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190-823 Implementing and Administering IBM Workplace Collaboration Services 2.5:Team Collaboration

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190-823 exam Dumps Source : Implementing and Administering IBM Workplace Collaboration Services 2.5:Team Collaboration

Test Code : 190-823
Test Name : Implementing and Administering IBM Workplace Collaboration Services 2.5:Team Collaboration
Vendor Name : Lotus
: 90 Real Questions

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Lotus Implementing and Administering IBM

Albertsons and IBM put romaine lettuce on the blockchain for food security | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Albertsons Cos. LLC and IBM Corp. introduced these days that they’re trying to enrich the defense of sandwiches and salads through piloting a software in order to tune romaine lettuce with distributed ledger blockchain expertise.

The blockchain-based mostly IBM food trust community will deliver the provider to Albertsons so it might probably song bulk heads of romaine, which become implicated in a contemporary E. coli an infection outbreak, from farms to save cabinets.

A blockchain is a database of facts that makes use of cryptography and large distribution to be sure the veracity of information after it's saved. because of this, it will also be used to authenticate and hint transactions or items as they circulate through a provide chain along with a must-have tips. this can consist of foundation, packaging date and time, transport instances, temperatures and any number of different information elements fundamental for food safety.

in consequence, situations of complete plants from harvest to packaging can also be traced and tracked. If any one batch is found out to be contaminated, other batches from the identical facility may also be abruptly pulled and established or readily recalled from shop shelves.

The system can also be used to investigate certifications comparable to biological or fair change labels, cut back deliver chain waste and enable enhanced sustainability via greater efficient processing and delivery.

“for the reason that first introducing IBM food have confidence, they have met a couple of milestones that exhibit the direction towards transforming the conclusion-to-conclusion food device,” spoke of Raj Rao, prevalent manager at IBM food have confidence. “these days, we're extra scaling the community to convey blockchain-based mostly traceability to a good wider cross-section of sellers, suppliers and end patrons. by way of working with the true agents everywhere the realm, we're really assisting to supply a safer and extra transparent food device for all.”

The know-how of IBM food trust is already being used to make the end-to-end food give chain for farms and agents safer and extra transparent. In October, IBM partnered with Golden State foods, McCormick and Co., Nestlé, Tyson foods and Wal-Mart retailers Inc. and others in a food safeguard consortium that uses blockchain expertise to enhance meals security. since closing yr, IBM meals believe has extended to greater than 50 manufacturers.

Albertsons, which operates almost 2,300 stores throughout the us, will start piloting the blockchain network to tune romaine lettuce out of 1 of its distribution centers. After that implementation is finished and trying out underway, the business expects to extend the task to explore overlaying different food classes. Albertsons plans to make use of the pilot to beat limitations regarding the tracking and keep in mind of romaine, which can have an effect on different products in a similar way.

“multiple high-profile customer advisories from the facilities for disorder manage and Prevention and the food and Drug Administration show the need to find greater effective ways of tracing items and identifying doubtless sources of infection in a timely method,” referred to Jerry Noland, vice president of meals security and first-class Assurance at Albertsons businesses. “because of this, dealers are exploring new applied sciences to enrich the infrastructure that underpins the international meals provide chain.”

in the u.s. alone over forty eight million individuals get in poor health each and every 12 months from foodborne disorder, based on CDC estimates, and of these americans 128,000 are hospitalized and three,000 die. food distributors, marketers and IBM are dedicated to helping reduce these numbers and agree with blockchain pilots similar to IBM food have confidence and blockchain know-how may be a part of that solution.

“Blockchain know-how has the expertise to be transformational for us as they further construct differentiation on their sparkling brand,” spoke of Anuj Dhanda, chief tips officer at Albertsons. “food protection is a very colossal step, notwithstanding the provenance of the items enabled via blockchain, the skill to tune every movement from the farm to the client’s basket, will also be very empowering for their purchasers.”

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Administering and Customizing ClearQuest | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the e-book 

For complete counsel about administering ClearQuest, together with a description of how to get your users up and working, see Administering IBM Rational ClearQuest, which remember to have received with your software. (you can additionally pull the guide from the IBM website.) both means, you have acquired lots of studying to do. the following subsections supply a summary of the initiatives ahead of you.

ClearQuest Databases and Schemas

[A.4.2] Now we're beginning to get into the nuts and bolts of your alternate administration gadget. A ClearQuest schema incorporates the metadata that defines the technique for how users work with statistics in ClearQuest. The schema contains right here:

  • list type definitions
  • forms used to submit and alter a record
  • box definitions and conduct
  • States a list may also be in
  • actions used to adjust or change the state of a list
  • Hooks written in VBScript or Perl that further personalize fields and actions
  • ClearQuest contains a number of predefined schemas that you can use as supplied or customise to suit your workflow; that you could additionally create and put in force your own schemas. What you do is dependent upon your development procedures and your comfort stage with the system. when you are surprisingly new to the equipment, your optimal bet is to put in force the common ClearQuest configuration out of the field after which slowly adjust the equipment as your clients and administrator grow greater comfy with the gadget.

    ClearQuest shops schemas in a schema repository. A ClearQuest installation always contains one schema repository and one or extra consumer databases, reckoning on how you section your user population. which you can have separate consumer databases for each task or neighborhood a couple of tasks together in one database. some thing crucial to trust, youngsters, is that if you are looking to generate reports and charts throughout a couple of initiatives, you're going to wish to put the projects in the equal database.

    a further important observe: projects that share a database should use the identical schema; as soon as a database is linked to a schema, it can also be upgraded most effective with a more moderen edition of that same schema. In different words, the database cannot use an older version of the schema or a totally distinctive schema—so plan hence.

    starting ClearQuest clothier

    A ClearQuest schema defines the method of working with a checklist, along with the listing kind and valuable fields. information have quite a lot of diverse states. The defect record starts within the Submitted state; from there that you could alternate the state of the checklist to Closed, or you can modify the listing with out changing its state. besides the fact that children, to additional automate your device, the administrator will use ClearQuest clothier to make targeted alterations to the standard schema. once more, that you can birth with the regular schema and make alterations after everyone feels more comfortable with the software.

