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1Z0-058 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Real Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Test Code : 1Z0-058
Test Name : Oracle Real Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Vendor Name : Oracle
: 139 Real Questions
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This chapter introduces Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise application Clusters (Oracle RAC) by describing these items as well as a way to installation, administer, and installation them. This chapter describes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC architectures as neatly as the software and hardware accessories for each of those products. This chapter also in brief describes workload management, services, and high availability for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments. This chapter comprises here themes:Oracle Clusterware and Oracle real application Clusters
A cluster includes multiple interconnected computer systems or servers that appear as if they're one server to conclusion clients and applications. Oracle Database 10g true application Clusters (Oracle RAC) enables the clustering of the Oracle Database. Oracle RAC makes use of Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind distinctive servers so that they operate as a single system.
Oracle Clusterware is a conveyable cluster administration answer it really is integrated with the Oracle database. The Oracle Clusterware is additionally a required part for the usage of Oracle RAC. additionally, Oracle Clusterware enables both single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases to use the Oracle high availability infrastructure. The Oracle Clusterware enables you to create a clustered pool of storage for use by means of any combination of single-example and Oracle RAC databases.
Oracle Clusterware is the simplest clusterware that you simply need for most systems on which Oracle RAC operates. that you can additionally use clusterware from different vendors if the clusterware is certified for Oracle RAC.
Single-example Oracle databases have a one-to-one relationship between the Oracle database and the illustration. Oracle RAC environments, although, have a one-to-many relationship between the database and cases. In Oracle RAC environments, the cluster database cases access one database. The combined processing vigor of the dissimilar servers can supply enhanced throughput and scalability than is accessible from a single server. Oracle RAC is the Oracle Database option that offers a single equipment photograph for multiple servers to entry one Oracle database. In Oracle RAC, each and every Oracle illustration usually runs on a separate server.
Oracle RAC is a special technology that provides excessive availability and scalability for all software varieties. The Oracle RAC infrastructure is also a key element for enforcing the Oracle commercial enterprise grid computing architecture. Having dissimilar cases entry a single database prevents the server from being a single point of failure. Oracle RAC enables you to mix smaller commodity servers right into a cluster to create scalable environments that aid mission crucial company applications. applications that you installation on Oracle RAC databases can function with out code alterations.The Oracle Clusterware structure and Oracle Clusterware Processing
The Oracle Clusterware is application that when installed on servers operating the equal working device, allows for the servers to be sure collectively to function as if they were one server. The Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware accessories: a vote casting disk to listing node membership counsel and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to listing cluster configuration suggestions. The vote casting disk and the OCR have to dwell on shared storage. The Oracle Clusterware requires that every node be linked to a personal network by the use of a personal interconnect.
The inner most interconnect that Oracle Clusterware requires is a separate community that you just configure between the cluster nodes. This interconnect, which is required by means of Oracle RAC, can also be the identical community that the clusterware makes use of, however the interconnect should no longer be purchasable through nodes that don't seem to be a part of the cluster.
Oracle recommends that you simply configure a redundant interconnect to stay away from the interconnect from being a single factor of failure. Oracle additionally recommends that you just use user Datagram Protocol (UDP) on a Gigabit Ethernet in your cluster interconnect. Crossover cables are not supported to be used with Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC databases.
The Oracle Clusterware manages node membership and prevents split mind syndrome wherein two or extra cases try and handle the database. this can ensue in cases where there's a spoil in conversation between nodes throughout the interconnect.
The Oracle Clusterware architecture helps excessive availability via instantly restarting stopped add-ons. The Oracle Clusterware can automatically re-start a node to evade issues with that node from affecting the supply of the leisure of the Oracle RAC environment. In an Oracle RAC atmosphere, all Oracle techniques are under the handle of the Oracle clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware also provides an utility programming interface (API) that allows you to control different Oracle processes with Oracle Clusterware.Oracle Clusterware application element Processing particulars
The Oracle Clusterware contains a couple of heritage tactics that facilitate cluster operations. The Cluster Synchronization service (CSS), experience administration (EVM), and Oracle Cluster components communicate with other cluster part layers within the different cases in the equal cluster database ambiance. These components are also the main verbal exchange hyperlinks between the Oracle Clusterware excessive availability accessories and the Oracle Database. additionally, these components computer screen and manage database operations.
the following list describes the services of one of the most important Oracle Clusterware accessories. This listing includes these components which are procedures on Unix and Linux working techniques or functions on home windows.
notice:On home windows-based mostly working techniques, most of the add-ons are threads of the Oracle process in its place of separate strategies.
Cluster Synchronization capabilities (CSS)—Manages the cluster configuration by way of controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and with the aid of notifying participants when a node joins or leaves the cluster. when you are using third-celebration clusterware, then the css method interfaces with your clusterware to manage node membership suggestions.
Cluster ready functions (CRS)—The simple program for managing excessive availability operations within a cluster. anything else that the crs technique manages is referred to as a cluster useful resource which generally is a database, an illustration, a service, a Listener, a virtual IP (VIP) tackle, an application procedure, and so forth. The crs procedure manages cluster components in line with the resource's configuration guidance that is saved in the OCR. This includes delivery, cease, display screen and failover operations. The crs process generates activities when a useful resource fame changes. when you've got installed Oracle RAC, crs displays the Oracle instance, Listener, and so on, and instantly restarts these accessories when a failure occurs. by using default, the crs technique makes five attempts to restart a useful resource after which does not make further restart makes an attempt if the aid does not restart.
adventure administration (EVM)—A historical past method that publishes pursuits that crs creates.
Oracle Notification provider (ONS)—A post and subscribe service for communicating quick software Notification (FAN) hobbies.
RACG—Extends clusterware to assist Oracle-selected requirements and complicated materials. Runs server callout scripts when FAN hobbies happen.
system monitor Daemon (OPROCD)—This manner is locked in reminiscence to monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its assess, stops working, and if the wake up is past the expected time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD makes use of the hangcheck timer on Linux systems.
