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1Z0-822 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Solaris 11 Advanced System(R) Administration

Test Code : 1Z0-822
Test Name : Oracle Solaris 11 Advanced System(R) Administration
Vendor Name : Oracle
: 139 Real Questions

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Oracle Oracle Solaris 11 Advanced

Oracle Introduces Oracle Solaris eleven.2 -- Engineered for Cloud

Oracle Introduces Oracle Solaris 11.2 -- Engineered for Cloud

source: Oracle employer

Oracle Corporation

April 29, 2014 13:05 ET

Oracle Expands funding in Cloud Infrastructure, gives you up to date Cloud Platform With integrated OpenStack Distribution

REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwired - Apr 29, 2014) - Oracle (NYSE: ORCL)

news summary Oracle these days delivered Oracle Solaris 11.2, a latest cloud platform that melds efficient virtualization, software-pushed application-described networking (SDN) expertise and a full OpenStack distribution. This powerful combination of an enterprise-class operating device and other components creates a enormously effective, compliant, comfortable, open and low-priced application platform for cloud computing. With deep integration amongst Oracle Database, Java and Oracle applications, businesses can use Oracle Solaris eleven.2 to deliver the most suitable, high-performance, effective and relaxed IT features and speed up time-to-market for brand new deployments. Oracle Solaris is an important element of Oracle's methods enterprise.

Oracle President Mark Hurd and govt vp John Fowler will focus on the new free up at an experience in manhattan metropolis nowadays. join the live Webcast at 1:00 p.m. ET.

information records

  • Oracle Solaris 11.2 is a complete, built-in and open platform engineered for gigantic-scale enterprise cloud environments. It combines OpenStack, SDN expertise, clustering, and virtualization with a proven business-classification OS, all in a single product.
  • valued clientele can simplify their IT infrastructure and carry legitimate, excessive-efficiency, effective, compliant and at ease cloud features to their end consumers at low-priced.
  • Oracle Solaris 11.2 incorporates an entire OpenStack distribution, bringing OpenStack performance to Oracle Solaris environments and managing other hypervisors and infrastructure within the records center.
  • Oracle Solaris eleven.2 permits IT corporations to now convey features from "zero to cloud" in minutes in place of weeks, with enterprise-grade reliability, protection, and efficiency.
  • Oracle Solaris eleven.2 elements more convenient, faster lifecycle management capabilities than outdated releases. for instance, one customer suggested 16x bigger administrator productivity with Oracle Solaris in comparison to pink Hat.
  • Oracle Solaris eleven.2 offers an built-in hypervisor on both SPARC and x86 for zero-overhead-virtualization, apart from its current Solaris Zones capabilities.
  • Oracle Solaris eleven.2 introduces utility-driven utility described Networking that integrates with Oracle Java, Oracle Database and Oracle applications with a view to carry application-stage first-class of provider.
  • Oracle Solaris 11.2 is the newest in a sequence of improvements from Oracle's transforming into methods enterprise designed to allow shoppers to turn into extra agile and cut back charge by using simplifying their IT the usage of Oracle hardware and utility engineered together. thousands of purchasers worldwide are working Oracle Solaris eleven on Oracle servers and Engineered programs nowadays.
  • together with SPARC servers, Oracle Solaris continues to excel with new performance records with Java, Oracle Database and in virtualized environments.
  • Oracle Solaris 11.2 provides funding coverage with binary compatibility that has allowed consumers to run their latest apps over numerous generations of Oracle Solaris.
  • consumers can seamlessly upgrade to Oracle Solaris 11.2 within minutes and take full knowledge of the brand new cloud capabilities.
  • Oracle Solaris eleven.2 is engineered to convey checklist-breaking performance and efficiency when deployed with Oracle ZFS Storage home equipment.
  • Oracle Solaris 11.2 Beta is now obtainable for down load by the use of Oracle expertise network (OTN).
  • helping rates

  • "Oracle's relentless innovation offers shoppers the strongest cloud product portfolio within the business. by way of engineering the OS, the virtualization, SDN and OpenStack collectively, Oracle Solaris eleven.2 provides a complete cloud solution," pointed out John Fowler, government vp, programs, Oracle. "or not it's an entire platform for primary, productive, cozy, compliant and open commercial enterprise cloud deployments that may support valued clientele accelerate their agencies and capitalize on the talents of cloud computing while cutting back charge."
  • "Cloud computing is creating an entirely new set of expectations for enterprise-type infrastructure application," mentioned Al Gillen, application VP, Servers and system utility, IDC. "where as soon as offering the piece materials -- the OS, virtualization and networking -- became a adequate starting aspect, having an built-in answer is fitting more of the expectation for business valued clientele seeking to construct a inner most cloud. With Oracle Solaris eleven.2, Oracle presents an commercial enterprise-capable answer that comprises OpenStack primarily based management, and makes commercial enterprise cloud deployments easier and extra inexpensive."
  • supporting supplies

    About Oracle Oracle engineers hardware and software to work together within the cloud and in your records middle. For more counsel about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), seek advice from www.oracle.com.

    emblems Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. other names may well be trademarks of their respective house owners.

    For a higher experience the use of this website, please improve to a latest web browser.


    Oracle Solaris eleven.3 provides safety, pace and simplicity for commercial enterprise Cloud Environments and DevOps

    SAN FRANCISCO, CA, Oct 26, 2015 (Marketwired by way of COMTEX) -- ORACLE OPENWORLD -- Oracle ORCL, +0.fifty nine% these days delivered Oracle Solaris eleven.3, the newest unlock of the area's most advanced business operating gadget, with greater security, virtualization, and cloud administration.

    "With Oracle Solaris eleven.3 they give a comfy cloud platform. moreover exciting security elements like their immutable virtualization and time-based access control, we're using the SPARC M7 processor's Silicon Secured reminiscence to helps steer clear of standard safety attacks like buffer overreads and buffer overwrites," observed Markus Flierl, vp, Oracle Solaris Core technology. "Leveraging hardware offload, we're making encryption cost-efficient for information and community site visitors as well as live migration throughout a wide range of encryption modes so consumers would not have to choose from safety and efficiency."

    Designed for safety -- Oracle Solaris 11.three transparently integrates the Oracle SPARC M7 processor's security in Silicon capabilities, dramatically improving protection for existing and future applications. Oracle Solaris 11.three allows for Silicon Secured memory which helps prevent normal safety attacks like buffer overreads and overwrites. Oracle Solaris 11.three also allows widespread use of SPARC M7 encryption acceleration across the datacenter for database, Java, current purposes, ZFS file equipment, network, and sizzling digital computing device migration with out performance influence.