    At this aspect, you'll are looking to do some customizations. listed below are one of the crucial steps and actions.

  • try the schema. To personalize a schema, you should first test it out of the schema repository.
  • Add a brand new state. The ClearQuest designer State Transition Matrix suggests the a number of states that a checklist will also be in and the movements that circulate the list from one state to an additional.
  • Add a new motion. The movements grid suggests the entire actions that can also be carried out on a list. so as to add a brand new motion, you first add the action to the moves grid and then affiliate it with the acceptable states.
  • Create a new field. To create a brand new field, open the Fields grid. This grid indicates the entire fields on the checklist kind, their types, and their default values.
  • outline the behavior of the brand new container. The Behaviors grid indicates how fields behave when the linked list is in each and every state. that you may define even if a box is read-only, obligatory, or optional in each and every state, or define default habits for all states. that you could also create a consumer habits that restricts user entry to the field. Open the Behaviors grid, then appropriate-click on on the field and use the popup menu to outline the habits of the box.
  • Add a brand new field to the list form. After making a container, you should add it to the record kind.
  • Create an motion hook. A hook is a set off for pieces of code that ClearQuest executes at precise times to extra totally put in force your workflow. ClearQuest gives many predefined hooks for you to readily adjust to fit your needs. you can also use the ClearQuest API to write down hook code in Microsoft VBScript or Perl.

    ClearQuest helps 4 styles of hook code.

  • container hooks supply a method to validate the contents of a box or to assign container values.
  • action hooks put in force initiatives at key features within the lifecycle of a record.
  • checklist scripts assist you to affiliate a hook with a control, similar to a pushbutton or a shortcut menu alternative, on a single checklist.
  • world scripts will let you reuse hook code within other hooks.
  • Use the ClearQuest Script Editor to edit the hook in order that it initializes the cost of the linked field.

  • check in the schema. At any time while engaged on a schema, that you may verify your work in development. This improvements the test database together with your latest adjustments, which gives a quick strategy to test your alterations in the ClearQuest client devoid of affecting your creation person database.

    for those who're convinced that your schema alterations are working as it should be, examine the schema into the schema repository. as soon as the schema is checked in, which you can use it to improve your consumer database. ClearQuest prompts you to lower back up the schema repository and the database before upgrading.

  • choose a ClearQuest schema. desk four-2 indicates a listing of the predefined schemas covered in ClearQuest (see Introducing Rational ClearQuest). ClearQuest schemas consist of a number of packages that deliver specific functionality. which you can add particular person programs to an existing ClearQuest schema or to your personal custom-made schema. For a full listing of schemas and descriptions, see Administering Rational ClearQuest.
  • desk 4-2. Predefined Schemas

    Schema

    Description

    AnalystStudio

    Is suitable with Rational Suite AnalystStudio. contains customization for use with Rational RequisitePro.

    blank

    incorporates simplest system fields. Use this schema to create a schema from scratch.

    standard

    consists of metadata it is general to all of the ClearQuest schemas.

    DefectTracking

    carries the fields fundamental to start the use of ClearQuest to music defects in a application development atmosphere.

    DevelopmentStudio

    Is appropriate with Rational Suite DevelopmentStudio. contains fields and guidelines that work with Rational Purify, Quantify, and PureCoverage.

    business

    Is used with Rational Suite EnterpriseStudio. includes fields and hooks that work with all Rational items.

    TestStudio

    Is compatible with Rational Suite TestStudio. includes fields and guidelines that work with Rational TeamTest, RequisitePro, Purify, Quantify, and PureCoverage.

    UnifiedChangeManagement

    supports the UCM method by way of providing integration with Rational ClearCase.


    Notes and Domino Return to Their Roots | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    multi-colored dominos sitting upright photograph: Marco Lermer

    IBM's contract to promote (Lotus) Notes and Domino as well as Sametime and Connections to world tech company HCL turned into announced final December. The deal is still going during the regulatory tactics with the intention to be finalized. So while particulars on the lengthy- and medium-time period construction of IBM Connections are at present restrained, they know much more particulars about what will ensue with Notes and Domino, when you consider that the plans were — to a huge extent — already published before the announcement of the deliberate takeover. And the worldwide launch of Domino version 10, which took location earlier than the announced acquisition, aspects the way to this future.

    the key About Domino

    Domino-based purposes nonetheless play a crucial and from time to time mission vital function in lots of organizations. in spite of the fact that in lots of instances those businesses changed the Notes e-mail customer with Outlook, the Domino apps remained. even though revenue pitches recommended organizations “simply change Notes apps with SharePoint,” corporations soon discovered the high cost and complexity of creating any such change, if it was even possible. 

    So Domino purposes are nonetheless working in the again places of work that assist the enterprise. Their existence is commonly kept a secret, as a result of lots of these groups now pay software licenses to Microsoft and IBM as an alternative of replacing Domino.

    Which brings us lower back to a standard electricity and a myth around Notes and Domino: The potential to improve an app inside hours of conception. enterprise homeowners would have a quick speak with IT over lunch or at the watercooler about a business challenge they'd and Notes developers would design and roll out a solution in brief time. To be sincere, sometimes these apps had been awful, however hundreds purposes did exactly what the enterprise house owners desired them to do.

    these functions developed on past releases of Notes and Domino are in lots of circumstances nonetheless operating with minor adjustments to the code over 10 years later. The Domino platform made it feasible to put into effect solutions immediately and comparatively inexpensively, solutions that might have required vastly greater effort in different environments for similar consequences. commonly these solutions are — forgive the essentially ancient-long-established term — workflow purposes.

    linked Article: Why Did IBM sell Lotus and different application products to HCL? 

