

merits

Symantec appears to have gone to exquisite lengths to improve usual performance by using working towards the software to avoid scanning files unnecessarily. To achieve this, it has delivered Symantec insight, expertise that uses records accrued from more than 175 million opt-in consumers to cost the defense of and assign reputations to almost every executable (.exe) file available. The virus scanner makes use of this assistance to come to a decision no matter if to scan a given file. When a attractiveness ranks extremely, the utility will bypass it altogether, with no trouble minimizing scan times and decreasing typical equipment aid utilization.

additionally, the latest rendition of Symantec on-line network for advanced Response (SONAR) introduces coverage enforcement, which helps block new malicious approaches before definitions turn into available. here is completed with the aid of observing a program’s habits in real time whereas leveraging its movements in opposition t a behavioral profile. If the fruits of several suspicious movements effects in a poor score, the device will proactively stop the system and stop it from additional compromising the desktop. Any administrator who has wrung her arms (or pulled his hair out) while looking ahead to a virulent disease definition replace will little doubt recognize this added layer of malware coverage.

Why it works For IT

The administration console is smartly designed and simple to study, presenting tools and facts for the total firm in a single panel. administrators who have used old models of SEP will locate the design and good judgment widely wide-spread, because it is strikingly similar to that of v.eleven. Most common tasks can also be conducted in a great deal the same approach as they all the time have been, from growing customized guidelines to deploying to new shoppers. Any administrator commonplace with this product family unit will haven't any issue getting up to velocity with changes within the new edition.

To support, Symantec preconfigures the policy settings of the Small enterprise version of SEP 12. That skill directors can hit the ground running, making customizations as vital.

closing, but far from least, because perception reduces the information scanned and the period of scans, SEP 12’s performance is particularly more desirable on customer methods, leading to a better general journey for conclusion users.

risks

although the Small enterprise version boasts advances, they arrive at a cost. The product turns into an awful lot more affordable when a firm passes the 25-customer mark, and customers obtain further coupon codes for longer subscription terms.


BT and Symantec to boost coverage of community site visitors and Simplify security management

SAN FRANCISCO--(company WIRE)--RSA conference – BT, one of the crucial world’s main providers of communications features and solutions, and Symantec, the area’s leading cyber security business, these days announced the combination of Symantec’s newest know-how into BT’s portfolio of managed security capabilities.

With this new settlement, BT shoppers will improvement from superior visibility of incoming information superhighway site visitors and from simplified administration of network security and hybrid cloud infrastructure.

Two new Symantec products will complement the current Symantec Blue Coat ProxySG service to bolster BT’s Managed net security portfolio: Symantec SSL Visibility appliance and Symantec Cloud service.

Symantec SSL Visibility equipment permits organizations to cost-easily dispose of blind spots that include the lack of perception into encrypted records traffic on networks. on the grounds that about half of all internet traffic these days is encrypted, this can create a big hole in an organisation’s security posture. With SSL Visibility appliance, shoppers benefit the visibility and handle they need over encrypted site visitors to help be certain compliance with their privacy, regulatory and ideal use guidelines.

Symantec Cloud service gives world insurance and helps make sure all the time-on safety for person instruments towards malware, viruses and advanced threats. It leverages real-time intelligence from Symantec’s world Intelligence network, the area’s greatest civilian threat intelligence network, which harnesses data from more than 1 billion internet requests, 2 billion emails, and one hundred seventy five million endpoints to update safety controls with finished risk telemetry in real-time.

The settlement introduced today additionally enables access to the Symantec management Centre platform required for the brand new Symantec SSL Visibility equipment and Symantec Cloud service. This replaces the current Blue Coat Director skill, a good way to proceed to be supported except at the least 2020 for latest consumers.

Mike Fey, president and Chief working Officer, Symantec, referred to: “expanding Symantec’s capabilities within BT’s portfolio will give BT shoppers a comprehensive service that is needed in these days’s cyber security environment. with the aid of featuring dedicated SSL visibility we can fight security threats hidden in encrypted site visitors so that customers can focus on essential business priorities. And the Symantec Cloud provider makes it possible for consumers to extend their effective Blue Coat internet security capabilities to their cell body of workers, helping to protect clients and information on any gadget and from any location.”

Mark Hughes, CEO, BT security, referred to: “Monitoring community environments has develop into more and more advanced over the remaining few years, and improving visibility of encrypted traffic exercise and settling on blind spots is a must-have for a safe and at ease company. Their agreement with Symantec helps handle this situation and is a new step in presenting a full, complete equipment that equips Chief advice protection Officers with the administrative equipment essential to display screen their networks.”

About Symantec

Symantec service provider (NASDAQ: SYMC), the realm’s main cyber security business, helps companies, governments and americans secure their most critical information at any place it lives. organizations across the world seem to be to Symantec for strategic, integrated options to safeguard against refined attacks throughout endpoints, cloud and infrastructure. Likewise, a world community of greater than 50 million americans and households depend on Symantec’s Norton suite of items for insurance policy at domestic and across all of their gadgets. Symantec operates one of the world’s largest civilian cyber intelligence networks, enabling it to peer and protect towards probably the most advanced threats. For more information, please visit www.symantec.com or connect with us on facebook

About BT

BT’s purpose is to make use of the vigor of communications to make an improved world. It is without doubt one of the world’s main suppliers of communications capabilities and options, serving customers in one hundred eighty nations. Its fundamental actions include the supply of networked IT functions globally; local, countrywide and foreign telecommunications capabilities to its shoppers for use at home, at work and on the circulation; broadband, television and web items and functions; and converged mounted-mobile products and features. BT consists of six customer-dealing with lines of company: client, EE, enterprise and Public Sector, global features, Wholesale and Ventures, and Openreach.

For the 12 months ended 31 March 2016, BT group’s pronounced income was £19,042m with reported profit before taxation of £3,029m.

British Telecommunications plc (BT) is a unconditionally-owned subsidiary of BT community plc and encompasses well-nigh all corporations and belongings of the BT community. BT group plc is listed on stock exchanges in London and big apple.