    Designed for Lifecycle administration -- Oracle Solaris eleven.three simplifies the deployment and update of secure environments with three key elements:

    -- Full stack patching and updating makes it possible for the advent of complete, trusted and signed utility bundles together with purposes, operating device, and firmware proven at boot time. -- Immutable digital machines prevent unauthorized installation of any additional software or configuration changes. -- One-step automatic updates and patches via a trusted course enables elementary, relaxed immutable virtual computer updates. This mixture offers comprehensive lock down of all virtual computer content material, including developed-in audit and compliance reporting.

    "Oracle Solaris is comfy by way of default, and safety is built in to each feature. They mechanically use the Oracle Solaris compliance device as smartly because the average Vulnerabilities and publicity (CVE) metadata in IPS to automatically generate reviews for their application and working equipment environments. it is utterly customizable and simple to make use of, permitting us to obtain a tenfold reduction in compliance reporting overhead," pointed out Thorsten Muehlmann, lead architect, Unix methods, Informationsverarbeitung fuer Versicherungen GmbH (ivv).

    Oracle Database Integration -- Oracle Database In-memory and Oracle Solaris eleven.three utterly support the new SPARC M7 SQL in Silicon capabilities that enables up to 10x more suitable database query performance for all current enterprise software and next generation analytics functions. essential capabilities equivalent to dynamic useful resource administration and integrated excessive efficiency lock manager enhancements for Oracle RAC make Oracle Solaris eleven.three essentially the most agile platform for delivering database-as-a-service. Full stack observability and troubleshooting enabled with the aid of DTrace offers primary analysis from the database to the OS kernel for actual-time database troubleshooting and tuning.

    OpenStack for the commercial enterprise -- With Oracle Solaris 11.3, these security capabilities are additionally attainable with OpenStack. Oracle Solaris 11.three contains computerized improvements and instant roll-back leveraging ZFS based mostly boot environments. OpenStack heat provides orchestration of multi-tier purposes. Ironic allows bare metallic provisioning. Leveraging Oracle Solaris Cluster delivers fault tolerance in any respect stages through automated service restarts, evacuation of misguided hardware and disaster healing. Oracle's Murano database-as-a-provider software allows for provisioning of pluggable databases to obtain up to 5x bigger effectivity.

    business DevOps -- With Java, Oracle Solaris Studio, and Oracle SPARC M7-based methods, Oracle Solaris 11.three offers a terrific platform for DevOps. With Oracle Solaris Studio, builders can simply maximize their code performance through quantifying the effect of their code on the hardware components whereas on the equal time enhancing their productiveness. C and C++ builders can with no trouble take capabilities of the Silicon Secured memory characteristic through Oracle Solaris Studio's find module and straight identify coding mistakes like stale pointers with pretty much no impact on utility performance. developers can additionally utilize this integrated continual deployment environment with at ease lifecycle administration using OpenStack.

    attainable Now: Oracle Solaris 11.3 is accessible now for down load or update.

    About Oracle Oracle offers a complete and completely integrated stack of cloud purposes and platform features. For extra suggestions about Oracle ORCL, +0.fifty nine% discuss with oracle.com.

    About Oracle OpenWorld Oracle OpenWorld 2015 promises the most beneficial cloud experience. The business's most crucial enterprise convention includes lots of academic sessions and lines demos and exhibitions from hundreds of companions and clients from all over the world showcasing Oracle's finished cloud choices, including an built-in stack of purposes, platform and infrastructure capabilities, as well as converged programs and industry solutions. Tens of thousands of in-grownup attendees and tens of millions on-line benefit useful product and industry-particular insight to support them radically change their corporations with Oracle. Oracle OpenWorld 2015 is being held October 25 through October 29 on the Moscone core in San Francisco. For extra counsel; to register; or to observe Oracle OpenWorld keynotes, periods, and more, discuss with Oracle OpenWorld 2015. be part of the Oracle OpenWorld dialogue on Twitter #oow15, facebook, and the Oracle OpenWorld blog.

    emblems Oracle and Java are registered emblems of Oracle and/or its associates. other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

    Contact infoMichelle Jenkins Oracle +1.425.945.8306 e mail Contact

    supply: Oracle employer

    (C) 2015 Marketwire L.P. All rights reserved.


    Oracle Updates Solaris 10

    As Oracle continues to put together for a last unlock of Solaris eleven, the Solaris 10 Unix operating system is getting an additional update.

    Oracle released Solaris 10 eight/eleven this week proposing efficiency advancements and new hardware support. The Solaris 10 operating device first debuted in 2004 and has been up to date on a daily basis ever for the reason that.

    considering that its inception, one of the vital huge aspects in Solaris 10 has been ZFS (Zettabyte File gadget) which has additionally better over the years. the new Solaris 10 eight/eleven enables organizations to run ZFS as a root filesystem throughout their Solaris 10 deployments. ZFS is a 128-bit file device that offers advanced data scalability and restoration options, including "snapshotting" -- developing an area-effective checklist of a outdated equipment.

    It has been possible to make use of ZFS as the root file device when you consider that Solaris 10 10/08 free up in 2008. despite the fact, some Solaris clients neglected the ability to be in a position to construct and set up "flash archive" pictures -- which they may do with united states of americaand never ZFS What Oracle is asserting now is that the closing barrier to the use of ZFS instead of americaas the root file equipment has long gone away.

    "Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 contains facets designed to simplify the transition from u.s.a.based mostly gadget disks to Oracle Solaris ZFS," Oracle's free up notes state. "by using making bound that each one central setting up capabilities available with u.s.a.are also available with ZFS, Oracle Solaris eight/11 makes an excellent ZFS transition element to take expertise of the benefit of management, information integrity, and developed-in facts services provided by using Oracle Solaris ZFS."

    New Solaris 10 systems can now even be installed from a Solaris ZFS Flash Archive, which is supposed to make it more convenient and quicker for clients to deploy the working equipment.

    ZFS has also benefitted from distinct efficiency improvements as smartly. in response to Oracle, in interior checking out of Oracle Solaris 10 eight/eleven versus the previous unencumber, Oracle Solaris 10 9/10, ZFS enhancements ended in a examine performance development of between 9 % and 23 %, and write efficiency superior 11 % to 17 p.c.

    With the brand new Solaris replace, Oracle is also carrying on with to enrich the style that Oracle purposes run on the Unix working system. in line with Oracle, the Solaris 10 eight/eleven update contains development in startup and shutdown time for Oracle 11g database users. Startup time is now 26 % of what it took previous to this update on the reference SPARC equipment Oracle proven internally, and about 36 p.c of what it took on a reference x86 gadget.

    "This update takes the most beneficial UNIX for SPARC and x86 and makes it even more suitable,” observed John Fowler, government vice president, techniques, Oracle in an announcement. "With Oracle Solaris 10 8/eleven and the upcoming Oracle Solaris eleven unlock, we're continuing to demonstrate their ongoing dedication to Oracle Solaris, providing the easiest, most cost-efficient direction to main-edge innovation for each new and latest shoppers."

