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Goodbye, Java business version. whats up, Jakarta EE | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

April 30, 2018 Alex Woodie

builders who use Java enterprise edition should be chuffed to grasp that the building and runtime platform is gaining new lifestyles as Jakarta EE. As part of an contract with Oracle, the tech colossal will quit handle over the platform to Eclipse groundwork, which has huge plans to remake business Java for the emerging cloud world.

in view that it bought solar Microsystems back in 2010, Oracle has been absolutely in charge of Java. That includes defining now not simply the core Java language, however having a huge hand in every thing else ruled during the Java group process (JCP), together with the Java virtual machine (JVM), the average edition (JSE) runtime, and the Java business edition (JEE) platform, which offered enterprise-degree capabilities for operating Java functions at scale, including use of web functions and dispensed execution of code.

within the early 2000s, prior to the sun acquisition, the pace of innovation changed into heavy, as Java and JEE spread during company the usa and the entire world. beneath the J2EE moniker, organizations effortlessly adopted quite a lot of Java service Requests (JSRs), or JEE necessities, delivered under the commercial enterprise edition umbrella. That protected JSRs like Java servlets, Java ServerPages (JSP), business JavaBeans (EJBs), Java ServerFaces (JSF) J2EE Connector structure (JCA), the Java Persistence API (JPA) and the Java Message carrier (JMS), among others.

despite the fact, over the last few years, the excitement over JEE has waned and the tempo of trade has slowed significantly. within the fall of 2017, Oracle determined that it had had ample and, at the urging of a bunch of companies that covered IBM, crimson Hat, and others, it agreed to relinquish handle of Java EE to the Eclipse groundwork, which is the riding drive at the back of the Java-based mostly built-in construction atmosphere (IDE) of the same identify.

Mike Milinkovich, government director of the Eclipse foundation, says the stream is all about respiration new life into the Java business edition platform.

“beneath Oracle, it turned into Oracle people who were defining the structure and finding out what became going to be in the release, and doing by way of some distance the majority of the hassle in driving the specs ahead and using the reference implementation forward,” Milinkovich tells IT Jungle. “That’s what here's about: picking up the tempo of conversation, listening to the community about what they want us to build, and having for the primary time in a number of years the ample substances to basically movement forward on executing this. That’s to a huge degree what here's about.”

Getting the commercial enterprise Java ball out of Oracle’s hands should still assist align incentives for the different tech carriers working within the enterprise Java realm. “within the outdated world, Oracle turned into paying the paychecks for pretty much all and sundry involved with environment the platform,” Milinkovich says. “Now it’s a a great deal more distinct set of paymasters, if you are looking to use that analogy, for who’s acutely investing their construction materials into the platform.”

the primary order of company on the Eclipse groundwork become to select a new name, and after a vote of seven,000 individuals, the identify Jakarta EE was chosen. but don’t be fooled into you considering that “EE” stands for “business edition,” Milinkovich says. “The EE doesn’t definitely stand for business edition. It really doesn’t stand for anything else in any respect,” he says. “It’s simply part of the manufacturer.”

something the name, Jakarta EE’s connection to JEE and the total Java stack is apparent. Jakarta EE will proceed to run on top of JSE. it is going to proceed to adhere to the JCP for specifications and it'll continue to be developed as an open Java development package (JDK).

One component if you want to change is that the Eclipse groundwork will create a completely new specification system for Jakarta EE, Milinkovich says. the brand new spec manner will be the automobile wherein the group decides the place to take Jakarta EE next. “It’s going to be a a good deal more of a collaborative and joint effort as opposed to a single vendor activity,” he says.

The Eclipse basis recently carried out a survey to look where the Jakarta EE community (nee J2EE community) needs the know-how to move. according to the Jakarta EE Developer Survey 2018, the three most critical areas stated for growth had been more desirable help for microservices, native integration with container expertise like Kubernetes and Docker, and a sooner pace of innovation.

whereas new specs haven’t been set in stone, it’s clear what route the JEE group needs to peer Jakarta EE going. traditionally, JEE changed into traditionally carried out on-premise, however the paramount importance of assisting rising cloud paradigms got here via loud and clear within the survey.

Jakarta EE Developer Survey 2018

“you have a circumstance where 1,000 of the Fortune 1,000 use this expertise for operating their company nowadays,” Milinkovich says. “If they are able to give them with a migration course from what they have got these days to micro-functions architecture and the cloud-native potential of their subsequent-technology applications — that’s going to assist them make the change plenty quicker.”

It’s all about maintaining the investment they’ve made now not simply in commercial enterprise Java functions, however in enterprise Java developers, Milinkovich says. “today there are hundreds of thousands of developers who comprehend Java EE,” he says. “There lots of people who're very passionate about this expertise, and if they may give them a platform during which they can carry their abilities ahead and allow them to construct purposes the usage of these new architectures with the expertise they have got . . . then that’s going to be a real benefit to those developers.”