In here table, if a process has a (r) beside it, then the procedure runs as the root consumer. in any other case the process runs as the oracle person.
table 1-1 checklist of strategies and home windows functions linked to Oracle ClusterwareOracle Clusterware part Linux/Unix system windows servicesWindows processes
process monitor Daemon
Oracle Notification service (ONS)
evmd (r), evmd.bin, evmlogger
Cluster in a position
Cluster Synchronization capabilities
init.cssd (r), ocssd (r), ocssd.bin
ocssd.exeThe Oracle Clusterware software add-ons
When Oracle Clusterware operates, a couple of platform-certain methods or features will also be running on each node within the cluster to aid Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware platform-particular UNIX-based mostly procedures and home windows-based services are described below here headings:Oracle Clusterware approaches on UNIX-primarily based techniques
The Oracle Clusterware techniques on UNIX-based programs are:
crsd—Performs excessive availability healing and management operations corresponding to preserving the OCR and managing utility substances. This technique runs as the root user, or through a consumer within the admin neighborhood on Mac OS X-based programs. This system restarts automatically upon failure.
evmd—adventure supervisor daemon. This system additionally begins the racgevt method to manipulate FAN server callouts.
ocssd—Manages cluster node membership and runs because the oracle user; failure of this process results in cluster restart.
oprocd—method display screen for the cluster. observe that this technique best looks on structures that don't use dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
notice:Oracle RAC on Linux platforms can have multiple threads that seem as separate methods with separate procedure identifiers. Oracle Clusterware capabilities on windows-based mostly techniques
The Oracle Clusterware features on windows-primarily based methods are:
OracleCRService—Performs high availability restoration and administration operations similar to retaining the OCR and managing application resources. This method runs because the root user, or with the aid of a user within the admin community on Mac OS X-primarily based systems. This method restarts immediately upon failure.
OracleCSService—Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle person; failure of this method consequences in cluster restart.
OracleEVMService—adventure supervisor daemon. This technique also starts the racgevt manner to control FAN server callouts.
OraFenceService—process monitor for the cluster. notice that this method handiest appears on systems that don't use dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
An Oracle RAC database is a logically or physically shared every little thing database. All datafiles, control info, PFILEs, and redo log files in Oracle RAC environments need to live on cluster-conscious shared disks so that all of the cluster database situations can entry them. all the situations must also share the same interconnect. additionally, Oracle RAC databases can share the identical interconnect that Oracle Clusterware makes use of.
as a result of an Oracle RAC database makes use of a shared every little thing architecture, Oracle RAC requires cluster-aware storage for all database data. it's your option as to the way to configure your disk, but you need to use a supported cluster-conscious storage solution. Oracle Database 10g offers automated Storage administration (ASM), which is the advised solution to control your disk. despite the fact you may also additionally use a cluster-conscious quantity supervisor or a cluster file device (no longer required). In Oracle RAC, the Oracle Database utility manages disk entry and the Oracle utility is licensed to be used on a variety of storage architectures. An Oracle RAC database can have as much as 100 instances. reckoning on your platform, which you could use the following file storage alternatives for Oracle RAC:
ASM, which Oracle recommends
Oracle Cluster File device (OCFS), which is purchasable for Linux and windows structures, or a 3rd-birthday celebration cluster file device this is licensed for Oracle RAC
A network file device
Oracle RAC databases fluctuate architecturally from Oracle RACsingle-instance Oracle databases in that every Oracle RAC database example also has:
All nodes in an Oracle RAC environment should hook up with a native area network (LAN) to allow users and functions to access the database. purposes may still use the Oracle Database capabilities characteristic to hook up with an Oracle database. functions allow you to define suggestions and features to manage how clients and functions hook up with database instances. These traits consist of a special name, workload balancing and failover options, and excessive availability traits. Oracle web functions allows the weight balancing of utility connections across all of the circumstances in an Oracle RAC database.
users can entry an Oracle RAC database using a consumer-server configuration or through one or more middle tiers, with or with out connection pooling. clients can be DBAs, builders, software users, energy users, akin to data miners who create their personal searches, and so on.
Most public networks customarily use TCP/IP, however you can use any supported hardware and application aggregate. Oracle RAC database circumstances may also be accessed through a database's described, default IP tackle and thru VIP addresses.
observe:do not to make use of the interconnect or the deepest community for person conversation as a result of Cache Fusion uses the inner most interconnect for inter-illustration communications.
apart from the node's host name and IP address, you have to also assign a digital host name and an IP handle to each and every node. The digital host name or VIP may still be used to connect with the database example. for example, you might enter the digital host name CRM in the handle listing of the tnsnames.ora file.
A virtual IP handle is an alternate public tackle that client connections use as an alternative of the normal public IP handle. To configure VIP addresses, you deserve to reserve a spare IP handle for every node that makes use of the equal subnet because the public network.
If a node fails, then the node's VIP fails over to a further node on which the VIP can't settle for connections. often, VIPs fail over when the node on which a VIP runs fails or if all interfaces for the VIP fail or are disconnected from the network. valued clientele that try to hook up with the VIP receive a speedy connection refused error as a substitute of awaiting TCP connect timeout messages. You configure VIP addresses in the tackle checklist to your database connection definition to allow connectivity. here section describes the Oracle RAC software accessories in additional detail.The Oracle precise software Clusters software add-ons
Oracle RAC databases have two or greater database cases that every contain memory buildings and history procedures. An Oracle RAC database has the same tactics and reminiscence buildings as a single-example Oracle database in addition to extra system and reminiscence structures that are selected to Oracle RAC. anyone example's database view is practically just like another instance's view in the identical Oracle RAC database; the view is a single system graphic of the atmosphere.
each and every instance has a buffer cache in its equipment international area (SGA). the usage of Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically mix each and every illustration's buffer cache to allow the situations to technique facts as if the statistics resided on a logically combined, single cache.
word:The SGA size necessities for Oracle RAC are greater than the SGA requirements for single-illustration Oracle databases as a result of Cache Fusion.
To make sure that each Oracle RAC database instance obtains the block that it should fulfill a question or transaction, Oracle RAC situations use two approaches, the world Cache service (GCS) and the global Enqueue service (GES). The GCS and GES preserve information of the statuses of every facts file and each cached block using a worldwide aid listing (GRD). The GRD contents are allotted throughout all the lively cases, which comfortably increases the measurement of the device global area for an Oracle RAC instance.
After one illustration caches records, every other example in the same cluster database can purchase a block graphic from one other example in the equal database faster than by means of analyzing the block from disk. for this reason, Cache Fusion moves existing blocks between situations rather than re-reading the blocks from disk. When a consistent block is required or a modified block is required on another illustration, Cache Fusion transfers the block photograph without delay between the affected cases. Oracle RAC uses the deepest interconnect for inter-instance communication and block transfers. The international Enqueue service display screen and the instance Enqueue method manages entry to Cache Fusion materials in addition to enqueue recuperation processing.