    Oracle acquired Solaris as part of its acquisition of solar in 2010. on the end of 2010, Oracle launched Solaris eleven categorical as a preview for the next generation of Solaris features. trying out and construction on Solaris 11 has been ongoing this yr.

    Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com, the news provider of internet.com, the community for technology specialists.

    observe ServerWatch on Twitter


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    Oracle Launches Solaris 11 Express

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    Oracle Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths

    Oracle offers a multitude of hardware and software solutions designed to simplify and empower IT. Perhaps best known for its premier database software, the company also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage and more. Oracle has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries, about 138,000 employees and exceeds $37.7 billion in revenue.

    Over the years, Oracle has developed an extensive certification program. Today, it includes six certification levels that span nine different categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program, and the number of Oracle customers, it's no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after.

    Oracle Certification Program Overview

    Oracle's certification program is divided into these nine primary categories:

  • Oracle Applications
  • Oracle Cloud
  • Oracle Database
  • Oracle Enterprise Management
  • Oracle Industries
  • Oracle Java and Middleware
  • Oracle Operating Systems
  • Oracle Systems
  • Oracle Virtualization
  • Additionally, Oracle's credentials are offered at six certification levels:

  • Junior Associate
  • Associate
  • Professional
  • Master
  • Expert
  • Specialist
  • Most Oracle certification exams are proctored, cost $245, and contain a mix of scored and unscored multiple-choice questions. Candidates may take proctored exams at Pearson VUE, although some exams are offered at Oracle Testing Centers in certain locations. Some exams, such as Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061) and Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-051), are also available non-proctored and may be taken online. Non-proctored exams cost $125. Check the Oracle University Certification website for details on specific exams.

    Oracle Applications and Cloud certifications

    The Oracle Applications certification category offers more than 60 individual credentials across 13 products or product groups, such as Siebel, E-Business Suite, Hyperion, JD Edwards EnterpriseOne and PeopleSoft. The majority of these certifications confer Certified Implementation Specialist for some specific application, with various Certified Expert credentials also available. The Application certifications aim at individuals with expertise in selling and implementing specific Oracle solutions.

    Oracle's newest certification category is Oracle Cloud, which covers Java Cloud as well as a number of Oracle Cloud certifications, including Oracle Database Cloud. Cloud certs fall into seven sub-categories:

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS), including Data Management, Application Development, Management Cloud and Mobile Cloud Service
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Oracle Customer Experience Cloud, including Service, Sales, Marketing and CPQ Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Performance Management Cloud, including Performance Reporting, Enterprise Planning and Budgeting, Financial Consolidation and Close, Profitability and Cost Management Cloud
  • Software as a Services – Oracle Enterprise Resource Planning Cloud, including Financials, Project Portfolio Management, Procurement and Risk Management Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Human Capital Management Cloud, including Workforce Rewards, Payroll, Talent Management and Global Human Resources Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Supply Chain Management Cloud, including Order Management, Product Master Data Management, Product Lifecycle Management, Manufacturing, Inventory Management, Supply Chain Planning and Logistics Cloud
  • These credentials recognize individuals who deploy applications, perform administration or deliver customer solutions in the cloud. Credentials mostly include Associate and Certification Implementation Specialists, with one Mobile Developer credential offered plus a professional-level Oracle Database Cloud Administrator.

    Oracle Database certifications

    Certifications in Oracle's Database category are geared toward individuals who develop or work with Oracle databases. There are three main categories: Database Application Development, MySQL and Oracle Database.

    Note: Oracle Database 12c was redesigned for cloud computing (and is included in both the Cloud and Database certification categories). The current version is Oracle Database 12c R2, which contains additional enhancements for in-memory databases and multitenant architectures. MySQL 5.6 has been optimized for performance and storage, so it can handle bigger data sets.

    Whenever a significant version of either database is released, Oracle updates its certifications exams over time. If an exam isn't available for the latest release, candidates can take a previous version of the exam and then an updated exam when it becomes available. Though MySQL 5.6 certifications and exams are still available for candidates supporting that version, the new MySQL 5.7 certification track may be more appropriate for those just starting on their MySQL certification journeys.

    Oracle currently offers the Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate, Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Certified Master (OCM), Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) and Specialist paths for Oracle Database 12c. In addition, Oracle offers the OCA credential for Oracle Database 12c R2 and an upgrade path for the OCP credential. Because many of these certifications are also popular within the Oracle Certification Program, they provide additional exam details and links in the following sections.

    Other database certifications Oracle Enterprise Management Certifications

    The Oracle Enterprise Manager Certification path offers candidates the opportunity to demonstrate their skills in application, middleware, database and storage management. The Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Certified Implementation Specialist exam (1Z0-457) certifies a candidate's expertise in physical, virtual and cloud environments, as well as design, installation, implementation, reporting, and support of Oracle Enterprise Manager.

    Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate

    The Oracle Database Foundation Certified Junior Associate credential targets those who've participated in the Oracle Academy through a college or university program, computer science and database teachers, and individuals studying databases and computer science. As a novice-level credential, the Certified Junior Associate is intended for individuals with limited hands-on experience working on Oracle Database products. To earn this credential, candidates must pass the Oracle Database Foundations (novice-level exam) (1Z0-006).

    Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) – Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCA certification measures the day-to-day operational management database skills of DBAs. Candidates must pass a SQL exam and another on Oracle Database administration. Candidates can choose one of the following SQL exams:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071)
  • Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061) NOTE: This exam will be retired on November 30, 2019.
  • Candidates must also pass the Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) exam.

    Oracle Certified Associate – Oracle Database 12cR2 Administrator

    To earn the Oracle Database 12cR2 OCA credential, candidates must first earn either the Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate, Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Associate, or the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate.  In addition, candidates are required to pass the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration exam (1Z0-072).

    Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) – Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCP certification covers more advanced database skills. You must have the OCA Database 12c Administrator certification, complete the required training, submit a course submission form and pass the Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) exam.

    Professionals who possess either the Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Professional or Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional credential may upgrade to the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration Certified Professional credential by passing the Oracle DBA upgrade exam (1Z0-074).

    Oracle Certified Master (OCM) – Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    To achieve OCM Database 12c Administrator certification, you must have the OCP Database 12c Administrator certification, complete two advanced courses, and pass the Oracle Database 12c Certified Master Exam (12cOCM), complete the course submission form, and submit the Fulfillment Kit request.

    Oracle also offers the Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master certification, which requires three separate credentials, including the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master, Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c-RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration, and Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c – Data Guard Administration.

    Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) – Oracle Database 12c

    The OCE Database 12c certifications include Maximum Availability, Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator, and Performance Management and Tuning credentials. All these certifications involve prerequisite certifications. Performance Management and Tuning takes the OSP Database 12c as a prerequisite and the Data Guard Administrator certification requires the OCP Database 12c credential. The RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator provides candidates the most flexibility, allowing candidates to choose from the OCP Database 11g, OCP Databases 12c, Oracle Certified Expert – Real Application Clusters 11g and Grid Infrastructure Administration.

    Once the prerequisite credentials are earned, candidates can then achieve Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator or Performance Management and Tuning by passing one exam. Achieving OCP 12c plus the RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration and Data Guard Administration certifications earns the Maximum Availability credential.

    Oracle Database Certified Implementation Specialist

    Oracle also offers three Certified Implementation Specialist credentials: the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c, Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015, and Oracle Database 12c. Specialist credentials target individuals with a background in selling and implementing Oracle solutions. Each of these credentials requires candidates to pass a single exam to earn the designation.

    Oracle Industries certifications

    Oracle Industries is another sizeable category, with more than 25 individual certifications focused on Oracle software for the construction and engineering, communications, health sciences, insurance, tax and utilities industries. All these certifications recognize Certified Implementation Specialists for the various Oracle industry products, which means they identify individuals proficient in implementing and selling industry-specific Oracle software.

    Oracle Java and Middleware Certifications

    The Java and Middleware certifications span several subcategories, such as Business Intelligence, Application Server, Cloud Application, Data Integration, Identity Management, Mobile, Java, Oracle Fusion Middleware Development Tools and more. Java and Middleware credentials represent all levels of the Oracle Certification Program – Associate, Professional and so on – and include Java Developer, Java Programmer, System Administrator, Architect and Implementation Specialist.

    The highly popular Java category has certifications for Java SE (Standard Edition), and Java EE (Enterprise Edition) and Web Services. Several Java certifications that require a prior certification accept either the corresponding Sun or Oracle credential.

    Oracle Operating Systems certifications

    The Oracle Operating Systems certifications include Linux and Solaris. These certifications are geared toward administrators and implementation specialists.

    The Linux 6 certifications include OCA and OCP Linux 6 System Administrator certifications, as well as an Oracle Linux Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The Linux 6 Specialist is geared to partners but is open to all candidates. Both the Linux OCA and Specialist credentials require a single exam. To achieve the OCP, candidates must first earn either the OCA Linux 5 or 6 System Administrator or OCA Linux Administrator (now retired) credential, plus pass an exam.

    The Solaris 11 certifications include the OCA and OCP System Administrator certifications plus an Oracle Solaris 11 Installation and Configuration Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The OCA and OCP Solaris 11 System Administrator certifications identify Oracle Solaris 11 administrators who have a fundamental knowledge of and base-level skills with the UNIX operating system, commands, and utilities. As indicated by its name, the Implementation Specialist cert identifies intermediate-level implementation team members who install and configure Oracle Solaris 11.

    Oracle Systems certifications

    Oracle Systems certifications include Engineered Systems (Big Data Appliance, Exadata, Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Exalytics, and Private Cloud Appliance), Servers (Fujitsu and SPARC) and Storage (Oracle ZFS, Pillar Axiom, Tape Storage, Flash Storage System). Most of these certifications aim at individuals who sell and implement one of the specific solutions. The Exadata certification subcategory also includes Oracle Exadata X3, X4 and X5 Expert Administrator certifications for individuals who administer, configure, patch, and monitor the Oracle Exadata Database Machine platform.

    Oracle Virtualization certifications

    The Virtualization certifications cover Oracle Virtual Machine (VM) Server for X86. This credential is based on Oracle VM 3.0 for X86, and recognizes individuals who sell and implement Oracle VM solutions.

    The Oracle VM 3.0 for x86 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification aim at intermediate-level team members proficient in installing OVM 3.0 Server and OVM 3.0 Manager components, discovering OVM Servers, configuring network and storage repositories and more.

    Related jobs and careers

    The sheer breadth and depth of Oracle's certification program creates ample opportunities for professionals who want to work with Oracle technologies, or who already do and want their skills recognized and validated. Although there are many specific Oracle products in which to specialize in varying capacities, the main job roles include administrators, architects, programmers/developers and implementation specialists.

    Every company that runs Oracle Database, Oracle Cloud, or Oracle Linux or Solaris needs qualified administrators to deploy, maintain, monitor and troubleshoot these solutions. These same companies also need architects to plan and design solutions that meet business needs and are appropriate for the specific environments in which they're deployed, indicating that the opportunities for career advancement in Oracle technologies are abundant.

    Job listings and hiring data indicate that programmers and developers continue to be highly sought-after in the IT world. Programming and development skills are some of the most sought-after by hiring managers in 2019, and database administration isn't far behind. A quick search on Indeed results in almost 12,000 hits for "Oracle developer," which is a great indication of both need and opportunity. Not only do developers create and modify Oracle software, they often must know how to design software from the ground up, package products, import data, write scripts and develop reports.

    And, of course, Oracle and its partners will always need implementation specialists to sell and deploy the company's solutions. This role is typically responsible for tasks that must be successfully accomplished to get a solution up and running in a client's environment, from creating a project plan and schedule, to configuring and customizing a system to match client specifications.

    Oracle training and resources

    It's not surprising that Oracle has an extensive library of exam preparation materials. Check the Oracle University website (education.oracle.com) for hands-on instructor-led training, virtual courses, training on demand, exam preparation seminars, practice exams and other training resources.

    A candidate's best bet, however, is to first choose a certification path and then follow the links on the Oracle website to the required exam(s). If training is recommended or additional resources are available for a particular exam, Oracle lists them on the exam page.

    Another great resource is the Oracle Learning Paths web page, which provides a lengthy list of Oracle product-related job roles and their recommended courses.

    Ed TittelEd is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry. He has worked as a programmer, technical manager, classroom instructor, network consultant and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom's IT Pro, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems.

    Earl FollisEarl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism, and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that's now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press with many e-books, white papers and articles to his credit.


    Creating New Resource Types

    This chapter is from the book 

    As described in the section "Data Service and Application Agents" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture," Oracle has a substantial list of supported agents that cover most of the applications in your data center. These application agents are maintained by Oracle and are extensively tested on each new release of both the Solaris Cluster software and the application itself. Even so, inevitably you will have an application that is not part of the existing agent portfolio.

    Application Suitability

    Before creating a resource type for your application, you must determine whether the application meets the criteria for being made highly available. The following list highlights the main points you must consider. For a complete list see "Analyzing the Application for Suitability" in [SCDevGuide].