As founding contributors of the Jakarta EE Working neighborhood, Oracle, IBM, red Hat, Fujitsu, Lightbend, Payara techniques, Pivotal, Tomitribe, and Webtide can have affect over the course of this technology. but the Eclipse foundation desires to motivate the complete Java group to get at the back of Jakarta EE.

“in case you believe in regards to the indisputable fact that fairly a lot all of the business have gigantic investment during this technology platform and now have a chance to participate with the companies and neighborhood in shaping its evolution, they feel that that’s a gorgeous cost proposition for these businesses,” Milinkovich says. “We’re going to be doing every little thing they can to recruit these agencies to not just develop into members and interact with the governance of these tasks, and assist put in force the roadmap and share the long run, however studying it’s of their most excellent activity and their body of workers and developers to in reality put individuals into the open source tasks and really have interaction on the challenge-degree in driving these technologies ahead.”

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Oracle releases Java 7 ordinary version | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

software DEVELOPER Oracle has released Java 7 regular version (Java 7 SE), three weeks after putting out the unencumber candidate.

Oracle took control of Java, probably the most regularly occurring programming languages and frameworks, after purchasing solar Microsystems in January 2010. Java 7 SE is the first main liberate in 5 years and the first under Oracle's management, and the database and purposes utility company has long gone for an evolutionary instead of modern release.

on the grounds that Oracle's published its Java 7 unencumber candidate earlier this month it hasn't made many headline alterations. Jave 7 SE brings out advancements for greater file access, help for a becoming variety of programming languages that use the Java digital computer and a Fork/join API that gives you superior multi-processor aid.

Oracle cites "effective backward compatibility of Java 7 SE" with previous models of Java, including that builders might not must retool their skillsets.

There had been some issue that Oracle's management of Java would undermine the big developer community that surrounds it. Oracle's lawsuit against Google over Android's use of Java has raised questions of what organizations can or can not do with Java. although Al Hilwa, programme director for applications construction utility at IDC advised V3, "The Java neighborhood should still be a lot greater relaxed about Oracle's stewardship [...] some of the choices to reverse the Java over-attain and unrealistic schedules from the solar [Microsystems] days had been hard to make, but i'd say they are doing the right aspect."

Oracle's determination to take small steps is probably intelligent as Java has such a large business following. Oracle claims ninety seven per cent of commercial enterprise desktops run Java and says the utility framework has 9 million developers worldwide, so child steps are the order of the day.

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Oracle units date for conclusion of Java 8 updates | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

additional clarifying its ongoing guide plans for Java SE (normal edition) 8, Oracle would require organizations to have a commercial license to get updates after January 2019.

In an undated bulletin in regards to the revision, Oracle spoke of public updates for Java SE 8 launched after January 2019 should not purchasable for company, commercial, or production use with no business license. youngsters, public updates for Java SE eight should be accessible for particular person, very own use through at the least the conclusion of 2020.

conclusion of public updates for Java 8

Oracle advises agencies to evaluate the Oracle Java SE help Roadmap to investigate assist necessities emigrate to a later unencumber or gain a business license. clients who use Java SE as a part of an additional Oracle product can proceed to access Java SE 8 for those products beyond 2019 for those items. Oracle advises developers to overview roadmaps for Java SE 8 and beyond and take applicable action in accordance with their application and its distribution mannequin.

up to now, Oracle decided to lengthen public updates for JDK eight, the development package for Java SE 8, until at least January 2019, after having at the beginning deliberate to conclusion them this September. JDK eight debuted in March 2014. Oracle released JDK 9 in September 2017 and JDK 10 ultimate month, moving to a six-month free up agenda. JDK eleven is due in September 2018.

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Oracle Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Oracle offers a multitude of hardware and software solutions designed to simplify IT. Perhaps best known for its premier database software, the company also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage and more. Oracle has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries, about 138,000 employees and exceeds $37.7 billion in revenues.

Over the years, Oracle has developed an extensive certification program. Today, it includes six certification levels that span nine different categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program, and the number of Oracle customers, it's no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after.

Oracle Certification Program Overview

Oracle's certification program is divided into these nine primary categories:

  • Oracle Applications
  • Oracle Cloud
  • Oracle Database
  • Oracle Enterprise Management
  • Oracle Industries
  • Oracle Java and Middleware
  • Oracle Operating Systems
  • Oracle Systems
  • Oracle Virtualization
  • Additionally, Oracle's credentials are offered at six certification levels:

  • Junior Associate
  • Associate
  • Professional
  • Master
  • Expert
  • Specialist
  • Most Oracle certification exams are proctored, cost $245, and contain a mix of scored and unscored multiple-choice questions. Candidates may take proctored exams at Pearson VUE, although some exams are offered at Oracle Testing Centers in certain locations. Some exams, such as Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061) and Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-051), are also available non-proctored and may be taken online. Non-proctored exams cost $125. Check the Oracle University Certification website for details on specific exams.