    Domino's Rebirth

    For some years IBM gave the impression to have forgotten and ignored this energy of the Domino platform. Yet during the past yr, HCL (and IBM) rediscovered this competencies and concentrated on modernizing and increasing the probabilities of Notes and Domino in fast utility construction. 

    edition 10 of Domino changed into the primary gigantic demonstration of this rebirth. for example, the IBM Domino App Dev Pack connects to the realm of JavaScript and Node.js, enabling both JavaScript and Domino developers to effectively boost, integrate and construct new applications the use of Domino information. builders now can call any leisure API into Domino applications — bringing in Google maps, pulling in a Watson API, or even using consumer information from Salesforce. Domino v10 now supports CentOS, which will also be used to create Docker Domino containers which are a hundred% appropriate with purple Hat Linux.

    The upcoming version eleven guarantees to make Domino even better as a low code and even no code atmosphere. The continuous guide of JavaScript for future-proof Domino purposes is only one signal of this exchange. In Domino v11, HCL plans to additional increase its JavaScript programming mannequin. different crucial enhancements encompass the chance to run Domino applications on Android or iOS instruments, which opens up use instances that leverage the nevertheless wonderful replication facets of the platform, enabling builders to work with records with out being related to the network.

    IBM and in flip HCL have committed to detach themselves from the heavyweight Eclipse framework. As mentioned, now they have already seen the first prototypes of the Notes App that run on iPad, iPhone and Android. A "lightweight" client is within the making. meanwhile, Notes applications can additionally run within the browser because of streamlining. All this has the goal of releasing Domino and Notes from the nimbus of out of date application and pointing a way to a modern future. "Domino become the first no-SQL database and it is greater than ever nowadays," HCL vice chairman and universal supervisor, collaborative workflow patterns Richard Jefts is quoted as asserting.

    linked Article: a way to protect Workflows once they pass enterprise Boundaries

    subsequent Steps for HCL and Domino

    The moves mark a return to Notes and Domino's roots: a tool which makes it possible for for speedy utility trends from and for business homeowners, while additionally providing the ability to modernize existing legacy applications effectively. 

    For Domino to proceed available in the market, the aim now needs to be to win over new consumers with the argument that Domino functions will also be developed sooner and greater economically. Analyst enterprise Forrester worked with IBM to create a profitability study, "the total financial have an impact on of IBM Domino" (pdf), which shared staggering figures in the case of the licensing costs, resources obligatory and indispensable infrastructure to make use of the software.

    beyond Domino, Jefts wants to bring the longer term development of options like Domino, Sametime, Portal, Connections and Commerce below one umbrella to create deeper integrations between the particular person items. Rumors are additionally circling that HCL desires the Domino database to develop into the backend for all products. here is definitely a medium-term imaginative and prescient because it isn't as easy to exchange the backend of IBM Connections or Portal.

    For Notes and Domino, IBM and HCL have issued clear statements in regards to the further construction up to version eleven. This was possible as a result of HCL and IBM had agreed upon corresponding plans earlier than the introduced takeover. For different products, reminiscent of IBM Connections, consumers and involved parties will need to wait except the antitrust authorities approve the deal and the following completion of the takeover. This may still take place within the now not too far away future.

    So, what does the long run grasp for Notes, Domino and the other items? Very challenging to claim. The response and feedback from users and user associations has to date been very tremendous. They appreciate a mid-time period strategy and appreciate the refocus on the natural strengths of the items. but past setting up, modernizing and increasing the items, HCL has to be successful in yet another enviornment, too: It has no time to lose to delivery aggressively advertising and marketing the options within the key markets to maintain existing shoppers and win new ones. For an organization traditionally doing functions company, this can be a brand new challenge.

    Stefan Pfeiffer is working in advertising and marketing for IBM in Germany. earlier than his time at IBM he become working for FileNet (which acquired obtained through IBM) and MIS AG.


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    IBM Accelerates Portal-Based Learning and Business Process Management | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    ARMONK, NY - 30 Nov 2007: IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced an expansion of its WebSphere Portal software portfolio with the availability of two additional business-ready packages -- called accelerators -- that can be easily added to a customer's portal to drive online training projects and automate key business processes.

    These two new accelerators provide training, development and education projects through an IBM Lotus Sametime Web conference -- and also make it easier for customers to automate core business processes with easy entry and integration of data and electronic forms across numerous systems.

    The two accelerators add to the collection that IBM has released incrementally since April. These include: IBM Self-Service Accelerator for human resources tasks, IBM Dashboard Accelerator, IBM Collaboration Accelerator for team collaboration, IBM Content Accelerator for building and managing websites, and IBM Enterprise Suite Accelerator which supports multiple portal projects, including Web content management and electronic forms.

    "IBM continues to see significant momentum from accelerators as customers are showing ever-growing interest in using accelerators to help speed the time to value for portal-based business solutions. With these two new accelerators, customers have a full range of choice to implement projects quickly and cost-effectively, adding value to their portal investments," said Larry Bowden, Vice President of Portals and Interaction Services."

    IBM Learning Accelerator enables customers to provide personalized online training within the context of employees' ongoing activities. Highlights include:

    o Optimization for WebSphere Portal 6 including unified administration, personalization, and performance benefits. The user interface is fully integrated within the Portal environment to lower administrative overhead and provide key tasks in one location.

    o Improvements to key learning administrative tasks, such as managing results, enrollment and course uploads. Learning administrators now get a quick view and links to key learning responsibilities -- helping them identify the critical tasks and their status. Quick links give easy access to commonly performed tasks to manage courses, curriculums, and certificates.

    o Distributed content deployment options that offer response time improvements by placing content geographically closer to students.

    o Critical learning data can be updated in bulk allowing learning administrators to more efficiently handle large learning initiatives

    o Support for software license migration and learning data migration from previous Lotus eLearning solutions, including Workplace Collaborative Learning and Learning Management System.