  • Is your application crash-tolerant? This is important because in a highly available environment your application must be able to recover its data consistency without requiring manual intervention. If the application did require such intervention, then most of the benefits of a high-availability framework would be lost.
  • Does your application rely on the physical node name of the machine, such as that resulting from calls to uname, gethostbyname, or equivalent interfaces? If so, then when the application moves to another cluster node, the dependency on the physical hostname will probably cause the application to fail. There is a work-around to this problem, which is to interpose the libschost.so.1 library. However, this work-around can sometimes raise support issues with application vendors.
  • Can your application run on a multihomed system, that is, one with several public networks? Your application must be able to handle situations where IP addresses are configured and unconfigured from network adapters as services move around the cluster. This has consequences for the way your application binds to the network.
  • Does your application use hard-coded path names for the location of its data? If so, then symbolic links might not be sufficient to ensure that the data is stored in a location that is compatible with using a failover or global file system. If the application renames a data file, it can break the symbolic links.
  • After you have determined that your application is suitable for being made highly available, you have several ways to achieve the necessary integration:

  • You can use the Generic Data Service (GDS) directly and just supply the required parameters. Although you cannot define any new extension properties for the resource type you create, it is by far the simplest option.
  • You can create a subclass of the GDS to create a completely new resource type. This option enables you to define one or more extension properties for your new resource type. This option is relatively simple and yet provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can extend the GDS using the Advanced Agent Toolkit. Although this option does not create a new resource type, it does enable you to define one or more extension properties. This option is also relatively simple and provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can use the GUI scdsbuilder tool and customize the resulting shell script or C source using the Resource Management API (RMAPI) and the Data Service Development Library (DSDL) APIs. If significant customization work is needed, this option might result in an increased maintenance burden.
  • You can use the RMAPI or DSDL APIs directly to develop your resource type from scratch. This option trades the development and maintenance costs for ultimate flexibility and performance.
  • Each option is discussed in more detail in the following sections.

    Generic Data Service

    The Generic Data Service (GDS) is provided with the Solaris Cluster software. The SUNW.gds agent is packaged in the SUNWscgds package, which is installed as standard by the Solaris Cluster software installer program. The SUNW.gds agent is considered the preferred way to create both failover and scalable resources. The GDS is supported by Oracle, but you must support the script that you provide for the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command methods.

    By default, the SUNW.gds resource type is not registered, so you must register it before attempting to create a resource of that type. The commands in the following example show how to determine if the resource type is registered and then how to register it, if it is not already present.

    Example 4.13. Registering the SUNW.gds Resource Type

    Use the clresourcetype command to determine whether the SUNW.gds resource type needs to be registered.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds # clresourcetype register SUNW.gds # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6

    In addition to the standard resource properties, the GDS agent has four properties to enable you to integrate your application: Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command. These properties are described in "Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic." By using the GDS as the basis for your application, you automatically benefit from all the patches and feature upgrades that the GDS receives.

    Example 4.14 shows how you can use the GDS to make the X11 program xeyes highly available. You begin by creating a Start_command program. In this example, a script calls the full path name of the program with a parameter that is passed to the shell script. This script must exist on all the cluster nodes on which the application is intended to run.

    Next, having checked that the SUNW.gds resource type is registered, you create the resource group. In this example, you allow the resource group's node list to default to all the cluster nodes.

    Next, you create a resource to represent your program. In the example, the Start_command property is specified by the script you wrote (and which must exist on all nodes). The display parameter to use is also specified. Because this program does not listen on any network ports, you set the network_aware property to false. This means that the probe mechanism used will be the continued existence of the xeyes process that the Start_command program leaves running in the background. By default, any resource you create is enabled so that when the resource group is brought online, the resource is automatically started. To change the default, you can specify the -d argument to the clresource create command.

    The last two steps instruct the RGM that it needs to control or manage the xeyes-rg resource group and then to bring that resource group online. The action of bringing the resource group online starts the resource because it was created in an enabled state.

    Assuming you have allowed remote X11 clients to display on your X server using xhost and you have specified the correct X display to use (substitute a value suited to your environment for myhost:1.0), then the xeyes program will appear on your display. You can switch the resource group between nodes and the RGM will kill the xeyes process and restart it on the new node, phys-summer2, as the example shows.

    Example 4.14. Creating a Simple, Highly Available xeyes Service

    List the script that will be used to start the xeyes command.

    # cat /tmp/start_xeyes #!/bin/ksh /usr/openwin/demo/xeyes -display $1 & exit 0

    Check that the SUNW.gds resource type is registered, and then create the resource group and resource that will control the xeyes service.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6 # clresourcegroup create xeyes-rg # clresource create -t SUNW.gds > -p start_command="/tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0" > -p network_aware=false > -g xeyes-rg xeyes-rs

    Use the clresourcegroup command to bring the xeyes-rg resource group online.

    # clresourcegroup manage xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup online xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group Name Node Name Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Online phys-summer2 No Offline # clresourcegroup switch -n phys-summer2 xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group Name Node Name Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Offline phys-summer2 No Online

    To demonstrate how the GDS handles application failure, quit the xeyes program from your X display. You will notice that the RGM restarts the application almost instantaneously. The messages in /var/adm/messages (see Example 4.15) indicate that the RGM recognized the failure and restarted the service.

    After the fault probe determines that the service is online, indicated by Service is online in /var/adm/messages, kill the process again. The resource has two properties that determine how many times it is restarted by the RGM within a certain time period. These properties are Retry_count and Retry_interval (see Example 4.16). After the specified number of failures, the built-in logic of the GDS determines that the current node is unhealthy and releases the service so that it can be started on another node. If the service also experiences problems on this node, then the RGM will not fail the service back to its original node unless the time period, in seconds, as defined by the resource group's Pingpong_interval property, has passed. Instead, the GDS attempts to keep the service running on the remaining node. This behavior is governed by another property called Failover_mode.

    The purpose of the Pingpong_interval property is to prevent a service that fails to start from endlessly looping, resulting in the service migrating back and forth between cluster nodes. In a test environment, you might need to reset the value of Pingpong_interval to a lower value. Doing so enables you to restart your service once you have corrected any problems you encountered.

    Example 4.15. Sample RGM Messages

    The /var/adm/messages file contains information on the state changes of the resource groups and resources in the cluster.

    Nov 23 04:00:23 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 529407 daemon.notice] resource group xeyes-rg state on node phys-summer2 change to RG_ONLINE Nov 23 04:01:23 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service is online.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.PMF.pmfd: [ID 887656 daemon.notice] Process: tag="xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,0.svc", cmd="/bin/sh -c /tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0", Failed to stay up. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 784560 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status on node phys-summer2 change to R_FM_FAULTED Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service daemon not running.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 423137 daemon.error] A resource restart attempt on resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has been blocked because the number of restarts within the past Retry_ interval (370 seconds) would exceed Retry_count (2) Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 874133 daemon.notice] Issuing a failover request because the application exited. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 494478 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has requested failover of the resource group on phys-summer2. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 423291 daemon.error] RGM isn't failing resource group <xeyes-rg> off of node <phys-summer2>, because there are no other current or potential masters Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 702911 daemon.error] Resource <xeyes-rs> of Resource Group <xeyes-rg> failed pingpong check on node <phys- summer1>. The resource group will not be mastered by that node. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 969827 daemon.error] Failover attempt has failed. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 670283 daemon.notice] Issuing a resource restart request because the application exited. Example 4.16. Retry, Failover Mode, and Ping-pong Interval Properties

    Use the clresource command to determine the property values of the xeyes-rs resource.