    Oracle Applications and Cloud Certifications

    The Oracle Applications certification category offers more than 60 individual credentials, covering 13 products or product groups, such as Siebel, E-Business Suite, Hyperion, JD Edwards EnterpriseOne and PeopleSoft. The majority of these certifications apply to Certified Implementation Specialists for some specific application, with various Certified Expert credentials also available. The Application certifications are geared toward individuals with expertise in selling and implementing specific Oracle solutions.

    Oracle's newest certification category is Oracle Cloud, which covers Java Cloud as well as a number of Oracle Cloud certifications, including Oracle Database Cloud. Credentials are offered in seven sub-categories:

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS), including Data Management, Application Development, Management Cloud and Mobile Cloud Service
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Oracle Customer Experience Cloud, including Service, Sales, Marketing and CPQ Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Performance Management Cloud, including Performance Reporting, Enterprise Planning and Budgeting, Financial Consolidation and Close, Profitability and Cost Management Cloud
  • Software as a Services – Oracle Enterprise Resource Planning Cloud, including Financials, Project Portfolio Management, Procurement and Risk Management Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Human Capital Management Cloud, including Workforce Rewards, Payroll, Talent Management and Global Human Resources Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Supply Chain Management Cloud, including Order Management, Product Master Data Management, Product Lifecycle Management, Manufacturing, Inventory Management, Supply Chain Planning and Logistics Cloud
  • These credentials recognize individuals who deploy applications, perform administration or deliver customer solutions in the cloud. Credentials mostly include Associate and Certification Implementation Specialists, with one Mobile Developer credential offered plus a Professional-level Oracle Database Cloud Administrator.

    Oracle Database Certifications

    Certifications in Oracle's Database category are geared toward individuals who develop or work with Oracle databases. There are three main categories: Database Application Development, MySQL and Oracle Database.

    Note: Oracle Database 12c was redesigned for cloud computing (and is included in both the Cloud and Database certification categories). The current version is Oracle Database 12c R2, which contains additional enhancements for in-memory database and multitenant architecture. MySQL 5.6 has been optimized for performance and storage, making it capable of handling bigger data sets. Whenever a significant version of either database is released, Oracle updates its certifications exams over time. If an exam isn't available for the latest database release, candidates can take a previous version of the exam and then an update exam when it becomes available.

    Oracle currently offers the Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate, Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Certified Master (OCM), Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) and Specialist paths for Oracle Database 12c. In addition, Oracle offers the OCA credential for Oracle Database 12c R2 and an upgrade path for the OCP credential. Because many of these certifications are highly popular within the Oracle Certification Program, they provide additional exam details and links in the following sections. 

    Other Various Database Certifications Oracle Enterprise Management Certifications

    The Enterprise Management certifications cover Oracle Enterprise Manager.    

    The Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Certified Implementation Specialist certification is geared toward Oracle PartnerNetwork members but is available to all candidates. This certification recognizes professionals who implement Oracle Enterprise Manager. You must pass one exam (1Z0-530) to obtain this certification. Interested candidates should note that this exam is slated to retire on May 31, 2018.

    The Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Certified Implementation Specialist exam (1Z0-457) covers more management functions (for applications, databases, middleware, systems and storage in various environments). In addition, it covers architecture, installation and deployment, implementation and support, reporting and extensibility.

    Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate

    The Oracle Database Foundation Certified Junior Associate credential targets individuals who have participated in the Oracle Academy program through a college or university program, computer science and database teachers, and individuals studying databases and computer science. As a novice-level credential, the Certified Junior Associate aims at individuals with limited hands-on experience working with Oracle Database products. To earn the credential, candidates must pass the Oracle Database Foundations (novice-level exam) (1Z0-006).

    Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCA certification measures the day-to-day operational management database skills of DBAs. Candidates must pass a SQL exam and another on Oracle Database administration. Candidates can choose one of the following SQL exams:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071)
  • Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061)
  • Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I (1Z0-051)
  • Candidates must also pass the Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) exam.

    Oracle Certified Associate -- Oracle Database 12cR2 Administrator

    To earn the Oracle Database 12cR2 OCA credential, candidates must first earn either the Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate, Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Associate, or the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate.  In addition, candidates are required to pass the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration exam (1Z0-072).

    Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCP certification covers more advanced database skills. You must have the OCA Database 12c Administrator certification, complete the required training, complete a course submission form and pass the Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) exam.

