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050-649 TCP IP for Networking Professionals

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050-649 exam Dumps Source : TCP IP for Networking Professionals

Test Code : 050-649
Test Name : TCP IP for Networking Professionals
Vendor Name : Novell
: 160 Real Questions

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Novell TCP IP for Networking

realizing Networks and TCP/IP | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in an effort to examine the considerations associated with safety in a converged ambiance, they should set up a typical competencies base of accessories and constructing blocks. To competently construct, preserve, and cozy a network, you first need to know what a network really is and how suggestions travels alongside via a network. be trained probably the most principal add-ons of networks and TCP/IP, you have got the integral background to assess the extra essential considerations of safety in a converged environment.

This chapter is excerpted from Voice and statistics protection.

To assess the issues linked to protection in a converged atmosphere, they deserve to set up a typical potential base of components and building blocks. To properly build, hold, and relaxed a community you first have to be aware of what a network really is, and how guidance travels alongside through a community. despite the fact you'll find this chapter to be a advantageous, high-stage overview, when you've got a Cisco certified Internetwork expert certification (CCIE) or years of networking background, you may also wish to skim this chapter.

neatly, that depends on whom you ask. a person with a robust telecommunications heritage will certainly let you know a network includes PBXs, tie trunks, adjunct techniques, PRI traces, T1s, handsets, and miles of fiber and copper cable. someone with a strong facts historical past will probably let you know a community is made up of workstations, servers, routers, WAN connections, hubs, switches, and miles of fiber and copper cable. while each events can agree that cabling is a vital part of the network, it really is where the settlement will without doubt end. In essence, each the telco and statistics individuals are appropriate; however, for the applications of this dialogue, this chapter concentrates on records networks.

In its easiest form, a knowledge community is a way to join two or greater computer programs for the applications of sharing tips. Networks are available in all shapes and sizes: from two home PCs connected with a single cable to the colossal internet, spanning the globe and connecting thousands and thousands of dispensed techniques. regardless of the extreme ameliorations between a considerable number of community installations, that you may generally define a given network when it comes to its structure, topology, and protocol.

community Architectures

historically, community architectures are divided into two kinds: native enviornment networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). LANs encompass two or greater programs typically in the same geographic enviornment linked with fiber or copper cabling and a network infrastructure consisting of switches and hubs. All very own networks and the massive majority of workplace networks fall into the LAN class. WANs include two or more techniques in geographically separated areas linked with any of a number of methods corresponding to leased lines, radio waves, satellite relays, microwaves, or even dial-up connections. The cyber web is via some distance the biggest WAN in existence. With the introduction of instant networking, optical, and cellular technology, the traces between LANs and WANs every now and then blur, merging seamlessly right into a single community entity. recently, more terms were delivered to more advantageous classify and describe community architectures:

  • CAN (campus enviornment network, often known as a campus huge area community)—A network connecting a couple of constructions corresponding to a college or workplace advanced.

  • Intranet—a non-public community belonging to a company that is simply purchasable to authorized users (customarily members of that organization). Most enormous organizations operate an intranet to advertise tips sharing and increase productiveness.

  • web—The network connecting hundreds of hundreds of thousands of systems and clients on a world scale.

  • MAN (metropolitan area network)—A community designed for a town or a city. customarily higher than a LAN, but continually smaller than a WAN.

  • SAN (storage enviornment network)—A high-speed network connecting a number of storage-related contraptions reminiscent of RAID arrays, tape systems, file servers, and so on.

  • VLAN (virtual native area community)—A community permitting programs on separate physical networks to speak as if they have been connected to the identical actual community.

  • customer-Server—A community where potent, dedicated systems called servers give materials, files, devices, and even processing vigour to particular person workstations or purchasers.

  • Peer-to-peer—A network the place each device has equal capabilities or tasks, similar to home networks.

  • community Topologies

    intently regarding the architecture of a community is the topology of the network: how the community is physically arranged. historically, networks are described as being certainly one of three major types:

  • famous person—network accessories are connected to a significant aspect (as seen in determine 3.1).

  • Bus—community add-ons are linked to the identical cable, commonly referred to as the bus or the spine (as considered in figure 3.2).

  • Ring—community add-ons are connected to each and every different in a closed loop with every machine directly connected to two different gadgets (as seen in determine three.three).

  • Most networks use one or greater of those topologies. for example, an office complex can also have a sequence of famous person topology LANs in each and every building connected to a bigger bus network that's connected to different structures the usage of a ring topology, like that shown in figure three.four.

    figure three.1 famous person topology.

    figure 3.2 Bus topology.

    figure three.three Ring topology.

    determine 3.4 mixed topology.

    community Protocols and the OSI model

    one more critical element of a community is the protocol, which is an agreed upon layout for changing or transmitting information between systems. A protocol defines a number of agreed upon parameters such as the class of error checking to make use of, the information compression system, and mechanisms for systems to signal when they have accomplished either receiving or transmitting statistics. There are a large choice of protocols, each designed with definite advantages and makes use of in intellect. probably the most greater regular protocols are

  • AppleTalk—The communications protocol developed with the aid of Apple to connect Macintosh computer systems and printers.

  • Asynchronous switch Mode (ATM)—A protocol based on transferring statistics in mounted-measurement packets. the usage of fastened packet sizes allows for high velocity, equitable transfer of records, video, and voice over the equal network.

  • DECnet—The protocol developed through Digital gadget enterprise used to connect PDP and VAX techniques.

  • Ethernet—The LAN protocol developed jointly by using Xerox, DEC, and Intel. The most generally carried out LAN usual.

  • Fiber disbursed records Interface (FDDI)—The protocol for sending digital facts over fiber optic cabling.

  • information superhighway Protocols (IP)—The protocols for managing and transmitting records between packet-switched desktop networks at the start developed for the department of defense. e-mail, File transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet, and Hypertext transfer Protocol (HTTP) are all web Protocols.

  • Internetwork Packet exchange (IPX)—The networking protocol used with the aid of Novell NetWare working programs.

  • NetWare—The LAN protocol developed by Novell supplier.

  • Signaling device 7 (SS7)—The telecommunications protocol developed via the foreign Telecommunication Union. This protocol is used between PBXs to address tasks corresponding to name setup, routing, and teardown.

  • programs community structure (SNA)—a group of network protocols developed with the aid of IBM, at the beginning used to connect IBM's mainframe systems.

  • Token Ring—A LAN protocol developed by using IBM the place programs need to possess the community token earlier than transmitting records.

  • Transmission handle Protocol/information superhighway Protocol (TCP/IP)—The assortment of communications protocols used to join hosts on the information superhighway. TCP/IP is by way of some distance the most usual community protocol. The TCP and IP protocols are each part of TCP/IP.

  • X.25—A protocol developed by the Comité Consultatif foreign Téléphonique et Télégraphique (CCITT) for use in packet-switched networks. The CCITT become a subgroup inside the ITU earlier than the CCITT became disbanded in 1992.

