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Oracle Database administration and the long run | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nov 19, 2018

Stephanie Simone

Oracle DBAs and managers are beneath pressure to carry high-performing and responsive techniques that can scale with the business. Many enterprises are turning to cloud solutions and automation to in the reduction of expenses and raise their agility and potential.

using public cloud capabilities among Oracle database sites is increasing, above all in the enviornment of backup and restoration. on the equal time, most transaction environments still remain on-premises these days.

for many Oracle environments, the long run is pointing towards a hybrid cloud model. however, licensing and support considerations, together with advantage shortages, are additionally standing within the manner of further growth.

DBTA these days held a webinar with Joe McKendrick, impartial analyst and author, Don Sullivan, product line advertising and marketing supervisor for enterprise crucial applications and database, VMware, Sudhir Balasubramanian, team of workers solution architect – Oracle expertise Lead (CPBU TMM), VMware, and Phil Hummel, records science & Microsoft tech advertising and marketing, EMC, reviewed brand new market analysis on the current expertise landscape, including the increase of cloud and automation, in addition to biggest challenges impeding Oracle database teams today.

Unisphere analysis, the IOUG, VMware, and Dell EMC performed a survey that recognized right here trends:

  • Database environments are great and sophisticated
  • Licensing/help expenses is the #1 challenge for clients seeking to expand Oracle databases and apps
  • Optimizing licensing fees by means of controlling the number of servers is the most important infrastructure attribute when enforcing Oracle workloads
  • When it involves introducing automation to information operations, backup, and recuperation comes first
  • using public cloud capabilities amongst Oracle clients is growing to be, and that growth is accelerating
  • Most public cloud boom is at the moment being pushed by using backup and recovery helping transaction environments
  • can charge reduction is the main advantage expected and sold with cloud, however agility and skill are more likely to be realized in current deployments
  • Many issues, together with safety considerations, are combating or delaying the adoption of public cloud services
  • while licensing is desirable-of-mind for most records managers subscribing to cloud functions, there are nonetheless many with different priorities
  • Most groups are nonetheless sizing hosts and clusters to satisfy exact performance specifications to optimize Oracle licensing
  • Amazon web features, Oracle, Microsoft are the good public cloud choices for Oracle valued clientele presently
  • Oracle database groups are below force to bring excessive-performing and responsive techniques that can scale with the company , Oracle databases environments are transforming into in measurement and complexity , and licensing/guide costs are increasing.

    for most Oracle environments, the longer term is pointing in opposition t a hybrid cloud mannequin, in accordance with the survey.

    in response to the roundtable of experts, moving ahead, Oracle DBAs and bosses should be more proactive in properly balancing the pace and scale demands of the business, whereas optimizing licensing expenses, exceptionally as further and further agencies flow in opposition t a hybrid cloud model.

    An archived on-demand replay of this webinar is purchasable here.

    Oracle Named a frontrunner in 2018 Gartner Magic Quadrant for Operational Database management techniques | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    REDWOOD SHORES, Calif., Oct. 29, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Oracle these days introduced that it has been recognized in two recent Gartner database-focused stories. Oracle was named a pacesetter in Gartner's 2018 "Magic Quadrant for Operational Database administration systems" report1 and become ranked first in all four use instances of the 2018 Gartner "crucial Capabilities for Operational Database administration techniques" report2. blanketed in both reviews, the self-driving Oracle independent Database eliminates complexity, human error, and manual administration to allow better reliability, security, and extra operational efficiency.

    "We consider that their placement in the reports is awareness of Oracle's persisted management in the database market, because of the their ongoing dedication to database technology," spoke of Andrew Mendelsohn, govt vice chairman Database Server applied sciences, Oracle. "Our latest innovation, Oracle autonomous Database, offers organizations with a self-using, self-securing, and self-repairing database to help run all workloads in the cloud with low chance and low in cost." 

    In naming Oracle a pacesetter within the Gartner Magic Quadrant for Operational Database management systems, Gartner noted Oracle's imaginative and prescient in cloud innovation led with the aid of the introduction of Oracle self reliant Database. For the Gartner Operational Database management methods crucial Capabilities file, the company evaluated seller items' ability to support 4 core operational database use instances (workloads): usual transactions, operational and analytics convergence, allotted variable records, and adventure processing/records in movement. Gartner ranked Oracle (Oracle Database) no 1 in all 4 of these use instances.

    Oracle self reliant Database contains Oracle independent Transaction Processing optimized for running transactions and blended workloads and Oracle self reliant statistics Warehouse for running analytic database workloads. each flavors of independent database present self-driving, self-securing, and self-repairing capabilities that may immediately find threats and remediate them while the database is running. These capabilities together with high elasticity and brilliant performance permit shoppers to run all their Oracle databases within the cloud with unparalleled availability, efficiency, and security—at a vastly lower charge.

    download a complimentary copy of Gartner's 2018 Magic Quadrant for Operational Database administration programs right here.

    download a complimentary replica of Gartner's 2018 important Capabilities for Operational Database administration techniques here.

