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Oracle Oracle Database 10g: New

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(MENAFN - on-line PR news) Devart has delivered an replace to one among its key tools — dbForge Studio for Oracle

on-line PR information 23-April-2019 Prague, Czech Republic Devart has rolled out a brand new edition of dbForge Studio for Oracle v.4.1. The liberate got a group of solid updates. The updated device supports Oracle 19c, has an AutoCommit Mode, more desirable Schema evaluation efficiency, Transaction Reminder, and Execution Notifications. Alongside the overall design renovation, also the schema assessment performance was drastically better.

here's a full checklist of features carried out within the updated edition of the product: Oracle 19c guide — permits the work with probably the most contemporary Oracle database;AutoCommit Mode — gives the computerized commit of fresh adjustments in the files;superior Schema evaluation performance — makes the work with the device more efficient and exciting;Transaction Reminder and Execution Notifications — permit users to get clean information about the status of the currently carried out queries and uncommitted transactions;New dermis — makes the work with the Studio much more visually fascinating and provides better person experience.

other equipment from the dbForge for Oracle product line, equivalent to dbForge statistics examine for Oracle, dbForge Schema examine for Oracle, dbForge examine Bundle for Oracle, dbForge data Generator for Oracle, and dbForge Documenter for Oracle, were additionally up-to-date with Oracle Database 19c help.

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Devart is one of the leading builders of database tools and administration utility, ALM solutions, facts suppliers for numerous database servers, statistics integration and backup options. The business also implements web and cell construction initiatives.For more information about Devart, seek advice from


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Larry Ellison says Oracle's new database is pulling businesses far from Amazon net services

Oracle founder and CTO Larry Ellison has been speaking up his newest, greatest database for a few years now — however on Thursday the company gave an update as to how smartly the recently brought cloud version is promoting.

Oracle calls this product the independent Database, because it instantly applies safety patches and "tunes" itself to enhance efficiency. The database was first introduced in 2017, but a brand new service that Oracle calls Gen2, which presents the database in Oracle's cloud along with a bunch of special safety elements, become introduced in October.

As part of the company's FY 2019 third-quarter revenue record, Ellison spoke of on Thursday that the database now has basically 1,000 valued clientele, and is present process four,000 user trials in different places.

"it be early days, but here is probably the most successful introduction of a brand new product in Oracle's forty yr history," Ellison said.

He additional defined on the quarterly convention name with analysts that the database is essential to Oracle's future.

"Oracle's future rests on two strategic businesses: cloud functions and cloud infrastructure," he noted.

read: How Oracle inadvertently helped Nvidia spend $6.9 billion to win a deal far from Intel

to this point, most of Oracle's cloud profits is in keeping with its cloud applications enterprise, which includes its economic functions (called enterprise useful resource administration, or ERP) and its HR apps (general in the business app world as as human capital management, or HCM).

but the new database is the lynchpin of the "cloud infrastructure" piece, Ellison says, and it is how the enterprise plans to take on cloud mega-big Amazon web functions.

AWS presents its own cloud databases, together with Aurora and Redshift, and has been very intentionally focused on Oracle's customers — going as far as to build a tool that makes it handy to change your database from Oracle to AWS.

Ellison is ready for the fight. Touting better safety and quicker efficiency is how Oracle is attempting to woo companies to sign on with its cloud, and never defect to Amazon.

"Our infrastructure technology is extremely differentiated from AWS. each one among their cloud computer systems has a separate security processor and reminiscence to insulate purchasers from intruding upon every different," he spoke of on the call.

Ellison likes to claim that this pace and power will retailer consumers cash. AWS executives counter that their databases work more advantageous for the way valued clientele are in reality constructing their software in the cloud. indeed, Amazon likes to trash speak Oracle's enterprise mannequin and its medication of its shoppers.

On the Thursday analyst name, Ellison discussed one consumer, a university that he did not name, which ditched AWS for Oracle's cloud and database.

"we've got obtained one consumers who's completed a sequence of exams. They were AWS users. we've got bought these AWS ads that promise 'reduce your expenses in half.' They found we're operating eleven.5 times sooner than they had been working on AWS and that they cut their bill via 80%," he stated.

This became a school working an app that used computer studying and computing device imaginative and prescient to look at tissue samples and cells for melanoma. So, its price noting, it's no longer a typical method to make use of a database, compared with, say, storing lists of employee guidance or revenue transactions.

This sunny view of Oracle's critical database product became part of Oracle's third quarter earnings, which offered a healthy beat on profits and earnings versus Wall street estimates.

Oracle said revenue of $9.61 billion, down by way of 1% from the 12 months-ago quarter, that beat expectations with the aid of $20 million. Non-GAAP profits per share became 87 cents, beating expectations through 3 cents. GAAP EPS became seventy six cents.