  • In conventional, communications protocols adhere to the Open equipment Interconnection (OSI) mannequin. The OSI model, or OSI Reference mannequin, is an ISO usual for global communications, defining a framework for enforcing protocols in seven distinct layers. within the seven-layer OSI mannequin, handle is passed from one layer to an extra (exact down) earlier than it exits one system and enters an extra gadget where control is handed backside as much as finished the communications cycle. however most protocols loosely follow the OSI model, a few protocols combine one or greater layers right into a single function. one in every of they key benefits of the layered model is that each layer hides the certain functions it performs from the different layers. moreover, every layer simplest has to understand a way to talk with the layer above and under it. With that in intellect, you could see from table 3.1 that the utility layer doesn't need to recognize a way to speak without delay with the physical layer. The utility layer simplest needs to talk with the presentation layer.

    table 3.1 The OSI model

    quantity

    Layer

    function

    7

    utility

    offers with program-degree communique.

    6

    Presentation

    Performs statistics conversion functions when mandatory.

    5

    Session

    Establishes and continues communications channels.

    four

    Transport

    Handles conclusion-to-end transmission and integrity of transmitted information.

    three

    network

    Routes statistics from one gadget to another.

    2

    records link

    Handles the actual passing of facts from one gadget to an additional.

    1

    physical

    Manages the transmission and reception of records on the community media.


    windows- network commands for TCP/IP | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    it's occasionally useful to understand the network commands to analyze or configure your TCP/IP networksHere is the checklist of commands that can also be used in the command immediate: Ping PING: look at various the network connection with a faraway IP address ping-t [IP or host] ping-l 1024 [IP or host] The -t choice to ping at all times except Ctrl-C is pressed.in case you specify the -t alternative which you can at all times get statistics devoid of interrupting pings through pressing Ctrl + ruin

    This command is additionally positive to generate community load by specifying the measurement of the packet with the -l alternative and the packet size in bytes.

    Tracert TRACERT: displays all intermediate IP addresses during which a packet passes through, between the native laptop and the targeted IP address. tracert [@IP or host] tracert -d [@IP or host] This command is positive if the ping command does return any information, to verify at what level the connection failed. IpConfig IPCONFIG: displays or refresh the TCP/IP configuration ipconfig /all [/release [adapter]] [/renew [adapter]] /flushdns /displaydns /registerdns [-a] [-a] [-a] This command, when accomplished with no alternatives, displays the latest IP tackle, the subnet mask and default gateway (network interfaces of the local computing device)
  • /all: displays all network configuration, together with DNS, WINS, DHCP servers, and many others ...
  • /renew [adapter]: Renews DHCP configuration for all adapters (if adapter is not precise) or a specific adapter indicated by the [adapter] parameter.
  • /unencumber [adapter]: Sends a DHCPRELEASE message to the DHCP server to unlock the current DHCP configuration and cancel the IP handle configuration for all adapters (if adapter isn't distinct) or a particular adapter indicated by the [adapter] parameter. This parameter disables TCP/IP for community playing cards configured to immediately gain an IP address.
  • /flushdns: Empty and reset the DNS customer resolver cache. This alternative is useful to exclude poor entries and all different entries introduced dynamically to the cache.
  • /displaydns: shows the DNS client resolver cache, which contains entries preloaded from the native host file and any lately received statistics for identify queries resolved through the host computer. The DNS client provider makes use of this tips to rapidly unravel frequently queried names, earlier than querying the configured DNS servers.
  • /registerdns: Refreshes all DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names.
  • NetStat NETSTAT: displays the fame of the TCP/IP stack on the local computing device NETSTAT [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [interval]
  • -a displays all connections and listening ports (server-side connections are normally inhibited).
  • -e displays Ethernet facts. may also be combined with the -s alternative.
  • -n shows addresses and port numbers in numerical form.
  • -p proto shows connections for the protocol certain with the aid of proto, proto can be TCP or UDP. Used with the -s choice to display per-protocol facts, proto may be TCP, UDP or IP.
  • -r displays the contents of the routing table.
  • -s displays statistics via protocol. through default, data on TCP, UDP and IP are displayed, the -p choice can also be used to specify a subset.
  • interval: Re-display the selected data, pausing after a particular "interval" (in seconds) between each and every display. Press Ctrl + C to stop exhibiting statistics.
  • -abnov displays tactics the usage of the cyber web connection (native IP handle, port, far flung IP adress and the PID of the technique that uses the connection in addition to its identify).
  • pathROUTE: displays or modifies the routing table ROUTE [-f] [command [destination] [MASK network mask] [gateway]
  • -f Clears the routing tables of all gateway entries. Used in conjunction with one of the beneath "instructions", the tables are cleared before executing the command.
  • -p Makes the entry into the desk, residual (after reboot).
  • Specify one in all 4 commands:
  • DELETE: Deletes a route.
  • PRINT: shows a route.
  • ADD: provides a route.
  • trade: Modifies an current route.
  • vacation spot: Specifies the host.
  • mask: If the mask key phrase is latest, the next parameter is interpreted because the community masks parameter.
  • netmask: provided, it specifies the cost of the subnet masks to be associated with this route entry. Unspecified, it takes the default cost of 255.255.255.255.
  • Gateway: Specifies the gateway.
  • METRIC: Specifies the can charge metric for the vacation spot
  • Arp ARP: Resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. shows and modifies the translation tables of IP addresses to actual addresses used via the ARP address decision protocol. ARP -s adr_inet adr_eth [adr_if] ARP -d adr_inet [adr_if] ARP -a [adr_inet] [-N adr_if]
  • -a displays energetic ARP entries by means of interrogating the present facts protocol. If adr_inet is specified, most effective the actual and IP addresses of the precise laptop are displayed. If a couple of network interface uses ARP, entries for every ARP desk are displayed.
  • -g is an identical as -a
  • adr_inet Specifies an internet tackle.
  • -N adr_if displays ARP entries for the network interface certain by way of adr_if.
  • -d Deletes the host unique by means of adr_inet.
  • -s adds the host and associates the adr_inet cyber web address with the adr_eth actual address. The actual handle is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated through hyphens. The entry is permanent.
  • adr_eth Specifies a physical tackle.
  • adr_if Specifies the web interface whose handle translation table should still be modified. When no longer unique, the first applicable interface could be used.
  • Nbtstat NBTSTAT: update cache of the LMHOSTS file. displays protocol information and existing TCP/IP connections the usage of NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP). NBTSTAT [-a Remote Name] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-s] [S] [interval] -a (adapter fame) monitor the table (names) of the far flung computer (customary name).-A (adapter fame) display the table (names) of the faraway desktop (IP address).-c (cache) screen the far flung name cache including the IP addresses.-n (names) Lists local NetBIOS names.-r (resolved) Lists names resolved with the aid of broadcast and by the use of WINS.-R (Reload) Clear and reload the desk cache with the remote names.-S (classes) Lists the periods table with the destination IP addresses.-s (classes) Lists the classes desk with the vacation spot IP addresses converted to host names by the use of the hosts file.example :nbtstat -A @IPThis command returns the NetBIOS identify, gadget name, clients linked ... to the far flung laptop. Telnet TELNET telnet <IP or host> telnet <IP or host> <port TCP> The telnet command to access to a remote host in Terminal mode (passive screen) . It also lets you assess if any TCP service is working on a faraway server by specifying the IP tackle after the TCP port number. thus they will examine even if the SMTP provider is operating on a Microsoft exchange server, using the IP tackle of the SMTP connector, and then 25 as the port number. essentially the most average ports are:
  • ftp (21),
  • telnet (23),
  • smtp (25),
  • www (eighty),
  • kerberos (88),
  • pop3 (a hundred and ten),
  • nntp (119)
  • and nbt (137-139).
  • Hostname HOSTNAME: shows the name of the machine Ftp FTP: client to upload info ftp -s:<file>
  • -s This option means that you can run FTP in batch mode: Specifies a textual content file containing FTP instructions.
  • Nslookup Nslookup sends DNS requests to a DNS server nslookup [domain] [dns server]