    IBM Learning Accelerator is also integrated with IBM Lotus Quickr and Lotus Sametime Web Conferencing, providing the ability to deliver long-distance training, share multiple content types, and collaborate on documents from a central, shared repository without tying up email resources. Integration with Lotus Sametime Web Conferencing gives the learning admin the ability to schedule and drive enrollment of training web conferences from within the learning accelerator. The addition of Lotus Quickr capabilities in this software provides students and instructors a place to collaborate on learning topics to enhance the overall learning experience

    IBM Business Process Accelerator is designed to simplify and improve the adoption of business processes by using the role-based, personalized user interface of WebSphere Portal to improve both implementation and end user response time for the entire range of processes, i.e.: document centric, human centric and system centric processes. Users can more efficiently complete workflow tasks when they have role-based, personalized access through a portal to all the information, applications and data necessary to complete their assigned task.

    This accelerator helps integrate siloed applications and processes through out-of-the-box integration. The IBM Business Process Accelerator consists of market-leading IBM WebSphere Portal Server and IBM Lotus Forms Server. Users can easily view and act on workflow tasks assigned to them in IBM WebSphere Portal through the My Tasks portlet. The IBM Lotus Forms Server enables pixel-perfect rendering of electronic forms in the portal user interface. Then, eForms, portlets and workflows can be quickly customized and easily integrated with back end systems.

    This offering enhances and complements the other offerings from IBM, such as WebSphere Business Modeler, IBM FileNet Business Process Manager and WebSphere Process Server. What's more, IBM Business Process Accelerator enables electronic forms and workflows to run in personalized business mashups that provide an aggregated view of information and tasks based upon the user's role and stage of the workflow.

    Customers across numerous industries including government, banking and insurance can benefit from this new accelerator package which streamlines integration of data with WebSphere Portal and other existing back end systems from IBM as well as with independent software vendors such as SAP and Siebel. By automating core business processes with electronic forms run in personalized business mashups, customers can help improve response times by rapidly building and deploying customer and partner facing workflows in WebSphere Portal.

    Cardiff University in the UK plans to use key components of IBM Business Process Accelerator: Lotus Forms, WebSphere Portal and WebSphere Process Server as a part of an overall plan to create a collaborative environment for students, researchers, staff and partner organizations.

    With IBM's help, the University's Information Services Directorate is creating a personalized environment whereby through a single sign-on an individual has access to all the resources they need to perform their role. For example, a student will have access to personalized areas such as files, timetables, bookmarks, school notices, Cardiff email, Forums, study-groups and discussions, school software, and course fee payments.

    "We will use a combination of WebSphere Portal, WebSphere Process Server and Lotus Forms software to help streamline their business processes with electronic forms and role-based portal applications. This implementation will enable us to move towards streamlined administrative processes, either directly or through pre-reqs, they can now model, orchestrate, deploy and participate in the business processes. They have the flexibility of choice to plug-in process engines from WebSphere, FileNet or third parties to run these processes," said Simon Bradford of Cardiff University.

    Cost and availability

    Customers can purchase individual accelerators and snap them onto their existing WebSphere Portal environment, or they can purchase the entire solution together with WebSphere Portal.

    Learning Accelerator is available now for $36 per user.

    The IBM Business Process Accelerator consists of IBM WebSphere Portal Server and IBM Lotus Forms Server. Those products are available now at $515 per value unit and $400 per value unit, respectively.

    Contact(s) information

    Jennifer C. ClementeIBM Software Group415 545 3230jennic@us.ibm.com

    Related Thomas Industry Update Thomas For Industry

    GSA picks Google Apps: What it means | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The General Services Administration made a bold decision to move its email and collaboration systems to the cloud. In the RFP issued last June, it was easy to see their goals in the statement of objectives:

    This Statement of Objectives (SOO) describes the goals that GSA expects to achieve with regard to the

    1. modernization of its e-mail system;

    2. provision of an effective collaborative working environment;

    3. reduction of the government’s in-house system maintenance burden by providing related business, technical, and management functions; and

    4. application of appropriate security and privacy safeguards.

    GSA announced yesterday that they choose Google Apps for email and collaboration and Unisys as the implementation partner.

    So what does this mean?

    What it means (WIM) #1: GSA employees will be using a next-generation information workplace. And that means mobile, device-agnostic, and location-agile. Gmail on an iPad? No problem. Email from a home computer? Yep. For GSA and for every other agency and most companies, it's important to give employees the tools to be productive and engage from every location on every device. "Work becomes a thing you do and not a place you go." [Thanks to Earl Newsome of Estee Lauder for that quote.]

    WIM #2: GSA will save 50% of the cost of email over five years. This is also what our research on the cost of email on-premises versus email in the cloud shows.

    WIM #3: Google gets a premier government client to learn from. What GSA learns, the rest of the federal government will want to also learn. Every other agency will be watching and waiting to see how it goes. I expect that a year from now, the cloud option, including Google, Microsoft, IBM, and probably Cisco, will be on the short list for every major collaboration and messaging decision in government and the private sector alike.

    WIM #4: GSA's decision sets the stage for additional cloud services. Once the transition is complete and employees are comfortable in the new environment, then other commodity services are sure to follow. Email and collaboration are good test beds for cloud services. So what else can run in the cloud? Many edge workloads, lots of content management solutions, and other commodity business applications are good candidates.

    WIM #5: Focusing on the needs of employees will streamline the adoption and satisfaction. First, GSA is sure to focus on the needs of employees. As we've learned from other organizations that have moved to Google Apps, not every employee immediately understands or values the Web experience. Searching for email and using the Web interface takes some getting used to. By focusing on the needs of all employees, with good training, embedded learning systems, and "Gmail floor wardens" to work with employees, GSA will be successful.