Oracle no longer breaks out its cloud profits so it's tricky to peer how that every one-critical company is doing when it comes to earnings. management mentioned "double digit" boom fees, which would be desk-stakes increase for a company remodeling itself from an old-school application maker to a cloud business.

Korea Telecom Connects With Oracle for new 5G enterprise capabilities

REDWOOD SHORES, Calif., Feb. 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Korea Telecom has chosen Oracle Communications for the 5G policy manage characteristic (PCF) in the buildout of its 5G community and to permit new community-as-a-carrier (NaaS) choices for corporations. An early adopter of 5G, Korea Telecom is familiar for innovation and chosen Oracle for its average 5G readiness, product maturity and competitive strengths, together with its agile and have-prosperous 5G PCF answer.

"building on their longstanding relationship with Oracle Communications, they are blissful to proceed working together as they take expertise of all that 5G has to offer," talked about Gwangwook Lee, VP Core network strategy & Planning branch., Korea Telecom. "In trials, the Oracle 5G PCF solution performed past expectations and met their discerning metrics for driving the success of their upcoming 5G deployment. After six years of a hit partnership with Oracle within the 4G realm, they seem to be forward to continuing the partnership with Oracle within the 5G domain and as they circulation to deliver new, imaginitive choices to their purchasers."

The 5G PCF is the coverage administration characteristic of the 5G manage plane, and some of the 5G Core community points supplying excellent of service and different network guidelines to communications provider suppliers' (CSPs) networks. Leveraging Oracle's 5G Core network, Korea Telecom should be capable of continue its community transformation towards 5G, and may liberate new doors for differentiated and personalised consumer offerings, supporting incremental 5G community monetization with greater service agility, expanded bandwidth and extra customized features.

With the introduction of 5G, CSPs like Korea Telecom are able to launch and evolve custom-healthy network slices quicker than ever. community chopping is a extremely dynamic system that provides CSPs with the opportunity to tailor connectivity features to the specific requirements of any given application; person, machine or context, by using logically keeping apart virtualized network substances. This potential will allow CSPs to launch NaaS options tailor-made to the particular wants of their business purchasers that may latitude from AR and VR to related vehicles, smart Factories, and smart Cities.

"by way of delivering an answer that addresses 5G coverage requirements and underpins Korea Telecom's leading 5G transformation," mentioned Andy Hicks, fundamental Analyst at GlobalData, "Oracle is staking a claim to management in the 5G core."

"As they prolong their partnership with visionary, Korea Telecom beyond their collective 4G success, Oracle is unlocking doorways to new improvements in this subsequent technology of connectivity spanning from commercial enterprise functions to sensible ecosystems," mentioned Doug Suriano, senior vice chairman and standard supervisor, Oracle Communications.

About Oracle CommunicationsOracle Communications offers integrated communications and cloud options for provider providers and organizations to accelerate their digital transformation experience in a communications-driven world from community evolution to digital enterprise to client adventure.

To gain knowledge of greater about Oracle Communications business solutions, visit: Oracle Communications LinkedIn, or be a part of the dialog at Twitter @OracleComms.

About OracleThe Oracle Cloud offers an entire suite of built-in purposes for income, provider, marketing, Human elements, Finance, deliver Chain and Manufacturing, plus incredibly-computerized and relaxed era 2 Infrastructure featuring the Oracle autonomous Database. For greater assistance about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), please consult with us at

TrademarksOracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its associates. other names can be emblems of their respective homeowners.

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Oracle 10g Secure Backup, Part 1: Concepts

Synopsis. Oracle 10g’s new Secure Backup features offer the capability to insure that all Recovery Manager (RMAN) backups are created and maintained in a secure fashion without the need for a potentially expensive and cumbersome media management layer (MML). This article – the first in this series – provides an overview of Oracle Secured Backup and how it can be utilized in concert with RMAN backup, restoration, and recovery scripts.

One of my very first tasks as a newly-minted Oracle DBA was to develop a disaster recovery scheme for my client’s brand-new Oracle 8i production databases. After spending some time reviewing exactly what a robust D/R strategy should include, I decided that we’d need to configure alternate media backups – in other words, backing up their database directly to tape – using Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) in concert with what at that time was a reasonably powerful and flexible Sony tape drive.

After one week of constant experimentation, numerous failed backups, and still no backup tapes produced, I discovered just how difficult it could be to configure a Media Management Layer (MML) in Oracle 8i. As the production deployment date loomed nearer, I made a critical choice: I decided to back up my client’s database directly to near-line disk storage. (Of course, alternate tape backups would still be created, but they decided to simply copy the backup files from the near-line disk storage area directly to tape using a Veritas backup system.)