    # clresource show > -p retry_count,retry_interval,failover_mode xeyes-rs === Resources === Resource: xeyes-rs --- Standard and extension properties --- Retry_interval: 370 Class: standard Description: Time in which monitor attempts to restart a failed resource Retry_count times. Type: int Retry_count: 2 Class: standard Description: Indicates the number of times a monitor restarts the resource if it fails. Type: int Failover_mode: SOFT Class: standard Description: Modifies recovery actions taken when the resource fails. Type: enum # clresourcegroup show -p pingpong_interval xeyes-rg === Resource Groups and Resources === Resource Group: xeyes-rg Pingpong_interval: 3600

    In the preceding example, the display variable property can be changed only by stopping the resource and modifying the Start_command property. Although of little importance here, because the xeyes program must be restarted to change the target X server on which it displays, it does make a difference in instances where a variable can be changed while a service is running. Examples include changing debugging levels to use and changing directories for log files.

    To create a resource type that has new extension properties that can be changed when you need to change them, you need to either write your resource type from scratch or create a subclass of the GDS, as described in a later section.

    Supporting New Applications Using the Advanced Agent Toolkit

    Many application agents in the current Solaris Cluster software release are derived from the Advanced Agent Toolkit methodology [AdvGDSTlkit]: HA-PostgreSQL, HA-MySQL, and HA containers, to name three. All three use the SUNW.gds agent as their basis. However, in its raw form, the SUNW.gds agent has some limitations.

    The rationale behind the toolkit is that all new application agents have many common requirements:

  • They might require one or more extension properties.
  • They must provide debugging information.
  • They might need to disable the process-monitoring facility (pmfadm) for applications that leave no obvious child processes to monitor.
  • They must supply a Start_command script, as a minimum, and possibly Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command scripts.
  • The toolkit also simplifies much of the work needed to handle Oracle Solaris Zones and SMF. Thus, providing this extended framework enables your developers to focus on the application-specific integration work rather than on debugging the framework itself. After the work is complete, the new resource type is registered using a registration script.

    Developing Resource Types by Creating a Subclass of the GDS

    The advantage of creating a subclass of the GDS, rather than writing a new resource type from scratch, is that the new resource type inherits all the best practices that are already part of the standard GDS code. In addition, creating a subclass of the GDS enables you to create your own resource type extension properties while retaining the same level of flexibility as if you had started from scratch. Finally, your new resource type, which is a subclass of the GDS, has a distinct name, enabling you to easily distinguish resources of the new resource type. If you instead used the Advanced Agent Toolkit or the SUNW.gds agent, then you would have to determine what the resource is by examining the extension properties or reviewing the code. This step would be necessary because the resource type would be set to SUNW.gds, rather than MYCORP.appsvr, for example.

    You create a subclass of the GDS by creating a resource type registration (RTR) file where the RT_basedir parameter is set to the directory containing binaries used by the standard GDS methods: Start, Stop, Validate, and so on. You then extend the RTR file by defining your own resource type extension properties. Finally, you set the method parameters in the RTR file to point to your scripts that override the standard GDS behavior.

    Several existing Sun resource types are implemented this way, including the HA-Logical Domain agent (SUNW.ldom), which was covered in the section "Failover Guest Domains" in Chapter 3, "Combining Virtualization Technologies with Oracle Solaris Cluster Software."

    The RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource type is shown in Example 4.17. In this RTR file, the RT_basedir parameter is set to the standard directory for the GDS package, that is, /opt/SUNWscgds/bin. Of the standard methods, only Init, Boot, and Validate have been overridden using programs that are located in the ../../SUNWscxvm/bin directory. Unlike a standard GDS resource type, the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command properties are assigned fixed values and cannot be changed. This is indicated by the Tunable = NONE settings. Furthermore, each command, apart from validate_command, is called with a consistent set of arguments, namely, -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME. The %variable construct is similar to the $variable syntax found in shell scripts. It means that when a resource of this type is instantiated, use the names you assigned it as arguments. For example, if you wrote a resource type called FOO.bar and then created a resource group called whizz-rg containing a resource called bang-rs of this type, the argument passed would be -R bang-rs -T FOO.bar -G whizz-rg. With these arguments, you can then make calls to the RMAPI or DSDL APIs to retrieve or set properties.

    In contrast to the Start_command, Stop_command, and Probe_command properties, the Validate_command property does not use this construct. Instead, the RGM passes the validate command all the properties listed for the resource type on the command line. Then the validate command parses this list and determines whether the configuration is valid.

    Example 4.17. RTR File for the SUNW.ldom Resource Type

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource type:

    . . . RESOURCE_TYPE = "ldom"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Sun Cluster HA for xVM Server SPARC Guest Domains"; RT_version ="1"; API_version = 10; RT_basedir=/opt/SUNWscgds/bin; Init = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/init_xvm; Boot = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/boot_xvm; Start = gds_svc_start; Stop = gds_svc_stop; Validate = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/validate_xvm; Update = gds_update; Monitor_start = gds_monitor_start; Monitor_stop = gds_monitor_stop; Monitor_check = gds_monitor_check; Init_nodes = RG_PRIMARIES; Failover = FALSE; # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that come after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must be the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The following are the system defined properties. Each of the system defined # properties have a default value set for each of the attributes. Look at # man rt_reg(4) for a detailed explanation. # { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } { PROPERTY = Stop_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } . . . # This is an optional property. Any value provided will be used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to validate the application. # If no value is provided, The validation will be skipped. # { PROPERTY = Validate_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to validate the application"; } # This property must be specified, since this is the only mechanism # that indicates how to start the application. Since a value must # be provided, there is no default. The value must be an absolute path. { PROPERTY = Start_command; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm start -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to start application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will be used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to stop the application. # If no value is provided, signals will be used to stop the application. # # It is assumed that Stop_command will not return until the # application has been stopped. { PROPERTY = Stop_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm stop -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to stop application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will be used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to probe the application. # If no value is provided, the "simple_probe" will be used to probe # the application. # { PROPERTY = Probe_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm probe -R %RS_NAME -G %RG_NAME -T %RT_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to probe application"; } # This is an optional property. It determines whether the application # uses network to communicate with its clients. # { PROPERTY = Network_aware; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = FALSE; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether the application uses network"; } # This is an optional property, which determines the signal sent to the # application for being stopped. # { PROPERTY = Stop_signal; EXTENSION; INT; MIN = 1; MAX = 37; DEFAULT = 15; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The signal sent to the application for being stopped"; } # This is an optional property, which determines whether to failover when # retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval. # { PROPERTY = Failover_enabled; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = TRUE; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether to failover when retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval"; } # This is an optional property that specifies the log level GDS events. # { PROPERTY = Log_level; EXTENSION; ENUM { NONE, INFO, ERR }; DEFAULT = "INFO"; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Determines the log level for event based traces"; } { Property = Debug_level; Extension; Per_node; Int; Min = 0; Max = 2; Default = 0; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Debug level"; } { Property = Domain_name; Extension; String; Minlength = 1; Tunable = WHEN_DISABLED; Description = "LDoms Guest Domain name"; } { Property = Migration_type; Extension; Enum { NORMAL, MIGRATE }; Default = "MIGRATE"; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Type of guest domain migration to be performed"; } { PROPERTY = Plugin_probe; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Script or command to check the guest domain"; } { PROPERTY = Password_file; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The complete path to the file containing the target host password"; } scdsbuilder GUI