    Professionals who possess either the Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Professional or Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional credential may upgrade to the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration Certified Professional credential by passing the Oracle DBA upgrade exam (1Z0-074).

    Oracle Certified Master (OCM) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    To achieve OCM Database 12c Administrator certification, you must have the OCP Database 12c Administrator certification, complete two advanced courses, and pass the Oracle Database 12c Certified Master Exam (12COCM), complete the course submission form, and submit the Fulfillment Kit request.

    Oracle also offers the Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master certification, which requires three separate credentials, including the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master, Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c-RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration, and Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c – Data Guard Administration.

    Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) -- Oracle Database 12c

    The OCE Database 12c certifications include Maximum Availability, Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator, and Performance Management and Tuning credentials. All these certifications require prerequisite certifications. Performance Management and Tuning takes the OSP Database 12c as a prerequisite, while Data Guard Administrator candidates have the choice of earning either the OCP Database 12c or 11g credential. The RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator provides candidates the most flexibility, allowing candidates to choose from the OCP Database 11g, OCP Databases 12c, Oracle Certified Expert – Real Application Clusters 11g and Grid Infrastructure Administration, or OCE Database 10g Real Applications Clusters Administration.

    Once the prerequisite credentials are met, candidates can then achieve Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator or Performance Management and Tuning by passing one exam. Achieving OCP 12c plus the RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration and Data Guard Administration certifications earns the Maximum Availability credential.

    Oracle Database Certified Implementation Specialist

    Oracle also offers three Certified Implementation Specialist credentials: the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c, Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015, and Oracle Database 12c. Specialist credentials target individuals with a background in selling and implementing Oracle solutions. Each of these credentials require candidates to pass a single exam to earn the designation.  

    Oracle Industries Certifications

    Oracle Industries is another sizeable category, with more than 25 individual certifications focused on Oracle software for the construction and engineering, communications, health sciences, insurance, tax and utilities industries. All these certifications are Certified Implementation Specialists for the various Oracle industry products, which means they identify individuals who are proficient in implementing and selling industry-specific Oracle software.

    Oracle Java and Middleware Certifications

    The Java and Middleware certifications are spread across several subcategories, such as Business Intelligence, Application Server, Cloud Application, Data Integration, Identity Management, Mobile, Java, Oracle Fusion Middleware Development Tools and more. Java and Middleware credentials represent all levels of the Oracle Certification Program — Associate, Professional and so on — and include Java Developer, Java Programmer, System Administrator, Architect and Implementation Specialist.

    The highly popular Java category has certifications for Java SE (Standard Edition), and Java EE (Enterprise Edition) and Web Services. Several Java certifications that require a prior certification accept either the corresponding Sun or Oracle credential.

    Oracle Operating Systems Certifications

    The Oracle Operating Systems certifications include Linux and Solaris. These certifications are geared toward administrators and implementation specialists.

    The Linux 6 certifications include OCA and OCP Linux 6 System Administrator certifications, as well as an Oracle Linux Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The Linux 6 Specialist is geared to partners but is open to all candidates. Both the Linux OCA and Specialist credentials require a single exam. To achieve the OCP, candidates must first earn either the OCA Linux 5 or 6 System Administrator or OCA Linux Administrator (now retired) credential, plus pass an exam.

    The Solaris 11 certifications include the OCA and OCP System Administrator certifications as well as an Oracle Solaris 11 Installation and Configuration Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The OCA and OCP Solaris 11 System Administrator certifications identify Oracle Solaris 11 administrators who have fundamental knowledge of and base-level skills with the UNIX operating system, commands, and utilities. As indicated by its name, the Implementation Specialist cert identifies intermediate-level implementation team members who install and configure Oracle Solaris 11.

    Oracle Systems Certifications­

    Oracle's Systems certifications include Engineered Systems (Big Data Appliance, Ex­­adata, Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Exalytics, and Private Cloud Appliance), Servers (Fujitsu and SPARC) and Storage (Oracle ZFS, Pillar Axiom, Tape Storage, Flash Storage System). Most of these certifications are geared toward individuals who sell and implement one of the specific solutions. The Exadata certification subcategory also includes Oracle Exadata X3, X4 and X5 Expert Administrator certifications for individuals who administer, configure, patch and monitor the Oracle Exadata Database Machine platform.

    Oracle Virtualization Certifications

    The Virtualization certifications cover Oracle Virtual Machine (VM) Server for X86. Oracle offers two Certified Implementation Specialists credentials, one targeting Oracle VM 3.0 for X86 and the other focused on VM 2.0 for X86. Both specialist credentials recognize individuals who sell and implement Oracle VM solutions.  

    The Oracle VM 3.0 for x86 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is geared toward the intermediate-level team member who is proficient in installing OVM 3.0 Server and OVM 3.0 Manager components, discovering OVM Servers, configuring network and storage repositories and more. Candidates interested in the VM 2.0 credential should note that the exam retires on May 31, 2018.