This scenario made me aware of several drawbacks to the traditional media management layer approach for creating alternate media backups:

Implementing an MML agent is non-trivial. I remember spending several fruitless days trying to get the provided Legato Storage Manager to communicate with the Sony tape drive. Though they considered using another MML, they abandoned further consideration of this approach when they found that their backup “agents” were relatively expensive, in the range of $1000.00 or more.

There’s no centralized repository for the RMAN backups. Although RMAN could handle keeping track of all the backup tapes in its repository catalog, this was the only method to keep track of which tapes would be required in a disaster recovery situation, and their system administrators demanded a centralized solution for tracking all tapes necessary for D/R.

Image copy backup files are not secure. As I demonstrated in my series on Oracle 10g database file security features, image copies of a tablespace’s datafiles are not secure unless they’re encrypted using the newest Oracle 10g security features. Should a hacker obtain a backup tape via surreptitious means, it’s possible that the image copies stored on tape may provide an invaluable source of sensitive data.

Only Oracle database files can be backed up. As an Oracle 8i DBA, I spent a lot of time making sure that my client’s databases could be restored and recovered to any point in time within the timeframe specified in their service-level agreements. However, once external tables appeared on the Oracle horizon in Oracle 9i, I realized that I needed a way to back up the operating system files that comprised the external tables. Unfortunately, RMAN doesn’t provide a way to handle this requirement because it only backs up Oracle database files (control files, datafiles, and archived redo logs).

Oracle Secure Backup: Features Overview

Fortunately, the new Oracle Secure Backup (OSB) toolset resolves all of these drawbacks, and adds some long-overdue features, thus providing a robust and flexible centralized tape backup and management system:

Centralized Tape Management. First and foremost, Oracle Secure Backup provides a centralized repository to store and manage information about all mission-critical tape backup files for an entire Oracle enterprise environment. This repository is stored in what OSB calls an administrative server, one of three central components to this architecture.

Tape Drive Optimization. Since a typical enterprise may need to support a considerable number and different types of tape backup devices, OSB supports configuration of a media server that is solely responsible for managing those backup devices. This eliminates the need to master various Media Management Layer protocols and agents, since the media server handles all this transparently.

Faster Tape Reads. Restoring an Oracle datafile backup from tape is still one of the most critical needs that OSB fills. Datafile sizes are continuing to increase, and show no sign of growing smaller anytime soon: Remember that in Oracle 10g the maximum size of a BIGFILE tablespace’s datafile is now 128 terabytes. OSB provides a fast tape read mechanism that enables the media server to signal a tape drive to reposition itself to exactly the appropriate spot on the tape media so that datafile restoration can commence more quickly, thus eliminating the need to read the entire tape file forward from its initial tape mark.

Backups, Backups, and More Backups. As you might expect, OSB certainly provides the ability to easily write Oracle RMAN backups of control files, data files, and archived redo logs to tape media. Now OSB also makes it possible to back up the contents of an Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS) as well as the contents of a traditional OS-based file system like NTFS or EXT3. In addition, it’s now possible to create incremental backups of any of the files stored in an OS file system as well.

Scheduling Capabilities. Since it leverages existing Oracle Enterprise Manager and database technology, OSB offers a robust set of scheduling options for running tape backups at appropriate times. These scheduler features can be used either in concert with RMAN for database backups, or standalone to perform OS-level backups.

Security. Last but not least, OSB enables robust security options for encryption and decryption of sensitive data, whether that data is present within tape backups of Oracle datafiles or kept within operating system files. For example, the “flat files” that make up the contents of Oracle external tables can be easily encrypted and decrypted using OSB security methods.

OSB Architecture and Roles

To provide these features, Oracle Secure Backup divides responsibilities among three different components in what it calls an administrative domain. This domain is really nothing more than a combination of roles that together handle all backup and restore capabilities:

Administrative Server. A server that’s fulfilling this OSB role is responsible for managing all backup information within the administrative domain via a separate OSB catalog that contains all necessary backup information. This catalog is stored in a standard centralized location (e.g. /usr/local/backup/oracle on a Linux-based server) and contains information about all devices, servers, and clients within the domain. There is only one administrative server in an OSB domain.

Media Server. This OSB component is responsible for managing alternate media devices. The list of devices supported currently includes approximately 200 different models of physical tape drives, virtual tape libraries, and physical tape libraries. OSB also permits multiple servers to be designated as media servers, which means that it’s not necessary to reattach all alternate media devices to one central server.