These Oracle RAC methods and the GRD collaborate to allow Cache Fusion. The Oracle RAC strategies and their identifiers are as follows:
LMS—international Cache provider technique
LMD—global Enqueue carrier Daemon
LMON—global Enqueue carrier display screen
LCK0—instance Enqueue technique
in case you use community connected Storage (NAS), then you are required to configure a 2nd deepest community. entry to this network is usually controlled by way of the supplier's utility. The deepest community makes use of static IP addresses.
be aware:most of the Oracle accessories that this section describes are moreover the add-ons which are described for single-illustration Oracle databases in Oracle Database ideas. Oracle Clusterware accessories and excessive Availability
should you mix Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, which you can obtain dazzling scalability and high availability. The Oracle Clusterware achieves this the use of the components that this part describes under right here subject matters:The Oracle Clusterware balloting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry
The Oracle Clusterware requires right here two critical info:
vote casting Disk—Manages cluster membership by the use of a health examine and arbitrates cluster ownership among the many cases in case of network disasters. Oracle RAC makes use of the vote casting disk to investigate which cases are contributors of a cluster. The vote casting disk should stay on shared disk. for prime availability, Oracle recommends that you've varied balloting disks. The Oracle Clusterware allows distinct vote casting disks but you should have an odd variety of vote casting disks, akin to three, 5, etc. if you define a single vote casting disk, then you should definitely use exterior mirroring to deliver redundancy.
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)—keeps cluster configuration information as well as configuration suggestions about any cluster database inside the cluster. The OCR also manages counsel about strategies that Oracle Clusterware controls. The OCR stores configuration suggestions in a sequence of key-value pairs inside a listing tree structure. The OCR ought to reside on shared disk it truly is purchasable by using all of the nodes on your cluster. The Oracle Clusterware can multiplex the OCR and Oracle recommends that you use this function to make certain cluster excessive availability. that you could change a failed OCR online, and you can replace the OCR via supported APIs comparable to commercial enterprise supervisor, the Server handle Utility (SRVCTL), or the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA).
be aware:both the vote casting disks and the OCRs have to live on either cluster file gadget data or on shared raw devices that you configure prior to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle Clusterware high Availability and the application Programming Interface
Oracle Clusterware offers a high availability application programming interface (API) so you might use to enable Oracle Clusterware to control functions or approaches that run a cluster. This makes it possible for you to give excessive availability for all your functions. The Oracle Clusterware with ASM makes it possible for you to create a consolidated pool of storage to guide both the single-instance Oracle databases and the Oracle RAC databases which are operating on your cluster.
To maintain excessive availability, Oracle Clusterware add-ons can respond to status changes to restart functions and tactics based on described excessive availability suggestions. in addition, that you can use the Oracle Clusterware high availability framework by way of registering your applications with Oracle Clusterware and configuring the clusterware to start, stop, or relocate your utility methods. this is, you can make custom functions tremendously obtainable through the use of Oracle Clusterware to create profiles that computer screen, relocate, and restart your applications. The Oracle Clusterware responds to FAN activities which are created by an Oracle RAC database. Oracle broadcasts FAN pursuits when cluster servers can also turn into unreachable and community interfaces are sluggish or non-practical.Workload management with Oracle real application Clusters
Workload administration allows you to manipulate the distribution of workloads to deliver optimal efficiency for users and purposes. This includes proposing the highest availability for database connections, speedy failure healing, and balancing workloads optimally throughout the active configuration. Oracle Database 10g with Oracle RAC contains many features that may increase workload management equivalent to connection load balancing, quick connection failover (FCF), the load balancing advisory, and Runtime Connection Load Balancing. Workload administration offers the most excellent advantages to Oracle RAC environments. which you can, youngsters, take competencies of workload administration by using Oracle services in single-example Oracle Databases, especially those who use information safeguard or Streams. Workload management contains here components:
excessive Availability Framework—The Oracle RAC excessive availability framework enables the Oracle Database to retain accessories in a running state consistently. Oracle excessive availability implies that Oracle Clusterware screens and restarts crucial accessories in the event that they cease, unless you override the restart processing. The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC also provide alerts to clients when configurations exchange. This allows for consumers to instantly react to the alterations, enabling software developers to conceal outages and reconfigurations from end users. The scope of Oracle excessive availability spans from the restarting of stopped Oracle approaches in an Oracle database instance to failing over the processing of an entire example to other available circumstances.
Load Balancing Advisory—here's the ability of the database to give tips to purposes about the current service levels being offered by way of the database and its circumstances. applications can take competencies of this suggestions to direct connection requests to the illustration that will provide the application request with the optimum service first-class to comprehensive the utility's processing. Oracle has integrated its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) and Oracle facts company for .web (ODP.web) connection pools to work with the weight balancing counsel. purposes can use the built-in connection swimming pools devoid of programmatic changes.
capabilities—Oracle Database 10g introduces a powerful computerized workload management facility, referred to as capabilities, to enable the business grid vision. capabilities are entities for you to outline in Oracle RAC databases. features enable you to community database workloads and route the work to the optimal situations that are assigned to system the carrier. in addition, that you could use functions to outline the elements that Oracle assigns to process workloads and to computer screen workload substances. applications that you assign to functions transparently acquire the defined workload administration features, together with high availability and cargo balancing guidelines. Many Oracle database points are integrated with services, akin to useful resource supervisor, which allows you to preclude the elements that a carrier can use within an illustration. Some database features are additionally integrated with Oracle Streams, advanced Queuing, to achieve queue place transparency, and the Oracle Scheduler, to map capabilities to certain job courses.
In Oracle RAC databases, the service performance rules that you just configure handle the quantity of labor that Oracle allocates to every attainable example for that provider. As you extend your database by way of including nodes, purposes, accessories of applications, and so forth, you can add extra capabilities.
Connection Load Balancing— Oracle internet functions provides connection load balancing for database connections. Connection load balancing occurs when the connection is created. Connections for a given carrier are balanced across all of the running cases that present the carrier. you should definitely outline the way you want connections to be balanced within the service definition. despite the fact, you have to nonetheless configure Oracle web functions. when you enable the load balancing advisory, the Listener uses the load balancing advisory for connection load balancing.
