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1Z0-881 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Solaris 10 Security Administrator(R) Certified Expert
Test Code : 1Z0-881
Test Name : Oracle Solaris 10 Security Administrator(R) Certified Expert
Vendor Name : Oracle
: 293 Real Questions
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See the whole checklist of desirable rack server carriersfinal analysis:
Oracle’s SPARC S7 servers are designed for heavy enterprise use. Its structure is constructed on per-core effectivity, which optimizes high-compute density for intensive workloads like cloud applications and facts analytics. Given Oracle’s extensive usage for monetary database functions, of direction powerful native protection is covered.
With a wealth of suggestions security elements, processor core effectivity, and efficiency acceleration points, Oracle has created these machines to run its personal business Oracle applications, as well as anything else involving Java, databases, and analytics.
The unit's 1U kind aspect contains a number of storage, even though it lags in the back of lots of the different servers in this book on memory. The S7 is not likely to ever be used as a time-honored-aim server. however for any individual running Oracle functions, it's tailor-made. seeing that it presents high-classification commercial enterprise aspects at a decent rate, Oracle users are unlikely to be tempted onto different hardware.Product description:
The Oracle S7-2 servers knows its niche and is chuffed in it. up to 1.7x more suitable core effectivity than x86 programs ability that it can lower expenses for running Java applications and Oracle databases. Hardware acceleration of data analytics carry 10x sooner time to perception and allows for real time in-memory analytics to be performed on OLTP databases operating Oracle Database 12c.
The SPARC S7-2 is a 1U server is attainable with both one or two processors, as much as 1 TB of memory, and up to 9.6 TB of storage. built-in, no-can charge virtualization technology with Oracle VM Server for SPARC and Oracle Solaris Containers is another plus that improves utilization and reduces operational overhead.
The server additionally addresses the ordinary alternate-off between security and excessive-efficiency. As such it offers excessive efficiency to these deploying mixed workloads. it's in keeping with the SPARC S7 processor, which extends the software in Silicon features of Oracle’s SPARC M7 processor onto scale-out form factors. The SPARC S7 - 2 server is a 1U device that favors compute density. For these desiring extra storage, there is a 2U SPARC S7 - 2L version that offers versatile storage options, together with a big set of NVMe drives.elements:
variety of processors:
Up to 2
Oracle SPARC S7 processor core handles up to eight threads the use of dynamic threading know-how. The processor is designed to maximise effectivity with the aid of integrating most of the hardware interfaces on the processor itself, permitting the server to achieve excessive memory bandwidth and low latency.
Cores per processor:
Eight-cores, as much as 64 threads per processor (as much as 8 threads per core); 4 information analytics accelerators per processor, every aiding four concurrent in-memory query operations with decompression
optimum processor frequency/cache:
level 1: sixteen KB guide and sixteen KB information per core
degree 2: 256 KB per four cores
degree 3: sixteen MB on chip
I/O expansion slots:
Three low-profile PCIe 3.0 x8 slots
highest reminiscence/# slots/speed:
512 GB/6 DIMM slots/as much as 2666 Mhz
optimum Persistent reminiscence:
One 12 Gb/sec SAS-3 controller
Oracle Premier assist includes 24/7 hardware provider, professional technical help, proactive tools, and updates to Oracle Solaris, Oracle VM, and built-in utility (comparable to firmware) for a single rate.
“Our SPARC servers are the most stable inside their infrastructure. convenient implementation of this products and the supports that it offers," spoke of a Server Analyst in the communications trade.
“we're chuffed with their SPARC servers and run enterprise vital applications on them with high availability. didn't have any difficulty with infrastructure. it is in reality decent hardware," spoke of a Senior methods Engineer within the Finance business.Key markets and use cases:
internet infrastructure, utility building database, company functions, and middleware application. and naturally, any Oracle business purposes.price:
Oracle SPARC S7
Max Processor Frequency
four.27 GHz (varies by means of stage)
Max Persistent memory
2 SPARC S7
tremendous for Oracle clients
Aug 5, 2015Joyce Wells
Following up on the April 2014 announcement of Solaris eleven.2, a contemporary cloud platform together with a full OpenStack distribution, Oracle has introduced plans to combine Docker into Oracle Solaris.
Docker containers wrap up a bit of application in a complete filesystem that incorporates the accessories it should run, together with code, runtime, device tools, and gadget libraries, make sure that it is going to run identical way no matter what ambiance it is working in.
the new Docker-Solaris integration will enable valued clientele to leverage the Docker open platform to greater conveniently distribute purposes developed and deployed in Oracle Solaris Zones, Oracle Solaris’ developed-in virtualization know-how. Oracle talked about it is going to additionally make utility including Oracle WebLogic Server purchasable for development and checking out as Docker photographs.
Solaris pioneered container know-how greater than 10 years in the past as Solaris Containers. Oracle acquired the Solaris expertise in 2009 as part of its buy of sun Microsystems. Now called Oracle Solaris Zones, a majority of Solaris valued clientele use the know-how for its scalability and efficiency, in addition to comprehensive aid and protection isolation, according to Oracle.
the integration offers builders the better of both worlds – access to Oracle Solaris’ safety, aid isolation and analytics with the potential to effortlessly create containers in dev/look at various, creation and cloud environments, in keeping with Markus Flierl, vice president, Oracle Solaris Core know-how.