    [1] supply: Gartner, Magic Quadrant for Operational Database management methods, Merv Adrian, Donald Feinberg, Nick Heudecker, 22 October 2018.

    [2] supply: Gartner, important Capabilities for Operational Database management programs, Donald Feinberg, Merv Adrian, Nick Heudecker, 23 October 2018.

    extra supplies

    About OracleThe Oracle Cloud offers comprehensive SaaS utility suites for ERP, HCM and CX, plus top-rated-in-type database Platform as a provider (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a carrier (IaaS) from information centers all through the Americas, Europe and Asia. For more information about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), please consult with us at

    TrademarksOracle and Java are registered emblems of Oracle and/or its associates. different names may be logos of their respective owners.

    Gartner DisclaimerGartner doesn't endorse any seller, product or service depicted in its research publications, and doesn't propose technology users to choose best these carriers with the optimum scores or different designation. Gartner analysis publications include the opinions of Gartner's research corporation and may not be construed as statements of truth. Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with recognize to this analysis, together with any warranties of merchantability or health for a selected aim.

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    Oracle 10g Automatic Storage Management, Part 1: Overview | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Synopsis. Oracle 10g's new Automatic Storage Management (ASM) features allow an Oracle DBA to take advantage of a robust, flexible, scalable file storage system that any Oracle database instance can access. This article - the first in this series -- provides a high-level overview of the ASM architecture, and should be helpful to any DBA contemplating the adoption of ASM for storing Oracle database files as part of a high-volume storage solution.

    With the possible exception of having to rebuild a database server from a "cold metal" starting point, I have to admit that the scenario that holds the most dread for me as an Oracle DBA is to run out of disk space for a production database's datafiles or tempfiles. Though, in most cases this situation can be rectified easily - as long as there is sufficient disk space available, of course! - it always seems that these challenges seem to occur either at the busiest time of my client's business day, or between 02:00 and 03:00 on an early Sunday morning when I am scheduled to be out of town enjoying a long weekend. And I have also encountered my share of unexpected (and unlikely) disk media failures. For example, I once watched five disks in a 42-disk mirrored storage array fail within a three-week period after three years of relatively solid performance. The pattern never repeated itself, but it did teach me the value of a good mirroring strategy!

    While a storage area network (SAN) and other logical volume manager (LVM) storage solutions like EMC are certainly options for guaranteed storage reliability, the costs of these solutions can be prohibitive for smaller IT organizations. The good news is that Oracle 10g supplies a new set of disk media storage features called Automatic Storage Management (ASM) that are aimed directly at insuring a storage solution for smaller enterprise databases. This series of articles will delve into ASM's rich features and provide examples of how to implement some simple ASM disk configurations for evaluation purposes so that your DBA team can make some decisions about whether ASM is worth pursuing for your organization. I will concentrate this article on a general review of ASM features as well as a brief explanation of the ASM architecture.

    Automatic Storage Management Features

    Out-Of-The-Box Functionality. First off, ASM was designed specifically for the storage of Oracle database files. This means that it is ready "out of the box" for use against any Oracle database that it services. Though ASM appears to be the intended replacement for Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS) for the Real Applications Cluster (RAC) environment, that doesn't mean that your database needs to be deployed under RAC to take advantage of ASM's myriad features; ASM can be deployed on a single processor (SMP) server just as easily as it can be deployed on a multiple-node RAC cluster. Moreover, it is simple to configure using the graphic interface provided by the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), an existing Oracle tool that just about every Oracle DBA has used. Oracle 10g also provides the standard Enterprise Manager (EM) interface for managing an ASM instance once it has been created.

    Flexible Storage Configuration. Since ASM is in essence its own file management system, this means that I can add more physical storage, change storage configurations, or remove extraneous storage without having to shut down my Oracle database to change out physical hardware. This is a big advantage over traditional hardware configurations, and is certainly featured in storage-area networks (SANs).

    Using ASM also means that I can turn over the majority of my space management tasks to the ASM instance and let it monitor the growth of my database's tablespaces. In addition, ASM maintains pre-existing Oracle database functionality, so regular Oracle databases can continue to operate as usual. New database files can be created as ASM files managed by the ASM instance, existing database files can be migrated to ASM as time and opportunity permit, and other database files can continue to exist as "traditional" database files without ASM file management.

    Fault Tolerance. I also expect any file management system to insure that once I write database information to disk, it will never be lost - unless, of course, I tell the database to delete that data. One way that DBAs usually guarantee against the inevitable failure of disk hardware is through mirroring drives via redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (aka RAID) and striping (writing portions of disk files to different disks so that if one disk is lost the information is recoverable from another disk in the set). This guards against the inevitable failure of disk hardware, since even with extremely high estimated mean time between failures (MTBF), a disk drive will almost certainly fail eventually.

    Most operating systems provide controls to set up and monitor disk storage to take advantage of these redundancy features. Like any good file management system, ASM provides fault tolerance by allowing me to write duplicate or triplicate copies of any database files' contents. And if my current server and disk storage system already support fault tolerance, so much the better! ASM can also take advantage of existing vendor-supplied fault tolerance mechanisms for increased guarantees to safe data storage.