This area introduces the storage alternate options for Oracle RAC and the setting up techniques for both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC under here themes:Oracle Clusterware setting up method Description
The Oracle Clusterware is allotted on the Oracle Database 10g installing media. The Oracle conventional Installer (OUI) installs Oracle Clusterware right into a directory constitution, which may also be called CRS_home, that is become independent from other Oracle software working on the laptop. as a result of Oracle Clusterware works carefully with the working equipment, gadget administrator entry is required for some of the installing initiatives. additionally, one of the Oracle Clusterware techniques need to run because the device administrator, which is often the root person on Unix and Linux systems and the system Administrator user on home windows methods.
prior to installing Oracle Clusterware, Oracle recommends that you run the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to ensure that your atmosphere meets the Oracle Clusterware installation requirements. The OUI additionally instantly runs CVU at the conclusion of the clusterware setting up to examine quite a few clusterware add-ons. The CVU simplifies the setting up, configuration, and standard management of the Oracle Clusterware installing system through settling on complications in cluster environments.
throughout the Oracle Clusterware installing, you should determine three IP addresses for every node that is going to be part of your installation. One IP handle is for the deepest interconnect and the other is for the general public interconnect. The third IP address is the virtual IP tackle that purchasers will use to connect with every example.
The Oracle Clusterware installation process creates the vote casting disk and OCR on cluster-conscious storage. in case you choose the option for standard redundant copies throughout the setting up manner, then Oracle Clusterware instantly continues redundant copies of these data to avoid the info from becoming single elements of failure. The ordinary redundancy feature also eliminates the need for third birthday celebration storage redundancy options. if you use usual redundancy, Oracle Clusterware instantly keeps two copies of the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file and three copies of the balloting Disk file.
word:in case you opt for exterior redundancy for the OCR and voting disk, then to permit redundancy, your disk subsystem ought to be configurable for RAID mirroring. otherwise, your gadget could be susceptible because the OCR and vote casting disk are single elements of failure. Oracle true utility Clusters installation and Database introduction process Description
The Oracle RAC application is disbursed as a part of the Oracle Database 10g installation media. via default, the commonplace Oracle Database 10g software installation method installs the Oracle RAC choice when it recognizes that you're performing the installing on a cluster. The OUI installs Oracle RAC into a directory constitution, which can also be referred to as Oracle_home, this is break away different Oracle software running on the laptop. as a result of OUI is cluster-mindful, it installs the Oracle RAC utility on the entire nodes that you just defined to be a part of the cluster. if you're the usage of a certified cluster file gadget for the Oracle home, then only opt for the node that you're connected to for the installing.
You have to first installation Oracle Clusterware earlier than setting up Oracle RAC. After Oracle Clusterware is operational, that you would be able to use OUI to install the Oracle database utility with the Oracle RAC add-ons. all through the setting up, OUI runs DBCA to create your Oracle RAC database in response to the alternatives that you simply choose. The DBCA additionally runs the web Configuration Assistant (NETCA) to configure the community for your Oracle RAC environment.
Oracle recommends that you simply choose ASM during the setting up to simplify storage management; ASM instantly manages the storage of all database files within disk businesses. which you can also configure capabilities right through setting up, counting on your processing necessities. if you are the usage of the Oracle Database 10g general version, then you definately ought to use ASM for storing all the database information.
via default, DBCA creates one carrier on your environment and this service is for the database. The default carrier is attainable on all circumstances in an Oracle RAC environment, except the database is in restricted mode.Cloning Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC application in Grid Environments
This area in short summarizes the tactics for deploying Oracle RAC in grid environments that have tremendous numbers of nodes using cloned photographs for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle cloning is the preferred components of extending your Oracle RAC atmosphere with the aid of adding nodes and situations. To function the cloning tactics which are summarized in this section, refer to the Oracle commonplace Installer and OPatch consumer's ebook.which you could additionally use business manager Grid handle to perform cloning.
The cloning system assumes that you simply correctly installed an Oracle Clusterware home and an Oracle home with Oracle RAC on at least one node. furthermore, all root scripts should have run efficiently on the node from which you're extending your cluster database. to make use of Oracle cloning, first clone the Oracle Clusterware home and then clone the Oracle home with the Oracle RAC application.
To clone the Oracle Clusterware home, on UNIX-primarily based methods create a tar file of the Oracle Clusterware home and duplicate the file to the new node's Oracle Clusterware domestic. On home windows-based mostly programs you need to create zip info. Then on UNIX-based mostly systems create the necessary users and companies on the brand new nodes. On home windows-based techniques, you do not need to create users and corporations, however the user that performs the cloning should be the equal consumer that performed the setting up.
Extract the tar file, or unzip the zip file, and run the Oracle regular Installer (OUI) in clone mode as described within the Oracle frequent Installer and OPatch person's guide. Then run the setting up scripts and repeat these steps on every node that you are including. The system for cloning the Oracle home onto new nodes is comparable to the technique for cloning the Oracle Clusterware home. in addition, you need to run the Oracle net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) on each and every new node to create a Listener.
if you have not already created a database, then which you can run the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create one. at last, observe the submit-cloning procedures to comprehensive the extension of your Oracle RAC ambiance onto the brand new nodes.further considerations and contours for Oracle precise application Clusters
in addition to configuring services to manipulate your workloads, additionally accept as true with the use of the following aspects in the event you installation Oracle RAC:
Scaling Your Oracle RAC Database—As mentioned, that you could add nodes and cases to your Oracle RAC environment the use of Oracle cloning. if you decide to not use cloning, then that you can extend your database through the use of the manual processes that are described in Chapter 10, "including and Deleting Nodes and situations on UNIX-based mostly systems" or Chapter 11, " adding and Deleting Nodes and cases on home windows-primarily based systems".
business manager—Use business supervisor to administer your total Oracle RAC ambiance, no longer simply the Oracle RAC database. Use enterprise manager to create and modify services, and to delivery and stop the cluster database cases and the cluster database. enterprise manager has extra aspects as exact within the part "Overview of using enterprise manager with Oracle actual utility Clusters".
healing manager (RMAN)—RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers datafiles, control information, server parameter data (SPFILEs) and archived redo logs. that you may use RMAN with a media supervisor to returned up data to external storage. that you can additionally configure parallelism when backing up or recuperating Oracle RAC databases. In Oracle RAC, RMAN channels can be dynamically allocated across the entire Oracle RAC circumstances. Channel failover makes it possible for failed operations on one node to continue on a different node. that you can use RMAN in Oracle RAC from the Oracle enterprise manager Backup supervisor or from a command line.
automated undo management—automatically manages undo processing.
computerized segment space management (ASSM)—immediately manages phase freelists and freelist companies.
locally managed tablespaces—Enhances space management efficiency.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—Use CVU to examine the repute of your clusterware in case you journey problems or use it each time you reconfigure your cluster.