For extra suggestions, consult with www.btplc.com.


global identity Theft insurance policy capabilities Market 2019: key carriers, developments, evaluation, Segmentation, Forecast to 2024

Apr 23, 2019 (Heraldkeeper via COMTEX) -- abstract

WiseGuyReports.com adds “identification Theft insurance policy services Market 2019 international analysis, growth, developments and alternatives analysis report Forecasting to 2024” reports to its database.

world id Theft protection capabilities market competition by using right manufacturers, with creation, cost, profits (price) and market share for every manufacturer; the appropriate players together with LifeLock (Symantec)  Experian  Equifax  TransUnion  FICO  Affinion  LexisNexis  Intersections  CSID  AllClear id 

Request a Free pattern record @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/pattern-request/3956546-world-identification-theft-protection-services-market-statistics-survey-report-2013-2025

The main contents of the document including: global market size and forecast Regional market size, production data and export & import Key manufacturers profile, products & services, sales records of company global market size with the aid of main application international market dimension via most important classification

predominant applications as follows: consumer enterprise foremost type as follows: bank card Fraud Employment or Tax-connected Fraud telephone or Utility Fraud financial institution Fraud 

Regional market measurement, creation records and export & import: Asia-Pacific North the usa Europe South the united states core East & Africa

At Any question @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/enquiry/3956546-world-identity-theft-protection-features-market-facts-survey-document-2013-2025

important Key elements in table of content

1 international Market Overview 1.1 Scope of facts 1.1.1 Scope of products 1.1.2 Scope of manufacturers 1.1.3 Scope of utility 1.1.four Scope of class 1.1.5 Scope of regions/nations 1.2 world Market dimension 

2 Regional Market 2.1 Regional construction 2.2 Regional Demand 2.three Regional trade 

three Key producers  three.1 LifeLock (Symantec) three.1.1 business advice three.1.2 Product & features 3.1.three company statistics (revenue salary, charge and Margin) 3.1.four contemporary building three.2 Experian 3.2.1 company counsel three.2.2 Product & services 3.2.three business statistics (earnings revenue, charge and Margin) three.2.four recent building three.three Equifax three.3.1 company information three.three.2 Product & services three.3.3 enterprise data (earnings salary, can charge and Margin) three.three.four recent construction 3.4 TransUnion three.four.1 company tips 3.4.2 Product & functions three.four.three company facts (income salary, cost and Margin) three.four.four recent development 3.5 FICO three.5.1 business suggestions 3.5.2 Product & features 3.5.3 enterprise facts (income earnings, cost and Margin) 3.5.four recent construction 3.6 Affinion 3.6.1 enterprise tips three.6.2 Product & services 3.6.three business information (earnings salary, charge and Margin) 3.6.four recent building 3.7 LexisNexis 3.7.1 business information 3.7.2 Product & capabilities three.7.three enterprise records (sales income, can charge and Margin) three.7.4 fresh construction 3.8 Intersections 3.8.1 business counsel three.eight.2 Product & features 3.8.3 enterprise data (income earnings, can charge and Margin) 3.8.four fresh development 3.9 CSID three.9.1 enterprise guidance three.9.2 Product & functions 3.9.3 business data (income earnings, can charge and Margin) 3.10 AllClear identity 3.10.1 enterprise information three.10.2 Product & functions 3.10.three enterprise facts (earnings income, charge and Margin) 

four predominant utility 4.1 client four.1.1 Overview four.1.2 purchaser Market dimension and Forecast 4.2 commercial enterprise four.2.1 Overview four.2.2 enterprise Market measurement and Forecast 

endured….

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Douglas: AZ school finance system a cybersecurity risk; uses 'Windows 2000'

A critical state-run computer system that distributes billions of dollars in funding to public schools is so outdated, it could pose a cybersecurity risk, state Superintendent of Public Instruction Diane Douglas told lawmakers Monday.

Douglas told the Arizona House Committee on Education that the state’s school finance system, known as APOR/CHAR, relies on “Atari and Napster-era technology.” The system runs on Windows 2000 software, which Microsoft stopped providing security updates for in 2010.

The system processes $6.5 billion in state and federal school aid each year, Douglas said. Because school funding is based on student attendance, APOR/CHAR is linked to a new database called AzEDS that contains all student records.

"We have put every possible protection that they are able to put in place to protect student data; however, they can't overlook the inherent risks created by outdated technology," Douglas said. “If they really care about protecting the student data of 1.1 million children, they can't allow this to continue.”

[RELATED: Arizona education improving but seriously challenged]

Microsoft ended the life cycle of the software in July 2010, when it offered its final patches for security updates.

But in the seven years since, new vulnerabilities have been uncovered, said Ken Colburn of Data Doctors.

“Lots and lots of things have been discovered about this particular platform that nobody is doing anything about, so it's certainly disconcerting from a technical standpoint,” Colburn said.

Colburn sent Arizona’s Family a long list of known attack points in the Windows 2000 operating system that is published online. He said running unsupported software is “a very dangerous thing to do for any type of business, much less an organization as large as this.”

Douglas told committee members that replacing APOR/CHAR was the Department of Education’s “greatest need.”

If the Windows 2000 technology operating APOR/CHAR were to break down, it would cost the state millions for Microsoft to diagnose the issue, Douglas said.

“If it would take Microsoft $10 million just to look at it, they desperately need to spend the roughly $9 million for a new system to pay schools and protect student data,” she said.

Douglas pointed to an internal analysis by the Arizona Department of Administration’s IT team that ranked the Department of Education among the five state agencies at the greatest cybersecurity risk. She said “90 percent” of the low rating was based on the department running Windows 2000.

“Our situation today, with AzEDS matched to a legacy school finance system, is like having Amazon’s website and warehouse but a delivery system that uses a horse and buggy,” she said.

Click/tap here to download the free azfamily mobile app.

Copyright 2018 KPHO/KTVK (KPHO Broadcasting Corporation). All rights reserved.


Configuring a Workgroup Network

This chapter is from the book 

After your network hardware has been installed, whether it’s wired or wireless, the next step is to make sure that Windows’ networking software is set up correctly. This procedure is different for XP and Vista, so I’ll go through the steps for each operating system separately. If you have both XP and Vista computers on your network, they’ll work together just fine, as long as you set up both types using the following instructions. I cover XP first, then Vista.

After you’ve set up basic networking, you may want to make some optional settings. So after covering initial setup for XP and Vista, the remainder of this section covers the following topics:

  • IP addressing options
  • Networking with Windows 9x and Me
  • Designating a master browser
  • Providing a shared Internet connection
  • You may want to review all these topics before starting to set up your network.

    Setting Up a Network on XP

    Windows XP comes with a Networking Setup Wizard program that can automatically configure file sharing and Internet access for each of the computers on your network. The wizard lets you make a few basic choices, but otherwise takes care of all the technical details for you. You have to run this wizard at least once, whether you want to or not. For security reasons, Windows doesn’t enable file and printer sharing until this wizard has been run at least once.

    To start the wizard on XP, click Start, Control Panel, Network and Internet Connections, and Set Up or Change Your Home or Small Office Network. Read the “Checklist for Creating a Network” if you want, and then click Next. Follow the wizard through the following steps.

    Select a Connection Method

    The wizard asks you to select a statement that best describes your computer. The choices can be confusing, so consider them each carefully. They are

  • This Computer Connects Directly to the Internet. The Other Computers...Connect...Through This Computer—Choose this if you want this computer to share its Internet connection with the rest of your LAN using Windows Internet Connection Sharing, which is discussed later in the chapter. This computer will connect to the Internet through a dial-up modem or a cable/DSL modem. In the latter case, you’ll need two network adapters in this computer: one for the LAN connection and one to connect to the DSL or cable modem. In any case, be sure that you’ve already configured and tested your Internet connection before setting up the LAN.
  • This Computer Connects to the Internet Through Another Computer on My Network or Through a Residential Gateway—Choose this if your network has a hardware Internet connection-sharing router, or if you’ve set up some other computer to share its connection with Internet Connection Sharing.