    Since ASM handles the mirroring of data, there is no need to purchase a third-party Logical Volume Manager (LVM). Mirroring is applied on a file-by-file basis, rather than on a per-volume basis, so the same disk group may contain a combination of files protected by mirroring (or perhaps not even mirrored at all, if mirroring is not required for some files). ASM also supports Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), so there is no need for a separate Cluster LVM or a Cluster File System.

    I/O Load Balancing. ASM is responsible for providing equal distribution of I/O loads across all available disk storage resources, so there is a measurable performance improvement. For example, ASM will split a datafile into its component extents and then spread those extents evenly across all defined disks that ASM is managing; those extents are then tracked via an indexing technique. ASM also automatically manages data via selection of desired reliability and performance characteristics instead of manually manipulating data file storage characteristics, and therefore it tends to reduce (or even eliminate) manual tuning and retuning of I/O.

    A big advantage to this approach is that when ASM storage capacity changes, ASM doesn't need to re-stripe all data - it just moves enough data in proportion to the amount of added (or reduced!) storage, thus redistributing the datafile's extents evenly and keeping a balanced data load across all disks. Moreover, since ASM can accomplish the rebalancing act while the database is active, there is virtually no impact on database availability. I can also instruct ASM to increase the speed of a space rebalancing operation if I know that sufficient system resources are available, or I can tell ASM to reduce the speed of the rebalancing operation to limit the impact on the ASM I/O subsystem.

    Productivity Increases. Here is one final, intangible benefit of ASM: an increase in my productivity as a DBA. Since I am freed up from physical and logical space management worries, I can now concentrate my limited and valuable time on more critical database tuning issues, like poorly-structured SQL statements and inefficient logical storage structures that tend to be the real culprits behind database performance issues.

    The ASM Instance

    The ASM instance is at the heart of Automatic Storage Management. Rather than "reengineer the wheel," Oracle decided to adopt the basic architecture of a normal Oracle database instance. An ASM instance never actually opens a database; instead, it is responsible for storing and processing the metadata that is required to make available the files stored within the ASM storage system to non-ASM Oracle databases (henceforth referred to as database instances).

    In addition to the normal database background processes like CKPT, DBWR, LGWR, SMON, and PMON, an ASM instance uses at least two additional background processes to manage data storage operations. The Rebalancer process, RBAL, coordinates the rebalance activity for ASM disk groups, and the Actual ReBalance processes, ARBn, handle the actual rebalance of data extent movements. There are usually several ARB background processes (ARB0, ARB1, and so forth). I will talk more about disk rebalancing operations in the final article in this series.

    Starting Up and Shutting Down an ASM Instance. The ASM instance can be can be started in NOMOUNT mode, and ASM disk groups are mounted via the MOUNT command. Similarly, disk groups can be taken offline with the SHUTDOWN command. When an ASM instance is started and appropriate ASM disk groups are mounted, all ASM files contained on those disk groups are made accessible to any Oracle database. Any database instance can use the ASM disk groups as targets for creating new ASM-managed files.

    Managing an ASM Instance. Managing access to the ASM instance is relatively straightforward. The DBA can issue the ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION; command to prevent database instances from accessing ASM disk groups while maintenance is being performed against the ASM instance or any ASM disk groups. Alternatively, issuing the ALTER SYSTEM DISABLE RESTRICTED SESSION; command re-enables access to the ASM instance.

    The only way to connect to an ASM instance is via OS authentication (i.e. SYSDBA or SYSOPER) because an ASM instance does not have a data dictionary per se. Connecting to an ASM via a remote connection implies, of course, that a password file must be used. Normally, the SYSDBA privilege is granted through the use of an operating system group (on UNIX or Linux, typically the dba group). Since by default members of that group have SYSDBA privilege on all instances on the node, including the ASM instance, any user that connects to the ASM instance with the SYSDBA privilege has administrative access to all ASM disk groups in the system.

    The SYSOPER privilege is also supported in ASM instances and limits the set of allowable SQL commands to the minimum required for basic operation of an already-configured system. A user with SYSOPER permissions can start up or shut down an ASM instance, take disk groups online or offline, issue a manual rebalance request, and verify a disk group. However, more advanced command sets like those for creating new ASM disk groups, resizing ASM disks, adding new ASM disks to existing ASM disk groups, and dropping ASM disk groups are reserved to users with the SYSDBA privilege.

    The ASM Storage Hierarchy

    ASM provides a flexible storage hierarchy for managing access to its disk files, starting with the smallest unit of storage, the Allocation Unit (AU). All ASM disk space is partitioned in AUs of 1 MB each, and blocks will never be split across any allocation unit.

    ASM Files. Next in the hierarchy are the actual ASM files themselves. With the exception of trace files and operating system files, ASM can store every type of Oracle database file, including control files, server parameter files (SPFILEs), datafiles, tempfiles, online redo logs, archived redo logs, flashback logs, DataPump dump sets. In addition, ASM can store all types of files managed by Recovery Manager (RMAN), including backup sets, archived redo log image copies, datafile image copies, and autobackups.