“Docker welcomes Oracle Solaris to the Docker community. Integrating Docker with Oracle Solaris Zones will carry a mature and proven container expertise to Docker environments working in business-classification clouds,” referred to Nick Stinemates, vp of enterprise building & Technical Alliances for Docker.
Oracle additionally these days released the beta for Oracle Solaris 11.3, which comprises new Solaris Zones aspects equivalent to at ease are living migration, are living reconfiguration and demonstrated boot for Oracle Solaris Kernel Zones. The Oracle Solaris eleven.three beta is purchasable from Oracle technology network.
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Despite the wide selection of vendor-specific information technology security certifications, identifying which...
ones best suit your educational or career needs is fairly straightforward.
This guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications includes an alphabetized table of security certification programs from various vendors, a brief description of each certification and advice for further details.Introduction: Choosing vendor-specific information technology security certifications
The process of choosing the right vendor-specific information technology security certifications is much simpler than choosing vendor-neutral ones. In the vendor-neutral landscape, you must evaluate the pros and cons of various programs to select the best option. On the vendor-specific side, it's only necessary to follow these three steps:
In an environment where qualified IT security professionals can choose from numerous job openings, the benefits of individual training and certifications can be hard to appraise.
Many employers pay certification costs to develop and retain their employees, as well as to boost the organization's in-house expertise. Most see this as a win-win for employers and employees alike, though employers often require full or partial reimbursement for the related costs incurred if employees leave their jobs sooner than some specified payback period after certification.
There have been quite a few changes since the last survey update in 2015. The Basic category saw a substantial jump in the number of available IT security certifications due to the addition of several Brainbench certifications, in addition to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Cyber Ops certification, the Fortinet Network Security Expert Program and new IBM certifications.
Certifications from AccessData, Check Point, IBM and Oracle were added to the Intermediate category, increasing the total number of certifications in that category, as well. However, the number of certifications in the Advanced category decreased, due to several IBM certifications being retired.Basic information technology security certifications
Brainbench basic security certificationsBrainbench offers several basic-level information technology security certifications, each requiring the candidate to pass one exam. Brainbench security-related certifications include:
Source: Brainbench Information Security Administrator certifications
CCNA Cyber OpsPrerequisites: None required; training is recommended.
This associate-level certification prepares cybersecurity professionals for work as cybersecurity analysts responding to security incidents as part of a security operations center team in a large organization.
The CCNA Cyber Ops certification requires candidates to pass two written exams.
Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Cyber Ops
CCNA SecurityPrerequisites: A valid Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching, Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification.
This credential validates that associate-level professionals are able to install, troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-routed and switched network devices for the purpose of protecting both the devices and networked data.
A person with a CCNA Security certification can be expected to understand core security concepts, endpoint security, web and email content security, the management of secure access, and more. He should also be able to demonstrate skills for building a security infrastructure, identifying threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and mitigating security threats. CCNA credential holders also possess the technical skills and expertise necessary to manage protection mechanisms such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, network access, endpoint security solutions, and web and email security.
The successful completion of one exam is required to obtain this credential.
Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Security
Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of networking; CCSA training and six months to one year of experience with Check Point products are recommended.
Check Point's foundation-level credential prepares individuals to install, configure and manage Check Point security system products and technologies, such as security gateways, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs). Credential holders also possess the skills necessary to secure network and internet communications, upgrade products, troubleshoot network connections, configure security policies, protect email and message content, defend networks from intrusions and other threats, analyze attacks, manage user access in a corporate LAN environment, and configure tunnels for remote access to corporate resources.
Candidates must pass a single exam to obtain this credential.
Source: Check Point CCSA Certification
IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0Prerequisites: IBM suggests that candidates be highly familiar with the IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 console. They should have experience taking actions; activating analyses; and using Fixlets, tasks and baselines in the environment. They should also understand patching, component services, client log files and troubleshooting within IBM Endpoint Manager.
This credential recognizes professionals who use IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 daily. Candidates for this certification should know the key concepts of Endpoint Manager, be able to describe the system's components and be able to use the console to perform routine tasks.
Successful completion of one exam is required.
Editor's note: IBM is retiring this certification as of May 31, 2017; there will be a follow-on test available as of April 2017 for IBM BigFix Compliance V9.5 Fundamental Administration, Test C2150-627.
Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0
IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud ProtectionPrerequisites: IBM recommends that candidates have experience with network data communications, network security, and the Windows and Mac operating systems.
This credential pertains mainly to sales engineers who support the Trusteer Fraud product portfolio for web fraud management, and who can implement a Trusteer Fraud solution. Candidates must understand Trusteer product functionality, know how to deploy the product, and be able to troubleshoot the product and analyze the results.
To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.
Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud Protection
McAfee Product SpecialistPrerequisites: None required; completion of an associated training course is highly recommended.
McAfee information technology security certification holders possess the knowledge and technical skills necessary to install, configure, manage and troubleshoot specific McAfee products, or, in some cases, a suite of products.
Candidates should possess one to three years of direct experience with one of the specific product areas.
The current products targeted by this credential include:
All credentials require passing one exam.
Source: McAfee Certification Program
Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA)Prerequisites: None; training recommended.
This credential started as an academic-only credential for students, but Microsoft made it available to the general public in 2012.
There are 10 different MTA credentials across three tracks (IT Infrastructure with five certs, Database with one and Development with four). The IT Infrastructure track includes a Security Fundamentals credential, and some of the other credentials include security components or topic areas.