    Also, use this choice if your LAN has routed Internet service, such as that provided by a DSL, cable, ISDN, or Frame Relay router connected to your network hub, and the router for that service has been configured to filter out Windows networking traffic, which we’ll discuss later in this chapter.

  • To get to the next three options, click Other. These alternatives are as follows:

  • This Computer Connects to the Internet Directly or Through a Network Hub. Other Computers on My Network Also Connect [this way]—Select this if your computer uses its own dial-up or direct DSL/cable Internet connection, but you do not want to use Windows’s Internet Connection Sharing to share the connection with the rest of your LAN.

    Also, use this selection if you use “multiple-computer” cable Internet service with no router. (I strongly urge you not to use this sort of connection—please read “Providing Shared Internet Access” later in this chapter for important warnings.)

  • This Computer Connects Directly to the Internet. I Do Not Have a Network Yet—You would use this choice if you had a direct Internet connection (that is, a cable or DSL modem that uses a network adapter), but no LAN. Because you’re setting up a LAN, this choice probably isn’t appropriate.

    You do want to use this choice if you are setting up a network only to use a shared Internet connection, and don’t want to share files with other computers. This might be the case if you are sharing an Internet connection in an apartment building or other public space, for instance. In this case, this choice indicates that you consider your network to be as untrustworthy as the Internet itself.

  • This Computer Belongs to a Network That Does Not Have an Internet Connection—Select this if your computer will connect to the Internet using dial-up networking or AOL, or if your computer will never connect to the Internet.
  • Make the appropriate selection and click Next.

    Select Your Internet Connection

    If you chose one of the “This computer is directly connected to the Internet” choices, Windows presents a list of options for making that connection, listing your network adapters and your configured dial-up connections. Choose the connection that is used to reach the Internet and click Next. If you use a dial-up or PPPoE connection (frequently used with DSL service), choose the appropriate dial-up connection. Otherwise choose the network adapter that connects to your broadband modem.

    Give This Computer a Description and Name

    Enter a brief description of the computer (such as its location or primary user) and a name for the computer. Choose a name using just letters and/or numbers with no spaces or punctuation. Each computer on your LAN must have a different name.

    If you’re hard pressed to come up with names, try the names of gemstones, composers, Impressionist painters, or even Star Wars characters, as long as Mr. Lucas’ lawyers don’t hear about it. I use the names of islands in the Indonesian archipelago—with more than 25,000 to choose from there’s little chance of running out of unique names!

    Some Internet service providers, especially cable providers, require you use a name that they provide. (If you have a hardware connection-sharing device hooked up to your cable modem, enter that name into the hardware device and use any names you want on your LAN.)

    Name Your Network

    Choose a name for your network workgroup. This name is used to identify which computers should appear in your list of network choices later on. All computers on your LAN should have the same workgroup name. The wizard puts MSHOME into the name field, but I strongly suggest that you change it to WORKGROUP, which is the default on both earlier and later versions of Windows.

    File and Printer Sharing

    The wizard asks whether you want turn file and printer sharing on or off. Select Turn On File and Printer Sharing unless your network will contain computers that you don’t trust; that is, computers in a public area, computers on a public wireless network, computers whose users you don’t know, and so on. (If you later change your mind, or move your computer from one network to another, you can turn file sharing on or off using the Exceptions tab on the Windows Firewall control panel.)

    Ready to Apply Network Settings

    The wizard lets you review your selections. Click Next to proceed.

    You’re Almost Finished...

    You need to run the wizard on all the computers on your LAN at least once. If all the computers use Windows XP, select Just Finish the Wizard, and then run the wizard on each of your other computers. If you have computers running versions of Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, or 2000, you can create a disk that lets you run the wizard on these older machines, or you can use your Windows XP CD-ROM on these computers.

    To use a disk, choose Create a Network Setup Disk, and insert a blank, formatted floppy disk. If you ran the wizard earlier and just changed some of the settings, choose Use the Network Setup Disk I Already Have, and reinsert the setup disk you created earlier. Otherwise, choose Just Finish the Wizard; I Don’t Need to Run the Wizard on Other Computers.

    Now, continue with the next section to review the IP addressing choices made on your network, as discussed in the section titled “IP Addressing Options.”

    Setting Up a Network on Vista

    Surprisingly, Windows Vista does not have a network setup wizard to walk you through setting up file sharing for a home or small office network. If you’ve just set up a wireless network, the procedure I described earlier under “Wireless Networking” took care of the wireless connection itself. But, after the wireless connection is set up, or if you’ve just installed a wired Ethernet or HomePNA (phoneline) network, you have to check or change a few other settings before you can share files and printers on your new network.

    If your network is going to be used only to share an Internet connection, you don’t need to perform these steps. But, if you do want to share files and/or printers among the computers on your network, you must check the following settings:

  • Ensure that each computer has the same workgroup name.
  • Enable file and printer sharing.
  • If you use a third-party firewall product, permit file and printer sharing data to pass through the firewall.
  • I take you through these steps in detail in the following sections.

    Each computer on the network must have a unique computer name. In addition, each computer has a workgroup name that should be the same on each of your computers. I recommend that you use WORKGROUP as the workgroup name—yes, it’s unimaginative, but most Windows computers come with this name preset, so we’ll go with it.

    To check the workgroup name on your Vista computers, click Start, right-click Computer, and select Properties. The workgroup name is shown under the heading Computer Name, Domain and Workgroup Settings. If any computer has a different workgroup name, click the Change Settings button and approve the User Account Control prompt. When the System Properties dialog appears, click Change and type WORKGROUP under the Workgroup button. Click OK, and then let Windows restart.

    Enable File and Printer Sharing

    To enable File and Printer Sharing on Vista, click Start, Control Panel. Select Network and Internet, and then Network and Sharing Center, shown in Figure 6.5.

    Figure 6.5

    Figure 6.5 The Network and Sharing Center lets you control Vista’s sharing features.

    The first thing to note is the network type that you originally selected when you started Windows after installing your network. When you connect Vista to any network, wireless or wired, it probes the other devices on the network to see whether it’s been connected to the same network before, or if the network is new. The first time Vista is connected to a new network, it asks you whether the network is Public or Private. If you label the network Public, it’s considered to be “dangerous” in that you wouldn’t want to trust other users to see the contents of your computer, and so file sharing, network device discovery, and other services are disabled on that network connection. If you label the network Private, network services such as file sharing can be enabled.

    So before you can share files, check the label next to your network’s name (which is usually just Network). If the label is Public, click the word Customize. Check Private, click Next, confirm the User Account Control prompt, and then click Close.

    Now, check the following settings:

  • Network Discovery—Should be On.
  • File Sharing—Should be On.
  • Public Folder Sharing—The Public Documents folder is used for files that you want all users on your computer to be able to see and use. Set Public Folder Sharing feature to On if you want the Public Documents folder to visible to other users on your network as well.
  • Printer Sharing—Should be On.
  • Password Protected Sharing—I discuss this feature in more detail later in this chapter under “Simple File Sharing.”
  • Media Sharing—Set to On if you have a library of music and video that you want to make available to other users and to media playback devices on your network (such as the Roku Soundbridge).
  • If you need to change any of these settings, click the small v in the circle to the right of the feature name and change the setting. You will probably need to confirm a User Account Control prompt.