    ASM Disk Groups. The highest level of storage unit in an ASM instance is the ASM Disk Group. An ASM disk group can support multiple files that belong to multiple Oracle database instances. Each ASM disk group consists of one or more ASM Disks, and an ASM Disk belongs to one and only one ASM Disk Group. All ASM files in the ASM Disk Group will be spread across all the ASM disks in the ASM disk group; however, a single ASM File will never span more than one ASM disk group.

    ASM disk groups are accessible by either ASM instances or database instances, and database instances can access the contents of ASM files directly, communicating with an ASM instance only to get information about the layout of these files. An ASM instance supports the addition of new ASM disks, deletion of existing ASM disks and disk groups, and modifications to existing ASM disk groups (e.g. adding new ASM disks).

    ASM File Naming Conventions and File Name Aliasing. ASM uses a four-layer file name to identify an ASM file. The ASM file name consists of the ASM disk group name, the database instance name, and the file type; the final file name component consists of three tokens, a file type token (e.g. CF for control file) and two integer values. The combination of these file name components insures that an ASM file name is always unique and can be easily tied back to its owning ASM disk group and database instance. Since the ASM file naming convention can be cumbersome, ASM also supports file name aliases for easier referencing of the ASM file instead of using the fully-qualified ASM file name.

    Implementing ASM Storage In Oracle Databases

    Every database instance that uses ASM for file storage will also need two new processes. The Rebalancer background process (RBAL) handles global opens of all ASM disks in the ASM Disk Groups, while the ASM Bridge process (ASMB) connects as a foreground process into the ASM instance when the regular database instance starts. ASMB facilitates communication between the ASM instance and the regular database, including handling physical file changes like data file creation and deletion.

    ASMB exchanges messages between both servers for statistics update and instance health validation. These two processes are automatically started by the database instance when a new Oracle file type - for example, a tablespace's datafile -- is created on an ASM disk group. When an ASM instance mounts a disk group, it registers the disk group and connect string with Group Services. The database instance knows the name of the disk group, and can therefore use it to locate connect information for the correct ASM instance.

    ASM Instance Failure Scenarios. There are some implications for any database instance that is using ASM files for storage: When an ASM instance is shut down, any database instance that is using that ASM instance to store ASM files will lose contact with those ASM-managed files. Oracle 10g overcomes this potential failure scenario by allowing multiple ASM instances to share ASM disk groups, so if one ASM instance should fail, another ASM instance can continue to manage the changes to data stored on those disk groups.

    Next Steps

    The next article in this series will focus on a simple implementation of Automated Storage Management. It provides examples of how to create an example ASM instance in both the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and Windows NT environments as well as a demonstration of how to implement basic ASM storage for an existing Oracle database instance.

    References and Additional Reading

    While there is no substitute for direct experience, reading the manual is not a bad idea, either. I have drawn upon the following Oracle 10g documentation for the deeper technical details of this article:

    B10739-01 Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, Chapter 12

    B10743-01 Oracle Database Concepts, Chapter 14

    B10755-01 Oracle Database Reference

    B10759-01 Oracle Database SQL Reference

    » See All Articles by Columnist Jim Czuprynski

    Optimizing Oracle 10g on Linux: Non-RAC ASM vs. LVM | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    It's been over a year since my first and enthusiastic automatic storage management (ASM) article, titled "Optimizing Oracle 10g on Linux Using Automated Storage Management", was published. It still is available here, here and here. Since then, quite a lot has changed in terms of the software technologies now available:

  • Red Hat released Advanced Server 4.0 built on the 2.6 kernel

  • Along with AS 4.0, Red Hat released a greatly improved LVM with a GUI

  • Red Hat released the Global File System, which now is a part of Fedora

  • Oracle released version of the database (10g release 2)

  • Oracle released version 2.0 of the ASM kernel driver and libraries

  • Oracle released version 2.0 of the Oracle Cluster File System

  • As you can see, the software technology landscape has changed so extensively that it has reopened the entire ASM debate. In my first ASM paper, I simply assumed people either would be utilizing ASM or not--without considering RAC usage ramifications. During this past year at shows, conferences and on-site visits, a number have told me that although ASM makes obvious sense for RAC environments, they also want to know if ASM is a viable alternative for non-RAC environments. Specifically, does ASM perform as well as Linux filesystems using a logical volume manager (LVM)?

    Of course, that's a challenge far too enticing to pass up, especially when tools such as Quest's Benchmark Factory are available that make these tests trivial. So on to the races.