Here’s the current list of network attached storage devices that Oracle Secure Backup currently supports. This list is subject to change in the future, of course, so be sure to consult the Certify tab on Oracle Metalink to obtain the most recent list:

For a list of tape backup devices that OSB currently supports, consult this document on Oracle Technology Network (OTN):

Clients. Finally, OSB can service any number of client applications. The client applications serviced includes Oracle databases through the RMAN interface (the obvious choice for the default client). Since OSB utilizes Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) to manage backup devices as well as transfer backup data between all servers in the administrative domain, this means that backup appliances like network-attached storage (NAS) are also supported.

OSB Architecture Examples

As you might expect, this role-based architecture is extremely flexible. Depending on the enterprise’s size and backup requirements, I might decide to co-locate all three roles on one server (which is how I’ll demonstrate OSB in my next article):

Figure 1. An example of a simple Oracle Secure Backup configuration.

However, each OSB role could also be assigned to separate servers for improved disaster recovery capabilities as well as appropriate allocation of backup / restore capacities. For example, in a more robust enterprise deployment, there might be multiple servers that fulfill client roles, serviced by one or more servers that fulfill media server roles:

Figure 2. A more complex Oracle Secure Backup configuration.

OSB Interfaces

Like many other Oracle utilities, OSB offers several different methods to access its powerful capabilities. I’ll delve into using all three of these interfaces in the next articles in this series; however, the one(s) you choose to use will depend on which Oracle products and interfaces your shop has decided to implement and support:

Oracle Enterprise Manager. Both Enterprise Manager Database Control and Enterprise Manager Grid Control meld nicely with OSB administrative domains. Here’s an example of how OSB could be accessed from the Management page for an Oracle database that uses Enterprise Manager Database Control to control its backup and recovery processes:

OSB Web Interface. If you decide not to use the EM interface(s), but you’d still prefer to use a GUI to manage Oracle Secure Backup capabilities, OSB also provides its own intuitive custom web-based interface. The example below shows the Home page for the OSB web tool:

OBTOOL. Finally, OSB’s command-line interface, obtool, provides both batch and interactive command capabilities with over 100 different command options. Here’s some sample output from the obtool command set that shows what OSB backups currently exist:

# Logging into OBTOOL in command line mode $> obtool # List all current backups ob> lsbackup --long 1: Dataset: orcl_full_bkup.ds Media family: (null) Backup level: full Priority: 10 Privileged op: no Eligible to run: 2007/02/15.18:00:00 Job expires: 2007/02/18.18:00:00 Restriction: any device OSB Security Features: Users, Classes, and Access Rights

As its name implies, Oracle Secure Backup offers several levels of security to insure that the appropriate client gets permission to use only the resources appropriate to its required operations. For example, in a Linux-based database server it’s important to insure that only the oracle OS user account has been granted sufficient privileges to both create RMAN database backups and to restore those backups in case of media recovery. Likewise, for critical OS file system copies, it’s probably a good idea to make sure that only root can create and restore backups.

OSB Users. OSB facilitates this by creating a separate set of Oracle Secure Backup users. These OSB users can then be associated with the appropriate OS user account. Through these assignments, OSB offers the capability to perform either an unprivileged backup (i.e., without access to root level privileges) or a privileged backup (i.e., with full access to root privileges). For NDMP hosts, OSB permits the association of an OSB user directly with the NDMP host itself, since there are no real OS user accounts by which to perform an association.

OSB Classes. In addition, each OSB user can be granted access to appropriate resources by assigning each user to one or more Oracle Secure Backup classes. As shown in Table 1-2, OSB provides five standard classes, but it also permits the creation of customized classes for more advanced security management.

Table 1-2. Oracle Secure Backup Standard User Classes




The highest security class, this grants privileges for overall domain administration, including the ability to modify domain-wide configurations. Backup and restore operations are also granted to this class.


Offers ability to view the state of all primary and secondary storage devices and privileges, as well as modify storage device states. Backup and restore operations are also granted to this class.


Allows a user to modify an Oracle database’s backup and recovery configuration settings. Backup and restore operations are also granted to this class.


This class only permits a user to engage the domain in limited fashion, including the ability to view only the user’s contents of the OSB storage catalog. Restore operations are permitted, but not backup operations.


This class only grants the ability to view the contents of the OSB storage catalog. Neither backup nor restore operations are granted to this class.

OSB Scheduling Features

Oracle Secure Backup also offers robust scheduling tools that work very much like the new Scheduler, DBMS_SCHEDULER, in an Oracle 10gR2 database. The OSB Scheduler permits me to create OSB jobs that handle both backup and recovery tasks for either OS file systems or, in concert with RMAN, for Oracle databases. I can also create an OSB schedule that encapsulates several OSB jobs, or I can simply create a separate, one-time-only OSB job to handle a special backup or recovery circumstance.

Next Steps

In the next article in this series, I’ll demonstrate how to construct a simulated Oracle Secure Backup environment using VMWare virtual servers for its key components, how to integrate Secure Backup features into existing RMAN backup and restoration operations, and how to manage the Secure Backup environment with Oracle Enterprise Manager, OSB Web Interface, and the OSB obtool command set.