    A Distributed Access Control Architecture for Cloud Computing | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine and is brought to you by InfoQ & IEEE Computer Society.

    The growing popularity of cloud computing draws attention to its security challenges, which are particularly exacerbated due to re­source sharing.1 Cloud computing’s multitenancy and virtualization fea­tures pose unique security and access control challenges due to sharing of physical resources among potential untrusted tenants, resulting in an in­creased risk of side-channel attacks.2 Additionally, the interference of mul­titenancy computation can result in unauthorized information flow. Het­erogeneity of services in cloud com­puting environments demands vary­ing degrees of granularity in access control mechanisms. Therefore, an inadequate or unreliable authorization mechanism can significantly increase the risk of unauthorized use of cloud resources and services. In addition to preventing such attacks, a fine-grained authorization mechanism can assist in implementing standard se­curity measures. Such access control challenges and the complexities asso­ciated with their management call for a sophisticated security architecture that not only adequately captures ac­cess management requirements but also ensures secure interoperation across multiple clouds.

    We present a distributed access control architecture for multitenant and virtualized environments. The design of this architecture is based on the principles from security management and software engineering. From a security management perspective, the goal is to meet cloud users’ access control requirements. From a soft­ware engineering perspective, the goal is to generate detailed specifications of such requirements.

    Several researchers have previ­ously addressed access control issues for cloud computing. Daniel Nurmi and his colleagues provided an au­thorization system to control the ex­ecution of virtual machines (VMs) to ensure that only administrators and owners could access them.3 Stefan Berger and his colleagues promoted an authorization model based on both role-based access control (RBAC) and security labels to control access to shared data, VMs, and network resources.4 Jose Alcaraz Calero and his colleagues presented a centralized authorization system that provides a federated path-based access con­trol mechanism.5 What distinguishes their work is that they present an archi­tecture that can be implemented us­ing an XML-based formalism.6 They also address the problems of side-channel attacks and noninterference in the presence of multitenancy and resource virtualization. Accordingly, they present an access control architecture that addresses these challenges.

    Authorization Requirements

    In order to build a secure and trusted distributed cloud computing infrastructure, the cloud architecture’s designer must address several authorization requirements.

    Multitenancy and Virtualization

    Side-channel attacks and interference among different policy domains pose daunting challenges in distributed clouds. Side-channel attacks are based on information obtained from physical implementation (for example, via time- or bandwidth-monitoring attacks). Side-channel attacks arise due to lack of authorization mechanisms for sharing physical resources. The interference among tenants exists primarily because of covert channels with flawed access control policies that allow unauthorized information flow.7

    Decentralized Administration

    Decentralized administration is characterized by the principle of local autonomy, which implies that each service model retains administrative control over its resources. This is in contrast to a centralized administration approach, which implies loss of autonomy in controlling resources; it’s not a desirable system feature when dealing with several independent clouds. Moreover, the need for a fine-grained access control can enact substantial requirements in designing an access control policy employing a large number of authorization rules. These rules can grow significantly with an increase in the granularity of resources, as well as with the number of users and services supported by the cloud. A centralized design based on the integration of all global rules can pose significant challenges.

    Secure Distributed Collaboration

    To support a decentralized environment, the cloud infrastructure should allow both horizontal and vertical policy interoperation for service delivery. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the cloud, resource and service policies might use different models requiring seamless interoperation among policies. These policies must be correctly specified, verified, and enforced. A service-level agreement (SLA) can provide secure collaboration and assure that services are provided according to pre-established rules.

    Credential Federation

    Because a user might invoke services across multiple clouds, access control policies must support a mechanism to transfer a customer’s credentials across layers to access services and resources. This requirement includes a provision for a decentralized single-sign-on mechanism within the authorization model, which can enable persistent authorization for customers in terms of their identity and entitlement across multiple clouds.6

    Constraint Specification

    The collaborative nature of a cloud computing environment requires the specification of semantic and contextual constraints to ensure adequate protection of services and resources, especially for mobile services. Semantic constraints (for example, separation of duties) and contextual constraints (such as temporal or environmental constraints included in an access request) must be evaluated when determining access to services and resources.8 Semantic and contextual constraints are specified in the access control policy.

    Designing a Distributed Cloud Architecture

    The nature of assuring resource sharing across multiple clouds depends on the collaborative environment. Figure 1 shows three types of collaborations (federated, loosely coupled, and ad hoc) that can fulfill the aforementioned authorization requirements.

    Federated Collaboration

    Federated collaboration is characterized by a high degree of mutual dependence and trust among collaborating clouds and supports a long-term interoperation. To be secure, this collaboration requires a global metapolicy that’s consistent with local policies of the collaborating clouds. A policy-composition framework (top block of Figure 1) is necessary if a global metapolicy needs to be generated by integrating the policies of individual clouds.8

    Loosely Coupled Collaboration

    In a loosely coupled collaborative environment, local policies govern interactions among multiple clouds. In contrast to a federated collaboration, this collaboration is more flexible and autonomous in terms of access policies and resource management. Two collaborating clouds can virtualize their resources and allow autonomous sharing of resources. The information about the virtualized shareable resources and services of each cloud is stored in a virtual global directory service (VGDS), which is manifested across service-level agreement (SLAs). The middle block of Figure 1 shows the verification for conformance of individual clouds’ security and privacy policies for loosely coupled collaboration.

    Ad Hoc Collaboration

    In ad hoc collaboration, a user is only aware of a few remote sharable services. Because a priori information about an application’s overall service requirements might not be available to the user or cloud at the start of a session, a cloud might deny access to its resources. To ensure secure interoperation via discovered resources and services in a dynamic interoperation environment where clouds can join and leave in an ad hoc manner, appropriate authentication and authorization mechanisms need to be developed.