    At this point, file and printer sharing is ready to go. There is one more step only if you’ve added a third-party firewall program to your computer.

    Open Firewall

    If you’ve added a third-party network firewall program to your computer, just setting File and Printer Sharing On may not be enough to let other computers “see” your computer or use any folders or printers you share. You may need to take extra steps to open your firewall to Windows file sharing data. You’ll have to check the manufacturer’s instructions for the specifics, but what you want to do is to permit inbound and outbound Windows File Sharing data traffic. If your firewall requires you to specify TCP and UDP port numbers, be sure that the following protocols and ports are open:

  • UDP port 135
  • UDP port 136
  • TCP port 137
  • TCP port 445
  • Open these ports to other computers on your same network (same subnet).

    IP Addressing Options

    Windows uses TCP/IP as its primary network protocol. Each computer on the network needs to have a unique IP address assigned to it. There are three ways that IP addresses can be assigned:

  • Manually, in what is called static IP addressing. You would select an address for each computer and enter it manually.
  • Dynamically, through the DHCP service provided by Internet Connection Sharing, a Windows NT/200x server, or a hardware connection-sharing router.
  • Automatically, though Windows’ Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing (APIPA) mechanism. If Windows computers are configured for dynamic IP addressing but there is no DHCP server present, Windows automatically assigns IP addresses. This is the least desirable option.
  • By default, a newly installed network adapter will be set up for dynamic addressing. I recommend that you do not rely on APIPA to configure your network. In my experience, it can cause horrendous slowdowns on your computers. If you don’t have a device or computer to provide DHCP service, configure static TCP/IP addresses.

    Configuring Dynamic (DHCP) IP Address Assignment

    By default, Windows sets up newly installed network adapters to use dynamic IP address assignment, so for new adapters, you don’t need to take any additional configuration steps.

    You will need a computer or hardware device to provide DHCP service (which provides configuration information) to all your other computers. This is provided automatically by any Windows computer that runs Windows Internet Connection Sharing (there can be at most one such computer on a network), by the addition of an Internet connection-sharing router, or a wireless access point that includes an Internet connection-sharing feature. (Alternately, you could run the DHCP service on a Windows Server computer. These operating systems can be used on workgroup networks as well as domain networks, although setting them up is beyond the scope of this book.)

    If you are using Windows Internet Connection Sharing, it assigns IP address 192.168.0.1 with a network mask of 255.255.255.0 to the network adapter in the sharing computer. Other computers should be configured for dynamic addressing and receive addresses from 192.168.0.2 on up.

    If you are configuring a hardware Internet Connection Sharing router, you may need to enable and configure its DHCP server. Usually, the DHCP feature is enabled by default, so you do not need to configure it. If you do, you can use the following settings:

    DHCP Server:

    Enabled

    Server IP address:

    192.168.0.1

    DHCP starting address:

    192.168.0.100

    Number of addresses:

    100

    DNS server(s):

    (As provided by your ISP)

    Some routers prefer to use a different subnet (range of network addresses)—for instance, 192.168.1.x. Whichever range you use, be sure to use the same subnet range for any static IP addresses you assign. There is more information on setting up IP address ranges in the online Appendix C, “Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance” in the discussion of enabling Remote Desktop.

    Configuring Static IP Addresses

    You’ll want to set up static (fixed) IP addresses for some or all of your computers in three situations:

  • If your network has no shared Internet connection and no router, you’ll want to assign static IP address for all your computers, so you won’t be slowed down by the Automatic IP configuration mechanism.
  • If you have computers that you want to reach from the Internet—for example, one or more computers that you want to be able to use via Remote Desktop—you’ll want to assign a static IP address at least to those computers; the others can have their IP addresses assigned automatically.
  • If you have network-attached printers or print servers, you’ll need to assign static IP addresses to these devices. You need to enter these addresses when you’re setting up Windows to use the printers.
  • The goal in assigning static IP addresses is to ensure that each computer on your network has a unique IP address, shared by no other, and that all the other TCP/IP setup information is the same on every computer.

    I suggest you make a worksheet that lists the setup information for your network. Determining what settings to use depends on the type of network you have, which will be one of the following three choices:

  • If your network does not have a router, and you are not using Windows Internet Connection Sharing, use the following values for your computers:

    IP Address:

    192.168.0.x, where x is a number from 200 on up

    Network Mask:

    255.255.255.0

    Gateway Address:

    Leave blank

    DNS Server:

    Leave blank

  • If your network has a router, connect it and turn on one of your computers. Be sure that the router is configured and working, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and be sure that you can view web pages from the attached computer. Then click Start, All Programs, Accessories, Command Prompt. In the command prompt window, type ipconfig /all and press Enter. Make a note of the IP address, network mask, gateway address, and DNS server listed in the window. (On Vista, ignore the IPv6 information, and ignore the information for networking adapters that have the word Tunnel or Teredo in their name.)

    Then use the following values for any computers and devices that need a static IP address:

    IP Address:

    a.b.c.x, where a.b.c are the first three numbers of the IP address you saw in the Command Prompt window, and x is a number from 200 on up. This might end up being something like 192.168.1.200.

    Network Mask:

    As noted in the Command Prompt window, usually 255.255.255.0.

    Gateway Address:

    As noted in the Command Prompt window, usually something like 192.168.0.1.

    DNS Server:

    As noted in the Command Prompt window, usually the DNS addresses supplied by your ISP, or in some cases the same as the gateway address.

  • If you are using Windows Internet Connection Sharing, use the following values for those computers and devices that need a static IP address:

    IP Address:

    192.168.0.x, where x is a number from 200 on up

    Network Mask:

    255.255.255.0

    Gateway Address:

    192.168.0.1

    DNS Server:

    192.168.0.1

  • I suggest that you then list on your worksheet all your computers and any printer devices. Next to each, write down “automatic” if you are letting the computer get its address automatically, or write down the IP address that you will be setting manually. This way you can keep track of which numbers have been used already. The finished worksheet might look something like this:

    My Network: Information from command prompt window: IP Address: 192.168.0.2 (so: all IP addresses will start with 192.168.0) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1 DNS Servers: 10.11.12.13 10.21.22.23 My IP Address assignments: java 192.168.0.200 (want to access from Internet with Remote Desktop) sumatra automatic bali automatic HPJetDirect 192.168.0.201 (print server)

    With this worksheet in hand, configure each computer or device that requires a static IP address.

    To assign an IP address to a computer running Windows XP, use the following steps:

  • Log on as a Computer Administrator.
  • Open the Network Connections window. Right-click the entry or icon for your LAN adapter (usually labeled Local Area Connection) and select Properties.
  • Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
  • On the General tab, enter the selected IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and one or two DNS server IP addresses, as shown in Figure 6.6.