    Test Criteria

    Looking back at the technology change listing above, what they want to benchmark is the new LVM vs. ASM 2.0 on Red Hat Advanced Server 4.0's 2.6 kernel running Oracle 10g Release 2. In other words, they want to test all of the latest and greatest software technology available for non-RAC scenarios. The goal is simply to benchmark their fundamental performance characteristics against one another and, where possible, declare a winner. For that purpose, they need to simulate two radically different kinds of real-world workloads to cover differing needs. Thus, the following industry-standard benchmark tests are being used:

  • The TPC-C benchmark measures on-line transaction processing (OLTP) workloads. It combines read-only and update intensive transactions, simulating the activities found in complex OLTP enterprise environments.

  • The TPC-D benchmark measures a broad range of decision support applications requiring complex, long-running queries against large and complex databases.

  • Both tests simulate 100 users against 1GB databases. Although these test parameters are not too large, they nonetheless are the maximum realistic values that their limited test hardware can accommodate. But it's expected that results from such tests should be sufficient for extrapolating to larger environments.

    Test Setup

    Setting up an industry-standard database benchmark, such as the TPC-C and TPC-D, using Quest's Benchmark Factory is a snap and can be done in five easy steps. First, after opening the application, press the New toolbar icon to launch the New Project wizard. From there, specify that you want to create a Standard Benchmark Workload, as shown in Figure 1.

    Figure 1. Creating a Standard Benchmark Workload

    Second, choose which industry standard benchmark you want to perform from the list of available tests, as shown in Figure 2.

    Figure 2. Choosing the Benchmark

    Third, choose the approximate database size to create for performing the benchmark, as shown in Figure 3. Remember, Benchmark Factory has to create and populate it.

    Figure 3. Choosing the Database Size

    Fourth, select the number of concurrent users you want to simulate for performing the benchmark, as shown in Figure 4. As a side note, you can run this from one or more Windows computers.

    Figure 4. Selecting Concurrent Users

    Fifth, run the test and record the results. The total time it generally takes to configure a standard benchmark is roughly 30 seconds.

    Disk Layout

    In order for the benchmark test results to provide a fair, apples to apples comparison, both the LVM and ASM disk layouts must be similar enough to draw meaningful and reliable conclusions. That means neither setup should get preferential treatment in the allocation of devices. To that end, Figure 5 shows how the two environments were allocated across four identical IDE disks; you can tell they are IDE disks by the /hdb1 through /hde2 naming convention. These were 7,200 RPM SATA IDE disks with 2MB of cache each. Notice also how two inner and two outer disk partitions were allocated to each solution. The idea was to eliminate any unintentional speed advantages due to quicker access times for inner disk tracks. Finally, no operating system, swap or database binary files are on these disks; they were used solely for database data.

    Figure 5. Allocating Devices

    Although SCSI is obviously the preferable choice, the popularity of SATA IDE for low-cost RAID arrays is rising. The results obtained should apply equally well to faster and more reliable disk technologies such as SCSI, as well as highly popular RAID array appliances, such as NAS and SAN. The chief goal here was to implement Oracle's SAME (stripe and mirror everything) approach. Even though there are only four disks, they nonetheless should be able to compare these two methods' fundamental striping capabilities. And, minus all the other bells-and-whistles distractions, that's essentially the heart of the question people have been asking: do the ASM striping algorithms match up well against those of the more mature LVM?

    The Early Results

    Remember as they look at these results that we're not worrying about which environment is easier to set up and maintain, because as the prior paper clearly pointed out, ASM has numerous advantages in those areas. Their goal here is simply to see how they perform in head-to-head speed tests. So the results here focus on only that aspect--speed.

    Let's look first at the TPC-C results. Remember, they simulated 100 concurrent users accessing a 1GB database. The results are shown in Figure 6.

    Figure 6. The TPC-C Results

    Basically, the TPC-C results were too close to award a winner. I suspect that a key reason for the lack of any major difference is the Oracle data, index, temporary and rollback segments did not have to grow and shrink by any measurable amount in this type of load test scenario. This is because OLTP transactions tend to be short and bursty in nature. Thus, they are measuring primarily read-only access across four disk stripes. Therefore, they have to call the TPC-C benchmark test results a draw, with neither ASM nor LVM showing any real performance advantage.

    Note: Although this tie was unexpected, it clearly shows why you need to consider more than one type of benchmark test when comparing such radically different technologies. Benchmark Factory offers additional database benchmarking tests, including TPC-B, TPC-D, AS3AP and Scalable Hardware Benchmark. Make sure that you choose the tests that best reflect the database environment you will be building and maintaining.

    Now let's look at the TPC-D. Again, they simulated 100 concurrent users accessing a 1GB database. The results are shown in Figure 7.

    Figure 7. The TPC-D Results

    Here they have a clear-cut winner. The LVM ran 30% faster, achieved a 25% higher transaction per second rate, scored 56% faster on kilobytes per second and had a 108% better average response time. I suspect that the real differentiator here was the temporary segment allocation necessary for the large GROUP BY and ORDER BY operations.