References and Additional Reading

Even though I’ve hopefully provided enough technical information in this article to encourage you to explore with these features, I also strongly suggest that you first review the corresponding detailed Oracle documentation before proceeding with any experiments. Actual implementation of these features should commence only after a crystal-clear understanding exists. Please note that I’ve drawn upon the following Oracle 10gR2 documentation for the deeper technical details of this article:

B14194-03 Oracle Backup and Recovery Reference

B14234-02 Oracle Secure Backup Administrator’s Guide

B14235-05 Oracle Secure Backup Installation Guide

B14236-02 Oracle Secure Backup Reference

B25049-01 Oracle Secure Backup Migration Guide

B32120-01 Oracle Secure Backup ReadMe

Don’t forget that the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) Oracle Secure Backup home page is an excellent source of valuable (and constantly updated!) information.

» See All Articles by Columnist Jim Czuprynski

Upgrading DBMS Versions and Releases

This chapter is from the book 

Change is a fact of life, and each of the major DBMS products changes quite rapidly. A typical release cycle for DBMS software is 18 to 24 months for major releases, with constant bug fixes and maintenance updates delivered between major releases. Indeed, keeping DBMS software up-to-date can be a full-time job.

The DBA must develop an approach to upgrading DBMS software that conforms to the organization’s needs and minimizes business disruptions due to outages and database unavailability.

You may have noticed that I use the terms version and release somewhat interchangeably. That is fine for a broad discussion of DBMS upgrades, but a more precise definition is warranted. For a better discussion of the differences between a version and a release, please refer to the sidebar.

A DBMS version upgrade can be thought of as a special case of a new installation. All the procedures required of a new installation apply to an upgrade: You must plan for appropriate resources, reconsider all system parameters, and ensure that all supporting software is appropriately connected. However, another serious issue must be planned for: existing users and applications. An upgrade needs to be planned to cause as little disruption to the existing users as possible. Furthermore, any additional software that works with the DBMS (such as purchased applications, DBA tools, utilities, and so on) must be verified to be compatible with the new DBMS version. Therefore, upgrading can be a tricky and difficult task.

In a complex, heterogeneous, distributed database environment, a coherent upgrade strategy is essential. Truthfully, even organizations with only a single DBMS should approach DBMS upgrades cautiously and plan accordingly. Failure to plan a DBMS upgrade can result in improper and inefficient adoption of new features, performance degradation of new and existing applications, and downtime.

Upgrading to a new DBMS release offers both rewards and risks. The following are some of the benefits of moving to a new release:

  • Developers can avail themselves of new features and functionality delivered only in the new release. If development requires a new feature, or can simply benefit from a new feature, program development time can be reduced or made more cost-effective.
  • For purchased applications, the application vendor may require a specific DBMS version or release for specific versions of its application to enable specific functionality within the application.
  • New DBMS releases usually deliver enhanced performance and availability features that can optimize existing applications. Sometimes a new DBMS release is required to scale applications to support additional users or larger amounts of data.
  • DBMS vendors often provide better support and respond to problems faster for a new release of their software. DBMS vendors are loath to allow bad publicity about bugs in a new and heavily promoted version of their products.
  • Cost savings may accrue by upgrading to a new DBMS release. Some vendors charge additionally when a company uses multiple versions of a DBMS, such as the new version in a test environment and the old in production. When both are migrated to the same version, the price tag for the DBMS sometimes can be reduced.
  • Production migration to a new DBMS release will align the test and production database environments, thereby providing a consistent environment for development and implementation. If a new release is running in the test environment for too long, database administration and application development tasks become more difficult because the test databases will operate differently from the production databases.
  • However, an effective DBMS upgrade strategy must balance the benefits against the risks of upgrading to arrive at the best timeline for migrating to a new DBMS version or release. The risks of upgrading to a new DBMS release include the following:

  • An upgrade to the DBMS usually involves some level of disruption to business operations. At a minimum, databases will not be available while the DBMS is being upgraded. This can result in downtime and lost business opportunities if the DBMS upgrade occurs during normal business hours (or if there is no planned downtime). Clustered database implementations may permit some database availability while individual database clusters are migrated to the new DBMS version.
  • Other disruptions can occur, such as having to convert database structures or discovering that previously supported features were removed from the new release (thereby causing application errors). Delays to application implementation timelines are another possibility.
  • The cost of an upgrade can be a significant barrier to DBMS release migration. First, the cost of the new version or release must be budgeted for (price increases for a new DBMS version can amount to as much as 10 to 25 percent). The upgrade cost must also factor in the costs of planning, installing, testing, and deploying not just the DBMS but also any applications that use databases. Finally, be sure to include the cost of any new resources (such as memory, storage, additional CPUs) required to use the new features delivered by the new DBMS version.6
  • DBMS vendors usually tout the performance gains that can be achieved with a new release. However, when SQL optimization techniques change, it is possible that a new DBMS release will generate SQL access paths that perform worse than before. DBAs must implement a rigorous testing process to ensure that new access paths are helping, not harming, application performance. When performance suffers, application code may need to be changed—a very costly and time-consuming endeavor. A rigorous test process should be able to catch most of the access path changes in the test environment.
  • New DBMS releases may cause features and syntax that are being used in existing applications to be deprecated.7 When this occurs, the applications must be modified before migration to the new release can proceed.
  • To take advantage of improvements implemented in a new DBMS release, the DBA may have to apply some invasive changes. For example, if the new version increases the maximum size for a database object, the DBA may have to drop and recreate that object to take advantage of the new maximum. This will be the case when the DBMS adds internal control structures to facilitate such changes.
  • Supporting software products may lack immediate support for a new DBMS release. Supporting software includes the operating system, transaction processors, message queues, purchased applications, DBA tools, development tools, and query and reporting software.
  • After weighing the benefits of upgrading against the risks of a new DBMS release, the DBA group must create an upgrade plan that works for the organization. Sometimes the decision will be to upgrade immediately upon availability, but often there is a lag between the general availability of a new release and its widespread adoption.

    When the risks of a new release outweigh the benefits, some organizations may decide to skip an interim release if doing so does not impact a future upgrade. For example, a good number of Oracle customers migrated directly from Oracle7 to Oracle8i, skipping Oracle8. If the DBMS vendor does not allow users to bypass a version or release, it is still possible to “skip” a release by waiting to implement that release until the next release is available. For example, consider the following scenario:

  • ABC Corporation is using DB Version 8 from DBCorp.
  • DBCorp announces Version 9 of DB.
  • ABC Corporation analyzes the features and risks and determines not to upgrade immediately.
  • DBCorp later announces DB Version 10 and that no direct migration path will be provided from Version 8 to Version 10.
  • ABC Corporation decides that DB Version 10 provides many useful features and wants to upgrade its current Version 8 implementation of DB. However, it has no compelling reason to first implement and use Version 9.
  • To fulfill its requirements, ABC Corporation first upgrades Version 8 to Version 9 and then immediately upgrades Version 9 to Version 10.
  • Although a multiple-release upgrade takes more time, it allows customers to effectively control when and how they will migrate to new releases of a DBMS instead of being held hostage by the DBMS vendor. When attempting a multiple-release upgrade of this type, be sure to fully understand the features and functionality added by the DBMS vendor for each interim release. In the case of the hypothetical ABC Corporation, the DBAs would need to research and prepare for the new features of not just Version 10 but also Version 9.

    An appropriate DBMS upgrade strategy depends on many things. The following sections outline the issues that must be factored into an effective DBMS release upgrade strategy.

    Features and Complexity

    Perhaps the biggest factor in determining when and how to upgrade to a new DBMS release is the functionality supported by the new release. Tightly coupled to functionality is the inherent complexity involved in supporting and administering new features.

    It is more difficult to delay an upgrade if application developers are clamoring for new DBMS features. If DBMS functionality can minimize the cost and effort of application development, the DBA group will feel pressure to migrate swiftly to the new release. An additional factor that will coerce rapid adoption of a new release is when DBMS problems are fixed in the new release (instead of through regular maintenance fixes).

    Regardless of a new release’s “bells and whistles,” certain administration and implementation details must be addressed before upgrading. The DBA group must ensure that standards are modified to include the new features, educate developers and users as to how new features work and should be used, and prepare the infrastructure to support the new DBMS functionality.

    The types of changes required to support the new functionality must be factored into the upgrade strategy. When the DBMS vendor makes changes to internal structures, data page layouts, or address spaces, the risks of upgrading are greater. Additional testing is warranted in these situations to ensure that database utilities, DBA tools, and data extraction and movement tools still work with the revised internal structures.

    Complexity of the DBMS Environment

    The more complex your database environment is, the more difficult it will be to upgrade to a new DBMS release. The first complexity issue is the size of the environment. The greater the number of database servers, instances, applications, and users, the greater the complexity. Additional concerns include the types of applications being supported. A DBMS upgrade is easier to implement if only simple, batch-oriented applications are involved. As the complexity and availability requirements of the applications increase, the difficulty of upgrading also increases.

    Location of the database servers also affects the release upgrade strategy. Effectively planning and deploying a DBMS upgrade across multiple database servers at various locations supporting different lines of business is difficult. It is likely that an upgrade strategy will involve periods of supporting multiple versions of the DBMS at different locations and for different applications. Supporting different versions in production should be avoided, but that is not always possible.