    The nslookup command to ship DNS requests to a server. by default, in case you don't specify the DNS server, the command will use the one this is configured on your community interface (the one you use to surf the cyber web, for instance).

    NetSh study more: the use of Netsh

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    Named records networking: names the records instead of facts locations | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    nowadays, connectivity to the web is effortless; you easily get an Ethernet driver and hook up the TCP/IP protocol stack. Then numerous community types in far flung places can speak with every different. although, before the introduction of the TCP/IP model, networks have been manually linked however with the TCP/IP stack, the networks can connect themselves up, first-class and simple. This at last caused the cyber web to explode, adopted by the around the globe internet.

    so far, TCP/IP has been a fine success. It’s good at relocating records and is each amazing and scalable. It permits any node to discuss with every other node through the use of a degree-to-factor verbal exchange channel with IP addresses as identifiers for the source and vacation spot. Ideally, a network ships the facts bits. you could both name the areas to ship the bits to or identify the bits themselves. these days’s TCP/IP protocol structure picked the primary alternative. Let’s focus on the part alternative later within the article.

    It nearly follows the communique model used through the circuit-switched cellphone networks. They migrated from phone numbers to IP addresses and circuit-switching via packet-switching with datagram delivery. however the element-to-element, region-based mannequin stayed the identical. This made feel during the old times, but not in today's instances because the view of the realm has modified significantly. Computing and communication applied sciences have advanced rapidly.

    New functions such as securing IoT, distributing an unlimited volume of video to a global audience and viewing via mobile gadgets, in turn, areas new calls for on the underlying applied sciences. Authentically, the cyber web and the way they use it has changed due to the fact that its inception in the late Eighties. in the beginning, it was used as a vicinity-primarily based aspect-to-aspect gadget, which would not healthy well in state-of-the-art atmosphere. individuals appear on the information superhighway for “what” it carries, but the communications pattern continues to be in terms of the “where.”

    The changing landscape

    Objectively, the purpose of the networking protocols become to permit you to share components amongst computers. components forty years ago, such as a printer, have been expensive, probably on the identical cost as a condo. lower back then, networking had nothing to do with sharing statistics. all of the information turned into on external tapes and card decks.

    How we're the use of networks nowadays is awfully distinctive from how they used them during the past. facts is the core and they live in what’s referred to as an suggestions-centric world it really is driven with the aid of cell, digital media, social networking, and video streaming to name a couple of.

    The equipment used for modern-day networking use TCP/IP as their foundation, however TCP/IP became designed in the late 1970s. for this reason, the ancient tricks they used during the past fall brief in many ways. once they collide their host-centric architecture IP with modern-day suggestions-centric world, they encounter many challenges.

    Networking these days has created a company-new world of content material and IP networking that does not seem to slot in nowadays’s world It does not work well with broadcast links and links that will not have addresses. It looks to be ill-fitted when it comes to mobility as its mannequin is for 2 mounted nodes of communication. Yet, trendy world is all about cell. cellular pushes IP networking out of its comfort zone. So what they need today is distinct than what they needed 40 years ago.

    whereas I take a seat in my coworking space – cboxworking – it’s so effortless to connect to the information superhighway and carry out my work. I’m connected in a rely of seconds. there are many relocating elements beneath the hood of networking that enable me to join in seconds. we've accepted them as the norm, however the relocating materials create complexity that has to be managed and troubleshooted.

    An instance for more clarity

    as an example you're having access to your domestic desktop and also you are looking to go to www.network-insight.web. in this case, IP would not ship to names, it sends to an IP address. For this to turn up, some thing has to trade the identify to an IP handle. here is the job of the area name gadget (DNS).

    under the hood, a DNS request is distributed to the configured DNS server and an IP tackle is again. so that you might ask is how does your computing device know and speak to a DNS server.

    primarily, what happens under the hood is the operation of a dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP). Your laptop sends a DHCP find message and it gets again counsel, such because the IP of the default gateway and a couple of DNS server IP addresses.

    Now it needs to ship the suggestions to the DNS server which isn't on the local community. for this reason, it must ship to the native default gateway. broadly, IP is a logical construct and might be dynamically created. It has no physical meaning by any means. in consequence, it must be certain to the Layer 2 link-level address.

    So now you need some thing that binds the faraway gateway tackle to the Layer 2 link-stage handle. here, tackle decision protocol (ARP) is the protocol that does this. ARP says “I have this IP handle but what is the MAC tackle?”

    besides the fact that children, with the introduction of Named records Networking (NDN), all these advanced moving elements and IP addresses get thrown away. NDN makes use of an identifier or a name as an alternative of an IP tackle. therefore, there is not any greater want for IP address allocation or DNS functions to translate names which are used by purposes to addresses or by using IP for beginning.

    Introducing named information networking

    Named statistics Networking (NDN) was brought on back in the early 2000s through a analysis path known as informative-centric networking (ICN) that covered work by using Van Jacobson. Later, it started as a country wide Science groundwork (NSF) challenge in 2010. The researchers wanted to create a new architecture for the long run cyber web. NDN takes the 2nd choice of network namespace design - naming bits, in contrast to TCP/IP that took the first alternative - naming areas.

    Named statistics Networking (NDN) is without doubt one of the 5 research projects funded by using the U.S. national Science basis below its future cyber web structure application. The different projects are MobilityFirst, NEBULA, eXpressive cyber web architecture and ChoiceNet.