    Going the Extra Mile

    I was not entirely happy, however, with simply running the industry-standard benchmarks and speculating as to why the results ended up as they did. I wanted a little more clarity regarding objects' segment creation and allocation--and the corresponding tablespace growth issues. My belief was the LVM somehow handles space allocation due to object growth more efficiently than ASM does. Of course, this seems totally contrary to what one would expect, as ASM touts the advantages of RAW without the headaches. So how could the ext3 filesystem on top of the LVM be faster? To this end, I devised a simple, brute force benchmark to test this premise. I created a simple table with two indexes whose data format would yield predictable growth with increasing row counts. Thus, I could test the object space creation and allocation for both tables and indexes with one simple script. The script is provided below.

    set verify off drop table junk; create table junk ( c1 number not null, c2 number not null, c3 number not null, c4 number not null, c5 date not null, c6 char(100) not null, c7 varchar2(1000) not null, constraint junk_pk primary key (c1, c2), constraint junk_uk unique (c3, c4) ); variable t1 varchar2(12) variable t2 varchar2(12) variable t3 number begin :t1 := to_char(sysdate,'DDD:HH24:MI:SS'); end; / begin for i in 1 .. &1 loop insert into junk values (i,i,i,i,sysdate, 'This is a test of the emergency broadcast system', 'In the case of an actual emergency, you would be told where to tune'); if (mod(i,100) = 0) then commit; end if; end loop; end; / begin :t2 := to_char(sysdate,'DDD:HH24:MI:SS'); :t3 := to_number(to_date(:t2,'DDD:HH24:MI:SS')- to_date(:t1,'DDD:HH24:MI:SS'))*60*60*24; end; / print t1 print t2 print t3 col segment_name format a20 col tablespace_name format a20 col megs format 999,999,999 select segment_name, tablespace_name, ceil(bytes/(1024*1024)) MEGS from user_segments where segment_name like 'JUNK%'; exit

    The results of calling this script for row counts from 10,000 to 100,000,000 for both LVM and ASM are shown in Figure 8.

    Figure 8. Script-Generated Results

    The results from this additional experiment were quite simple and conclusive. Although both approaches used exactly the same amount of space, the LVM run times consistently beat the ASM run times by anywhere from 10 to 14%. As you can see by the graph's lines, the trend seems clear: LVM is slightly more efficient at bulk data loads than is ASM.

    The Final Results

    So, what does all of this mean? For people doing RAC, ASM is a viable and credible approach for disk space management, with numerous administrative and maintenance benefits to its credit. But for those simply doing non-RAC database deployments, ASM is not yet as scalable as the Linux ext3 filesystem using an LVM. And while all these benchmarks were done using the standard LVM included with Red Hat and other popular Linux distributions, it's quite possible that an enterprise targeted LVM, such as those available from either IBM or Veritas, would best even these results. Therefore, for people not doing RAC who care more about performance than administrative ease, for now you should stick with the Linux filesystems and an LVM.

    Oracle Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Oracle offers a multitude of hardware and software solutions designed to simplify IT. Perhaps best known for its premier database software, the company also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage and more. Oracle has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries, about 138,000 employees and exceeds $37.7 billion in revenues.

    Over the years, Oracle has developed an extensive certification program. Today, it includes six certification levels that span nine different categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program, and the number of Oracle customers, it's no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after.

    Oracle Certification Program Overview

    Oracle's certification program is divided into these nine primary categories:

  • Oracle Applications
  • Oracle Cloud
  • Oracle Database
  • Oracle Enterprise Management
  • Oracle Industries
  • Oracle Java and Middleware
  • Oracle Operating Systems
  • Oracle Systems
  • Oracle Virtualization
  • Additionally, Oracle's credentials are offered at six certification levels:

  • Junior Associate
  • Associate
  • Professional
  • Master
  • Expert
  • Specialist
  • Most Oracle certification exams are proctored, cost $245, and contain a mix of scored and unscored multiple-choice questions. Candidates may take proctored exams at Pearson VUE, although some exams are offered at Oracle Testing Centers in certain locations. Some exams, such as Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061) and Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-051), are also available non-proctored and may be taken online. Non-proctored exams cost $125. Check the Oracle University Certification website for details on specific exams.

    Oracle Applications and Cloud Certifications

    The Oracle Applications certification category offers more than 60 individual credentials, covering 13 products or product groups, such as Siebel, E-Business Suite, Hyperion, JD Edwards EnterpriseOne and PeopleSoft. The majority of these certifications apply to Certified Implementation Specialists for some specific application, with various Certified Expert credentials also available. The Application certifications are geared toward individuals with expertise in selling and implementing specific Oracle solutions.

    Oracle's newest certification category is Oracle Cloud, which covers Java Cloud as well as a number of Oracle Cloud certifications, including Oracle Database Cloud. Credentials are offered in seven sub-categories:

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS), including Data Management, Application Development, Management Cloud and Mobile Cloud Service
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Oracle Customer Experience Cloud, including Service, Sales, Marketing and CPQ Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Performance Management Cloud, including Performance Reporting, Enterprise Planning and Budgeting, Financial Consolidation and Close, Profitability and Cost Management Cloud
  • Software as a Services – Oracle Enterprise Resource Planning Cloud, including Financials, Project Portfolio Management, Procurement and Risk Management Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Human Capital Management Cloud, including Workforce Rewards, Payroll, Talent Management and Global Human Resources Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Supply Chain Management Cloud, including Order Management, Product Master Data Management, Product Lifecycle Management, Manufacturing, Inventory Management, Supply Chain Planning and Logistics Cloud
  • These credentials recognize individuals who deploy applications, perform administration or deliver customer solutions in the cloud. Credentials mostly include Associate and Certification Implementation Specialists, with one Mobile Developer credential offered plus a Professional-level Oracle Database Cloud Administrator.