    Figure 6.6

    Figure 6.6 Enter static IP address information on the General tab.

  • You can configure your preferred Internet domain name (called the preferred DNS suffix) on the Network Identification page in the System Properties dialog. To get there, right-click [My] Computer and select Properties, or select Advanced, Network Identification in the Network Connections window. View the Computer Name tab, click Change, and then click More.

    You can also enter a preferred Internet domain name for each individual network or Internet connection. You might want to use your company’s domain name on the network connection, and your ISP’s domain name on a dial-up connection. To do this, view the network connection’s properties dialog, click the Advanced button, select the DNS tab, and enter the domain name under DNS Suffix for This Connection, as shown in Figure 6.7.

    Figure 6.7

    Figure 6.7 Enter per-connection DNS information on the connection’s Advanced Properties DNS tab.

    Also, if your ISP has provided you with more than two DNS server addresses, click Add to enter additional addresses on this same tab.

  • Unless your network’s DNS server supports dynamic IP address registration, uncheck Register This Connection’s Addresses in DNS.
  • Click OK to close the dialogs.
  • On Vista, follow these steps:

  • Click Start, right-click Network, and select Properties.
  • Select Manage Network Connections.
  • Locate the icon corresponding to your LAN adapter. It is probably named Local Area Connection or Wireless Connection. Right-click this icon and select Properties.
  • Confirm the User Account Control prompt.
  • Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click Properties.
  • Then follow the steps previously described for assigning an IP address on Windows XP, starting at step 4.

    Configuring Additional Useful Network Services

    Besides the TCP/IP protocol and network services that are installed by default with Windows, you may want to install some additional services manually as part of your network setup.

    Link Level Topology Discovery (LLTD) for XP

    Windows Vista includes a network map feature that shows a diagram of the devices and computers on your network. The map is constructed from data collected by the Link Level Topology Discovery (LLTD) protocol. Vista comes with LLTD software preinstalled, but to get it in XP you must have Service Pack 3 installed. Thus, if you have computers running both Windows Vista and XP Service Pack 2 on your network, the XP SP2 computers don’t show up on Vista’s Network Map.

    To install LLTD support on XP without installing Service Pack 3, perform the following steps on each of your XP computers:

  • Visit microsoft.com and search for “KB922120.” Select the search result titled “Download Details: Link Layer Topology Discovery (LLTD) Responder (KB922120).”
  • Click Continue to perform Windows license validation.
  • Download and then run the small installer program.
  • Internet Gateway Device Discovery and Control Client

    If you are using a hardware Internet-sharing router or Windows Internet Connection Sharing, you should install the Internet Gateway Device Discovery and Control Client on all your Windows XP computers. This service places an icon in each computer’s Network Connections folder that lets users monitor and manage the Internet connection that is hosted on the sharing computer or the router.

    To install the Discovery and Control Service, follow these steps on each XP computer:

  • Log on as a Computer Administrator.
  • Open the Network Connections window.
  • From the menu, select Advanced, Optional Networking Components.
  • Select Networking Services and click Details.
  • Check both Internet Gateway Device Discovery and Control Client and UPnP User Interface, and click OK.
  • Click Next.
  • When this service has been installed, an icon appears in your Network Connections window for your router or other network devices. You can double-click this icon to open the device’s setup and control page. What appears varies from device to device, but it’s usually the device’s built-in setup web page.

    Universal Plug and Play

    If you use a hardware connection-sharing router or Internet Connection Sharing, you may also want to consider enabling a feature called Universal Plug and Play (UPnP). UPnP provides a way for software running on your computer to communicate with the router. Here’s what UPnP can do:

  • It provides a means for the router to tell software on your computer that it is separated from the Internet by Network Address Translation. Some software—Remote Assistance and the video and audio parts of Windows Messenger in particular—ask the computer on the other end of the connection to establish a connection back to your IP address. On a network with a shared connection, however, the IP address that the computer sees is not the public IP address that the shared Internet connection uses. UPnP lets software such as Remote Assistance find out what its public IP address is. It also provides a way for the router to suggest alternate port numbers if several computers on the network want to provide the same service (for example, if several users send Remote Assistance requests).
  • It provides a means for software running on the network to tell the router to forward expected incoming connections to the correct computer. Remote Assistance and Windows Messenger again are two good examples. When the computer on the other end of the connection starts sending data, the router does not know to send it to your computer. UPnP lets UPnP-aware application programs automatically set up forwarding in the router.
  • UPnP provides a means for printers and perhaps other types of as-yet-undeveloped hardware devices to announce their presence on the network so that Windows can automatically take advantage of the services they provide.
  • UPnP has a downside, however: It has no built-in security mechanism, so any program on any computer on your network could potentially take control of the router and open “holes” for incoming connections (and there are already some viruses and Trojan horses that take advantage of this). However, Windows Firewall or your third-party firewall package will still provide some protection. Windows Firewall warns you if an undesired program prepares to receive incoming network connections, and this cannot be disabled as long as you are not using a Computer Administrator user account. In addition, most third-party firewalls inform you if an unrecognized program requests either incoming or outgoing network connections. UPnP abuse is not yet a serious problem. If you use Remote Assistance or Windows Messenger, the benefits that UPnP provides mostly outweigh the risks.

    To use UPnP, you must enable the feature in your router. It’s usually disabled by default. If your router doesn’t currently support UPnP, you may have to download and install a firmware upgrade from the manufacturer. Most routers now do support UPnP.

    On Windows XP, UPnP is enabled by default. If you have a UPnP router or Windows Internet Connection Sharing running on your network, the Network Connections screen should display an icon for the router as shown in Figure 6.8.

    Figure 6.8

    Figure 6.8 If your router supports UPnP, an Internet Gateway icon should appear in Network Connections.

    On Vista, UPnP is controlled by the Network Discovery setting, which is enabled by default on private networks and disabled on public networks. To manually control Network Discovery on Vista, follow these steps:

  • Click Start, Control Panel.
  • Select the Network and Internet link, and then select Network and Sharing Center.
  • At the bottom of the page, check the setting for Network Discovery. To change it, click the round v button, select Turn On or Turn Off Network Discovery, click Apply, and then confirm the User Account Control prompt.
  • When UPnP is working, on XP you should see an icon for your router or gateway under the title Internet Connection in the Network Connections window. If you right-click this icon and select Status, you’ll see a dialog similar to the one shown in Figure 6.9, displaying the status of the router’s connection. If your Internet service uses a connection-based system such as PPPoE or standard dial-up service via a modem, this dialog may display a button that lets you connect to and disconnect from your ISP.

    Click Properties and then Settings to display a list of network services for which the router is forwarding incoming connections to computers on your network. This list shows only forwarding settings made via UPnP. Services you’ve forwarded using the setup screens on your router, such as Remote Desktop, as discussed in the online Appendix C, do not appear here and new settings should not be made here—they usually disappear when the router is reset.

    On Vista, the icon appears in the Network Map in the Network and Sharing Center. All you can do with it is select Properties, and from the properties log, View Device Web Page. (The capability to monitor port forwarding is not available on Vista.)