    NDN proposes an evolution within the IP architecture, such packets can name objects other than the communication endpoints. in its place of delivering a packet to a given destination address, we're fetching information recognized by using a given identify at the community layer. basically, NDN doesn’t even have the theory of a vacation spot.

    NDN routes and forwards packets in keeping with names which eliminate the problems caused through addresses within the IP structure, such as address area exhaustion, community handle translation (NAT) traversal, IP handle management and improvements to IPv6.

    With NDN, the naming schema on the software data layer turns into the names on the networking layer. The NDN names are opaque to the community. greatly, this makes it possible for each and every software to choose its own naming scheme, thereby enabling the naming scheme to conform independently from the network.

    It takes the metadata which is the data schema used to explain the facts at the software layer and places it into the network layer. hence, this eliminates the deserve to have IP addresses at the networking layer since you are using the names as an alternative. consequently, you are routing in line with the hierarchy of names as adverse to the IP addresses. you're using the application's metadata and not the IP addresses.

    In summary, the NDN community layer has no addresses; in its place, it uses application-described namespaces, whereas, NDN names records in its place of data locations. In NDN, buyers fetch records instead of senders pushing packets to destinations. additionally, IP has a finite tackle space but NDN’s namespace is unbounded.

    Named records networking and safety

    IP pushes packets to the vacation spot handle in comparison to NDN that fetches information by means of names. With this approach, the security can go together with the records itself. during this case, essentially you're securing the records and never the connections.

    With TCP/IP, the need for protection got here later; therefore they opted for the transport layer security (TLS) and encrypted factor-to-aspect channels. TCP/IP leaves the accountability of security to the endpoints and it’s on no account going to be true end-to-end security. NDN takes security appropriate to the records level, making safety conclusion-to-end, not aspect-to-aspect.

    NDN can use a crypto signature that binds the name to the context. for this reason, the context and the name can not be altered. It does so via requiring the data producers to cryptographically sign each data packet. This ensures records integrity and types a knowledge-centric safety model. subsequently, the utility now has handle of the safety perimeter.

    The purposes can manage access to statistics by means of encryption and distribute keys as encrypted NDN information. This completely limits the information safety perimeter to the context of a single utility.

    protection and historical fashion of networks

    when they verify safety in their existing world, it does not definitely exist, does it? It in fact is ridiculous to assert that they are able to’t be a hundred% secure. Authentically, one hundred% security is the demand of time. The issue is that networking has no visibility about what we're doing on the wire. Its focal point is barely on connectivity, now not on facts visibility.

    So in case you talk about safety on the community degree, IP can handiest be sure that the bits in transit do not get corrupted however that does not resolve the intention. modern day networking cannot see the content. just about, they are able to best faux that we're cozy. they have created a perimeter, however this framework has neither worked in the prior times nor it has proved to be practicable today.

    The perimeter has long gone too fluid now and it has no clear demarcation features, making the depend even worse. Undeniably, we're making progress with the introduction of zero-have faith, micro-segmentation, and the application-described perimeter. however, state-of-the-art security perimeter mannequin can best decelerate the attackers for a short time.

    A persistent unhealthy actor will finally get past all of your guarded walls. they are even finding new how you can operate the facts exfiltration with social media money owed, corresponding to Twitter and also DNS. truly, DNS is not a switch file mechanism and hence is frequently now not checked by using the firewalls for this purpose.

    The community can not look at the data, its opaque to you. the root node of the statistics is the vacation spot, and here is the basis of all DDoS attacks. It’s no longer the network’s fault; the network is doing its job of sending site visitors to the vacation spot. but this ferries the entire benefits to the attacker. youngsters, if they alternate to a content model, DDoS will automatically cease.

    With NDN, if you happen to acquire the site visitors back, the primary query that surfaces is “Have I asked for this facts?” in case you haven't requested, then it be unsolicited. This prevents DDoS as you easily ignore the incoming records. The existing TCP/IP architecture struggles to deal with this existing time requirement.

    today, we've many middleboxes for security as a result of the lack of state in routers. Routers do actually have state, however they are bolted by VPN and MPLS developing conflicts. although, as a time-honored definition, IP routers are stateless.

    due to this fact, an conclusion-to-conclusion TCP connection hardly ever exists. This makes the TLS protection very questionable. youngsters, in the event you secure the facts with NDN, you have real conclusion-to-conclusion crypto. today, we're facing problems with IP networking and they need to clear up them with a special design that uproots the barriers. NDN is among the most interesting and ahead-considering actions that I see occurring today.

    customarily, each person has assorted instruments and none of them are in sync without the use of the cloud. here is an IP architectural issue that they deserve to solve. As Lixia Zhang outlined together with her closing feedback on fresh named facts community video that everything talks to the cloud but should they rely on the cloud as a whole lot as they do? When a big provider has an outage, it will possibly without doubt have an effect on millions.

    This comment made me query as they movement ahead in the hello-tech work of the cyber web. may still they count on the cloud as a great deal as they do? Will NDN kill the cloud, identical to content material beginning networks (CDN) kill latency?

    this article is posted as a part of the IDG Contributor community. want to be a part of?

    join the network World communities on fb and LinkedIn to comment on topics that are right of mind.

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    TCP IP for Networking Professionals

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    Vulnerabilities in the Application and Transport Layer of the TCP/IP stack | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Transport layer is responsible for end-to-end data communication and acts as an interface for network applications to access the network. This layer also takes care of error checking, flow control, and verification in the TCP/IP  protocol suite. The Application Layer handles the details of a particular application and performs 3 main tasks- formatting data, presenting data and transporting data.  In this tutorial, they will explore the different types of vulnerabilities in the Application and Transport Layer.

    This article is an excerpt from a book written by Glen D. Singh, Rishi Latchmepersad titled CompTIA Network+ Certification Guide

    This book covers all CompTIA certification exam topics in an easy-to-understand manner along with plenty of self-assessment scenarios for better preparation. This book will not only prepare you conceptually but will also help you pass the N10-007 exam.

    Vulnerabilities in the Application Layer

    The following are some of the application layer protocols which they should pay close attention to in their network:

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Telnet
  • Secure Shell (SSH)
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Each of these protocols was designed to provide the function it was built to do and with a lesser focus on security. Malicious users and hackers are able to compromise both the application that utilizes these protocols and the network protocols themselves.

    Cross Site Scripting (XSS)

    XSS focuses on exploiting a weakness in websites. In an XSS attack, the malicious user or hacker injects client-side scripts into a web page/site that a potential victim would trust. The scripts can be JavaScript, VBScript, ActiveX, and HTML, or even Flash (ActiveX), which will be executed on the victim’s system. These scripts will be masked as legitimate requests between the web server and the client’s browser.