    Oracle Database Certifications

    Certifications in Oracle's Database category are geared toward individuals who develop or work with Oracle databases. There are three main categories: Database Application Development, MySQL and Oracle Database.

    Note: Oracle Database 12c was redesigned for cloud computing (and is included in both the Cloud and Database certification categories). The current version is Oracle Database 12c R2, which contains additional enhancements for in-memory database and multitenant architecture. MySQL 5.6 has been optimized for performance and storage, making it capable of handling bigger data sets. Whenever a significant version of either database is released, Oracle updates its certifications exams over time. If an exam isn't available for the latest database release, candidates can take a previous version of the exam and then an update exam when it becomes available.

    Oracle currently offers the Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate, Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Certified Master (OCM), Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) and Specialist paths for Oracle Database 12c. In addition, Oracle offers the OCA credential for Oracle Database 12c R2 and an upgrade path for the OCP credential. Because many of these certifications are highly popular within the Oracle Certification Program, they provide additional exam details and links in the following sections. 

    Other Various Database Certifications Oracle Enterprise Management Certifications

    The Enterprise Management certifications cover Oracle Enterprise Manager.    

    The Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Certified Implementation Specialist certification is geared toward Oracle PartnerNetwork members but is available to all candidates. This certification recognizes professionals who implement Oracle Enterprise Manager. You must pass one exam (1Z0-530) to obtain this certification. Interested candidates should note that this exam is slated to retire on May 31, 2018.

    The Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Certified Implementation Specialist exam (1Z0-457) covers more management functions (for applications, databases, middleware, systems and storage in various environments). In addition, it covers architecture, installation and deployment, implementation and support, reporting and extensibility.

    Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate

    The Oracle Database Foundation Certified Junior Associate credential targets individuals who have participated in the Oracle Academy program through a college or university program, computer science and database teachers, and individuals studying databases and computer science. As a novice-level credential, the Certified Junior Associate aims at individuals with limited hands-on experience working with Oracle Database products. To earn the credential, candidates must pass the Oracle Database Foundations (novice-level exam) (1Z0-006).

    Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCA certification measures the day-to-day operational management database skills of DBAs. Candidates must pass a SQL exam and another on Oracle Database administration. Candidates can choose one of the following SQL exams:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071)
  • Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061)
  • Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I (1Z0-051)
  • Candidates must also pass the Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) exam.

    Oracle Certified Associate -- Oracle Database 12cR2 Administrator

    To earn the Oracle Database 12cR2 OCA credential, candidates must first earn either the Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate, Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Associate, or the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate.  In addition, candidates are required to pass the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration exam (1Z0-072).

    Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCP certification covers more advanced database skills. You must have the OCA Database 12c Administrator certification, complete the required training, complete a course submission form and pass the Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) exam.

    Professionals who possess either the Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Professional or Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional credential may upgrade to the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration Certified Professional credential by passing the Oracle DBA upgrade exam (1Z0-074).

    Oracle Certified Master (OCM) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    To achieve OCM Database 12c Administrator certification, you must have the OCP Database 12c Administrator certification, complete two advanced courses, and pass the Oracle Database 12c Certified Master Exam (12COCM), complete the course submission form, and submit the Fulfillment Kit request.

    Oracle also offers the Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master certification, which requires three separate credentials, including the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master, Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c-RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration, and Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c – Data Guard Administration.

    Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) -- Oracle Database 12c

    The OCE Database 12c certifications include Maximum Availability, Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator, and Performance Management and Tuning credentials. All these certifications require prerequisite certifications. Performance Management and Tuning takes the OSP Database 12c as a prerequisite, while Data Guard Administrator candidates have the choice of earning either the OCP Database 12c or 11g credential. The RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator provides candidates the most flexibility, allowing candidates to choose from the OCP Database 11g, OCP Databases 12c, Oracle Certified Expert – Real Application Clusters 11g and Grid Infrastructure Administration, or OCE Database 10g Real Applications Clusters Administration.

    Once the prerequisite credentials are met, candidates can then achieve Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator or Performance Management and Tuning by passing one exam. Achieving OCP 12c plus the RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration and Data Guard Administration certifications earns the Maximum Availability credential.

    Oracle Database Certified Implementation Specialist

    Oracle also offers three Certified Implementation Specialist credentials: the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c, Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015, and Oracle Database 12c. Specialist credentials target individuals with a background in selling and implementing Oracle solutions. Each of these credentials require candidates to pass a single exam to earn the designation.  