Sequences—if you use sequence numbers, then all the time use CACHE with the NOORDER option for top of the line sequence number generation performance. With the CACHE choice, despite the fact, you can also have gaps within the sequence numbers. in case your atmosphere cannot tolerate sequence quantity gaps, then use the NOCACHE alternative or agree with pre-generating the sequence numbers. if your utility requires sequence number ordering but can tolerate gaps, then use CACHE and ORDER to cache and order sequence numbers in Oracle RAC. if your application requires ordered sequence numbers with out gaps, then use NOCACHE and ORDER. This combination has essentially the most bad effect on efficiency in comparison to other caching and ordering combinations.
Indexes—if you use indexes, trust options, such as reverse key indexes, to optimize index performance. Reverse key indexes are particularly valuable you probably have conventional inserts to one side of an index, similar to indexes which are according to insert date.
This area describes here Oracle RAC ambiance management subject matters:Designing Oracle true application Clusters Environments
believe performing here steps all through the design and construction of functions that you're deploying on an Oracle RAC database. consider tuning:
The design and the application
The memory and that i/O
The operating equipment
word:If an utility doesn't scale on an SMP computer, then moving the utility to an Oracle RAC database can't enrich performance.
agree with the usage of hash partitioning for insert-intensive online transaction processing (OLTP) purposes. Hash partitioning:
Reduces contention on concurrent inserts into a single database structure
influences sequence-based indexes when indexes are in the community partitioned with a desk and tables are partitioned on sequence-based keys
Is transparent to the software
if you hash partitioned tables and indexes for OLTP environments, then that you may significantly enhance performance to your Oracle RAC database. word that you just can not use index latitude scans on an index with hash partitioning.
if you're the use of sequence numbers, then always use the CACHE choice. if you use sequence numbers with the CACHE choice, then:Administrative equipment for Oracle actual utility Clusters Environments
Oracle permits you to administer a cluster database as a single device picture through commercial enterprise supervisor, SQL*Plus, or via Oracle RAC command-line interfaces reminiscent of Server handle (SRVCTL). that you would be able to also use a few equipment and utilities to manipulate your Oracle RAC atmosphere and its add-ons as follows:
enterprise manager—enterprise supervisor has each the Database manage and Grid handle GUI interfaces for managing each single instance and Oracle RAC environments.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—CVU is a command-line tool for you to use to examine a number cluster and Oracle RAC-certain components akin to shared storage instruments, networking configurations, equipment requirements, and Oracle Clusterware, in addition to working system corporations and users. you can use CVU for pre-installing exams as well as for post-setting up assessments of your cluster atmosphere. CVU is notably helpful all through pre-setting up and throughout setting up of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC components. The OUI runs CVU after Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle installing to check your environment.
Server manage (SRVCTL)—SRVCTL is a command-line interface for you to use to manipulate an Oracle RAC database from a single factor. you can use SRVCTL to birth and prevent the database and circumstances and to delete or flow instances and features. that you may also use SRVCTL to control configuration advice.
See additionally:Appendix E for extra assistance about SRVCTL
Cluster ready capabilities control (CRSCTL)—CRSCTL is a command-line device so that you can use to control Oracle Clusterware. that you may use CRSCTL to delivery and prevent Oracle Clusterware. CRSCTL has many options akin to enabling online debugging,
Oracle Interface Configuration tool (OIFCFG)—OIFCFG is a command-line device for both single-example Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments so you might use to allocate and de-allocate network interfaces to add-ons. that you would be able to additionally use OIFCFG to direct accessories to make use of specific community interfaces and to retrieve component configuration suggestions.
OCR Configuration tool (OCRCONFIG)—OCRCONFIG is a command-line device for OCR administration. that you can also use the OCRCHECK and OCRDUMP utilities to troubleshoot configuration complications that have an effect on the OCR.
internet-based commercial enterprise supervisor Database control and Grid handle permit you to computer screen an Oracle RAC database. The enterprise manager Console is a important point of manage for the Oracle atmosphere that you simply access by the use of a graphical person interface (GUI). Use the enterprise manager Console to provoke cluster database administration projects. Use commercial enterprise manager Grid control to administer dissimilar Oracle RAC databases. also word here aspects about monitoring Oracle RAC environments:
The international views, or GV$ views, are in accordance with V$ views. The catclustdb.sql script creates the GV$ views. Run this script in case you don't create your database with DBCA. otherwise, DBCA runs this script for you.
Statspack is Oracle RAC-mindful.
observe:as a substitute of the usage of Statspak, Oracle recommends that you use the greater refined administration and monitoring elements of the Oracle Database 10g Diagnostic and Tuning packs which consist of the automated Database Diagnostic display screen (ADDM).
You don't deserve to perform special tuning for Oracle RAC; Oracle RAC scales with out special configuration adjustments. if your utility performed neatly on a single-example Oracle database, then it's going to operate neatly in an Oracle RAC environment. many of the tuning initiatives that you'd perform on a single-example Oracle database can also improve Oracle RAC database efficiency. this is very true in case your atmosphere required scalability throughout a more suitable variety of CPUs.
some of the Oracle RAC performance elements are:
Dynamic useful resource Allocation
Cache Fusion permits A Simplified Tuning Methodology
You do not need to tune any parameters for Cache Fusion
No software-level tuning is quintessential
that you can use a bottom-up tuning method with essentially no impact on your current applications
extra unique efficiency facts
supply: Oracle supplier
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Simplifies Deployment of a extremely purchasable, Virtualized Database
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exciting mixture of Virtualization and Clustering Speeds Time to Market and makes it possible for larger Availability
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With end users getting accustomed to instantaneous response times, Oracle, more than ever, is challenged to provide continuous availability to its database products. An important tool the folks at Redwood Shores have to help them accomplish that is Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC).