    To customize an agent beyond what is permitted by the GDS, you can use the Agent Builder command, scdsbuilder (see the scdsbuilder(1HA) man page). This command has three code generation options, and the resulting files are wrapped in a Solaris package that you can install on your cluster nodes:

  • DSDL code (see the section "Data Service Development Library").
  • ksh code, including all the necessary scha_control commands (see the section "Resource Management API"). With the ksh code, you are creating your own resource type.
  • A ksh registration script for a GDS agent. Here, the code generates the appropriate clresource create command.
  • You can customize the resulting code to your specific needs. However, with the ksh registration script for the GDS agent, the scope for modification is limited. The example in Figure 4.7 shows the use of the third option.

    Figure 4.7

    Figure 4.7 Using the scdsbuilder GUI to create a new resource type

    The scdsbuilder command starts the Solaris Cluster Agent Builder GUI, as shown in Figure 4.7. In this example, data has already been specified for each field available to the user. A short code of SUNW is specified for the vendor name, and tstgds is specified for the application name. This data is then used to generate both the name of the package that Agent Builder creates for you and the name of the resource type that you will subsequently use.

    The information you provide in the other fields is used as follows:

  • The RT version enables you to specify a version number for this resource type. You can identify which version of the agent you are running when it is placed into production.
  • The working directory is used by Agent Builder as a working area in which it can create your package and write other associated, intermediate files.
  • Your target application determines whether you select the scalable or failover option. If a particular instance of an application can run on multiple nodes at once without corrupting any of its data files, then you can select the scalable option. A good example of such an application is a web server. For all other applications, such as databases and file services, select the failover option.
  • The Network Aware check box is used to determine whether any resource created using this resource type needs to have the port_list property set. The port_list property is then used by the GDS service to provide a simple probe mechanism.
  • The source type option determines whether the resulting code uses the C programming language, ksh, or the GDS (see the section "SUNW.gds" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture") to create the data service. To use the C option, you must have a C compiler installed on your system.
  • After you have entered the data and clicked on the Next button, you are presented with the screen shown in Figure 4.8.

    Figure 4.8

    Figure 4.8 Completing the resource type definition using scdsbuilder

    Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic

    You use the fields in this second screen to provide the location of the programs (which can be compiled executables or scripts) and their associated arguments that will be used to start, stop, probe, and validate your data service when it is installed on the target cluster nodes. For each program, you can set a time limit on how long it can take for the program to complete. If the program does not complete within the allocated time period, then the resource is placed into a failed state, such as STOP_FAILED.

    You are required to provide a value only for the start program. All the other programs are optional. Any programs specified must exit with a return code of zero only when they have successfully completed their work. If they fail to perform their allotted task, they must return a value greater than 100. Values below that are used by the Solaris Cluster commands and have specific meanings (see the intro(1CL) man page).

    The programs you assign to the start and stop commands must return successfully only when your target application has actually completed the relevant operation. If the stop command leaves the application under its control running, or not completely stopped, but the stop command returns successfully, then the cluster framework erroneously determines that it is safe to start the resource group on another cluster node. In some instances, particularly when the application uses a global file system, this outcome could result in data corruption because the two instances of the application could write to their data files in an uncontrolled fashion.

    If no stop command is provided, the process tree that results from the start command is terminated using the kill command.

    The validate command enables you to check that your application is correctly configured on all the potential nodes on which it can run. Again, if the program determines that your application is misconfigured, the validate program must exit with a nonzero exit code.

    The capability to incorporate a probe command is one of the key benefits of using the Solaris Cluster framework. A probe command enables you to write a program that determines the health of your application. As an example, if you are writing a probe for a database, you could test whether it can execute basic SQL statements, such as creating or deleting a table, or adding or deleting a record. If you do not provide a probe script, then default methods are used instead.

    For non-network-aware applications, the process-monitoring command pmfadm (see the pmfadm(1M) man page) monitors the process tree spawned by your start command. Only if all the processes have failed will the cluster framework attempt to restart the service. Therefore, if your service consists of multiple processes and only one process fails, then pmfadm will not recognize this fault unless it causes all the other processes to fail as well. Consequently, if you need to monitor your application with a higher degree of granularity, you must provide a custom fault probe.

    If the application is network-aware, then the default probe tries to open the port listed in the port_list property. Because this is a simple probe, it makes no attempt to retrieve any data. Even if the default probe successfully opens the ports, that does not necessarily indicate overall application health.

    In the preceding example, you would install the package generated by scdsbuilder on all your cluster nodes. You would then register the new resource type so that you could create new resources of this type. When the RGM is requested to create a resource, it calls the validate command: /usr/local/bin/my_validate -o some_param. If that command succeeds and you enable the resource, the RGM calls the /usr/local/bin/my_start -r foo-rs -g bar-rg command. In both cases, the initial arguments are fixed, but you can modify them subsequently using the clresource command.

    Resource Type Registration File

    If you decide to write an agent from scratch using either the RMAPI or DSDL APIs, you must first describe the properties of your proposed resource type in a file known as the resource type registration (RTR) file. This file provides the RGM with details on which programs to call and which variables are required to control the particular application.

    Example 4.18 shows an extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR file. As the example shows, all the programs for this resource type are located in the directory defined by RT_BASEDIR. The RTR file also defines programs that will, among other tasks, start, stop, and probe (Monitor_start) the logical IP address that the resource plumbs. These addresses are, in turn, defined in the HostnameList property.