    Evaluation

    Several metrics can be used to evaluate these collaborations, including

  • degree of interoperation, which indicates the level of service and resource sharing among multiple clouds;
  • autonomy, which refers to a cloud’s ability to perform its local operations without any interference from cross-cloud accesses;
  • degree of privacy, which specifies the extent of information a cloud provider discloses about its internal policies and local constraints; and
  • verification complexity, which quantifies the complexity associated with verifying the correctness of the overall constraints while integrating multiple policies.
  • Figure 1 shows the tradeoffs among collaboration types and these metrics; the collaboration metrics’ arrows point toward higher values. For example, ad hoc collaboration supports a higher level of privacy than federated or loosely coupled collaborations do.

    (Click on the image to enlarge it)

    FIGURE 1. Characterization of collaboration in a mutlicloud environment. In a distributed environment, they can build a security architecture based on the design of these collaborations. Their comparison is based on degree of interoperation, autonomy, privacy, and veri­fication complexity. The architecture they present in this article is based on federated and loosely coupled collaborations.

    A Distributed Cloud Security Architecture

    The proposed distributed architecture that addresses and incorporates the aforementioned authorization requirements can be built using three types of components: a virtual resource manager (VRM), a distributed access control module (ACM; Figure 2), and an SLA (Figure 3). The proposed architecture (Figure 4) uses the RBAC model, which is recognized for its support for simplified administration and scalability.6 However, the design of this architecture is generic enough to support other access control policies, such as discretionary access control and multilevel security.

    FIGURE 2. Access control module architecture. This component can be used to build the proposed distributed architecture.

    FIGURE 3. Service-level agreement (SLA) architecture. This component can be used to build the proposed distributed architecture.

    FIGURE 4. Intercloud and intracloud interoperations for the distributed security architecture. Shaded SLAs correspond to alternate architectures involving peer-to-peer interoperation.

    VRM Design Specification

    The heterogeneity and granularity of virtual resources in a cloud environment call for a VRM at each layer of the cloud, as depicted in Figure 4. The VRM is responsible for providing and deploying virtual resources. Consequently, it maintains a list of required virtual resources with their configuration, including both local and remote resources through VGDS-the one shown in Figure 1. SLAs provide access to remote resources, whereas the VRM is responsible for monitoring deployed resources and might allocate or release them to ensure SLA compliance, including guarantees for quality of service. To manage the scalability issue in cloud computing in term of users and resources, the VRM uses a distributed architecture.3

    ACM Design Specification

    An ACM resides at each layer to enforce the access control policy at its resident layer. As shown in Figure 2, the main components of an ACM include

  • a policy decision point,
  • a policy enforcement point (PEP),and
  • a policy base.
  • The authorization request (Figure 2, step 1) submitted to the PEP includes the requesting subject, the requested service or resource, and the type of permissions requested for that service or resource (such as read or write privileges). The request might also include the credentials needed for authentication and authorization. The PEP extracts the authentication credentials and the context information from the authorization request and forwards them to the credential evaluator and context evaluator (Figure 2, step 2). The PEP receives the decision about granting the request (Figure 2, step 3) and either grants or denies the user’s authorization request.

    If the request contains an authenticating credential, the credential evaluator assigns a user a local role based on the user-to-role assignment rules stored in the RBAC policy base. The process of user-to-role assignment requires input from the context evaluator regarding contextual constraints. If the request contains an authorization credential, the credential evaluator assesses if the role corresponds to a local role. If not, the implication is that this is a single-sign-on request and requires role mapping by a relevant SLA. Subsequently, the user acquires the privileges of the locally assigned role or of a mapped role in a remote cloud.6

    SLA Specification

    To allow interoperation among autonomous policies manifested through ACMs, an SLA implements a mediated policy. For this purpose, an SLA performs role mapping, specifies isolation constraints for resource sharing to prevent side-channel attacks, and presents a virtualized view of resources at the levels for which the SLA is negotiated. In addition, an SLA usually includes quality-of-service parameters, as well as billing and auditing functions. Figure 3 depicts the authorization flow within an SLA.

    Role mapping is a function that maps a local role to a role in a remote cloud and grants access to all the mapped role’s permissions. The mutually agreed upon mediated policy, which is generally a subset of the policies of the participating ACMs, enforces access control for distributed services or resources through this mapping. In addition, the SLA physically isolates resources to prevent side-channel attacks at the remote cloud.2 Such isolation can prevent multiple VMs from residing on the same physical machine. Physical isolation can be explicitly enforced in the form of cardinality constraint rules in the RBAC policy.6 By setting the cardinality constraint parameter to one, they can enforce such isolation.

    RBAC Policy Specification for Proposed Architecture

    We adopted an XML-based specification due to its compatibility with the emerging standards for cloud systems and security protocols, with the ultimate goal being that the proposed architecture should be interoperable with complementary security protocols for cloud systems. Figures 5a and 5b show the XML-based specifications of ACMs and SLAs, respectively. (The full details of RBAC XML declaration appear elsewhere.6)

    The ACM’s XML user sheet defines the authenticating credentials and the XML role sheet defines the authorization credentials. The XML user-to-role assignment sheet defines user-to-role assignment rules, which can be based on attributes associated with users’ credentials as defined in the XML user sheet. XML permission-to-role assignment sheets define permission-to-role assignment rules. Permission-to-role constraints can be based on attributes associated with a role’s credential or the resource type as defined in XML virtual resource sheets (see Figure 5c). The constraints can be semantic (for instance, separation of duty) or temporal. To represent authorization requirements as a set of predicates, predicate function definitions sheets define the formal notion of predicate expression. A predicate function definition sheet can include mediated rules for intercloud resource sharing; a predicate expression can help evaluate sets of temporal or non-temporal constraints.6

    (Click on the image to enlarge it)

    FIGURE 5. High-level XML declaration: (a) access control module, (b) mediated service-level agreement policy, and (c) virtual resource de­finition and sharing constraint (local and remote).