What is RAC? In a nutshell, it is a software tool that allows a single database to be accessed by many Oracle programs. If one server fails, transactions can be redirected to another live server with a minimum of downtime.
Oracle advertises RAC as a cure for many ailments. IT shops can misunderstand such marketing hype, however, and not recognize the cost and benefits of using RAC in a high availability (HA) environment.
Let’s explore some Oracle RAC best practices and in the process shed some light on common mistakes users make when using this cluster-based technology. In this Oracle RAC guide, we’ll take a look at:
One of the most common mistakes with Oracle RAC is misunderstanding its functions and limitations. Oracle Real Application Clusters is used as part of a comprehensive capacity planning strategy, but the technology’s strengths and limitations are not always understood. Here is a list of the most common misperceptions about the technology.
Oracle RAC is ideal for scalability
Even though Oracle Corporation wants you to buy tiny “blade servers” and use their grid computing solution for “horizontal scaling,” that’s not how most shops use RAC. Keep in mind that RAC is only a legitimate scalability option for very large IT shops that need more horsepower than a single server can deliver.
Instead, it’s an Oracle best practice to scale-up first, and then scale out by first building up within a single server through “vertical scaling.” Only after you have saturated a large server do you need to use RAC to “scale out” the application across multiple servers. Today, a single server’s memory and CPU horsepower can be significantly expanded compared with just several years ago, making it easier to add resources instead of plunking in a new server to the RAC environment. In real-world environments, a single server can handle thousands of transactions per second. Only the world’s largest Oracle databases need to scale-out using RAC nodes.
Oracle RAC is a standalone high-availability solution
Remember that RAC only protects you against instance failure, and that’s only one of many components that can cause an unplanned outage. For true continuous availability, they must deploy triple-mirrored disks (with a mean-time-to-failure rate expressed in centuries) and redundant network components.
For complete availability on each RAC server node, you will want multiple host bus adapters, multiple network cards and multiple power sources. Just as they have failover at the instance layer, you need to purchase software to allow the multiple host bus adapter cards to automatically failover and issue a notification that one has failed.
As they have noted, RAC systems require a cluster interconnect in order to accommodate RAM-to-RAM transfers of data blocks in the RCA cache fusion layer. This interconnect must be very fast, with high bandwidth and low latency. Interconnects include:
This cache fusion bottleneck is another reason why RAC scale-out, or horizontal scalability, is problematic. If your cluster interconnect cannot handle the traffic, extra servers will actually degrade your performance instead of helping it. The only way around this problem is to change your entire application to accommodate RAC, or to purchase faster storage such as Solid State Disk.
Oracle RAC ensures fast response time
Response time for transactions is always important, but it’s especially important for RAC databases. This is because of the connection wait-time that is used to detect whether a RAC node, or server, has failed. Consequently, you must plan to ensure that new transactions are serviced in less than one second wall-clock time so that you can set a failover time of two seconds.
Oracle RAC does not need a disaster recovery component
Except in the rare cases where you can deploy Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, known as dark fiber, you still need to create a disaster recovery solution. Because RAC nodes are normally located within a few miles of each other, a natural disaster like a hurricane would still cause a global outage. So it has become a RAC best practice to also deploy a fast-failover geographical solution like Data Guard -- or better still, n-way Streams.
Now that they understand the planning aspect of best practices, let’s take a closer look at RAC best practices issues after they have implemented their new database.
Oracle RAC implementation best practices
Operational RAC databases follow many of the same best practices as any Oracle database, but there are some that are unique to Oracle RAC systems. First, it’s an important best practice to plan RAC servers in a way that minimizes the geographical distance between the RAC nodes while still keeping them separate, in order to avoid a failure of all nodes.
As a reference, you can take a look at what I wrote on how to implement RAC implementation guidelines.
In a busy RAC database, the speed of the server interconnect is critical for fast response times. It’s a commonly accepted best practice to use the fastest possible interconnect, typically a fiber optics solution like dark fiber.
Some shops will place RAC nodes in separate buildings in the same neighborhood, but with the advent of the superfast dark fiber interconnect, you can use “Extended RAC” and place RAC nodes up to 100 miles apart. This allows you to combine high availability with disaster recovery.
Dark fiber is rather expensive, however. To reduce costs, most shops adopt a best practice where they combine RAC with disaster recovery solutions like n-way Streams replication.
The whole point of RAC is to make end users automatically reconnect to a surviving server when one server fails. This is done either at the Web-server level or with the Oracle Transparent Application Failover (TAF) option. Whichever tool you choose, you should wait about three seconds before assuming that the server is dead and re-trying a new RAC server.
Next, let’s take a closer look at specific RAC technical best practices.
Oracle RAC interconnect best practices
Since RAC is a method in which many instances share the same database, shared data blocks are transferred between the servers using a high-speed interconnect called “cache fusion.” In order to keep performance fast, it’s critical that you pay close attention to the interconnect layer and remember these points:
RAC likes small block sizes, the interconnect must have extremely fast network hardware, and RAC load balancing is critical to performance.
Oracle RAC node load balancing best practices
I disagree with Oracle’s practice of load balancing using a least-loaded approach because of the overhead it lays on top of the cache fusion layer. In the real world, like-minded end users are directed to the same RAC server. If they have a RAC system with different types of end users, they would want to load balance according to their data needs. For example, customer processing might be on node one, order processing on node two, and product processing on node three. Grouping RAC end users by data needs ensures that cache fusion overhead is minimized.
Oracle RAC disk storage management best practices
In order to implement a RAC system, you should use a shared storage device because many servers must have concurrent access to the disks. A single instance database can, however, use Direct Attached Storage (DAS), which is an array of inexpensive disks connected to a single server. You must now use what is known as a Storage Area Network (SAN). A SAN, which is more expensive and complex, is a disk array capable of connecting to many servers, usually through Fibre Channel. This requires a unique set of hardware, ranging from host bus adapters to the SAN itself. It’s important that your DBA have complete knowledge of the internals of the data storage layer.
Oracle RAC block size best practices
It has become a best practice in RAC to use a small 2 kilobyte block size in order to minimize the “baggage” shipped across the cache fusion layer. Because the block size is the unit of work, the smaller the block size, the higher the granularity of data being transferred, with less overhead. If you have long rows (greater than 2 kilobytes), then you will want to move to a 4 kilobyte block size.