    Related Jobs and Careers

    The sheer breadth and depth of Oracle's certification program is rife with opportunity for professionals who want to work with Oracle technologies, or who already do and want their skills to be recognized and validated. Although there are many specific Oracle products to specialize on in varying capacities, the main job roles are administrators, architects, programmers/developers and implementation specialists.

    Every company that runs Oracle Database, Oracle Cloud, Oracle Linux or Solaris, Oracle operating systems and so on needs qualified administrators to deploy, maintain, monitor and troubleshoot these solutions. They also need architects to plan and design solutions that meet business needs and are appropriate to the specific environments in which they’re deployed.

    On the development front, ComputerWorld indicates that programmers and developers continue to be "leading players in the IT world." That magazine ranks associated skills as the most sought-after by hiring managers in 2017, tied with help desk support. (Database administration isn't far behind.) A quick search on results in over 12,000 hits for "Oracle developer," which is a great indication of both need and desire. Not only do developers create and modify Oracle software, they often must know how to design software from the bottom up, package products, import data, write scripts and develop reports.

    And of course, Oracle and its partners will always need implementation specialists to sell and deploy the company's solutions. This role is typically accountable for tasks that must be accomplished to get a solution up and running in a client's environment, from creating a project plan and schedule, to configuring and customizing a system to match client specifications.

    Oracle Training and Resources

    It's not surprising that Oracle has an extensive library of exam preparation materials. Check the Oracle University website ( for hands-on instructor-led training, virtual courses, training on demand, exam preparation seminars, practice exams and other training resources.

    A candidate's best bet, however, is to first choose a certification path and then follow the links on the Oracle website to the required exam(s). If training is recommended or additional resources are available for a particular exam, Oracle lists them on the exam page.

    Another great resource is the Oracle Learning Paths web page, which provides a lengthy list of Oracle product-related job roles and their recommended courses.

    Preface to The Java Tutorial: A Short Course on the Basics, Sixth Edition | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This preface to The Java Tutorial: A Short Course on the Basics, 6th Edition discuss who the book is written for, the new features added to the platform, and how to get the most out of Java using this tutorial. From the book 

    Since the acquisition of Sun Microsystems by Oracle Corporation in early 2010, it has been an exciting time for the Java language. As evidenced by the activities of the Java Community Process program, the Java language continues to evolve. The publication of this sixth edition of The Java® Tutorial reflects version 8 of the Java Platform Standard Edition (Java SE) and references the Application Programming Interface (API) of that release.

    This edition introduces new features added to the platform since the publication of the fifth edition (under release 7):

  • Lambda expressions enable you to treat functionality as a method argument or code as data. Lambda expressions let you express instances of single-method interfaces (referred to as functional interfaces) more compactly. See the new section in Chapter 4, “Lambda Expressions.”
  • Type annotations can be used in conjunction with pluggable type systems for improved type checking, and repeating annotations enable the application of the same annotation to a declaration or type use. See the new sections in Chapter 5, “Type Annotations and Pluggable Type Systems” and “Repeating Annotations.”
  • Default methods are methods in an interface that have an implementation. They enable new functionality to be added to the interfaces of libraries and ensure binary compatibility with code written for older versions of those interfaces. See the new section in Chapter 6, “Default Methods.”
  • Aggregate operations enable you to perform functional-style operations on streams of elements—in particular, bulk operations on collections such as sequential or parallel map-reduce transformations. See the new section in Chapter 12, “Aggregate Operations.”
  • Improvements have been added that focus on limiting attackers from using malicious applets and rich Internet applications (RIAs). See the following new and updated sections:
  • Chapter 16, “Packaging Programs in JAR Files”
  • Chapter 19, “Security in Rich Internet Applications” and “Guidelines for Securing Rich Internet Applications”
  • Chapter 20, “Deployment Best Practices”
  • Date-Time APIs enable you to represent dates and times and manipulate date and time values. They support the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) calendar system as well as other commonly used global calendars. See the new Chapter 21.
  • If you plan to take one of the Java SE 8 certification exams, this book can help. The appendix, “Preparation for Java Programming Language Certification,” lists the three exams that are available, detailing the items covered by each exam, cross-referenced to places in the book where you can find more information about each topic. Note that this is one source, among others, that you will want to use to prepare for your exam. Check the online tutorial for the latest certification objectives and cross-references to sections of the tutorial.