    Oracle Industries Certifications

    Oracle Industries is another sizeable category, with more than 25 individual certifications focused on Oracle software for the construction and engineering, communications, health sciences, insurance, tax and utilities industries. All these certifications are Certified Implementation Specialists for the various Oracle industry products, which means they identify individuals who are proficient in implementing and selling industry-specific Oracle software.

    Oracle Java and Middleware Certifications

    The Java and Middleware certifications are spread across several subcategories, such as Business Intelligence, Application Server, Cloud Application, Data Integration, Identity Management, Mobile, Java, Oracle Fusion Middleware Development Tools and more. Java and Middleware credentials represent all levels of the Oracle Certification Program — Associate, Professional and so on — and include Java Developer, Java Programmer, System Administrator, Architect and Implementation Specialist.

    The highly popular Java category has certifications for Java SE (Standard Edition), and Java EE (Enterprise Edition) and Web Services. Several Java certifications that require a prior certification accept either the corresponding Sun or Oracle credential.

    Oracle Operating Systems Certifications

    The Oracle Operating Systems certifications include Linux and Solaris. These certifications are geared toward administrators and implementation specialists.

    The Linux 6 certifications include OCA and OCP Linux 6 System Administrator certifications, as well as an Oracle Linux Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The Linux 6 Specialist is geared to partners but is open to all candidates. Both the Linux OCA and Specialist credentials require a single exam. To achieve the OCP, candidates must first earn either the OCA Linux 5 or 6 System Administrator or OCA Linux Administrator (now retired) credential, plus pass an exam.

    The Solaris 11 certifications include the OCA and OCP System Administrator certifications as well as an Oracle Solaris 11 Installation and Configuration Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The OCA and OCP Solaris 11 System Administrator certifications identify Oracle Solaris 11 administrators who have fundamental knowledge of and base-level skills with the UNIX operating system, commands, and utilities. As indicated by its name, the Implementation Specialist cert identifies intermediate-level implementation team members who install and configure Oracle Solaris 11.

    Oracle Systems Certifications­

    Oracle's Systems certifications include Engineered Systems (Big Data Appliance, Ex­­adata, Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Exalytics, and Private Cloud Appliance), Servers (Fujitsu and SPARC) and Storage (Oracle ZFS, Pillar Axiom, Tape Storage, Flash Storage System). Most of these certifications are geared toward individuals who sell and implement one of the specific solutions. The Exadata certification subcategory also includes Oracle Exadata X3, X4 and X5 Expert Administrator certifications for individuals who administer, configure, patch and monitor the Oracle Exadata Database Machine platform.

    Oracle Virtualization Certifications

    The Virtualization certifications cover Oracle Virtual Machine (VM) Server for X86. Oracle offers two Certified Implementation Specialists credentials, one targeting Oracle VM 3.0 for X86 and the other focused on VM 2.0 for X86. Both specialist credentials recognize individuals who sell and implement Oracle VM solutions.  

    The Oracle VM 3.0 for x86 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is geared toward the intermediate-level team member who is proficient in installing OVM 3.0 Server and OVM 3.0 Manager components, discovering OVM Servers, configuring network and storage repositories and more. Candidates interested in the VM 2.0 credential should note that the exam retires on May 31, 2018.

    Related Jobs and Careers

    The sheer breadth and depth of Oracle's certification program is rife with opportunity for professionals who want to work with Oracle technologies, or who already do and want their skills to be recognized and validated. Although there are many specific Oracle products to specialize on in varying capacities, the main job roles are administrators, architects, programmers/developers and implementation specialists.

    Every company that runs Oracle Database, Oracle Cloud, Oracle Linux or Solaris, Oracle operating systems and so on needs qualified administrators to deploy, maintain, monitor and troubleshoot these solutions. They also need architects to plan and design solutions that meet business needs and are appropriate to the specific environments in which they’re deployed.

    On the development front, ComputerWorld indicates that programmers and developers continue to be "leading players in the IT world." That magazine ranks associated skills as the most sought-after by hiring managers in 2017, tied with help desk support. (Database administration isn't far behind.) A quick search on results in over 12,000 hits for "Oracle developer," which is a great indication of both need and desire. Not only do developers create and modify Oracle software, they often must know how to design software from the bottom up, package products, import data, write scripts and develop reports.

    And of course, Oracle and its partners will always need implementation specialists to sell and deploy the company's solutions. This role is typically accountable for tasks that must be accomplished to get a solution up and running in a client's environment, from creating a project plan and schedule, to configuring and customizing a system to match client specifications.

    Oracle Training and Resources

    It's not surprising that Oracle has an extensive library of exam preparation materials. Check the Oracle University website ( for hands-on instructor-led training, virtual courses, training on demand, exam preparation seminars, practice exams and other training resources.

    A candidate's best bet, however, is to first choose a certification path and then follow the links on the Oracle website to the required exam(s). If training is recommended or additional resources are available for a particular exam, Oracle lists them on the exam page.

    Another great resource is the Oracle Learning Paths web page, which provides a lengthy list of Oracle product-related job roles and their recommended courses.

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    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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