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ARMONK, N.Y., July 18, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) these days announced options that join mainframes to IBM's DS8880 household of simple all-flash storage systems, deliver records encryption to make certain transactional, business intelligence and computing device discovering workloads used for organizations running IBM Z environments are covered if records is lost or compromised. IBM's DS8880 all flash helps purchasers bring hybrid cloud environments through including extra clouds supported.
"The resiliency of the mainframe is formed by way of mature, transactional industries that have long relied on it to run their enterprise and emerging ones like blockchain that rely on the security inherent to mainframe as a cornerstone of its plans," stated Ed Walsh, accepted manager, IBM Storage and software described Infrastructure. "For z techniques users IBM has go-teamed, confirmed and designed new connectivity to increase security and statistics entry performance by 10x."
IBM zHyperLink, is a short distance mainframe interface that is barely purchasable from IBM. It promises 10x latency discount compared to the z13(1) and chopping software response time in half(1), enabling companies to do an awful lot more work, such as actual-time analytics or engage with web of things (IoT) gadgets and cloud functions, inside the identical transaction without changing software code.
expanding on the currently introduced integration of transparent Cloud Tiering (TCT) with the IBM DS8880, mainframe users to automate the flow records to and from Bluemix, IBM Cloud Object Storage and Amazon cloud pursuits. through automating the circulation of facts to and from the cloud TCT empowers IBM z14 users with new levels of handle to place hot or cold statistics where it makes essentially the most sense for his or her company.
For mainframe customers improved availability and a storage layer of tape records coverage adds to the encryption expertise and key protection system to statistics, networks, external instruments present in IBM Z. here's primarily vital for blockchain applications that must supply larger efficiency, cryptography, protection and availability.
For extra counsel about IBM DS8000 and IBM Tape solutions for IBM Z examine their blog 'Integration by way of design: DS8880 and IBM Z.' To study greater about IBM Z visit their news room and product page at https://www.ibm.com/it-infrastructure/us-en/trusted-digital-experiences/.
Contact informationGreg Vitarelli IBM Media relations 617-455-9627 firstname.lastname@example.org
1 - The 10x lower examine latency projection changed into in keeping with z14 and zHyperLink results with DS8886 and z13 measurements that supplied outcomes for I/O interrupt and dispatching. This response time projection turned into in response to IBM inner measurements and projections that contrasted zHyperLink specific with the same configuration using zHPF. The measurements and projections assume that count on 75% or greater of the workload response time is linked to read DASD I/O and the storage device random read cache hit ratio is above 80%. The execution environment for both situations turned into a z14 with 10 CPs. The zHPF assessments used FICON express 16S+ linked to a DS8886. The zHyperLink assessments were additionally performed the usage of DS8886. The precise performance that any user will journey may additionally range.
source IBMconnected hyperlinks
This weblog turned into written by way of Steve McDowell, storage and HCI follow lead for Moor Insights & method.
The cloud computing world is one crammed with unexpected pivots, swift turns, and sharp boomerangs. The early hopes that cloud computing, with its captivating charge/improvement equations and ease of management, would replace the business records center have been short-lived.
As businesses migrated workloads to the a considerable number of cloud providers, classes have been discovered, and a brand new fact set in. Workloads require data, and statistics has gravity. It’s now not a simple remember to circulate an software to the cloud and hope that your existing storage architecture provides the correct set of functions to help it. You need to installation storage architectures designed to bridge on-premises infrastructure with the cloud. Storage in a multi-cloud atmosphere is not a spot for the meek.
The complexity of mixing on-premise and cloud has come into sharp center of attention during the last a couple of months as each player in the commercial enterprise IT price chain moves into new territory. The word "cloud" itself has become nebulous, as public cloud providers stream infrastructure and functions on-premises, natural OEMs enter the capability-on-demand company, and utility more and more becomes the defining glue tying it all collectively.
Google's Cloud subsequent developer conference changed into held this week in San Francisco, the place the company announced a collection of application capabilities called "Anthos" to manage applications and workloads throughout deepest records facilities and Google Cloud functions. Anthos even promises to support workloads on its opponents' clouds, Amazon net capabilities and Microsoft service provider's Azure. Anthos is, now not exceptionally, based on containers and Kubernetes, with a storage story that relies on companies successfully aiding the Container Storage Interface (CSI).