    XSS focuses on the following:

  • Redirecting a victim to a malicious website/server
  • Using hidden Iframes and pop-up messages on the victim’s browser
  • Data manipulation
  • Data theft
  • Session hijacking
  • Let’s take a deeper look at what happens in an XSS attack:

  • An attacker injects malicious code into a web page/site that a potential victim trusts. A trusted site can be a favorite shopping website, social media platform, or school or university web portal.
  • A potential victim visits the trusted site. The malicious code interacts with the victim’s web browser and executes. The web browser is usually unable to determine whether the scripts are malicious or not and therefore still executes the commands.
  • The malicious scripts can be used obtain cookie information, tokens, session information, and so on about other websites that the browser has stored information about.
  • The acquired details (cookies, tokens, sessions ID, and so on) are sent back to the hacker, who in turn uses them to log in to the sites that the victim’s browser has visited:
  • There are two types of XSS attacks:

  • Stored XSS (persistent)
  • Reflected (non-persistent)
  • Stored XSS (persistent): In this attack, the attacker injects a malicious script directly into the web application or a website. The script is stored permanently on the page, so when a potential victim visits the compromised page, the victim’s web browser will parse all the code of the web page/application fine. Afterward, the script is executed in the background without the victim’s knowledge. At this point, the script is able to retrieve session cookies, passwords, and any other sensitive information stored in the user’s web browser, and sends the loot back to the attacker in the background.

    Reflective XSS (non-persistent): In this attack, the attacker usually sends an email with the malicious link to the victim. When the victim clicks the link, it is opened in the victim’s web browser (reflected), and at this point, the malicious script is invoked and begins to retrieve the loot (passwords, credit card numbers, and so on) stored in the victim’s web browser.

    SQL injection (SQLi)

    SQLi attacks focus on parsing SQL commands into an SQL database that does not validate the user input. The attacker attempts to gain unauthorized access to a database either by creating or retrieving information stored in the database application. Nowadays, attackers are not only interested in gaining access, but also in retrieving (stealing) information and selling it to others for financial gain.

    SQLi can be used to perform:

  • Authentication bypass: Allows the attacker to log in to a system without a valid user credential
  • Information disclosure: Retrieves confidential information from the database
  • Compromise data integrity: The attacker is able to manipulate information stored in the database
  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) injection

    LDAP is designed to query and update directory services, such as a database like Microsoft Active Directory. LDAP uses both TCP and UDP port 389 and LDAP uses port 636. In an LDAP injection attack, the attacker exploits the vulnerabilities within a web application that constructs LDAP messages or statements, which are based on the user input. If the receiving application does not validate or sanitize the user input, this increases the possibility of manipulating LDAP messages.

    Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)

    This attack is a bit similar to the previously mentioned XSS attack. In a CSRF attack, the victim machine/browser is forced to execute malicious actions against a website with which the victim has been authenticated (a website that trusts the actions of the user).

    To have a better understanding of how this attack works, let’s visualize a potential victim, Bob. On a regular day, Bob visits some of his favorite websites, such as various blogs, social media platforms, and so on, where he usually logs in automatically to view the content. Once Bob logs in to a particular website, the website would automatically trust the transactions between itself and the authenticated user, Bob. One day, he receives an email from the attacker but unfortunately Bob does not realize the email is a phishing/spam message and clicks on the link within the body of the message. His web browser opens the malicious URL in a new tab:

    The attack would cause Bob’s machine/web browser to invoke malicious actions on the trusted website; the website would see all the requests are originating from Bob. The return traffic such as the loot (passwords, credit card details, user account, and so on) would be returned to the attacker.

    Session hijacking

    When a user visits a website, a cookie is stored in the user’s web browser. Cookies are used to track the user’s preferences and manage the session while the user is on the site. While the user is on the website, a session ID is also set within the cookie, and this information may be persistent, which allows a user to close the web browser and then later revisit the same website and automatically log in.

    However, the web developer can set how long the information is persistent for, whether it expires after an hour or a week, depending on the developer’s preference. In a session hijacking attack, the attacker can attempt to obtain the session ID while it is being exchanged between the potential victim and the website. The attacker can then use this session ID of the victim on the website, and this would allow the attacker to gain access to the victim’s session, further allowing access to the victim’s user account and so on.

    Cookie poisoning

    A cookie stores information about a user’s preferences while he/she is visiting a website. Cookie poisoning is when an attacker has modified a victim’s cookie, which will then be used to gain confidential information about the victim such as his/her identity.

    DNS Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS)

    A DDoS attack can occur against a DNS server. Attacker sometimes target Internet Service Providers (ISPs) networks, public and private Domain Name System (DNS) servers, and so on to prevent other legitimate users from accessing the service. If a DNS server is unable to handle the amount of requests coming into the server, its performance will eventually begin to degrade gradually, until it either stops responding or crashes. This would result in a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack.

    Registrar hijacking

    Whenever a person wants to purchase a domain, the person has to complete the registration process at a domain registrar. Attackers do try to compromise users accounts on various domain registrar websites in the hope of taking control of the victim’s domain names. With a domain name, multiple DNS records can be created or modified to direct incoming requests to a specific device. If a hacker modifies the A record on a domain to redirect all traffic to a compromised or malicious server, anyone who visits the compromised domain will be redirected to the malicious website.

    Cache poisoning

    Whenever a user visits a website, there’s the process of resolving a host name to an IP address which occurs in the background. The resolved data is stored within the local system in a cache area. The attacker can compromise this temporary storage area and manipulate any further resolution done by the local system.

    Typosquatting

    McAfee outlined typosquatting, also known as URL hijacking, as a type of cyber-attack that allows an attacker to create a domain name very close to a company’s legitimate domain name in the hope of tricking victims into visiting the fake website to either steal their personal information or distribute a malicious payload to the victim’s system.

    Let’s take a look at a simple example of this type of attack. In this scenario, they have a user, Bob, who frequently uses the Google search engine to find his way around the internet. Since Bob uses the www.google.com website often, he sets it as his homepage on the web browser so each time he opens the application or clicks the Home icon, www.google.com is loaded onto the screen. One day Bob decides to use another computer, and the first thing he does is set his favorite search engine URL as his home page. However, he typed www.gooogle.com and didn’t realize it. Whenever Bob visits this website, it looks like the real website. Since the domain was able to be resolved to a website, this is an example of how typosquatting works.

    It’s always recommended to use a trusted search engine to find a URL for the website you want to visit. Trusted internet search engine companies focus on blacklisting malicious and fake URLs in their search results to help protect internet users such as yourself.

    Vulnerabilities at the Transport Layer

    In this section, they are going to discuss various weaknesses that exist within the underlying protocols of the Transport Layer.

    Fingerprinting

    In the cybersecurity world, fingerprinting is used to discover open ports and services that are running open on the target system. From a hacker’s point of view, fingerprinting is done before the exploitation phase, as the more information a hacker can obtain about a target, the hacker can then narrow its attack scope and use specific tools to increase the chances of successfully compromising the target machine.This technique is also used by system/network administrators, network security engineers, and cybersecurity professionals alike. Imagine you’re a network administrator assigned to secure a server; apart from applying system hardening techniques such as patching and configuring access controls, you would also need to check for any open ports that are not being used.