    All of the material has been thoroughly reviewed by members of Oracle Java engineering to ensure that the information is accurate and up to date. This book is based on the online tutorial hosted on Oracle Corporation’s web site at the following URL:

    The information in this book, often referred to as “the core tutorial,” is required by most beginning to intermediate programmers. Once you have mastered this material, you can explore the rest of the Java platform documentation on the web site. If you are interested in developing sophisticated RIAs, check out JavaFX, the Java graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit, which comes with the Java SE Development Kit (JDK). To learn more, see Chapter 22, “Introduction to JavaFX.”

    As always, their goal is to create an easy-to-read, practical programmers’ guide to help you learn how to use the rich environment provided by Java to build applications, applets, and components. Go forth and program!

    Who Should Read This Book?

    This book is geared toward both novice and experienced programmers:

  • New programmers can benefit most from reading the book from beginning to end, including the step-by-step instructions for compiling and running your first program in Chapter 1, “Getting Started.”
  • Programmers experienced with procedural languages such as C may want to start with the material on object-oriented concepts and features of the Java programming language.
  • Experienced programmers may want to jump feet first into the more advanced topics, such as generics, concurrency, or deployment.
  • This book contains information to address the learning needs of programmers with various levels of experience.

    How to Use This Book

    This book is designed so you can read it straight through or skip around from topic to topic. The information is presented in a logical order, and forward references are avoided wherever possible.

    The examples in this book are compiled against the JDK 8 release. You need to download this release (or later) in order to compile and run most examples.

    Some material referenced in this book is available online—for example, the downloadable examples, the solutions to the questions and exercises, the JDK 8 guides, and the API specification.

    You will see footnotes like the following:




    The Java documentation home on the Oracle web site is at the following location:

    To locate the footnoted files online, prepend the URL for the Java documentation home:

    The Java Tutorials are also available in two eBook formats:

  • mobi eBook files for Kindle
  • ePub eBook files for iPad, Nook, and other devices that support the ePub format
  • Each eBook contains a single trail that is equivalent to several related chapters in this book. You can download the eBooks via the link “In Book Form” on the home page for the Java Tutorials:

    We welcome feedback on this edition. To contact us, please see the tutorial feedback page:


    This book would not be what it is without the Oracle Java engineering team who tirelessly reviews the technical content of their writing. For this edition of the book, they especially want to thank Alan Bateman, Alex Buckley, Stephen Colebourne, Joe Darcy, Jeff Dinkins, Mike Duigou, Brian Goetz, Andy Herrick, Stuart Marks, Thomas Ng, Roger Riggs, Leif Samuelsson, and Daniel Smith.

    Illustrators Jordan Douglas and Dawn Tyler created their professional graphics quickly and efficiently.

    Editors Janet Blowney, Deborah Owens, and Susan Shepard provided careful and thorough copyedits of their JDK 8 work.

    Thanks for the support of their team: Devika Gollapudi, Ram Goyal, and Alexey Zhebel.

    Last but not least, thanks for the support of their management: Sowmya Kannan, Sophia Mikulinsky, Alan Sommerer, and Barbara Ramsey.

    About the Authors

    Raymond Gallardo is a senior technical writer at Oracle Corporation. His previous engagements include college instructor, technical writer for IBM, and bicycle courier. He obtained his BSc in computer science and English from the University of Toronto and MA in creative writing from the City College of New York.

    Scott Hommel is a senior technical writer at Oracle Corporation, where he documents Java SE. For the past fifteen years, he has written tutorials, technical articles, and core release documentation for Java SE and related technologies.

    Sowmya Kannan wears many hats on the Java SE documentation team, including planning, writing, communicating with developer audiences, and tinkering with production tools. She has more than fifteen years of experience in the design, development, and documentation of the Java platform, Java-based middleware, and web applications.

    Joni Gordon is a principal technical writer at Oracle Corporation. She has contributed to the documentation for Java SE and JavaFX. She has been a technical writer for more than fifteen years and has a background in enterprise application development.

    Sharon Biocca Zakhour was previously a principal technical writer on staff at Oracle Corporation and formerly at Sun Microsystems. She has contributed to Java SE documentation for more than twelve years, including The Java™ Tutorial, Fourth Edition, and The JFC Swing Tutorial, Second Edition. She graduated from UC Berkeley with a BA in computer science and has worked as a programmer, developer support engineer, and technical writer for thirty years.

    Java security evolution and concepts, Part 5 | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Early on, Java security focused on resisting executable content threats -- security risks caused by malicious or poorly designed code. From that beginning, Java security measures evolved to provide security based on where code came from and who signed it. More recently, Java security has improved further to provide user and pluggable authentication, as well as SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and other key management and cryptography support.

    Java security evolution and concepts: Read the whole series!

    This article, the last of five in the Java security series, follows the examples introduced in Part 3 and briefly revisits the optional packages covered in Part 4. By revisiting the examples from earlier articles, they can reinforce concepts and understand what has changed in the interim.