    A permission defined in the XML permission sheet comprises a specified operation on a given resource type. Thus, a role assigned a permission defined on a given resource type receives access to all instances of that resource type. XML allows access granularity at individual levels within a resource type to provide support for individual virtual resources-for example, as mentioned earlier, they can specify the physical isolation attribute of a virtual resource at the individual resource level in the form of a cardinality constraint to prevent side-channel attacks in the local cloud. Note that depending on if the requested resources are local or remote, the ACM decides whether or not to invoke SLA. The XML specification of the SLA depicted in Figure 5b provides a limited view of advertised virtual resources, role mapping, and cardinality constraints.

    Ensuring Noninterference

    To avoid security risk due to potential interference as a result of multitenancy, they must abstract policies by participating ACMs and SLAs as an information flow model. Subsequently, this model can be verified to ensure the property of noninterference.7 Such verification ensures that each domain remains unaffected by the actions of other domains. As side-channel attacks can be managed through cardinality constraints, unauthorized information flow can only occur when there’s conflict among cloud policies. In conjunction with the data model, verification models8 or verification tools (such as Alloy9) can detect conflicts among policies, which causes unauthorized information flow.

    Distributed Authorization Process and Use Cases

    Three types of interoperations related to authorization flow can occur at various layers of the distributed architecture, as illustrated in Figure 4. Type 1 depicts a horizontal (peer-to-peer) interoperation between the same levels of different cloud providers; type 2 represents a vertical interoperation between layers within the same cloud; and type 3 indicates a cross-layered interoperation between different clouds at different layers. Both type 1 and 3 interoperations require SLAs among the participating clouds. These three types of interoperation also establish distributed authorization mechanisms among ACMs.

    For distributed authorization, VRMs use their peer-to-peer or cross- layered interoperations through VGDSs in order to provide the required re- sources. VGDSs have both the local virtual resource IDs and the paths of the physical resources they map to, as well as remote virtual resource IDs consistent with the SLAs that advertise these resources. Therefore, a VGDS can manifest either through peer-to-peer or cross-layered SLAs (shown in dotted SLA blocks at the PaaS and IaaS levels of Figure 4). Assessment of these architectural choices is an open problem.

    For interoperations among ACMs, they envision loosely coupled collaboration consistent with type 1 and type 3 interoperations because individual clouds need to reveal only limited in- formation about their services and policies. Federated cloud collaboration requires an extensive analysis prior to generating the global metapolicy, which can result in a high degree of complexity and rule explosion. Therefore, this approach isn’t scalable for distributed collaboration. Also, generating a consistent global metapolicy could require extensive mediation to resolve conflicts among heterogeneous policies.8 Similarly, ad hoc collaboration doesn’t federate credentials across clouds because it lacks SLA support.

    For type 2 interoperation, federated collaboration can be an appropriate approach because it requires only vertical integration of polices. Therefore, the high complexity for generating a global metapolicy within a cloud is justified because the cloud provider has access to all its local policies belonging to the three service models. However, the provider must address the challenge of conflict resolution and mediation for generating such a metapolicy. Figure 5a shows an example of a high-level metapolicy specification; further details appear elsewhere.6

    Authorization Process

    When a customer requests a service or virtual resource, the request goes to the local ACM (Figure 6, step 1). If the ACM grants this request, it routes the request to the local VRM (step 2). If the requested resources reside in the local cloud, the VRM (after consulting the VGDS) forwards the request to the local ACM of the lower level-for example, from SaaS to PaaS (step 3). Ultimately, the request goes to the infrastructure as a service (IaaS)-level VRM in order to deploy the required physical resources. If the required resources are in a remote cloud, the local VRM, after consulting the VGDS, issues a remote request to the appropriate SLA (step 3). The SLA, after performing its functions involving role mapping and evaluating the policy constraints, forwards the request to the remote ACM (step 4). After verifying its own constraints (including cardinality constraints), the ACM informs its local VRM to allocate the desired resources (step 5). Finally, the VRM identifies and configures the local physical resources (step 6).

    (Click on the image to enlarge it)

    FIGURE 6. Flow of request via the access control module and virtual resource manager across multiple clouds.

    Use Cases

    This authorization process is a generic representation of a set of use cases. To specify these cases, they adopt Alcaraz Calero and colleagues’ authorization model4 by extending it to support multitenancy and virtualization in a distributed environment. Figure 7 illustrates two classes of scenarios covering all possible interactions within and across multiple clouds. These scenarios involve the three types of interoperations discussed earlier in this article. Assuming an RBAC model, the authorization request can be represented using a four-tuple expression (subject, permission, interface, object [attributes]), which can be interpreted in the following way: the subject (as a role) asking for a permission to be performed over the object (virtual resource or service) with its attributes (such as isolation constraint) and that object’s interface type. They assume the authorization request is time stamped to accommodate temporal contextual constraint. From an RBAC perspective, the subject is represented as a role. In addition, users of the XML user sheet specified in Figure 5a, which identifies user-to-role assignments, can assume their respective roles. Along with this assignment, the proposed four-tuple can fully specify an authorization request.

    When user X initiates the authorization process to access an application (app) at the SaaS level of its local cloud (SaaSCP1), the corresponding ACM’s PEP needs to authenticate the user prior to assigning a local role (for example, Rx) based on its credentials. If X requires a remote resource, the participating SLA assigns it a mapped role (say, Ry).

    The local SaaS verifi es this request, represented as Rx, execute, SaaSCP1, app, for authorization. Consequently, one of the following scenarios can occur.