    Let’s take a look at a more practical approach to fingerprinting in the computing world. They have a target machine, 10.10.10.100, on their network. As a hacker or a network security professional, they would like to know which TCP and UDP ports are open, the services that use the open ports, and the service daemon running on the target system. In the following screenshot, we’ve used nmap to help us discover the information they are seeking. The NMap tools delivers specially crafted probes to a target machine:

    Enumeration

    In a cyber attack, the hacker uses enumeration techniques to extract information about the target system or network. This information will aid the attacker in identifying system attack points. The following are the various network services and ports that stand out for a hacker:

  • Port 53: DNS zone transfer and DNS enumeration
  • Port 135: Microsoft RPC Endpoint Mapper
  • Port 25: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • DNS enumeration

    DNS enumeration is where an attacker is attempting to determine whether there are other servers or devices that carry the domain name of an organization. Let’s take a look at how DNS enumeration works. Imagine they are trying to find out all the publicly available servers Google has on the internet. Using the host utility in Linux and specifying a hostname, host www.google.com, they can see the IP address 172.217.6.196 has been resolved successfully. This means there’s a device with a host name of www.google.com active. Furthermore, if they attempt to resolve the host name, gmail.google.com, another IP address is presented but when they attempt to resolve mx.google.com, no IP address is given. This is an indication that there isn’t an active device with the mx.google.com host name:

    DNS zone transfer

    DNS zone transfer allows the copying of the master file from a DNS server to another DNS server. There are times when administrators do not configure the security settings on their DNS server properly, which allows an attacker to retrieve the master file containing a list of the names and addresses of a corporate network.

    Microsoft RPC Endpoint Mapper

    Not too long ago, CVE-2015-2370 was recorded on the CVE database. This vulnerability took advantage of the authentication implementation of the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol in various versions of the Microsoft Windows platform, both desktop and server operating systems. A successful exploit would allow an attacker to gain local privileges on a vulnerable system.

    SMTP

    SMTP is used in mail servers, as with the POP and the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). SMTP is used for sending mail, while POP and IMAP are used to retrieve mail from an email server. SMTP supports various commands, such as EXPN and VRFY. The EXPN command can be used to verify whether a particular mailbox exists on a local system, while the VRFY command can be used to validate a username on a mail server.

    An attacker can establish a connection between the attacker’s machine and the mail server on port 25. Once a successful connection has been established, the server will send a banner back to the attacker’s machine displaying the server name and the status of the port (open). Once this occurs, the attacker can then use the VRFY command followed by a user name to check for a valid user on the mail system using the VRFY bob syntax.

    SYN flooding

    One of the protocols that exist at the Transport Layer is TCP. TCP is used to establish a connection-oriented session between two devices that want to communication or exchange data. Let’s recall how TCP works. There are two devices that want to exchange some messages, Bob and Alice. Bob sends a TCP Synchronization (SYN) packet to Alice, and Alice responds to Bob with a TCP Synchronization/Acknowledgment (SYN/ACK) packet. Finally, Bob replies with a TCP Acknowledgement (ACK) packet. The following diagram shows the TCP 3-Way Handshake mechanism:

    For every TCP SYN packet received on a device, a TCP ACK packet must be sent back in response. One type of attack that takes advantage of this design flaw in TCP is known as a SYN Flood attack. In a SYN Flood attack, the attacker sends a continuous stream of TCP SYN packets to a target system. This would cause the target machine to process each individual packet and response accordingly; eventually, with the high influx of TCP SYN packets, the target system will become too overwhelmed and stop responding to any requests:

    TCP reassembly and sequencing

    During a TCP transmission of datagrams between two devices, each packet is tagged with a sequence number by the sender. This sequence number is used to reassemble the packets back into data. During the transmission of packets, each packet may take a different path to the destination. This may cause the packets to be received in an out-of-order fashion, or in the order they were sent over the wire by the sender.

    An attacker can attempt to guess the sequencing numbers of packets and inject malicious packets into the network destined for the target. When the target receives the packets, the receiver would assume they came from the real sender as they would contain the appropriate sequence numbers and a spoofed IP address.

    Summary

    In this article, they have explored the different types of vulnerabilities that exist at the Application and Transport Layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite.

    To understand other networking concepts like network architecture, security, network monitoring, and troubleshooting; and ace the CompTIA certification exam, check out their book CompTIA Network+ Certification Guide

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    Named data networking: names the data instead of data locations | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Today, connectivity to the Internet is easy; you simply get an Ethernet driver and hook up the TCP/IP protocol stack. Then dissimilar network types in remote locations can communicate with each other. However, before the introduction of the TCP/IP model, networks were manually connected but with the TCP/IP stack, the networks can connect themselves up, nice and easy. This eventually caused the Internet to explode, followed by the World Wide Web.

    So far, TCP/IP has been a great success. It’s good at moving data and is both robust and scalable. It enables any node to talk to any other node by using a point-to-point communication channel with IP addresses as identifiers for the source and destination. Ideally, a network ships the data bits. You can either name the locations to ship the bits to or name the bits themselves. Today’s TCP/IP protocol architecture picked the first option. Let’s discuss the section option later in the article.

    It essentially follows the communication model used by the circuit-switched telephone networks. They migrated from phone numbers to IP addresses and circuit-switching by packet-switching with datagram delivery. But the point-to-point, location-based model stayed the same. This made sense during the old times, but not in today's times as the view of the world has changed considerably. Computing and communication technologies have advanced rapidly.

    New applications such as securing IoT, distributing a vast amount of video to a global audience and viewing through mobile devices, in turn, places new demands on the underlying technologies. Authentically, the Internet and how they use it has changed since its inception in the late 1980s. Originally, it was used as a location-based point-to-point system, which doesn't fit well in today's environment. People look at the Internet for “what” it contains, but the communications pattern is still in terms of the “where.”

    The changing landscape

    Objectively, the goal of the networking protocols was to enable you to share resources among computers. Resources 40 years ago, such as a printer, were expensive, maybe at the same cost as a house. Back then, networking had nothing to do with sharing data. All the data was on external tapes and card decks.

    How they are using networks today is very different from how they used them in the past. Data is the core and they live in what’s known as an information-centric world that is driven by mobile, digital media, social networking, and video streaming to name a few.

    The tools used for today's networking use TCP/IP as their foundation, but TCP/IP was designed in the late 1970s. Therefore, the old tricks they used in the past fall short in many ways. When they collide their host-centric architecture IP with today's information-centric world, they encounter many challenges.