Deploying options similar to Google’s Anthos, and even Amazon’s Outpost on-website cloud offering, requires complicated integration with a gentle eye towards balancing compute and storage. These multi-cloud implementations don't seem to be flip-key, as a substitute relying on tight coordination between partners to installation an enterprise-equipped answer.
whereas the cloud providers and server OEMs vacillate on what they each consider is the correct steadiness of on-premises and cloud applied sciences, every keeping high-margin turf in the system, they may still talk about IBM, who has emerged as an not likely lighthouse for the information-driven multi-cloud world. IBM , if you're no longer mindful, is the number four public cloud issuer global. The business would not get down within the dirt and fight for each little bit of enterprise within the same approach that Amazon and Google do. IBM instead focuses its cloud efforts where it has all the time concentrated its enterprise: servicing the needs of the commercial enterprise.
alone among cloud providers and storage know-how vendors, IBM has never vacillated on its vision. IBM has all the time considered multi-cloud as an intelligent blend of infrastructure and cloud, managed with the aid of a finished mix of utility and functions. It has made it easy for its purchasers to install multi-cloud options, whether these cloud workloads are containerized or leverage more average virtual desktop know-how. closing week in Rome, IBM’s storage crew persisted its efforts to enable business it be multi-cloud experience.All in regards to the utility
The statistics-pushed multi-cloud world revolves around the utility stack, which makes the capabilities actual and manageable. For IBM, that software is its Spectrum Storage suite of products.
the most captivating of IBM’s storage announcements is its enhancements to IBM Spectrum Virtualize, now providing aid for Amazon AWS public cloud. IBM Spectrum Virtualize for Public Cloud makes it possible for for hybrid multi-cloud mobility to and from AWS and IBM clouds, with non-disruptive migration to, from, and between clouds. IBM Spectrum Virtualize for Public Cloud is hosted on a pair of AWS EC2 compute cases, where it could possibly virtualize and manage EBS block storage, and image to and from S3 storage. The application gives statistics mobility from IBM’s Storwize family unit, FlashSystem 9100, SVC, and VersaStack. It’s an across-the-board answer play for IBM.
all the way through its Rome event, IBM additionally updated its Spectrum Scale statistics-management tool to increase performance for SMB and NFS, while also aiding new tiers of scalability and resiliency.
one of the vital greater interesting announcements from IBM is its new application assist for blockchain technology inside IBM storage solutions. As blockchain evolves into a vital capability for managing chains of trust, i will be able to see many purposes leveraging this expertise in a multi-cloud world. i am anxious to see this evolve and take note how companies leverage the potential.
one of the crucial first-rate things about IBM's storage choices is the blueprints the business provides to assist business IT and IBM's companions without delay install solutions with self assurance. IBM Spectrum Virtualize for Public Cloud extends the library of blueprints, with new choices defining workload mobility with VMware's NSX, business continuity, and cyber-resiliency with "air-gapped" snapshots.
software is the central frightened gadget of the multi-cloud infrastructure, but that application can best ever be as capable as the hardware resources its tasked to manipulate. performance in the storage world is described by means of the capabilities offered through the blend of flash memory and the NVMe interconnect. IBM become a extremely early adopter of NVMe-primarily based flash storage, deploying its custom FlashCore modules to bring very high-throughput, low-latency, options into its efficiency product.
The issue about multi-cloud is that it doesn’t all the time require the optimum-performing arrays. Deploying multi-cloud options requires the efficiency obligatory for a given workload, with satisfactory scalability to survive future evolutions of that workload. To that conclusion, IBM announced improvements to its Storwize V5000 family unit, bringing better capabilities to the decrease-end of its storage offerings, and offering conclusion-to-end NVMe to its V5100 collection.
the brand new IBM Storwize V5100F and v5100 deliver NVMe to a previously unattainable rate-factor. The arrays deliver basically 2.5x extra performance than the outdated V5030F, present 9x more cache than previous iterations, and have guide for server-category reminiscence. The densities are equally compelling, with the arrays capable of bring as much as 2PB of flash in exactly 2U. That ability can scale-up to 23PB, and scale-out to 32PB with 2-approach clustering enabled. The IBM Storwize V5100F redefines how be sure you believe about low in cost efficiency and density.