The implementation of a RAC cluster is only the beginning, and it’s critical to constantly monitor the health of your RAC clusters so that you can spot and fix impending problems before you inconvenience your end users.
Oracle RAC monitoring best practices
To ensure that a RAC node never experiences a global problem, a proper monitoring infrastructure is an absolute requirement. RAC databases rarely fail without warning. If the DBA understands the proper metrics to watch, he can create an alert system that notifies him of a looming problem so that he can fix it before the instance crashes.
The DBA must monitor the cluster, the shared disk setup, ASM (or OCFS), the database instance, listeners, and more in-depth metrics such as cache coherency, interconnect latency, disk times from multiple systems, and a range of other things.
While higher-cost performance monitoring tools such as Oracle Grid Control can help perform rudimentary RAC monitoring for beginners, a RAC DBA should have the coding skills to build his own RAC monitoring infrastructure using dictionary queries, dbms_scheduler and email alert mechanisms.
Wrapping up the discussion of Oracle RAC best practices, let’s focus on the best way to define job roles for a RAC database.
Oracle RAC staffing best practices
One best practice for RAC databases is to always hire an experienced RAC DBA to manage your cluster, avoiding people who have had the RAC training but have no job experience.
It’s important to recognize that human resource costs are the most expensive part of an Oracle shop. Over the decades, hardware costs have steadily fallen while manpower costs have remained the same.
It’s important to note that Oracle professionals with RAC skills command a hefty premium over an ordinary DBA. A recent Oracle salary survey notes that an average DBA earns about $97,000 per year, whereas RAC experts commonly earn $140,000 a year. Those who manage multi-billion-dollar RAC databases typically command upwards of $250,000 per year.
Sadly, there is no easy way to “grow your own” RAC DBA. The training courses are very expensive, and there is no substitute for real-world experience. And training your own DBA in RAC may make him more marketable. It’s not uncommon to spend tens of thousands of dollars teaching RAC to your DBA only to lose him to a better job offer.
Oracle RAC job role best practices
There is a perpetual conflict between systems administrators (SAs), who traditionally manage servers and disks, and the RAC DBAs who are responsible for managing the RAC database. There are also clearly defined job roles for network administrators, who are especially challenged in a RAC database environment to manage the cluster interconnect and packet shipping between servers.
If your DBA is going to be held responsible for the performance of the RAC database, then it’s only fair that he be given root access to the servers and disk storage subsystem. However, not every DBA will have the required computer science skills to manage a complex server and SAN environment, so each shop makes this decision on a case-by-case basis.
Oracle RAC training best practices
One of the sure ways to set your company up for an unplanned outage is to fail to train your SA, DBA and network administrator properly. SAN environments like EMC, Tagmastore and NetApp have complex architectures, and they frequently require training classes.
Disk configuration is also challenging, and RAC will function only when using specific disk setups such as ASM, OCFS, RAW, or a third-party cluster file system. These tools require training classes.
Network administrators must also receive training on how to work with the cluster interconnect, as well as specialized interconnects such as Infiniband and DWDM.
Of all those on a RAC staff, DBAs will have the greatest learning curve. They will have to understand how to set up and administer all of the complex RAC components, including the clusterware and file system storage.
In summary, while RAC offers continuous availability, it’s not magic. There is a lot of work required to ensure that a RAC database is always available. Every RAC database has some unique properties, but there are some well-known perils and pitfalls as well. Using Oracle RAC best practices from other shops is a must for ensuring success. The vast majority of the best practices with RAC relate to properly planning the infrastructure and configuring and deploying the RAC database.
About the author:
Donald K. Burleson is a leading Oracle expert, with more than 25 years of DBA experience. He has authored more than 30 Oracle books, including five officially authorized O books on Oracle tuning. Burleson also manages a popular DBA website, www.dba-oracle.com.
This latest generation of database builds on the innovations introduced in Oracle Database 11g to help organizations deliver better information throughout the enterprise, at a higher quality of service, and at a much lower cost.
In this release, Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) delivers grid plug and play and new server pooling capabilities that enable organizations to reduce their server costs by streamlining the provisioning and management of consolidated database grids.
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(Note: If you’re interested in WebSphere in a production environment, check out Michael's upcoming webinar with The Bon-Ton Stores)
Most articles about Garbage Collection ignore the fact that the Sun Hotspot JVM is not the only game in town. In fact whenever you have to work with either IBM WebSphere or Oracle WebLogic you will run on a different runtime. While the concept of Garbage Collection is the same, the implementation is not and neither are the default settings or how to tune it. This often leads to unexpected problems when running the first load tests or in the worst case when going live. So let’s look at the different JVMs, what makes them unique and how to ensure that Garbage Collection is running smooth.
The Garbage Collection ergonomics of the Sun Hotspot JVMEverybody believes to know how Garbage Collection works in the Sun Hotspot JVM, but lets take a closer look for the purpose of reference.
The Generational HeapThe Hotspot JVM is always using a Generational Heap. Objects are first allocated in the young generation, specifically in the Eden area. Whenever the Eden space is full a young generation garbage collection is triggered. This will copy the few remaining live objects into the empty survivor space. In addition objects that have been copied to Survivor in the previous garbage collection will be checked and the live ones will be copied as well. The result is that objects only exist in one survivor, while eden and the other survivor is empty. This form of Garbage Collection is called copy collection. It is fast as long as nearly all objects have died. In addition allocation is always fast because no fragmentation occurs. Objects that survive a couple of garbage collections are considered old and are promoted into the Tenured/Old space.
Tenured Generation GCsThe Mark and Sweep algorithms used in the Tenured space are different because they do not copy objects. As they have seen in one of my previous posts garbage collection takes longer the more objects are alive. Consequently GC runs in tenured are nearly always expensive which is why they want to avoid them. In order to avoid GCs they need to ensure that objects are only copied from Young to Old when they are permanent and in addition ensure that the tenured does not run full. Therefore generation sizing is the single most important optimization for the GC in the Hotspot JVM. If they cannot prevent objects from being copied to Tenured space once in a while they can use the Concurrent Mark and Sweep algorithm which collects objects concurrent to the application.
While that shortens the suspensions it does not prevent them and they will occur more frequently. The Tenured space also suffers from another problem, fragmentation. Fragmentation leads to slower allocation, longer sweep phases and eventually out of memory errors when the holes get too small for big objects.