    Networking today has created a brand-new world of content and IP networking that does not seem to fit in today’s world It does not work well with broadcast links and links that don't have addresses. It seems to be ill-equipped when it comes to mobility as its model is for two fixed nodes of communication. Yet, today's world is all about mobile. Mobile pushes IP networking out of its comfort zone. So what they need today is different than what they needed 40 years ago.

    While I sit in my coworking space – cboxworking – it’s so easy to connect to the Internet and carry out my work. I’m connected in a matter of seconds. There are many moving parts under the hood of networking that enable me to connect in seconds. They have accepted them as the norm, but the moving parts create complexity that needs to be managed and troubleshooted.

    An example for more clarity

    Let's say you are accessing your home laptop and you want to go to www.network-insight.net. In this case, IP doesn't send to names, it sends to an IP address. For this to happen, something has to change the name to an IP address. This is the job of the domain name system (DNS).

    Under the hood, a DNS request is sent to the configured DNS server and an IP address is returned. So you might ask is how does your laptop know and communicate to a DNS server.

    Primarily, what happens under the hood is the operation of a dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP). Your laptop sends a DHCP Discover message and it gets back information, such as the IP of the default gateway and a couple of DNS server IP addresses.

    Now it needs to send the information to the DNS server which is not on the local network. Therefore, it needs to send to the local default gateway. Broadly, IP is a logical construct and can be dynamically created. It has no physical meaning whatsoever. As a result, it has to be bound to the Layer 2 link-level address.

    So now you need something that binds the remote gateway address to the Layer 2 link-level address. Here, address resolution protocol (ARP) is the protocol that does this. ARP says “I have this IP address but what is the MAC address?”

    However, with the introduction of Named Data Networking (NDN), all these complicated moving parts and IP addresses get thrown away. NDN uses an identifier or a name instead of an IP address. Hence, there is no more need for IP address allocation or DNS services to translate names that are used by applications to addresses or by IP for delivery.

    Introducing named data networking

    Named Data Networking (NDN) was triggered back in the early 2000s by a research direction called informative-centric networking (ICN) that included work by Van Jacobson. Later, it started as a National Science Foundation (NSF) project in 2010. The researchers wanted to create a new architecture for the future Internet. NDN takes the second option of network namespace design - naming bits, unlike TCP/IP that took the first option - naming locations.

    Named Data Networking (NDN) is one of the five research projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation under its future Internet architecture program. The other projects are MobilityFirst, NEBULA, eXpressive Internet Architecture and ChoiceNet.

    NDN proposes an evolution in the IP architecture, such packets can name objects other than the communication endpoints. Instead of delivering a packet to a given destination address, they are fetching data identified by a given name at the network layer. Fundamentally, NDN doesn’t even have the concept of a destination.

    NDN routes and forwards packets based on names which eliminate the problems caused by addresses in the IP architecture, such as address space exhaustion, network address translation (NAT) traversal, IP address management and upgrades to IPv6.

    With NDN, the naming schema at the application data layer becomes the names at the networking layer. The NDN names are opaque to the network. Significantly, this allows each application to choose its own naming scheme, thereby enabling the naming scheme to evolve independently from the network.

    It takes the metadata which is the data schema used to describe the data at the application layer and places it into the network layer. Hence, this removes the need to have IP addresses at the networking layer because you are using the names instead. As a result, you are routing based on the hierarchy of names as opposed to the IP addresses. You are using the application's metadata and not the IP addresses.

    In summary, the NDN network layer has no addresses; instead, it uses application-defined namespaces, whereas, NDN names data instead of data locations. In NDN, consumers fetch data instead of senders pushing packets to destinations. Also, IP has a finite address space but NDN’s namespace is unbounded.

    Named data networking and security

    IP pushes packets to the destination address in comparison to NDN that fetches data by names. With this approach, the security can go with the data itself. In this case, essentially you are securing the data and not the connections.

    With TCP/IP, the need for security came later; hence they opted for the transport layer security (TLS) and encrypted point-to-point channels. TCP/IP leaves the responsibility of security to the endpoints and it’s never going to be true end-to-end security. NDN takes security right to the data level, making security end-to-end, not point-to-point.

    NDN can use a crypto signature that binds the name to the context. Therefore, the context and the name cannot be altered. It does so by requiring the data producers to cryptographically sign every data packet. This ensures data integrity and forms a data-centric security model. Ultimately, the application now has control of the security perimeter.

    The applications can control access to data via encryption and distribute keys as encrypted NDN data. This completely limits the data security perimeter to the context of a single application.

    Security and old style of networks

    When they examine security in their current world, it doesn't really exist, does it? It really is ridiculous to say that they can’t be 100% secure. Authentically, 100% security is the demand of time. The problem is that networking has no visibility about what they are doing on the wire. Its focus is just on connectivity, not on data visibility.

    So when you talk about security at the network level, IP can only make sure that the bits in transit don't get corrupted but that does not solve the purpose. Today's networking cannot see the content. Essentially, they can only pretend that they are secure. They have created a perimeter, but this framework has neither worked in the earlier times nor it has proved to be viable today.

    The perimeter has gone too fluid now and it has no clear demarcation points, making the matter even worse. Undeniably, they are making progress with the introduction of zero-trust, micro-segmentation, and the software-defined perimeter. However, today's security perimeter model can only slow down the attackers for a little while.

    A persistent bad actor will eventually get past all your guarded walls. They are even finding new ways to perform the data exfiltration with social media accounts, such as Twitter and also DNS. Basically, DNS is not a transfer file mechanism and hence is often not checked by the firewalls for this purpose.

    The network cannot look at the data, its opaque to you. The root node of the data is the destination, and this is the basis of all DDoS attacks. It’s not the network’s fault; the network is doing its job of sending traffic to the destination. But this ferries all the advantages to the attacker. However, if they change to a content model, DDoS will automatically stop.

    With NDN, when you receive the traffic back, the first question that surfaces is “Have I asked for this data?” If you haven't asked, then it's unsolicited. This prevents DDoS as you simply ignore the incoming data. The current TCP/IP architecture struggles to cope with this present time requirement.

    Today, they have many middleboxes for security due to the lack of state in routers. Routers do actually have state, but they are bolted by VPN and MPLS creating conflicts. However, as a general definition, IP routers are stateless.

    As a result, an end-to-end TCP connection rarely exists. This makes the TLS security very questionable. However, when you secure the data with NDN, you have true end-to-end crypto. Today, they are facing problems with IP networking and they need to solve them with a different design that uproots the limitations. NDN is one of the most interesting and forward-thinking movements that I see happening today.

    Typically, everyone has multiple devices and none of them are in sync without the use of the cloud. This is an IP architectural problem that they need to solve. As Lixia Zhang mentioned with her closing comments on recent named data network video that everything talks to the cloud but should they rely on the cloud as much as they do? When a large provider has an outage, it can undoubtedly affect millions.

    This comment made me question as they move forward in the hi-tech work of the Internet. Should they rely on the cloud as much as they do? Will NDN kill the cloud, just like content delivery networks (CDN) kill latency?