To earn each MTA certification, candidates must pass the corresponding exam.
Source: Microsoft MTA Certifications
Fortinet Network Security Expert (NSE)Prerequisites: Vary by credential.
The Fortinet NSE program has eight levels, each of which corresponds to a separate network security credential within the program. The credentials are:
NSE 1 is open to anyone, but is not required. The NSE 2 and NSE 3 information technology security certifications are available only to Fortinet employees and partners. Candidates for NSE 4 through NSE 8 should take the exams through Pearson VUE.
Source: Fortinet NSE
Symantec Certified Specialist (SCS)This security certification program focuses on data protection, high availability and security skills involving Symantec products.
To become an SCS, candidates must select an area of focus and pass an exam. All the exams cover core elements, such as installation, configuration, product administration, day-to-day operation and troubleshooting for the selected focus area.
As of this writing, the following exams are available:
Source: Symantec CertificationIntermediate information technology security certifications
AccessData Certified Examiner (ACE)Prerequisites: None required; the AccessData BootCamp and Advanced Forensic Toolkit (FTK) courses are recommended.
This credential recognizes a professional's proficiency using AccessData's FTK, FTK Imager, Registry Viewer and Password Recovery Toolkit. However, candidates for the certification must also have moderate digital forensic knowledge and be able to interpret results gathered from AccessData tools.
To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one online exam (which is free). Although a boot camp and advanced courses are available for a fee, AccessData provides a set of free exam preparation videos to help candidates who prefer to self-study.
The certification is valid for two years, after which credential holders must take the current exam to maintain their certification.
Source: Syntricate ACE Training
Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Security Prerequisites: CCNA Security or any CCIE certification.
This Cisco credential recognizes professionals who are responsible for router, switch, networking device and appliance security. Candidates must also know how to select, deploy, support and troubleshoot firewalls, VPNs and intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system products in a networking environment.
Successful completion of four exams is required.
Source: Cisco Systems CCNP Security
Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE)Prerequisite: CCSA certification R70 or later.
This is an intermediate-level credential for security professionals seeking to demonstrate skills at maximizing the performance of security networks.
A CCSE demonstrates a knowledge of strategies and advanced troubleshooting for Check Point's GAiA operating system, including installing and managing VPN implementations, advanced user management and firewall concepts, policies, and backing up and migrating security gateway and management servers, among other tasks. The CCSE focuses on Check Point's VPN, Security Gateway and Management Server systems.
To acquire this credential, candidates must pass one exam.
Source: Check Point CCSE program
Cisco Cybersecurity SpecialistPrerequisites: None required; CCNA Security certification and an understanding of TCP/IP are strongly recommended.
This Cisco credential targets IT security professionals who possess in-depth technical skills and knowledge in the field of threat detection and mitigation. The certification focuses on areas such as event monitoring, event analysis (traffic, alarm, security events) and incident response.
One exam is required.
Source: Cisco Systems Cybersecurity Specialist
Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)Prerequisites: None required; training is recommended.
The CSSA exam covers basic administration of SonicWall appliances and the network and system security behind such appliances.
Classroom training is available, but not required to earn the CSSA. Candidates must pass one exam to become certified.
Source: SonicWall Certification programs
EnCase Certified Examiner (EnCE)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend 64 hours of authorized training or have 12 months of computer forensic work experience. Completion of a formal application process is also required.
Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the use of Guidance Software's EnCase computer forensics tools and software.
Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a practical component.
Source: Guidance Software EnCE
EnCase Certified eDiscovery Practitioner (EnCEP)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend one of two authorized training courses and have three months of experience in eDiscovery collection, processing and project management. A formal application process is also required.
Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the use of Guidance Software's EnCase eDiscovery software, and it recognizes their proficiency in eDiscovery planning, project management and best practices, from legal hold to file creation.
EnCEP-certified professionals possess the technical skills necessary to manage e-discovery, including the search, collection, preservation and processing of electronically stored information in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a scenario component.
Source: Guidance Software EnCEP Certification Program
IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium V10.0Prerequisites: IBM recommends basic knowledge of operating systems and databases, hardware or virtual machines, networking and protocols, auditing and compliance, and information security guidelines.
IBM Security Guardium is a suite of protection and monitoring tools designed to protect databases and big data sets. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium credential is aimed at administrators who plan, install, configure and manage Guardium implementations. This may include monitoring the environment, including data; defining policy rules; and generating reports.
Successful completion of one exam is required.
Source: IBM Security Guardium Certification
IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6Prerequisites: IBM recommends a working knowledge of IBM Security QRadar SIEM Administration and IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager, as well as general knowledge of networking, risk management, system administration and network topology.
QRadar Risk Manager automates the risk management process in enterprises by monitoring network device configurations and compliance. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6 credential certifies administrators who use QRadar to manage security risks in their organization. Certification candidates must know how to review device configurations, manage devices, monitor policies, schedule tasks and generate reports.
Successful completion of one exam is required.
Source: IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager Certification
IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1Prerequisites: IBM recommends a basic knowledge of the IBM Security Network Intrusion Prevention System (GX) V4.6.2, IBM Security Network Protection (XGS) V5.3.1, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server operating system administration and network security.
The Security SiteProtector System enables organizations to centrally manage their network, server and endpoint security agents and appliances. The IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1 credential is designed to certify security analysts who use the SiteProtector System to monitor and manage events, monitor system health, optimize SiteProtector and generate reports.