    Designating a Master Browser

    Windows uses a database of known online computers to build the display known variously as Network Neighborhood, Computers Near Me, or View Workgroup Computers. The database is managed by a software service called the Browser Service. It runs on one of your computers, which is designated the “master browser.” The master browser is selected by an automatic election held by the computers on the network. In addition, on a larger network some computers may be elected as backup browser servers.

    When you are running a network with different versions of Windows, or if your computers don’t all have the exact same list of protocols installed, this service sometimes malfunctions: The election goes haywire (perhaps because of the Windows equivalent of the hanging chad), or the database is filled incorrectly, or other problems occur. The result is that the Network Neighborhood display doesn’t function correctly even though the computers clearly can communicate with each other (for example, one can map network drives to folders shared by the invisible computers).

    If you find that this occurs on your network, you may want to force the master browser service to run on a designated Windows XP or Vista computer that is always left on. This can help stabilize the list of local computers.

    To make this work you have to configure one computer to always be the master browser, and configure all the other computers never to offer to be the master. To make these settings on a computer running Windows Vista, XP, 2000, or NT you have to edit the Registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Browser\Parameters. Two values can be altered (refer to Chapter 5, “Tweaking and Tuning Windows,” for more details on editing the Registry):

    Value

    Possible Settings

    IsDomainMasterBrowser

    True—This computer will be the master browser

    False—Master is determined by election

    MaintainServerList

    No—Never serve as master

    Yes—Ask to be the preferred master

    Auto—Offer to be master if needed

    If you want to force one computer to be the master browser in all circumstances, set the IsDomainMasterBrowser value to True on that computer and False on all others. If you want to set one computer to be the preferred browser, but let others step in if the master is unavailable, just set the MaintainServerList key to Yes on the preferred computer, and be sure to turn it on before the others.


    Red Tape Rising: A 2011 Mid-Year Report

    Abstract: Following a record year of rulemaking, the Obama Administration is continuing to unleash more costly red tape. In the first six months of the 2011 fiscal year, 15 major regulations were issued, with annual costs exceeding $5.8 billion and one-time implementation costs approaching $6.5 billion. No major rulemaking actions were taken to reduce regulatory burdens during this period. Overall, the Obama Administration imposed 75 new major regulations from January 2009 to mid-FY 2011, with annual costs of $38 billion. There were only six major deregulatory actions during that time, with reported savings of just $1.5 billion. This flood of red tape will undoubtedly persist, as hundreds of new regulations stemming from the vast Dodd–Frank financial regulation law, Obamacare, and the EPA’s global warming crusade advance through the regulatory pipeline—all of which further weakens an anemic economy and job creation, while undermining Americans’ fundamental freedoms. Action by Congress as well as the President to stem this regulatory surge is essential.

    The Hidden Tax

    Most Americans are all too familiar with the income, property, and sales taxes that shrink paychecks and increase the cost of most every product and service. Just as significant—although less visible—are the ever-increasing costs of regulation. Every facet of daily life, including how Americans heat their homes and light their rooms, what food they buy and how they cook it, the toys that occupy their children and the volume of their television commercials, are controlled by government’s ballooning compendium of dos and don’ts. The attendant costs of each one constitutes a “hidden tax.”

    Many people may think that regulatory costs are a business problem. Indeed, they are, but the costs of regulation are inevitably passed on to consumers in the form of higher prices and limited product choices. Basic items, such as toilets, showerheads, lightbulbs, mattresses, washing machines, dryers, cars, ovens, refrigerators, television sets, and bicycles, all cost significantly more because of government decrees on energy use, product labeling, and performance standards that go well beyond safety—as well as hundreds of millions of hours of testing and paperwork to document compliance.

    There is no official accounting of total regulatory costs, and estimates vary. Unlike the budgetary accounting of direct tax revenues, Washington does not track the total burdens imposed by its expansive rulemaking. An oft-quoted estimate of $1.75 trillion[1] annually represents nearly twice the amount of individual income taxes collected last year.[2]

    Increased Burdens in 2011

    The cost of new regulations, however, can be tracked, and it is growing substantially. Following record increases in fiscal year (FY) 2010, regulatory burdens have continued to increase in 2011. Overall, from the beginning of the Obama Administration to mid-FY 2011, regulators have imposed $38 billion in new costs on the American people, more than any comparable period on record.

    In total, according to the Government Accountability Office, 1,827 rulemaking proceedings were completed during the first six months of FY 2011 (between October 1, 2010, and March 31, 2011). Of these, 37 were classified as “significant/substantive” or “major,” meaning they each had an expected economic impact of at least $100 million per year.

    Fifteen of those rulemakings increased regulatory burdens (defined as imposing new limits or mandates on private-sector activity).[3] No major rulemaking actions decreased regulatory burdens during the first half of fiscal 2011.

    The annual costs of the 15 new major regulations total more than $5.8 billion, according to estimates by the regulatory agencies. In addition, the regulations impose nearly $6.5 billion in one-time implementation costs.[4]

    It should be noted that the additional costs include $1.8 billion annually for compliance, and one-time implementation expenses of $5.2 billion, stemming from new emissions limits on industrial and commercial boilers and incinerators. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced it would reconsider these rules, and postponed their effective dates pending that reconsideration. But the rules remain on the books. The postponement will extend until judicial review is concluded or the agency completes its reconsideration, whichever is earlier.[5] While the reconsideration of these costly rules is welcome, the continuing uncertainty constitutes a significant cost, as businesses are constrained from undertaking expansion, developing new products, or making efficiency improvements.

    The totals also include five sets of complex regulations promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to control financial institutions. While the SEC estimated the costs imposed by these rules at just over $180 million, that figure only reflects a minuscule portion of the total burden. For example, costs related to the staff time required to comply with three of the regulations are not included in the SEC’s estimate, although that may constitute three-quarters of the total man hours required to comply. Specifically, the SEC calculated the costs of “outside” professional services needed to fulfill three of the new regulations, but did not include costs for the 317,926 hours of “internal” work that regulatory compliance requires. Perhaps more important, the figures do not include reductions in efficiency or forgone innovation, the costs of which could dwarf the direct compliance burden.[6]

    Other notable new rules include expansion of the Americans with Disabilities Act, restrictions on the expenditures of health insurers, and increases in minimum wages for immigrants.

    Unprecedented Growth in Red Tape in the Obama Era

    The new regulations continue a multiyear trend of heavier burdens placed on the U.S. economy and the American people. This trend did not begin with the presidency of Barack Obama; the Administration of George W. Bush, for example, generated more than $60 billion in additional annual regulatory costs.[7]

    However, the rate at which burdens are growing has accelerated under the Obama Administration. During its first 26 months—from taking office to mid-FY 2011—the Obama Administration has imposed 75 new major regulations with reported costs to the private sector exceeding $40 billion. During the same period, six major rulemaking proceedings reduced regulatory burdens by an estimated $1.5 billion, still leaving a net increase of more than $38 billion.