    Scenario A. Figure 7a depicts this scenario. They assume the requested resources are locally available, resulting in type 2 collaboration within the local cloud. Accordingly, the SaaS’s local VRM identifies virtual resources-for example, computation instance (CompInstx) and storage (Storex). Assuming that the local policy verifi es the authorization request, the VRM, after consulting with the VGDS, requests the two desired resources through the following two authorization requests: Rx, execute, PaaSCP1, CompInstx(isolation=1) and Rx, execute, IaaSCP1, StoreX. Here, they assume X is requesting fully isolated computation resources to avoid side-channel attacks.

    Scenario B. Figure 7b shows four scenarios depicting ACM interaction across multiple clouds at different levels:

  • The service requested (app) by X consists of two services, app1 and app2 (local and remote, respectively), causing interoperation between SaaS ACMs in different clouds. In this case, they assume a peer-to-peer interoperation (type 1). Consequently, the VRM in the local SaaS of CP1 forwards the request Ry, execute, SaaSCP2, app2 to the remote SaaS’s ACM of CP2 through the relevant SLA (depicted in Figure 6). Because app1 and app2 use virtualized resources in their local clouds, the remaining authorization process within each cloud is similar to scenario A.
  • In scenario B.2, the local SaaS needs to access virtual resources managed by CP2’s PaaS and IaaS. Assuming cross-layered SLA architecture, the local SaaS’s VRM generates the authorization request Ry, execute, PaaSCP2, CompInstx(isolation = 1), which is then forwarded to CP2’s PaaS’s ACM through the SLA. The remaining authorization process for acquiring virtualized resources within the remote cloud is similar to scenario A.
  • Scenario B.3 is identical to scenario B.2, except the local cloud needs virtual resources, which are maintained by a remote IaaS. Accordingly, the local PaaS’s VRM generates the authorization request Ry, execute, IaaSCP2, VMx(isolation = 1) and forwards it to the remote IaaS’s ACM through a cross-layered SLA.
  • In scenario B.4, an intermediate cloud must process the authorization request with further rerouting to a remote cloud (CP3) where the physical infrastructure is located.1 In this case, SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS belong to distinct clouds. The authorization requests Ry, execute, PaaSCP2,CompInstX(isolation = 1) and Rz, execute, IaaSCP3,VMX( isolation = 1) are generated in succession to the corresponding ACMs after the VRMs invoke the SLAs.
  • FIGURE 7. Scenario-based policy interoperation. (a) Secure interoperation within a local cloud to acquire resources that are locally available. (b) Secure interoperation involving SLAs at different levels to acquire resources among multiple clouds.

    These use cases represent high-level design requirements for the proposed architecture and cover all possible authorization flow processes that can be used to design and develop the distributed architecture. Currently, development for a prototype of this architecture is underway; it uses the Microsoft Azure platform to develop a health surveillance and rapid response infrastructure with the capability of collecting and analyzing real-time epidemic data from various hospitals. This cloud computing environment consists of compute clusters, reliable data storage, and software services. The stakeholders include researchers, physicians, and government public health management personnel in the chain of reporting. The services provided to stakeholders include visual analytics, statistical data analysis, and scenario simulations.10

    The architecture they present in this article represents a precise but comprehensive authorization design for access management. Using an XML-based declaration of the access control policy for this architecture is a step toward its implementation. However, they must address several open challenges in order to implement a fully secure and trusted cloud environment. These include design of an authentication mechanism, cryptography and key management, mediation for conflict resolution of heterogeneous policies, software design for virtualized resources, integrating information flow verification tools to ensure noninterference, and architectural choices for SLAs. They plan to address these challenges in their future work.

    Acknowledgments

    The research in this article is partially funded by the US National Science Foundation under grant IIS-0964639.

    References

    1. H. Takabi, J.B.D. Joshi, and G.-J. Ahn, "Security and Privacy Challenges in Cloud Computing Environments," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 8, no. 6, 2010, pp. 24-31.2. T. Ristenpart et al., "Hey, You, Get off of My Cloud: Exploring Information Leakage in Third-Party Compute Clouds," Proc. 16th ACM Conf. Computer and Communications Security (CCS 09), ACM, 2009, pp. 199-212.3. D. Nurmi et al., "The Eucalyptus Open- Source Cloud-Computing System," Proc. 9th IEEE/ACM Int’l Symp. Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGRID 09), IEEE CS, 2009, pp. 124-131.4. S. Berger et al., "Security for the Cloud Infrastructure: Trusted Virtual Data Center Implementation," IBM J. Research and Development, vol. 53, no. 4, 2009, pp. 560-571.5. J.M. Alcaraz Calero et al., "Toward a Multitenancy Authorization System for Cloud Services," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 8, no. 6, 2010, pp. 48-55.6. R. Bhatti, E. Bertino, and A. Ghafoor, "X- Federate: A Policy Engineering Framework for Federated Access Management," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 32, no. 5, 2006, pp. 330-346.7. J. Rushby, Noninterference, Transitivity, and Channel-Control Security Policies, tech. report CSL-92-02, Computer Science Lab, SRI Int’l, 1992.8. B. Shafi q et al., "Secure Interoperation in a Multidomain Environment Employing RBAC Policies," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 17, no. 11, 2005, pp. 1557-1577.9. D. Jackson, I. Schechter, and I. Shlyakhter, "ALCOA: The Alloy Constraint Analyzer," Proc. 22nd Int’l Conf. Software Eng., ACM, 2000, pp. 730-733.10. S. Afzal, R. Maciejewski, and D.S. Ebert, "Visual Analytics Decision Support Environment for Epidemic Modeling and Response Evaluation," IEEE Conf. Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST 11), IEEE CS, 2011, pp. 191-200.

    About the Authors 

    This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine. IEEE Software's mission is to build the community of leading and future software practitioners. The magazine delivers reliable, useful, leading-edge software development information to keep engineers and managers abreast of rapid technology change.



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