To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.
Source: IBM Security SiteProtector Certification
Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Certified Security AdministratorPrerequisite: Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator.
This credential aims to certify experienced Solaris 10 administrators with security interest and experience. It's a midrange credential that focuses on general security principles and features, installing systems securely, application and network security, principle of least privilege, cryptographic features, auditing, and zone security.
A single exam -- geared toward the Solaris 10 operating system or the OpenSolaris environment -- is required to obtain this credential.
Source: Oracle Solaris Certification
Oracle Mobile SecurityPrerequisites: Oracle recommends that candidates understand enterprise mobility, mobile application management and mobile device management; have two years of experience implementing Oracle Access Management Suite Plus 11g; and have experience in at least one other Oracle product family.
This credential recognizes professionals who create configuration designs and implement the Oracle Mobile Security Suite. Candidates must have a working knowledge of Oracle Mobile Security Suite Access Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Administrative Console, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Notification Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Containerization and Oracle Mobile Security Suite Provisioning and Policies. They must also know how to deploy the Oracle Mobile Security Suite.
Although the certification is designed for Oracle PartnerNetwork members, it is available to any candidate. Successful completion of one exam is required.
Source: Oracle Mobile Security Certification
RSA Archer Certified Administrator (CA)Prerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.
Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, administer, maintain and troubleshoot the RSA Archer Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) platform.
Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on integration and configuration management, security administration, and the data presentation and communication features of the RSA Archer GRC product.
Source: Dell EMC RSA Archer Certification
RSA SecurID Certified Administrator (RSA Authentication Manager 8.0)Prerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.
Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, maintain and administer enterprise security systems based on RSA SecurID system products and RSA Authentication Manager 8.0.
RSA SecurID CAs can operate and maintain RSA SecurID components within the context of their operational systems and environments; troubleshoot security and implementation problems; and work with updates, patches and fixes. They can also perform administrative functions and populate and manage users, set up and use software authenticators, and understand the configuration required for RSA Authentication Manager 8.0 system operations.
Source: Dell EMC RSA Authentication Manager Certification
RSA Security Analytics CAPrerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.
This Dell EMC certification is aimed at security professionals who configure, manage, administer and troubleshoot the RSA Security Analytics product. Knowledge of the product's features, as well the ability to use the product to identify security concerns, are required.
Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on RSA Security Analytics functions and capabilities, configuration, management, monitoring and troubleshooting.
Source: Dell EMC RSA Security AnalyticsAdvanced information technology security certifications
CCIE SecurityPrerequisites: None required; three to five years of professional working experience recommended.
Arguably one of the most coveted certifications around, the CCIE is in a league of its own. Having been around since 2002, the CCIE Security track is unrivaled for those interested in dealing with information security topics, tools and technologies in networks built using or around Cisco products and platforms.
The CCIE certifies that candidates possess expert technical skills and knowledge of security and VPN products; an understanding of Windows, Unix, Linux, network protocols and domain name systems; an understanding of identity management; an in-depth understanding of Layer 2 and 3 network infrastructures; and the ability to configure end-to-end secure networks, as well as to perform troubleshooting and threat mitigation.
To achieve this certification, candidates must pass both a written and lab exam. The lab exam must be passed within 18 months of the successful completion of the written exam.
Source: Cisco Systems CCIE Security Certification
Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)Prerequisites: CCSE certification R75 or later and 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products.
This advanced-level credential is aimed at those seeking to learn how to install, configure and troubleshoot Check Point's Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.
Professionals are expected to know how to migrate physical firewalls to a virtualized environment, install and manage an MDM environment, configure high availability, implement global policies and perform troubleshooting.
Source: Check Point CCMSE
Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM)Prerequisites: CCSE R70 or later and experience with Windows Server, Unix, TCP/IP, and networking and internet technologies.
The CCSM is the most advanced Check Point certification available. This credential is aimed at security professionals who implement, manage and troubleshoot Check Point security products. Candidates are expected to be experts in perimeter, internal, web and endpoint security systems.
To acquire this credential, candidates must pass a written exam.
Source: Check Point CCSM Certification
Certified SonicWall Security Professional (CCSP)Prerequisites: Attendance at an advanced administration training course.
Those who achieve this certification have attained a high level of mastery of SonicWall products. In addition, credential holders should be able to deploy, optimize and troubleshoot all the associated product features.
Earning a CSSP requires taking an advanced administration course that focuses on either network security or secure mobile access, and passing the associated certification exam.
Source: SonicWall CSSP certification
IBM Certified Administrator -- Tivoli Monitoring V6.3Prerequisites: Security-related requirements include basic knowledge of SSL, data encryption and system user accounts.
Those who attain this certification are expected to be capable of planning, installing, configuring, upgrading and customizing workspaces, policies and more. In addition, credential holders should be able to troubleshoot, administer and maintain an IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.3 environment.
Candidates must successfully pass one exam.
Source: IBM Tivoli Certified Administrator
Master Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)The Master CSSA is an intermediate between the base-level CSSA credential (itself an intermediate certification) and the CSSP.
To qualify for Master CSSA, candidates must pass three (or more) CSSA exams, and then email email@example.com to request the designation. There are no other charges or requirements involved.
Source: SonicWall Master CSSAConclusion
Remember, when it comes to selecting vendor-specific information technology security certifications, your organization's existing or planned security product purchases should dictate your options. If your security infrastructure includes products from vendors not mentioned here, be sure to check with them to determine if training or certifications on such products are available.