    The actual cost of the new regulations is almost certainly higher, for several reasons. First, the reported totals do not include “non-major” rules, i.e., those deemed unlikely to cost $100 million or more annually. Moreover, as agencies estimate the impacts of their own rules, costs are routinely minimized. Nor do agencies always analyze the costs of proposed rules. Twelve of the 75 major regulations adopted by the Obama Administration through the end of March 2011 did not include quantified costs.

    The regulations imposed include fuel economy and emission standards for passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles, with an annual cost of $10.8 billion; energy conservation standards for lightbulbs, with an annual cost of $700 million; constraints on “short sales” of securities, at $1.2 billion; and a slew of other costly regulations related to the Dodd–Frank financial regulation statute and Obamacare health regulations.

    No other President has burdened businesses and individuals with a higher number and larger cost of regulations in a comparable time period. President Bush was in his third year before new costs hit $4 billion. President Obama achieved the same in 12 months.

    More Regulators, Bigger Budgets

    In addition to the costs imposed on the private sector, regulations swell the government workforce and fatten the federal budget. According to a report by the Weidenbaum Center on the Economy, Government, and Public Policy and The George Washington University’s Regulatory Studies Center, regulatory staff at federal agencies (full-time equivalents) increased about 3 percent between 2009 and 2010, from 262,241 to 271,235, and is estimated to rise another 4 percent—to 281,832—in 2011. Federal outlays for developing and enforcing regulations are also expected to grow by 4 percent this year, from $46.9 billion in 2010 (in constant 2005 dollars) to $48.9 billion.[8]

    More Costly Regulations Looming. The torrent of new regulation will not end any time soon. The regulatory pipeline is chock full of proposed rules. The spring 2011 Unified Agenda (also known as the Semiannual Regulatory Agenda) lists 2,785 rules (proposed and final) in the pipeline. Of those, 144 were classified as “economically significant.” With each of the 144 pending major rules expected to cost at least $100 million annually, they represent at least $14 billion in new burdens each year.

    This is an increase of 15.2 percent in the number of economically significant rules in the agenda between spring 2010 and spring 2011. Moreover, in the past decade, the number of such rules has increased a whopping 102 percent, rising from 71 to 144 since 2001.[9]

    More Regulations in the Pipeline

    Timid Regulatory Review. In January, responding to criticism that the regulatory burden had grown too onerous, and acknowledging the need to eliminate ineffective and harmful regulations, President Obama issued an executive order calling for an agency-by-agency review of existing regulations. On May 26, the Administration released preliminary results from that review, identifying numerous regulations that could be eased. Among them:

  • Modification of an EPA regulation that defined milk as an “oil,” thus requiring dairy spills to be treated as hazardous. According to the agency, exempting milk from the regulation will save dairies around $1.4 billion over the next 10 years.
  • Elimination of an EPA requirement that gas stations maintain gas vapor recovery systems, which is redundant with air pollution controls on cars today. Estimated savings: $67 million per year.
  • Modification of a Department of Transportation (DOT) requirement that railroads only maintain automated anti-collision systems in areas where they are actually needed. Savings: up to $400 million in implementation costs.
  • Overall, the Administration claims that the changes identified, if implemented, could reduce regulatory costs by about $1 billion per year.

    But it is too soon for Americans to breathe a collective sigh of regulatory relief. The promised burden reductions are still only a fraction of the new burdens being constantly created. Moreover, many of the reforms identified are the low-hanging fruit of regulatory excesses which should have been plucked long ago. The milk regulation has been in place since the 1970s, and a request to eliminate dairies from the regulations had been submitted to the EPA four years ago. Similarly, the problems with the anti-collision systems mandated by the DOT have long been known. In fact, the DOT was sued over the issue more than a year ago by the railroad industry, and the agency only committed to reforming the mandates as part of a legal settlement.

    Lastly, it should be noted that independent agencies, such as the Federal Communications Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (considered by many to be the most powerful regulatory agency yet established), did not participate in the initial review process.[10]

    The Administration’s review of unnecessary regulations is a step in the right direction, but it should be more serious and comprehensive than what has been offered thus far.

    Steps for Congress

    To protect Americans and the economy against runaway regulators under any Administration, additional oversight is necessary. Specifically, Congress should take several steps to increase scrutiny of new and existing regulations to ensure that each is necessary, and that costs are minimized. Congress should:

  • Require congressional approval of new major rules promulgated by agencies. Under the 1996 Congressional Review Act, Congress has the means to veto new regulations. To date, however, that authority has been used successfully only once. Under legislation introduced in the House by Congressman Geoff Davis (R–KY) (H.R. 10) and in the Senate by Senator Rand Paul (R–KY) (S. 299), the review process would be strengthened by requiring congressional approval before any major regulation takes effect. Such a system would ensure a congressional check on regulators, as well as ensure the accountability of Congress itself.
  • Create a Congressional Office of Regulatory Analysis. Congress needs the capability to review proposed and existing rules independently, without reliance on the Office of Management and Budget or the regulatory agencies. A Congressional Office of Regulatory Analysis, modeled on the Congressional Budget Office, would provide an important backstop to, and check on, the executive branch’s regulatory powers. Such an office would also help Congress better evaluate the regulatory consequences of the legislation it enacts. While it is easy to blame regulators for excessive rulemaking, much of the problem stems from overly expansive or ill-defined statutory language. A congressional office to review legislation before adoption could help address the problem.
  • Establish a sunset date for federal regulations. While the President has asked agencies to review their existing rules and eliminate those that are unnecessary, these requirements are insufficient. Even the best plans for periodic review will fall short if there are no consequences when an agency fails to adequately scrutinize the regulations it has imposed. The natural bureaucratic tendency is to leave old rules and regulations in place, even if they have outlived their usefulness. To ensure that substantive review occurs, regulations should automatically expire if not explicitly reaffirmed by the agency through a notice and comment rulemaking. As with any such regulatory decision, this re-affirmation would be subject to review by the courts.
  • Conclusion

    Despite the weak economy, the Obama Administration has continued to increase the regulatory burden on Americans in the first half of FY 2011, with 15 new major regulations imposing $5.8 billion in additional annual costs, as well as $6.5 billion in one-time implementation costs.

    From the beginning of the Obama Administration to the end of March 2011, a staggering 75 new major regulations, with costs exceeding $38 billion, have been adopted. While the President has acknowledged the need to rein in regulation, the steps taken to date have fallen far short. The President cannot have it both ways—having identified overregulation as a problem, he must take real and significant steps to rein it in. At the same time, Congress—which shares much of the blame for excessive regulation—must step in, establishing critical mechanisms and institutions to ensure that unnecessary and excessively costly regulations are not imposed on the U.S. economy and the American people. Without such decisive steps, the costs of red tape will continue to grow, and Americans—and the U.S. economy—will be the victims.

    —James L. Gattuso is Senior Research Fellow in Regulatory Policy in the Thomas A. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies, and Diane Katz is Research Fellow in Regulatory Policy in the Thomas A. Roe Institute, at The Heritage Foundation.