IBM additionally up-to-date its Storwize 5100, bringing new ranges of scalability and density to the lower-cost range of its choices. The updated IBM Storwize V5010E double the IOPS of its predecessor while scaling to 12PB. The updated IBM Storwize V5030E also presents a pleasant bump, offering 20% superior max IOPs, with scalability as much as 32PB.
IBM also supplied updates to its FlashSystem A9000/A9000R to supply more desirable aid for multi-tenant environments. The updated FlashSystem now permits sharing of physical storage components among diverse virtual networks, while also helping VLAN tagging on its iSCSI ports. These facets should lead to improved protection and an typical reduction of expenses in multi-tenant environments. These are vital enhancements for MSPs and others who share components between disparate person businesses.
Tying together all of IBM’s storage portfolio is its wealthy suite of Spectrum Storage utility, designed to combine IBM storage infrastructure with the multi-cloud world. The mixture of IBM Spectrum Storage software and the up to date arrays gives you an conclusion-to-conclusion answer competent for containerized, AI-driven workloads. on the equal time, this set of updates offers IBM one of the broadest stages of NVMe-enabled flash storage in the industry.Concluding ideas
as the common server OEMs and the general public cloud providers hone in on a group of architectures for the statistics-driven multi-cloud world, it is obvious that the solution became correct in entrance of us the total time. IBM has blended cloud and infrastructure from the very early days of its cloud choices. The company supplies the most cohesive set of functions and options that scale on-premise and cloud hosted workloads.
IBM's storage team, in specific, has been aggressive in driving this imaginative and prescient. Its line of storage arrays are some of the most competitive within the business, however in case you couple those arrays with the energy of the IBM Spectrum Storage utility suite, it becomes unbeatable. IBM stands very nearly alone in providing a finished range of storage options that span statistics core hardware, deepest cloud, and public cloud. Its fresh embrace of Amazon AWS and different public cloud opponents is a powerful circulation that benefits IBM's enterprise customer base. choice is at all times decent.
Steve McDowell is a Moor Insights & strategy Senior Analyst overlaying storage technologies.
Disclosure: My enterprise, Moor Insights & approach, like any research and analyst organizations, gives or has provided research, evaluation, advising, and/or consulting to many high-tech agencies in the industry, including Microsoft, IBM, Google, and VMware, which may be noted listed here. I do not hang any fairness positions with any companies stated in this column.
by James W. Cortada
The Ferranti Mark 1: World’s First Commercially obtainable common-goal computing device
How the IBM 1403 Printer Hammered Out 1,one hundred traces Per Minute
What Does It Take to keep a basic Mainframe Alive?image: Mark Richards/laptop background Museum IBM spent US $5 billion to construct the gadget/360, introduced in 1964. These 9-tune magnetic tape drives have been among the many S/360’s 150-product line.
a short checklist of essentially the most transformative products of the past century and a half would consist of the lightbulb, Ford’s mannequin T—and the IBM device/360. This mainframe series continuously modified the desktop industry and revolutionized how organizations and governments labored, improving productivity and making numerous new projects viable.
in the years leading as much as its 7 April 1964 launch, although, the 360 became some of the scariest dramas in American business. It took a virtually fanatical commitment in any respect tiers of IBM to bring on this excellent collection of machines and software. whereas the technological improvements that went into the S/360 had been crucial, how they have been created and deployed bordered on catastrophe. The enterprise skilled what science policy expert Keith Pavitt called “tribal battle”: individuals clashing and taking part in a hastily starting to be enterprise with unstable, and in some instances unknown, applied sciences, as uncertainty and ambiguity dogged all of the protagonists.
eventually, IBM became big and different satisfactory in ability, staffing, financing, and materiel to succeed. In an almost entrepreneurial trend, it took knowledge of rising technologies, no matter where they were observed in the enterprise. In hindsight, it gave the impression a sloppy and sick-recommended undertaking, chaotic in execution and yet brilliantly a success. They reside in an age that celebrates innovation, so examining situations of how innovation is carried out can handiest illuminate their figuring out of the method.
through the end of the Nineteen Fifties, computing device clients confronted a seemingly intractable difficulty. Had it no longer been solved, it could have avoided computers from fitting widespread, and any concepts of residing in an tips Age would have been fiction.photograph: IBM The S/360 turned into designed to replace IBM’s 1401 mainframe, which become generic however couldn’t be extended or upgraded.
companies have been buying computers in awesome numbers, automating many of the old punch card operations and doing more with information processing. The popularity of the IBM 1401 illustrates the speedy adoption of computing. Over 12,000 of these techniques have been sold from their introduction in 1959 to 1971, when IBM retired the line.