About the author:Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, Ed has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML. Ed also blogs regularly for TechTarget (Windows Enterprise Desktop), Tom's IT Pro and GoCertify.
Please see the new version of this timeline which can be found in its permanent location.
Here is version 0.8 of the LWN 1998 Linux timeline. There's absolutely no way we've gotten everything important here. Please drop us a note with your suggestions for additions to this page; we'll try to put out version 1.0 shortly after the new year.January
The Linux Weekly News begins publication. The very first issue, dated January 22, was a just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become. Since then we've gotten better at it, and the Linux world has gotten much more complicated. It has been an interesting adventure.
Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most important events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.
Red Hat Advanced Development Labs is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software, and an important component of the GNOME project. RHAD is able to attract developers like "Rasterman" and Federico Mena Quintero.
The Stampede Linux distribution is announced. Actually, this happened in December, but the news took a while to spread... Stampede positions itself as a high-performance "real Linux hacker's" distribution.
Word gets out that parts of the blockbuster film "The Titanic" were rendered on Alpha machines running Linux. This was another important step in the "legitimization" of Linux - everybody had heard of The Titanic, and some of its success seemed to rub off on everything associated with it.February
The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its high performance, low price, and cute form factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by none other than David Miller, source of much that is good in the Linux kernel.
The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical support award; Red Hat 5.0 also won their Operating System award. But it was the tech support award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been saying that Linux had no support. This was the beginning of the end of the "no support" argument.
Red Hat announces that their installation support staff is running behind. They are a victim of their own success, and ask for patience while they get their act together.
Eric Raymond and friends come up with the "open source" term. They apply for trademark status, and put up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal effort to push Linux for corporate use.Linux according to Jesse Berst "I think it's great if you are willing to promote Linux to your boss. As long as you are aware of the risk you are taking. The risk of getting fired." (Feb. 16). "Is a Linux takeover likely? Give me a break. Of course not." (June 23). "I personally think Windows NT will be the mainstream operating system within a few years." [...] "My belief: Linux will never go mainstream" (Sep. 9). "I've always said that Linux could become a serious challenger to Microsoft's Windows NT." Sep. 28).
Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman win the EFF Pioneer award. The award recognizes their contributions to electronic freedom. Strangely, all mention of this seems to have vanished from the Electronic Frontier Foundation web site.
Major battles rage over whether GGI belongs in the Linux Kernel. GGI, the "Generic Graphics Interface," seeks to produce a better defined, better supported interface to video cards on Linux and other systems. No resolution is reached.
Caldera 1.2 is released. Unlike Red Hat, which had been shipping libc6 based systems for some time, Caldera sticks with the tried and true libc5.
The OpenBIOS project is launched, in the belief that no system is free if it depends on proprietary BIOS code. A web page is set up for the project.March
Learning Tree, International adds a Linux administration course to their lineup. This course is offered frequently in the U.S. and Britain. "The quality of Linux software has improved dramatically, making it a low-cost, reliable, supported computing platform appropriate for the business environment."
Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the large PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron...) to offer non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed. (See InfoPolicy Notes).
Sun offers 70% discounts for people interested in "upgrading" from Linux to Solaris.
Bruce Perens quits as leader of the Debian project in the wake of disagreements on how the project should proceed.
Sendmail, Inc. is formed by Eric Allman, in an attempt to make money selling sendmail support services while keeping the basic sendmail code free.
John Kirch releases his "Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus Unix" paper. This paper remains one of the best advocacy pieces out there, and should be required reading for anybody contemplating deployment of either technology.April
Alan Cox goes to work for Red Hat.
The Mozilla source code hits the net. Netscape throws a huge party. The code is downloaded all over the world, and people start hacking. New features, such as strong encryption and a Qt port, are added almost immediately.
Linus makes Inter@ctive Week's "25 Unsung Heroes of the Net" list. He is in good company, joining names like Steven Bellovin, Van Jacobson, Peter G. Neumann, and others. April was maybe about the last time that Linus could be said to be an "unsung" hero.
Linus announces Linux 2.1.92 and declares a 2.1 feature freeze. The announcment goes as far as to say "...there are probably still bugs with some of the new code, but I'll freeze new features for the upcoming 2.2 kernel." This freeze turned out to be rather slushy, to say the least.
The Open Group announces a new licensing policy for the X window system. New versions of X will be proprietary and only available to paying customers. They immediately withhold some security bugfixes from general distribution. XFree86 decides that it can not live with the new licensing, and declares its intent to go its own way.
Linux is covered by the U.S. National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, non-technical press.
O'Reilly holds the "first ever" Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond, and Paul Vixie.
The Linux Weekly News daily updates page debuts. Despite LWN's intent to keep the its weekly focus, the daily page eventually exceeds the weekly newsletter in traffic. The Linux events calendar is also announced.
Linus 3.0 is announced; the birth of Linus's second daughter causes great joy, and substantial disruption in kernel development as all work stops and many patches get lost. Some grumbling results as it becomes clear just how dependent the entire process is on Linus's continual presence.
Red Hat announces their commercial support program, based on a worldwide network of "support partners," of which Eklektix, Inc., the producer of the Linux Weekly News, is one.
The Avalon Beowulf cluster at Los Alamos goes on line and immediately powers itself into the list of the fastest computers on the planet.May
Bruce Perens proposes a new Linux distribution (proposal here) based on his experience with Debian. This distribution never comes about, but much of what's there later gets folded into the Linux Standard Base project.