    Appendix A

    Data on the number and cost of rules are based on rules reported to Congress by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) pursuant to the Congressional Review Act of 1996. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Federal Rules Database, at http://www.gao.gov/legal/congressact/fedrule.html (July 19, 2011).

    Rules included are those categorized as either “major” or “significant/substantive.” Rules which do not involve regulations limiting activity or mandating activity by the private sector were excluded. Thus, for instance, budgetary rules which set reimbursement rates for Medicaid or conditions for receipt of agricultural subsidies were excluded.

    The GAO database includes rulemakings from all agencies, including independent agencies, such as the Federal Communications Commission and the Securities and Exchange Commission, which are not required to submit analyses to the Office of Management and Budget for review. If an agency did not prepare an analysis, or did not quantify costs, no amount was included, although the rule was included in the count of major rules.

    Cost figures were based on Regulatory Impact Analyses conducted by agencies promulgating each rule. The agencies’ totals were then adjusted to constant 2010 dollars using the GDP deflator. Where applicable, a 7 percent discount rate was used. Where a range of values was given by an agency, costs were based on the most likely scenario if so indicated by the agency; otherwise the mid-point value was used. The date of a rule was based, for classification purposes, on the date of publication in the Federal Register. Rules after January 20, 2009, were attributed to the Obama Administration.

    In a number of cases, reported costs differ from those reported in previous versions of “Red Tape Rising.” Such changes were made as a result of refinements to their analysis, or to correct errors. The most substantial change was the addition of a rule expanding the application of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Although this rule was published in the Federal Register on September 15, it was not reported to the Government Accountability Office until March 15, after their FY 2010 estimates were published.

    As this report focuses on the cost of major rules, rather than the cost-benefit trade-off, no benefits or “negative costs” were included in this study. They believe an awareness of the total costs of regulation being imposed is itself a critical factor in regulatory analysis, in the same way that accounting for federal spending is a critical factor in expenditure analysis. Inclusion of a rule in their totals, however, is not meant to indicate that a particular rule is justified. For actions reducing regulatory burdens, they used estimates provided by agencies that described the savings to consumers or society from the action.

    Appendix B

    Major Regulations that Increase Private-Sector Burdens

    October 2010–March 2011

    October 2010
  • October 14, 2010, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, “Regulation and Enforcement: Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf—Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf.” Cost: $183.1 million annually.

    The interim final regulation amends drilling regulations related to well control, well casing and cementing, secondary intervention, unplanned disconnects, recordkeeping, well completion and well plugging for oil and gas exploration, and development on the Outer Continental Shelf.

  • October 20, 2010, Department of Labor, Employee Benefits Security Administration, “Fiduciary Requirements for Disclosure in Participant-Directed Individual Account Plans.” Cost: $384.4 million annually.

    The final regulation requires the disclosure of certain plan and investment-related information, including fee and expense information, to participants and beneficiaries in participant-directed individual account plans.

  • October 20, 2010, Securities and Exchange Commission, “Reporting of Security-Based Swap Transaction Data.” Cost: $50.3 million annually; $6.2 million start-up.

    The interim final temporary regulation requires specified counterparties to pre-enactment security-based swap transactions to report certain information to a registered data repository or to the SEC.

  • November 2010
  • November 15, 2010, Securities and Exchange Commission, “Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access.” Cost: $112.9 million annually; $114.4 million start-up.

    The final regulation requires brokers or dealers trading securities on an exchange or an alternative trading system to establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures.

  • December 2010
  • December 1, 2010, Department of Health and Human Services, “Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.” Cost: $948.3 million annually; $48.1 million start-up.

    The interim final regulation implements the requirements of Obamacare for insurers to spend a government-regulated ratio of premium revenue on medical care.

  • December 28, 2010, Consumer Product Safety Commission, “Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs; Final Rule.” Cost: $387 million start-up.

    The final regulation adopts new safety standards for baby cribs.

  • January 2011
  • January 19, 2011, Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Ejection Mitigation; Phase-In Reporting Requirements; Incorporation by Reference.” Cost: $511.8 million annually.

    The final regulation establishes a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to reduce the partial and complete ejection of occupants through side windows in crashes, particularly rollover crashes.

  • January 19, 2011, Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, “Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program.” Cost: $847.4 million annually.

    The final regulation amends regulations governing the certification for employment of nonimmigrant workers in temporary or seasonal non-agricultural employment. It also revises the methodology by which the Department of Labor calculates the prevailing wages to be paid to H-2B workers and others in connection with a temporary labor certification.

  • January 25, 2011, Securities and Exchange Commission, “Issuer Review of Assets in Offerings of Asset-Backed Securities.” Cost: $8.4 million annually. (The cost figure only reflects “outside” professional assistance, and not the costs of an additional 6,968 “internal” burden hours.)

    The final regulation implements a Dodd–Frank provision requiring any issuer registering the offer and sale of an asset-backed security to perform and disclose a review of assets underlying the offering.

  • January 26, 2011, Securities and Exchange Commission, “Disclosure for Asset-Backed Securities Required by Section 943 of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform.” Cost: $2.2 million annually, plus $23 million in one-time up-front costs. (The cost figure only reflects “outside” professional assistance, and not the costs of an additional 286,016 “internal” burden hours.)

    The regulation implements a Dodd–Frank provision requiring securitizers of asset-backed securities to disclose fulfilled and unfulfilled repurchase requests. It also requires “statistical rating organizations” (credit agencies) to divulge a variety of information about asset-backed securities in any credit rating provided in connection with an offering.

  • February 2011
  • February 2, 2011, Securities and Exchange Commission, “Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation.” Cost: $7.8 million annually. (The cost figure only reflects “outside” professional assistance, and not the costs of an estimated 24,942 additional hours of “internal” work.)

    The final regulation implements a Dodd–Frank provision requiring a separate shareholder advisory vote to approve executive compensation. It also requires companies soliciting votes to approve merger or acquisition transactions to provide disclosure of certain “golden parachute” compensation arrangements and, in some circumstances, to conduct a shareholder advisory vote to approve the golden parachute compensation arrangements.

  • March 2011
  • March 21, 2011, Environmental Protection Agency, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers.” Cost: $545 million annually.

    The final regulation sets national emission standards for emissions for two “area source” categories: industrial boilers and commercial and institutional boilers.

  • March 21, 2011, Environmental Protection Agency, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters.” Cost: $1.8 billion annually; $5.2 billion start-up.

    The final regulation establishes emission standards for industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters at “major sources” requiring application of the maximum achievable control technology.

  • March 21, 2011, Environmental Protection Agency, “Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units.” Cost: $285.3 million annually; $719.2 million start-up.

    The final regulation establishes new source performance standards and emission guidelines for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration units.

  • March 25, 2011, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, “Regulations to Implement the Equal Employment Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act, As Amended.” Cost: $121.5 million annually.

    The regulation and interpretive guidance implements the ADA Amendments Act of 2008. The effect of the changes is to make it easier for an individual seeking protection under the ADA to establish that he or she has a disability.



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