    Finally, the complexity of the applications that access your databases must be considered. The more complex your applications are, the more difficult it will be to ensure their continuing uninterrupted functionality when the DBMS is modified. Complexity issues include the following:

  • Usage of stored procedures and user-defined functions.
  • Complexity of the SQL—the more tables involved in the SQL and the more complex the SQL features, the more difficult it becomes to ensure that access path changes do not impact performance.
  • Client/server processing—network usage and usage of multiple tiers complicates testing the new DBMS release.
  • Applications that are designed, coded, and generated by a framework or an IDE (for example, Hibernate) may have additional components that need to be tested with a new DBMS release.
  • Integration with other infrastructure software such as message queues and transaction processors can complicate migration because new versions of these products may be required to support the new DBMS release.
  • The language used by the programs might also impact DBMS release migration due to different support for compiler versions, changes to APIs (application programming interfaces), or new ways of embedding SQL into application programs.
  • Reputation of the DBMS Vendor

    DBMS vendors have different reputations for technical support, fixing bugs, and responding to problems, which is why customer references are so important when choosing a database.

    The better the reputation of the vendor, the greater the likelihood of organizations rapidly adopting a new release. If the DBMS vendor is good at responding to problems and supporting its customers as they migrate to new releases, those customers will more actively engage in migration activities.

    Support Policies of the DBMS

    As new releases are introduced, DBMS vendors will retire older releases and no longer support them. The length of time that the DBMS vendor will support an old release must be factored into the DBMS release migration strategy. You should never run a DBMS release in production that is no longer supported by the vendor. If problems occur, the DBMS vendor will not be able to resolve them for you.

    Sometimes a DBMS vendor will provide support for a retired release on a special basis and at an increased maintenance charge. If you absolutely must continue using a retired DBMS release (for business or application issues), be sure to investigate the DBMS vendor’s policies regarding support for retired releases of its software.

    Organization Style

    Every organization displays characteristics that reveal its style when it comes to adopting new products and technologies. Industry analysts at Gartner, Inc., have ranked organizations into three distinct groups labeled types A, B, and C. A type-A enterprise is technology driven and, as such, is more likely to risk using new and unproven technologies to try to gain a competitive advantage. A type-B organization is less willing to take risks but will adopt new technologies once others have shaken out the bugs. Finally, a type-C enterprise, very conscious of cost and averse to risk, will lag behind the majority when it comes to migrating to new technology.

    Only type-A organizations should plan on moving aggressively to new DBMS releases immediately upon availability and only if the new features of the release will deliver advantages to the company. Type-C enterprises should adopt a very conservative strategy to ensure that the DBMS release is stable and well tested by type-A and type-B companies first. Type-B organizations will fall somewhere between types A and C: Almost never upgrading immediately, the type-B company will adopt the new release after the earliest users have shaken out the biggest problems, but well before type-C enterprises.

    DBA Staff Skill Set

    Upgrading the DBMS is easier if your DBA staff is highly skilled and/or experienced. The risk of an upgrade increases as the skills of the DBA staff decrease. If your DBAs are not highly skilled, or have never migrated a DBMS to a new release, consider augmenting your DBA staff with consultants for the upgrade. Deploying an integrated team of internal DBAs and consultants will ensure that your upgrade goes as smoothly as possible. Furthermore, the DBA staff will be better prepared to handle the future upgrades alone.

    If consultants will be required, be sure to include their contracting cost in the DBMS release upgrade budget. The budget should allow you to retain the consultants until all production database environments are stable.

    Platform Support

    When a DBMS vendor unleashes a new release of its product, not all platforms and operating systems are immediately supported. The DBMS vendor usually first supports the platforms and operating systems for which it has the most licensed customers. The order in which platforms are supported for a new release is likely to differ for each DBMS vendor. For example, Linux for System z is more strategic to IBM than to Oracle, so a new DB2 release will most likely support Linux for System z very quickly, whereas this may not be true of Oracle. The issue is even thornier for UNIX platforms because of the sheer number of UNIX variants in the marketplace. The most popular variants are Oracle’s Solaris, IBM’s AIX, Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX, and Linux, the open-source version of UNIX (the Red Hat and Suse distributions are supported more frequently and rapidly than others). Most DBMS vendors will support these UNIX platforms quickly upon general availability. Other less popular varieties of UNIX will take longer for the DBMS vendors to support.

    When planning your DBMS upgrade, be sure to consider the DBMS platforms you use and try to gauge the priority of your platform to your vendor. Be sure to build some lag time into your release migration strategy to accommodate the vendor’s delivery schedule for your specific platforms.