Sun Microsystems joins Linux International.
The "Google" search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.
Sm@rt Reseller reports that Oracle and Informix have no plans to support Linux. "In fact, many doubt that Linux-no matter how stable or how cheap-can ever compete in the corporate marketplace alongside the well-funded Windows NT and Solaris." (article here).
SuSE 5.2 is released.
Corel formally embraces Linux. The Netwinder products are featured, and they pledge their support for the Linux system.
The Association Francophone des Utilsateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres (AFUL) is formed in France. AFUL promptly becomes a force in French computer circles.
Big databases start to arrive. Support for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system, and by Ardent Software for their O2 object database.
The Linux Core/Layers project was announced and became the first in a series of attempts at creating standards for Linux systems. The Core/Layers page still exists, but this project is no longer active in this form."But Linux is a communist operating system in a capitalist society. Its popularity is going to lead toward its fragmentation....The big problem with Linux is that it has no apparent direction. It's in the right place at the right time, but its 15 minutes are nearly up." (PC Week, May 22).
The Linux Weekly News moved to its own domain at lwn.net.
A proposal goes out to create the Linux Standard Base (LSB) project. This proposal, signed by a large number of Linux luminaries, was discussed at Linux Expo and formed into a project, with Bruce Perens at the head. Numerous editorials were written and posted on FreshMeat; the list can be found on the LSB web page. The LSB then disappeared from view for a few months.
And, yes, Linux Expo was held; a good time was had by all.
Red Hat 5.1 was released and immediately started accumulating rather more than the usual number of updates. There was talk of "Red Hat 5.1 service pack 1" as a result. 5.1 did eventually stabilize into a solid release.June "First, let me say that I am uniquely unqualified to write about this week's topic. Like most of you, I've never used Linux....Linux has a snowball's chance in hell of making perceptible inroads against Windows." (The infamous John Dodge hatchet job, PC Week, June 8).
The Open Group offers the possibility of Unix 98 certification to Linux at the Uniforum meeting. The resulting press release says "Since the Linux OS is proving to be increasingly stiff competition for NT in this marketspace, it's in the best interest of all Unix vendors for Linux to get branded so that it may compete more effectively and keep the low end UNIX 98-compliant." Very little is heard thereafter.
The Gartner Group says there is little hope for free software. "...these operating systems will not find widespread use in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there be broad third-party application support."
The Beowulf web site shuts down temporarily due to concerns about U.S. export restrictions. Suddenly anybody can create a supercomputer, and people are getting worried. See this Dr. Dobbs article for some more background. Shortly thereafter the site (www.beowulf.org) is back up as if nothing had happened.
The Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it also shows Linux to be the only system other than NT that is increasing market share."Like a lot of products that are free, you get a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me." (Bill Gates in PC Week, June 25).
Corel launches the Netwinder DM with this press release.
Debian 2.0 goes into beta test after numerous delays.
Adaptec reverses its longstanding nondisclosure policy and announces support for Linux. The initial deal was with Red Hat; other distribution vendors have since then announced agreements with Adaptec.
IBM announces that it will distribute and support the Apache web server, after working a deal with the Apache team.July
Rumors of a merger between Caldera and Red Hat circulate. It hasn't happened yet...
The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, saying that KDE is OK with him. Those who are feeling nostalgic can head over to this Slashdot discussion just to see how much fun it really was.
In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves popular, despite the complaints from those who do not like the licensing of the Qt library.
NC World magazine shuts down with Nicholas Petreley's devastating criticism of Windows NT. The article, (still available on the net), concludes that Windows NT 5 (now "Windows 2000") can only be an absolute disaster.
Stable kernel 2.0.35 is released."IBM, Informix, and Sybase also have no intentions of releasing versions of their databases on Linux, company representatives said." (InfoWorld, July 6)
Oracle announces support for Linux in this press release. They promise to make a trial version available by the end of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a great deal of attention resulted from this announcement.
Informix announces support for Linux on almost the same day with a press release of their own."When I heard that Steve Ballmer was promoted to the office of president at Microsoft, I couldn't help but wonder if he was being set up to take the fall when Windows NT 5.0 proves to be a catastrophic market failure and Linux supplants Windows NT as the future server operating system of choice."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, July 27).
Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy story presents Linux in a highly positive manner, and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word.
The first release of the Mandrake distribution is announced. Mandrake is a version of the Red Hat distribution with international language support and KDE added.
Stampede distribution 0.86 is released.
Debian 2.0 is released with this announcement. It is a huge distribution, containing over 1500 packages and requiring at least four CD's to hold it.
MkLinux DR3 is released, announced thusly.August
Red Hat announces that their installation support staff is running behind. Their note on the topic asks for patience while they get their act together.
The Open Source Initiative is formed by Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Ian Murdock, and Tim Sailer. Its purpose, among others, is to manage the "open source" trademark; its creation is not welcomed by all.
Richard Stallman calls for the creation of free documentation for free software in this message to info-gnu.
GNOME 0.25 is released; this release is codenamed Drooling Macaque.
The Linux Compatibility Standards project is formed as a cooperative venture between Red Hat and Debian. This project (announcement) was formed out of an increasing frustration with the progress of the Linux Standard Base, which was having trouble finding consensus on its goals.
Bruce Perens then leaves the Linux Standard Base project and, for a while, dropped out of the free software world entirely.