With the 1401 so dominating the laptop enterprise, any problems with it had been severe. one of them changed into that the 1401 was too small.
users found these machines so positive that they saved piling more work on them, attaining the system’s capability. They then had three alternatives: circulate to a much bigger IBM equipment, equivalent to an IBM 7000, install a competitor’s equipment, or acquire extra 1401s. None of those alternatives changed into beautiful. To alternate to a much bigger gadget required rewriting application, on the grounds that the old utility would not work on a unique class of computer. The cost of rewriting might easily exceed the monetary advantages of moving to a much bigger laptop. Such a metamorphosis also referred to as for retraining group of workers or hiring new personnel popular with the brand new equipment. adding more units of the equal device was equally unattractive because each and every unit required replica group of workers, gadget, and renovation of hardware and utility. purchasers desired techniques that have been “upgradable” or “suitable,” such that as their wants grew, they may bring in bigger machines however nevertheless run the equal utility and peripheral equipment. in the 1950s and early Sixties, it became a wish, and for carriers an aspiration.
IBM had worse issues than its shoppers did. The 1401s have been proving so general that engineers in Endicott, N.Y., which had developed the gadget, resisted attempts by using their counterparts in Poughkeepsie to build greater computers, leading to becoming competition between both organizations. As one engineer recalled, “So excessive was it that occasionally it looked as if it would exceed the contention with external competitors.” techniques made via Poughkeepsie would no longer run classes written for the 1400 collection. customers wanting to move from the smaller 1400s to the higher Poughkeepsie machines put expanding pressure on IBM to give compatibility. Senior administration had to contend with the fees of sustaining R&D for a half-dozen incompatible product lines and practising IBMers to sell and hold so many programs.
Consensus grew that IBM crucial to get down to one equipment to simplify creation, in the reduction of the can charge of R&D, and be extra aggressive in opposition t a becoming array of rivals. If purchasers had to improve within the early 1960s, they could simply as effectively circulation to a competitor’s machine, in view that they would have to rewrite their utility anyway.
The vigor of compatibility changed into demonstrated within the fall of 1960, when IBM delivered the more potent 1410 to replace the 1401. application and peripheral gadget for the 1401 worked with the more recent desktop. purchasers and IBM sales loved that truth. Poughkeepsie’s engineers had been near finishing work on a group of four computers frequent because the 8000s that have been compatible with the 7000s.photo: IBM To get the S/360 off the floor, T. Vincent Learson compelled engineering factions within IBM to cooperate.
T. Vincent Learson—referred to as Vin or T.V.—was in charge of future product construction as the vp of manufacturing and construction. A proficient problem solver, he knew he had to circulate promptly to damage down the contention between Endicott and Poughkeepsie. IBM’s CEO at the time, Thomas J. Watson Jr., later described what happened: “He did it via applying a administration technique called ‘abrasive interplay.’ This means forcing individuals to swap facets: taking the precise engineer from the small-computer division and making him boss of the most efficient building team in the massive-computer division. a lot of people idea this made about as an awful lot experience as electing Khrushchev president.”
Learson replaced the Poughkeepsie manager in cost of the 8000 venture with Bob O. Evans, who had served as the engineering manager for the 1401 and 1410. Evans appreciated compatibility across all future products. After 90 days in his new role, Evans counseled that work on the 8000s be stopped and that each websites start working “to improve a total cohesive product line.” He additionally proposed a bold new base technology for all future systems, known as strong good judgment expertise (SLT), to make IBM’s machines extra aggressive.
Frederick P. Brooks Jr., who led the design crew for the 8000, fought again. Evans and Brooks were bold opponents. both engineers both had years of experience working engineering and product development activities at IBM, and they were articulate and highly revered by their staffs and senior administration. Brooks became no longer as high rating as Evans, so Learson introduced in Jerrier A. Haddad, who had spent the outdated two years in can charge of the advanced Engineering development Division, to study the proposed strategies of Evans and Brooks. Haddad informed going with Evans’s ideas, and Learson killed the 8000 undertaking in may additionally 1961.