    After an overview of those security features that have changed between J2SE (Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition) 1.3 and the upcoming J2SE 1.4, this article digs deeper into the new packages included in 1.4. The first of the newer packages is the Java Certification Path (CertPath) API, which supports certificate chain manipulation. Second is the Java GSS-API (JGSS), which contains the Java bindings for the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSS-API) for standardized access to a variety of security services and a framework for a single sign-on.

    Overview of changes

    First, let's quickly look at the changes between J2SE 1.3 and 1.4.

    Optional packages move into the 1.4 core

    As the most obvious change between J2SE 1.3 security and 1.4, the optional packages (examined in Part 4) will move into 1.4's core security structure:

  • Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS): A framework for performing user-based authentication
  • Java Cryptography Extension (JCE): A framework for using strong ciphers on a global basis
  • Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE): Support for SSL and TLS (Transport Layer Security)
  • Each of the aforementioned packages will be available on every J2SE 1.4 installation, obviating the need to install them explicitly.

    New 1.4 packages

    Besides moving the optional packages into the J2SE core, J2SE 1.4 will also feature two new security packages:

  • Java CertPath API: Classes, methods, and interfaces to build and validate certificate chains
  • JGSS API: Java bindings for the Generic Security Services API
  • The bulk of this article will be devoted to looking into these two packages.

    Other changes

    As a result of JAAS becoming an integral part of core security, access control is no longer solely based on code source (i.e., where the code is from and who signed it), but also on who is running the code. As a result, both the Policy files and the graphical Policy tool have been enhanced to accommodate the changes.

    Next, strong cipher support is available via JCE and JSSE, albeit with some important control restrictions. In JCE, the cryptographic strengths are limited through the jurisdiction files by default. JSSE, for its part, now restricts the replacement of the default SSLSocketFactory and SSLServerSocketFactory classes.

    Moreover, you'll find support for dynamic policies. Prior to J2SE 1.4, the security policy was associated at the time of class loading. In 1.4, the security policy association is deferred until the security check becomes necessary.

    In addition, J2SE 1.4 includes some changes to the functionality of the security classes. As an example, the class is available only for backward compatibility, with its functionality carried forward by the class. Newer applications should use this class.

    Finally, applet security as enforced by 1.4 is different, which we'll look into in the next section.

    Java Plug-in enhancements

    You'll see some changes in security between the J2SE 1.3 Java Plug-in and the 1.4 Java Plug-in (for more, see Sidebar 1: Java Plug-in Primer). Since they are interested in security, I explore the changes by revisiting the signed applets developed in Part 3.

    Security in the J2SE 1.3 Java Plug-in

    To illustrate how the J2SE 1.3 Plug-in handles applet security, let's first look at the writeFile applet from Part 3 of this series. Execute the writeFile signed applet under the J2SE 1.3 Java Plug-in. Make sure that the policy files do not allow the temp file (/tmp/foo on Unix systems and c:\tmpfoo on Windows) to be modified. If the clock on your system is set correctly, the signed applet's signature should not validate because it has expired; therefore, the applet will not initialize. If you set your system's clock back to a date between December 13, 2000 and December 21, 2001 (that is, to a time when the certificate is valid), the signature validates, and you should see a dialog box asking whether the applet should run or not.

    As another example, run the signed applet discussed in "JDK 1.2 -- Signed Applet Example" under the J2SE 1.3 Java Plug-in. The applet has been signed by a key -- Duke -- whose public key has been self-certified. That means the Certification Authority (CA) used to sign the certificate is not trusted by default in the environment. As a result, the signature validation fails again, and the dialog box again fails to pop up.

    Security in the J2SE 1.4 Java Plug-in

    Now, let's run the same applet examples under the J2SE 1.4 Java Plug-in.

    When executing the example from Part 3, the signed applet with the expired certificate, the user sees a dialog box clearly indicating that the certificate is expired, as shown in Figure 1. Here, the ultimate decision to execute the applet is left to the user's discretion.

    Figure 1. Signed applet with an expired certificate

    Likewise, in the second example of the signed applet with the untrusted certificate, the user sees a dialog box, this time indicating that the CA cannot be trusted. The applet can still be executed if the user so chooses, as seen in Figure 2.

    Figure 2. Signed applet with a certificate signed by an untrusted CA. (Source: Sun Microsystems Inc.)

    To summarize the differences between security in the J2SE 1.3 and 1.4 Java Plug-ins: In 1.4, if the signature validates successfully, the dialog box pops up with a message indicating that the certificate is valid, as shown in Figure 3.

    Figure 3. Signed applet with a valid certificate

    Under the J2SE 1.4 Java Plug-in, if the signature does not validate, the dialog box still pops up under the cases we've seen above. The dialog box clearly warns against potential security holes but leaves the final decision of initializing the applet to the user. With the J2SE 1.3 Java Plug-in, the applet fails to initialize unless the user does something explicitly, such as setting the policies or adjusting the system clock.