Software in the Public Interest (SPI) chooses its new officers, recovering from the departure of most of its board. The new folks are Ian Jackson, Martin Schulze, Dale Scheetz and Nils Lohner; here's their announcement on the subject.
Red Hat puts out a paper on why they do not like the Qt license and why they will not be including KDE anytime soon. The paper is still available on Red Hat's web site.
The Linux Standards Association appears out of nowhere and claims that they will produce the real standard for Linux systems. The LSA draws almost universal condemnation and slowly fades out of existence, but not before generating a fair amount of press saying that the Linux community is hostile to standards. One good effect of their presence may have been to help drive the Linux Compatibility Standards and Linux Standard Base projects to merge back together and get serious about producing something."Organizations should not consider deployment of NT v.5.0 prior to 2001. They believe organizations are better-served in the interim by evaluating the costs and benefits of using alternative products and not waiting on NT v.5.0 to emerge from 'vaporware' status."(Gartner Group, August 11)
Red Hat makes the development version of their distribution available as "RawHide"."Personally, I think open-source software needs a grown-up to step in and lead it without all this petty bickering."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, August 24).
Michael McLagan, a founder of the LSA, challenges the validity of the Linux trademark. Linux International responded with a bit of lawyer action, causing the withdrawal of the challenge and the insertion of trademark ® symbols on the (now defunct) LSA web site.
Kernel 2.1.115 is released; Linus calls a code freeze, for real, this time. Sort of.September
LWN goes to a multi-page format which results in both positive and negative feedback. In an attempt to please everybody, a "bigpage" format is added back.
Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are "worried" about free software and suggests that some of the NT source code may be made available to developers.
SuSE 5.3 (English version) is released.
Caldera splits into two separate companies. "Caldera Systems," under Ransom Love, now handles the Linux business, while "Caldera Thin Clients" does the embedded systems. (Press release here)."The Linux community, a temporary, self-managed gathering of diverse individuals engaged in a common task, is a model for a new kind of business organization that could form the basis for a new kind of economy."(Harvard Business Review, September)
SuSE stops international shipments of their 5.3 release after installation problems turn up for a small percentage of users.
The Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) project bursts on the Linux scene with a suggestion that maybe Linux developers would like to produce lots of drivers for the UDI interface. A free reference implementation for Linux is promised, but enthusiasm among the Linux community seems low.
SuSE announces their "Office Suite 99" product, which is a bundling of ApplixWare, KDE, and other good stuff. This product gets a fair amount of attention as possible competition to Microsoft on the desktop.
IBM announces support for DB2 under Linux. (Press release here).
Sybase announces support for linux (Information here). Sybase makes their database available for free download directly from the distribution vendors. With this announcement, Linux has an essentially complete portfolio of database products.
Dell has been selling Linux-installed systems to large customers for some time reports Inter@ctive Week. This comes as a surprise to "small" customers who have been trying to get Dell to sell them Linux-installed (or at least non-Windows) machines.
Neomagic allows the source for the driver for their video hardware to be released to the XFree86 project and freely distributed. This driver, developed by Precision Insight under the sponsorship of Red Hat, had previously been available in binary format only.
The Open Group backs down and releases X11R6.4 under an open source license, thus ending a sad chapter in the history of free software. It is also rumored that TOG has little, if any development staff working on X at this point, meaning that it may not matter much which license they use.
Canadian Linux Users hold a nationwide Installfest with great success. Summaries, pictures, etc. can be found on the Installfest pages.October
Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) announce minority investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to be used to build an "enterprise support division" within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.
Intel joins Linux International.
GNOME 0.30 is released; LWN published a review of this release.
Cygnus releases a real-time embedded operating system (eCos) under an open source license. (Press release here).
Red Hat finds some security problems in CDE and drops it immediately as a supported product. The note they send out makes a big thing of the fact that CDE is not open source software, and thus not easily fixable.
Caldera 1.3 is released. This version includes Sybase, KDE, and StarOffice 4.0, but sticks with libc5. Caldera also announces Linux administration training courses."Gateway Inc., which has been doing certification tests with Linux for six months, most likely will install Linux across its enterprise server line next year.... Red Hat's Young expects six of the top 10 PC server makers to offer Linux on their machines by next March."(PC Week, October 5).
LinuxToday hits the web providing another source of constantly updated Linux news. This is the first of a number of new Linux-related web publications that start up over the next month.
Tensions explode on linux-kernel after Linus drops a few too many patches. Linus walks out in a huff and takes a vacation for a bit. Things return to normal, of course, but some people get talking. It becomes clear once again that the Linux kernel is getting to be too big for one person to keep on top of. Some ways of reducing the load on Linus are discussed, but nothing is really resolved.
The "bootX" utility is released, and makes life much easier for PowerPC users."For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an easy way of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to begin on October 15th. That may be short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could cause Mr Gates much grief."(The Economist, October 3)
Oracle8 for Linux becomes available for downloading; at 142 MB it is not something to be done lightly.
AFUL sponsors a French nationwide installation party, the reports indicate that it was highly successful.
Microsoft presents Linux as evidence that it does not hold a monopoly in operating systems; their release also claims that Linux was developed by "a single individual."
Larry Wall wins the first annual Free Software Foundation award.
Debian decides to drop KDE from their distribution; their explanation cites worries about licensing issues.
Novell announces that they will port NDS to Linux in cooperation with Caldera.