This is remedied by a compacting phase. The serial and parallel compacting GC perform compaction for every GC run in the Tenured space. Important to note is that, while the parallel GC performs compacting every time, it does not compact the whole Tenured heap but just the area that is worth the effort. Worth the effort means when the heap has reached a certain level of fragmentation. In contrast, the Concurrent Mark and Sweep does not compact at all. Once objects cannot be allocated anymore a serial major GC is triggered. When choosing the concurrent mark and sweep strategy they have to be aware of that side affect.
The second big tuning option is therefore the choice of the right GC strategy. It has big implications for the impact the GC has on the application performance. The last and least known tuning option is around fragmentation and compacting. The Hotspot JVM does not provide a lot of options to tune it, so the only way is to tune the code directly and reduce the number of allocations.
There is another space in the Hotspot JVM that they all came to love over the years, the Permanent Generation. It holds classes and string constants that are part of those classes. While Garbage Collection is executed in the permanent generation, it only happens during a major GC. You might want to read up what a Major GC actually is, as it does not mean a Old Generation GC. Because a major GC does not happen often and mostly nothing happens in the permanent generation, many people think that the Hotspot JVM does not do garbage collection there at all.
Over the years all of us run into many different forms of the OutOfMemory situations in PermGen and you will be happy to hear that Oracle intends to do away with it in the future versions of Hotspot.
Oracle JRockitNow that they had a look at Hotspot, let us look at the difference in the Oracle JRockit. JRockit is used by Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle has announced that it will merge it with the Hotspot JVM in the future.
The biggest difference is the heap strategy itself. While Oracle JRockit does have a generational heap it also supports a so called continuous heap. In addition the generational heap looks different as well.
The Young space is called Nursery and it only has two areas. When objects are first allocated they are placed in a so called Keep Area. Objects in the Keep Area are not considered during garbage collection while all other objects still alive are immediately promoted to tenured. That has major implications for the sizing of the Nursery. While you can configure how often objects are copied between the two survivors in the Hotspot JVM, JRockit promotes objects in the second Young Generation GC.
In addition to this difference JRockit also supports a completely continuous Heap that does not distinguish between young and old objects. In certain situations, like throughput orientated batch jobs, this results in better overall performance. The problem is that this is the default setting on a server JVM and often not the right choice. A typical Web Application is not throughput but response time orientated and you will need to explicitly choose the low pause time garbage collection mode or a generational garbage collection strategy.
Mostly Concurrent Mark and SweepIf you choose Concurrent Mark and Sweep strategy you should be aware about a couple of differences here as well. The mostly concurrent mark phase is divided into four parts:
The sweeping is also done concurrent to your application, but in contrast to Hotspot in two separate steps. It is first sweeping the first half of the heap. During this phase threads are allowed to allocate objects in the second half. After a short synchronization pause the second half is sweeped. This is followed by another short final synchronization pause. The JRockit algorithm therefore stops more often than the Sun Hotspot JVM, but the remark phase should be shorter. Unlike the Hotspot JVM you can tune the CMS by defining the percentage of free memory that triggers a GC run.
CompactingThe JRockit does compacting for all Tenured Generation GCs, including the Concurrent Mark and Sweep. It does so in an incremental mode for portions of the heap. You can tune this with various options like percentage of heap that should be compacted each time or how many objects are compacted at max. In addition you can turn off compacting completely or force a full one for every GC. This means that compacting is a lot more tunable in the JRockit than in the Hotspot JVM and the optimum depends very much on the application itself and needs to be carefully tested.
Thread Local AllocationHotspot does use thread local allocation, but it is hard to find anything in the documentation about it or how to tune it. The JRockit uses this on default. This allows threads to allocate objects without any need for synchronization, which is beneficial for allocation speed. The size of a TLA can be configured and a large TLA can be beneficial for applications where multiple threads allocate a lot of objects. On the other hand a too large TLA can lead to more fragmentation. As a TLA is used exclusively by one thread, the size is naturally limited by the number of threads. Thus both decreasing and increasing the default can be good or bad depending on your applications architecture.
Large and small objectsThe JRockit differentiates between large and small objects during allocation. The limit for when an object is considered large depends on the JVM version, the heap size, the garbage collection strategy and the platform used. It is usually somewhere between 2 and 128 KB. Large objects are allocated outside thread local area in in case of a generational heap directly in the old generation. This makes a lot of sense when you start thinking about it. The young generation uses a copy ccollection. At some point copying an object becomes more expensive than traversing it in ever garbage collection.
No permanent GenerationAnd finally it needs to be noted that the JRockit does not have a permanent generation. All classes and string constants are allocated within the normal heap area. While that makes life easier on the configuration front it means that classes can be garbage collected immediately if not used anymore. In one of my future posts I will illustrate how this can lead to some hard to find performance problems.
The IBM JVMThe IBM JVM shares a lot of characteristics with JRockit: The default heap is a continuous one. Especially in WebSphere installation this is often the initial cause for bad performance. It differentiates between large and small objects with the same implications and uses thread local allocation on default. It also does not have a permanent generation, but while the IBM JVM also supports a generational Heap model it looks more like Sun’s rather than JRockit.
Allocate and Survivor act like Eden and Survivor of the Sun JVM. New objects are allocated in one area and copied to the other on garbage collection. In contrast to JRockit the two areas are switched upon gc. This means that an object is copied multiple times between the two areas before it gets promoted to Tenured. Like JRockit the IBM JVM has more options to tune the compaction phase. You can turn it off or force it to happen for every GC. In contrast to JRockit the default triggers it due to a series of triggers but will then lead to a full compaction. This can be changed to an incremental one via a configuration flag.
ConclusionWe see that while the three JVMs are essentially trying to achieve the same goal, they do so via different strategies. This leads to different behaviour that needs tuning. With Java 7 Oracle will finally declare the G1 (Garbage First) production ready and the G1 is a different beast altogether, so stay tuned.
If you’re interested in hearing me discuss more about WebSphere in a production environment, then check out their upcoming webinar with The Bon-Ton Stores. I’ll be joined by Dan Gerard, VP of Technical & Web Services at Bon-Ton, to discuss the challenges they’ve overcome in operating a complex Websphere production eCommerce site to deliver great web application performance and user experience. Reserve your seat today to hear me go into more detail about Websphere and production eCommerce environments.
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