    Supporting Software

    Carefully consider the impact of a DBMS upgrade on any supporting software. Supporting software includes purchased applications, DBA tools, reporting and analysis tools, and query tools. Each software vendor will have a different time frame for supporting and exploiting a new DBMS release. Review the sidebar to understand the difference between support and exploitation of a new DBMS release.

    Some third-party tool vendors follow guidelines for supporting and exploiting new DBMS releases. Whenever possible, ask your vendors to state their policies for DBMS upgrade support. Your vendors will probably not commit to any firm date or date range to support new versions and releases—some DBMS versions are larger and more complicated and therefore take longer to fully exploit.

    Fallback Planning

    Each new DBMS version or release should come with a manual that outlines the new features of the release and describes the fallback procedures to return to a prior release of the DBMS. Be sure to review the fallback procedures provided by the DBMS vendor in its release guide. You may need to return to a previous DBMS release if the upgrade contains a bug, performance problems ensue, or other problems arise during or immediately after migration. Keep in mind that fallback is not always an option for every new DBMS release.

    If fallback is possible, follow the DBMS vendor’s recommended procedures to enable it. You may need to delay the implementation of certain new features for fallback to remain an option. Understand fully the limitations imposed by the DBMS vendor on fallback, and exploit new features only when fallback is no longer an option for your organization.

    Migration Verification

    The DBA should implement procedures—similar to those for a new installation—to verify that the DBMS release upgrade is satisfactory. Perform the same steps as with a brand-new DBMS install, but also test a representative sampling of your in-house applications to verify that the DBMS upgrade is working correctly and performing satisfactorily.

    The DBMS Upgrade Strategy

    In general, design your DBMS release upgrade policy according to the guidelines discussed in the preceding sections. Each specific DBMS upgrade will be unique, but the strategies we’ve discussed will help you to achieve success more readily. A well-thought-out DBMS upgrade strategy will prepare you to support new DBMS releases with minimum impact on your organization and in a style best suited to your company.

    OracleWorld: Oracle parades 10g beta customers

    Delegates at the OracleWorld show in San Francisco have heard from some organisations beta testing the latest versions of Oracle's database and application server software.

    The panel discussion was closely moderated by an Oracle executive, which offered insights into the features in Oracle's 10g family of products intended to make it easier to manage groups of connected servers.

    Cern, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, was drawn to Oracle 10g partly because it supports "ultralarge" databases, said Jamie Shiers, who works with the group's database team in Geneva.

    Cern is building a particle accelerator which will require scientists to store as much as 10 petabytes of data each year when it starts operating in 2007. The organisation wants to store "a few petabytes" of that data in its Oracle databases, and support for larger volumes of data in 10g will make that possible, he said.

    Shier added that he is interested in Oracle 10g's "machine independent transportable databases" function, which will allow it to transport an enormous amount of data - as much as 10 terabytes - from one database and "plug it into" another database elsewhere.

    The New Mexico Department of Transportation is looking at Oracle 10g to help it meet new requirements for federal funding. The agency has to create a detailed inventory of its assets over the next five years that involves storing millions of digital images of highway equipment, said Jeremy Foreman, the sole administrator for the agency's 24 databases.

    His tests have shown that Oracle 10g self-tunes itself in a way that makes it faster to store and retrieve images, he said. The feature, called automated segment management, is available in existing versions of the database but does not yet work in conjunction with Oracle's Partitioning and InterMedia software.

    Another beta tester, ENST Bretagne, is one of three related telecoms engineering schools located around Paris. Its Oracle databases hold only a few megabytes of data, but it needs research reports kept in the databases to be kept in sync at the three schools. The schools thinks Oracle 10g will make it easier to do that, according to ENST representative Christophe Guychard.

    Chip manufacturer Qualcomm has also been testing the Oracle 10g database. New functions for automating database management have particularly appealed to the company during its six-month trial, said Arvind Gidwani, a Qualcomm IT manager. One feature it has been testing is "flashback database", which allows it to recover an image of its database from an earlier time without some of the manual steps it had to go through with its existing database, Oracle 8i.

    Qualcomm also has its eye on a feature that automatically manages data across multiple storage discs running against a database. The idea is to reduce "hot spots" in the storage infrastructure, where a disc becomes overloaded and creates a performance bottleneck while other discs sit idle. "We were able to manage raw disc partitions without using Veritas software," Gidwani said.

    Qualcomm has 110 databases and four people assigned to manage them.

    None of the panelists said they were migrating from Unix servers to Intel-based servers as part of their move to Oracle 10g - something Oracle has been advising its customers to do to cut the cost of using its software. Cern and ENST Bretagne both switched to Linux systems some time ago.

    James Niccolai writes for IDG News Service

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    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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