Allaire announces that they will support Linux with "a future version" of their popular "Cold Fusion" product. (Press release here). This, evidently, is a product that quite a few people have been waiting for.
Compaq is reported to be ready to support VARs installing Linux on their hardware, though it does not plan to sell Linux-installed systems directly.
LinuxWorld goes online, signalling the arrival of the mainstream trade press. LinuxWorld is edited by Nicholas Petreley, a long time supporter of Linux in the trade press.
Microsoft publishes an anti-Linux "open letter" in France in what was seen by some as a beta-test of a wider FUD strategy. The letter (in French) (or translated to English) went after Linux on several fronts, and was widely and easily refuted.
Debian 2.1 goes into feature freeze.
France Telecom invests in Cobalt Networks.
The Mexican ScholarNet project is announced; this project will install Linux-based computer labs in 140,000 schools. (LWN coverage here). The project will be using GNOME heavily, and expects to contribute to GNOME development."What I saw at the Linux Showcase was enthusiasm, the likes of which I haven't seen in the PC industry for a long time. Sure, some of it was from guys in ponytails and T-shirts, but it was also from guys in suits. Academics and scientists, but also businessmen."(PC Week, October 26).
The Atlanta Linux Showcase was a big success. (LWN coverage here).
Corel announces that Word Perfect 8 for Linux will be downloadable for Free for "personal use." They also announce a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder.
Pacific HiTech announces that they will bring TurboLinux to the U.S. market. They have long claimed to be the most popular distribution in Japan, and think it's time to head into other pastures. (Press release here).
AFUL signs an agreement with the French Ministry of Education to support the deployment of free software in French schools. (Information (in French) here).November
Two internal Microsoft memos on Linux and open source software are leaked to Eric Raymond; he promptly marks them up and makes them public. The memos acknowledge frankly the strengths of Linux and the sort of threat that it poses to Microsoft, and suggests some possible responses. The furor in the press was just as large as one might expect. (Eric's Halloween page has the memos, links to press coverage, and translations into a number of languages).
Extreme Linux makes a splash at Supercomputing '98, as witnessed by this list of events at the conference.
The "Eddie" software suite is released under an open source license; Eddie is a set of applications designed to help build high-availability clusters.
The proprietary I2O bus specification is opened up, so that Linux support can be implemented. One of the big nondisclosure threats to Linux is thus removed. (Press release here).
Red Hat 5.2 is released. This is supposed to be the last, stablest 5.x release before 6.0, which will contain the 2.2 kernel.
Informix and Apropos deploy Linux machines in over 100 Jay Jacobs clothing stores. (Press release here). Linux has truly arrived in the mainstream corporate world.
Digital Creations releases Principia under an open source license; Principia is eventually rolled together with Bobo and Aqueduct to become Zope. An interesting angle on this release is that it was recommended by Digital Creations' venture capital investor (LWN coverage here).
StarOffice 5 for Linux is released, freely downloadable for personal use. (Information here).
Troll Tech announces that version 2.0 of the Qt library will be released under an open source license. This license does not satisfy everyone, since it leaves Troll Tech in a special position and requires that modifications be distributed as patches. As a result, though most acknowledge that the QPL is an "open source" license, the desktop wars fail to end.
Stable kernel 2.0.36 is released. (Linus's announcement here, release notes here).
OpenBIOS 0.0.1 is released (announcement here).
Slackware 3.6 is released
Red Hat and SuSE both announce support programs at COMDEX. Both are aiming at the big-ticket "enterprise support" market. (SuSE's announcement here, and Red Hat's here).
Netscape buys the "NewHoo" web directory, and promises to make its database available.December
A fight erupts over the ownership of the "open source" trademark. Both Eric Raymond, in the form of the Open Source Initiative, and Software in the Public Interest claim to own the trademark. SPI has called for a "public comment" period on who should control the trademark; that period remains open as this is written.
Kernel hacker David Miller gets married (pictures here).
Mandrake 5.2 is released.
The "Yellow Dog Linux" distribution for the PowerPC is announced. (Home page here).
Corel announces a partnership with the KDE development team which will provide the KDE interface for the Netwinder. (Press release here).
IBM releases the AFS filesystem for Linux (press release here).
Electric Lichen announces "Die Linuxbierwanderung" - the Linux Beer Hike, a Linux-training, Alps-walking, beer-drinking adventure in Bavaria next August. (Information here).
IBM releases some software goodies under an open source license, including the Jikes Java compiler and Secure Mailer. They also put out the beta version of DB2 for free download.
Sun opens up the Java license. It's still not an open source license, but things are headed in the right direction.
Sun announces support for Linux on UltraSparc systems"The question is how to do it without exposing IBM and its partners," says one source familiar with IBM's plans. "With a general public license, there are some exposures with liability and how open are the patents if you modify the code. The best way to solve this is by cleaning up the license."(Sm@rt Reseller, December 18).
Silicon Graphics joins Linux International and also announces support for Samba on their systems.
IBM is said to be considering becoming a support provider for Linux according to some reports. They are held back by fears about patent and liability issues.
The first public beta of SuSE 6.0 is released (announcement here).
Reports say that Apple will start selling Power Macintoshes with Linux installed.
Word Perfect 8 becomes available for download; it proves to be popular. (Information here).
The "LinuxPPC on the iMac HOWTO" is released, allowing users to get Linux on those stylish blue boxes. (HOWTO here).
A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market share rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share, and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.
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