    Clearly, the J2SE 1.4 Java Plug-in offers the user greater flexibility. Moreover, in an intranet environment, you may no longer be required to sign applets with an external CA; a company-wide CA would suffice. The downside of this flexibility is that some responsibility for validating the signature now shifts to the user. That shift is probably all right, since technology can only so go far to validate a signature. The aspect of trusting a user based on the signature is an interpersonal issue and is left to the user anyway. Technology cannot address this important issue (and I hope it never will).

    Now that they have covered some familiar ground, let's move on to J2SE 1.4's new packages. In the examples they looked at above, the Java Plug-in had to validate a certificate or a certificate chain. If, however, they had to build or validate a certificate chain in a program, they would use the Java CertPath API.

    Java CertPath API

    The Java CertPath API comprises classes and interfaces to manipulate an ordered list of certificates, referred to as certification paths (or certificate chains). Based on the validation results, you can associate a public key with a subject.

    As we've seen, certificates serve as digital identities. As such, a certificate associates a public key with an identity. A CA vouches the digital identity by signing the certificate with the CA's private key. To verify a certificate's identity, the relying party should have a trusted copy of the CA's public key. In the absence of such a trusted copy, a certificates chain, the certification path, is needed, with each certificate vouching for the previous one until a certificate the relying party implicitly trusts is found.

    The example illustrated in Figure 4 includes a CA hierarchy. Let's look at a case when bob tries to validate the public key of the subject, alice. Since bob does not trust alice's public key directly, a certificates chain is needed to validate alice's key until a public key that bob trusts can be found. This chain is based on alice's key signed by a CA, CA3, which is then signed by CA1. Finally, a CA, referred to as the Root CA or the most-trusted CA, is found. The relying party, in this case bob, trusts this Root CA perched topmost in the certificate chain hierarchy.

    Likewise, if alice were to validate bob's key, the certificate path bob-CA4-CA2-Root CA would be required, assuming alice trusts the Root CA's public key.

    Figure 4. Hierarchy of CAs

    To make such certificate-chain validation possible in programs, signatures must be verified, certification revocation and validity must be checked, and so on. Further, a certificate chain from the most-trusted CA to the subject may have to be found by other means, such as with access to LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol).

    Building and validating certification paths is routinely carried out in security protocols such as SSL/TLS, S/MIME, IPSec, and so on. They saw how the Java Plug-in validated a certificate (or a chain). The Java CertPath API proves useful in all such cases.

    I briefly examined X.509 in earlier articles of this series. The X.509 certificate standard in part provides confidence for doing business online. The Public-Key Infrastructure X.509 (PKIX) working group develops Internet standards needed to support X.509 PKI.

    The Java CertPath API is based on the provider architecture introduced in the Java Connector Architecture (JCA). The provider architecture allows user programs to use the same API, but different providers can be plugged in via a Service Provider Interface (SPI). The Sun provider supports the PKIX standard.

    Java CertPath API classes and interfaces

    Now that we've seen Java CertPath's function, let's examine its classes for building and validating certification paths. Each class below exists in the package:

  • Core classes:
  • The abstract CertPath captures the functionality shared by all certification path objects. For example, its getCertificates() abstract method returns the certificates list in the path.
  • In J2SE 1.4 the CertificateFactory now supports certification path objects.
  • The interface CertPathParameters specifies parameters to the Certification Path algorithms. For example, the class PKIXParameters that implements the interface can set PKIX parameters such as time of validity, policy constraints, target certificate constraints, and user-defined checks, among others.
  • Validation classes:
  • CertPathValidator validates a certification path.
  • The CertPathValidatorResult interface captures the results from the CertPathValidator certification path validation.
  • Building classes:
  • The CertPathBuilder class, like CertPathValidator, builds certification paths.
  • CertPathBuilderResult captures the results of CertPathBuilder's path building.
  • Storage classes:
  • CertStore provides the functionality of a certificate and certificate revocation list (CRL) repository, such as LDAP. The methods getCertifcates() and getCRLs() retrieve certificates and CRLs, respectively.
  • CertStoreParameters specifies all CertStore parameters. In conjunction with the CertStore.getInstance()method, the CertStoreParameters class obtains a CertStore with the appropriate properties.
  • The CertSelector interface serves as an argument to the respective methods, allowing them to specify a set of criteria for the respective selection.
  • The CRLSelector interface also serves as an argument to the respective methods.
  • Having briefly looked at the classes and some methods, in the next section they see how to use them.

    Java Certification Path programming model

    Next, they see an example of validating a Certification Path of X.509 certificates. The following steps illustrate how to accomplish that task:

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    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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