    The extension properties you define are all application-specific. They could, for example, refer to the location of the software binaries, that is, the application home directory. If a property has a default value, then you can define it in the RTR file to save your system administrator from having to override it each time he or she creates a resource of this type. Furthermore, you can place limits on what values certain properties can take and when they can be changed.

    Example 4.18. Extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR File

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.LogicalHostname resource type:

    # # Copyright 1998-2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. # Use is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)SUNW.LogicalHostname 1.20 08/05/20 SMI" # Registration information and Paramtable for HA Failover IPaddress # # NOTE: Keywords are case insensitive, i.e. users may use any # capitalization style they wish # RESOURCE_TYPE ="LogicalHostname"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Logical Hostname Resource Type"; SYSDEFINED_TYPE = LOGICAL_HOSTNAME; RT_VERSION ="3"; API_VERSION = 2; INIT_NODES = RG_PRIMARIES; RT_BASEDIR=/usr/cluster/lib/rgm/rt/hafoip; FAILOVER = TRUE; # To enable Global_zone_override GLOBAL_ZONE = TRUE; START = hafoip_start; STOP = hafoip_stop; PRENET_START = hafoip_prenet_start; VALIDATE = hafoip_validate; UPDATE = hafoip_update; MONITOR_START = hafoip_monitor_start; MONITOR_STOP = hafoip_monitor_stop; MONITOR_CHECK = hafoip_monitor_check; PKGLIST = SUNWscu; # # Upgrade directives # #$upgrade #$upgrade_from "1.0" anytime #$upgrade_from "2" anytime # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that come after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must be the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The Paramtable cannot contain TIMEOUT properties for methods # that aren't in the RT { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN=360; DEFAULT=500; } . . . # HostnameList: List of hostnames managed by this resource. All must be # on the same subnet. If need > 1 subnet with a RG, create as many # resources as there are subnets. { PROPERTY = HostnameList; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "List of hostnames this resource manages"; } . . . Resource Management API

    The Resource Management API (RMAPI) is a set of low-level functions contained in the libscha.so library with both C and shell interfaces. All the function names provided by this interface are prefixed with scha_. The shell interfaces are listed in section 1HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages.

    The ksh scripts generated by the Agent Builder are built using these commands, so you can insert additional lines in this code where the comments indicate. However, for greater control over the logic imposed on your application you must write your application agent from scratch.

    Data Service Development Library

    The Data Service Development Library (DSDL) is a set of higher-level functions encapsulated in the libdsdev.so library that builds on the RMAPI functionality. This library can only be accessed using a C programming language interface. Consequently, it is potentially more time-consuming to write a complete application agent using this approach, although it does offer the greatest level of performance and flexibility.

    If you used Agent Builder to create a resource type, you can customize it by inserting extra DSDL code where the comments indicate. Otherwise, you must write your agent from scratch.

    All the function names provided by the library are prefixed with scds_ and are documented in section 3HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages. The NFS agent source code [NFSAgent] serves as a good example of how these APIs are used. Using the nfs_svc_start.c source as a specific example, the library is initialized with scds_initialize(). Resource and resource group names are then retrieved using scds_get_resource_name() and scds_get_resource_group_name() calls, respectively. Finally, the status of the resource is set by the RMAPI scha_resource_setstatus() call. Most of the coding effort involved with using these interfaces is consumed by the logic that describes how the agent should behave in various failure scenarios. For example, how many times should the agent attempt to restart the service before giving up and potentially failing over? What should the agent do in response to a network failure?

    One advantage of using the GDS is that all the best practices for service behavior are already in the logic of the code that makes up the agent, saving you from re-creating that code.

    Useful Utilities for Building Custom Data Services

    The Solaris Cluster software comes with two programs that you will find very useful if you create your resource type from scratch: hatimerun (see the hatimerun(1M) man page) and pmfadm.

    hatimerun Command

    Throughout the Start, Stop, Monitor_start, and Validate methods of your resource type, you will need to run various programs to perform the required logic steps. Because your goal is high availability, you cannot wait for a program that might never respond or return, whether that program has gone into a loop or is unable to retrieve some important data from the network, disk, or other program. Consequently, you must place time constraints on the duration of the program's execution. This is the function of the hatimerun command. It enables you to execute a program under its control and set a limit on the time it can take to respond. If the program in question fails to respond in a timely fashion, it is terminated by default.

    The hatimerun command also enables you to leave the program running asynchronously in the background, change the exit code returned after a timeout, or use a particular signal to terminate your program.

    The most common usage of this command is in your probe commands or in the steps leading up to stopping or starting your application.

    pmfadm Command

    If you write a custom probe for your service, you decide what constitutes a healthy service. The criteria might include application-specific checks to determine if the data it is delivering to potential clients is valid or timely. If the application consists of multiple processes, you might want to check that each process is running, using the ps command. All of these tests combine to give you the best assessment of your application's current health. However, your probe is scheduled to make its checks only at regular intervals. Even though you can tune these checks to occur at shorter intervals, doing so results in a greater load on your system. Consequently, you must wait, on average, half the probe period before your probe detects a situation where your application has completely failed, meaning that all the processes have exited. Once again, this does not help much toward your goal of high availability.

    The solution is to use pmfadm, the process-monitoring facility command. When you start your application under pmfadm, it monitors all the processes your application spawns to a level that you determine. By default, it monitors all the application's child processes. If they all exit, pmfadm immediately restarts your application for you on the condition that it has not already exceeded a preset number of restarts within a certain time interval.

    The most common usage of this command is in your start command to ensure that your key application processes are monitored and that complete failures are reacted to immediately.

    libschost.so Library

    Some applications store or make use of configuration information about the physical hostname of the server on which the application is running. Such applications will most likely fail when the application is placed in a resource group and moved between the nodes of a cluster. This failure occurs because calls to uname or gethostbyname produce different responses on the global zone of each cluster node. Oracle Application Server and the Oracle E-Business Suite are two examples of programs that risk such failures [LibHost].

    To overcome this limitation, you use the LD_PRELOAD feature to enable the runtime linker to interpose the libschost.so.1 library in the dynamic linking process. The following example shows how this is done. You can use the same construct within your resource Start or Monitor_start (probe) methods, as required.

    Example 4.19. How to Use the sclibhost.so.1 Library to Change the String Returned as the Hostname

    Use the uname command to display the current hostname.

    # uname -n phys-winter1

    Set the LD_PRELOAD_32, LD_PRELOAD_64 and SC_LHOSTNAME environment variables, and then rerun the uname command.

    # LD_PRELOAD_32=$LD_PRELOAD_32:/usr/cluster/lib/libschost.so.1 # LD_PRELOAD_64=$LD_PRELOAD_64:/usr/cluster/lib/64/libschost.so.1 # SC_LHOSTNAME=myhost # export SC_LHOSTNAME LD_PRELOAD_32 LD_PRELOAD_64 # uname -n myhost


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