    This article is published as part of the IDG Contributor Network. Want to Join?

    Join the Network World communities on Facebook and LinkedIn to comment on topics that are top of mind.

    Windows- Network commands for TCP/IP | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    It is sometimes useful to know the network commands to analyze or configure your TCP/IP networksHere is the list of commands that can be used in the command prompt: Ping PING: Test the network connection with a remote IP address ping-t [IP or host] ping-l 1024 [IP or host] The -t option to ping continuously until Ctrl-C is pressed.If you specify the -t option you can always get statistics without interrupting pings by pressing Ctrl + Break

    This command is also useful to generate network load by specifying the size of the packet with the -l option and the packet size in bytes.

    Tracert TRACERT: Displays all intermediate IP addresses through which a packet passes through, between the local machine and the specified IP address. tracert [@IP or host] tracert -d [@IP or host] This command is useful if the ping command does return any data, to determine at what level the connection failed. IpConfig IPCONFIG: Displays or refresh the TCP/IP configuration ipconfig /all [/release [adapter]] [/renew [adapter]] /flushdns /displaydns /registerdns [-a] [-a] [-a] This command, when executed with no options, displays the current IP address, the subnet mask and default gateway (network interfaces of the local machine)
  • /all: Displays all network configuration, including DNS, WINS, DHCP servers, etc ...
  • /renew [adapter]: Renews DHCP configuration for all adapters (if adapter is not specified) or a specific adapter indicated by the [adapter] parameter.
  • /release [adapter]: Sends a DHCPRELEASE message to the DHCP server to release the current DHCP configuration and cancel the IP address configuration for all adapters (if adapter is not specified) or a specific adapter indicated by the [adapter] parameter. This parameter disables TCP/IP for network cards configured to automatically obtain an IP address.
  • /flushdns: Empty and reset the DNS client resolver cache. This option is useful to exclude negative entries and all other entries added dynamically to the cache.
  • /displaydns: Displays the DNS client resolver cache, which includes entries preloaded from the local host file and any recently obtained records for name queries resolved by the host computer. The DNS Client service uses this information to quickly resolve frequently queried names, before querying the configured DNS servers.
  • /registerdns: Refreshes all DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names.
  • NetStat NETSTAT: Displays the status of the TCP/IP stack on the local machine NETSTAT [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [interval]
  • -a Displays all connections and listening ports (server-side connections are normally inhibited).
  • -e Displays Ethernet statistics. Can be combined with the -s option.
  • -n Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form.
  • -p proto Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto, proto may be TCP or UDP. Used with the -s option to display per-protocol statistics, proto may be TCP, UDP or IP.
  • -r Displays the contents of the routing table.
  • -s Displays statistics by protocol. By default, statistics on TCP, UDP and IP are displayed, the -p option can be used to specify a subset.
  • interval: Re-display the selected statistics, pausing after a specific "interval" (in seconds) between each display. Press Ctrl + C to stop displaying statistics.
  • -abnov Displays processes using the internet connection (local IP address, port, remote IP adress and the PID of the process that uses the connection as well as its name).
  • Route ROUTE: Displays or modifies the routing table ROUTE [-f] [command [destination] [MASK network mask] [gateway]
  • -f Clears the routing tables of all gateway entries. Used in conjunction with one of the below "commands", the tables are cleared before executing the command.
  • -p Makes the entry into the table, residual (after reboot).
  • Specify one of four commands:
  • DELETE: Deletes a route.
  • PRINT: Displays a route.
  • ADD: Adds a route.
  • CHANGE: Modifies an existing route.
  • destination: Specifies the host.
  • MASK: If the MASK keyword is present, the next parameter is interpreted as the network mask parameter.
  • netmask: Provided, it specifies the value of the subnet mask to be associated with this route entry. Unspecified, it takes the default value of 255.255.255.255.
  • Gateway: Specifies the gateway.
  • METRIC: Specifies the cost metric for the destination
  • Arp ARP: Resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. Displays and modifies the translation tables of IP addresses to physical addresses used by the ARP address resolution protocol. ARP -s adr_inet adr_eth [adr_if] ARP -d adr_inet [adr_if] ARP -a [adr_inet] [-N adr_if]
  • -a Displays active ARP entries by interrogating the current data protocol. If adr_inet is specified, only the physical and IP addresses of the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed.
  • -g is the same as -a
  • adr_inet Specifies an internet address.
  • -N adr_if Displays ARP entries for the network interface specified by adr_if.
  • -d Deletes the host specified by adr_inet.
  • -s Adds the host and associates the adr_inet internet address with the adr_eth physical address. The physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent.
  • adr_eth Specifies a physical address.
  • adr_if Specifies the internet interface whose address translation table should be modified. When not specified, the first applicable interface will be used.
  • Nbtstat NBTSTAT: Update cache of the LMHOSTS file. Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP). NBTSTAT [-a Remote Name] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-s] [S] [interval] -a (adapter status) display the table (names) of the remote machine (known name).-A (adapter status) display the table (names) of the remote machine (IP address).-c (cache) display the remote name cache including the IP addresses.-n (names) Lists local NetBIOS names.-r (resolved) Lists names resolved by broadcast and via WINS.-R (Reload) Clear and reload the table cache with the remote names.-S (Sessions) Lists the sessions table with the destination IP addresses.-s (sessions) Lists the sessions table with the destination IP addresses converted to host names via the hosts file.Example :nbtstat -A @IPThis command returns the NetBIOS name, system name, users connected ... to the remote machine. Telnet TELNET telnet <IP or host> telnet <IP or host> <port TCP> The telnet command to access to a remote host in Terminal mode (passive screen) . It also allows you to check if any TCP service is running on a remote server by specifying the IP address after the TCP port number. Thus they can test whether the SMTP Service is running on a Microsoft Exchange server, using the IP address of the SMTP connector, and then 25 as the port number. The most common ports are:
  • ftp (21),
  • telnet (23),
  • smtp (25),
  • www (80),
  • kerberos (88),
  • pop3 (110),
  • nntp (119)
  • and nbt (137-139).
  • Hostname HOSTNAME: Displays the name of the machine Ftp FTP: Client to upload files ftp -s:<file>
  • -s This option allows you to run FTP in batch mode: Specifies a text file containing FTP commands.
  • Nslookup Nslookup sends DNS requests to a DNS server nslookup [domain] [dns server]

    The nslookup command to send DNS requests to a server. By default, if you do not specify the DNS server, the command will use the one that is configured for your network interface (the one you use to surf the internet, for example).

    NetSh Learn more: Using Netsh

    CCM is a leading international tech website. Their content is written in collaboration with IT experts, under the direction of Jeff Pillou, founder of CCM.net. CCM reaches more than 50 million unique visitors per month and is available in 11 languages.

    Learn more about the CCM team



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