Bob Evans instantly requested Brooks to advance the plan for a compatible household of computer systems. Brooks become flabbergasted, however he authorised, and with that the two engineering communities stopped feuding and began taking part. there have been nevertheless opponents within the company, however no rely—the trajectory toward a typical device had been set.photographs: IBM Bob O. Evans [left] advised killing IBM’s higher 8000 mainframe in desire of a brand new line of appropriate computers. Frederick P. Brooks Jr. [middle], who led the 8000’s design, objected, however Jerrier A. Haddad [right] sided with Evans. Evans then requested Brooks to work on the brand new line, which grew to be the S/360.
Learson also assigned John W. Haanstra, president of the regularly occurring items Division, which produced the 1400s, to chair an inside assignment drive known as unfold (for methods Programming, analysis, Engineering, and development), with Evans as vice chair. Brooks later joined the task force. In December 1961, the neighborhood introduced its technical ideas.
Their document referred to as for 5 compatible computer systems, labeled processors (defined because the computing device, its reminiscence, and channels to hook up with peripheral device). The application and peripherals for one processor have been to work with all different processors. The plan known as for the usage of typical hardware and application interfaces between computer systems and peripherals, akin to between disk drives and tape drives connecting to computers, in order that the peripherals did not need to be swapped out when a brand new processor become installed. The recommendations became the foundation for the equipment/360.
as a result of so a great deal would be new, the processors would not be appropriate with IBM’s present products. That was an incredibly crucial element. shoppers relocating to the new IBM machines would need to rewrite current application only once to get on the course of the new device.
Then, IBM got a fortunate ruin. As one engineer wrote, “practically miraculously [Evans’s] vision of the brand new product line turned into saved by means of a latest-minute technical accomplishment. In mid-1963, engineers in the Poughkeepsie and Endicott laboratories had begun exploring the probability of including particular microcode to the control outlets of computer systems to enhance their efficiency when simulating prior IBM computers.” This feature would allow 1401 utility to run within the two smaller fashions of the proposed new device, handiest faster. earnings received on board, and its executives begun pressuring R&D and manufacturing management for early introduction of the new processors.
Watson identified what became at stake, as he recalled in his memoirs:
From the beginning they faced two risks, either of which changed into sufficient to preserve us awake at night. First there become the task of coordinating the hardware and software design work for the new line. They had engineering groups in every single place the usa and Europe working concurrently on six new processors and dozens of latest peripherals…however in the conclusion all of this hardware would ought to plug together. The utility turned into an even bigger hurdle nonetheless. to ensure that device/360 to have a typical personality, a whole bunch of programmers had to write millions of lines of computing device code. nobody had ever tackled that complicated a programming job, and the engineers have been under remarkable force to get it completed.
A second set of problems involved manufacturing the electronic components for the new methods. The electronics business become starting to work on integrated circuits, and the brand new computer systems were going to be full of these new components. To be independent, IBM needed to make its own. It proved to be an expensive proposition.
finally, the corporate management committee, together with Watson and the board of directors, sucked in a deep breath and approved the spread ideas. IBM changed into off to the races in the wildest trip of its history.
IBM couldn't disguise what turned into going on. New employees flocked to Endicott, Poughkeepsie, and different labs and vegetation. valued clientele heard rumors, the computing device press changed into speculating, and executives at GE, Honeywell, Sperry Univac, and somewhere else had been attempting to assume what IBM would do.
At IBM, no one appeared satisfied with growth on the brand new equipment. Engineering, manufacturing, sales, and corporate workforce had been in many instances working one hundred-hour weeks. Engineers moved cots into their places of work. When Watson stopped in to look how programming turned into going, an engineer yelled at him to get out so he could work. The chairman of IBM beat a hasty retreat.photographs: IBM On 7 April 1964, a train from manhattan city’s Grand principal Terminal shuttled reporters to Poughkeepsie, the place IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. formally unveiled the system/360.
it all grew to become public at noon jap time in the united states on 7 April 1964. Over 100,000 consumers, journalists, and technologists met in one hundred sixty five U.S. cities, while others gathered round the world over the following few days to hear the information. As Watson declared at a press convention in Poughkeepsie, it turned into “essentially the most critical product announcement within the enterprise’s heritage.”picture: Mark Richards/laptop historical past Museum among the many system/360’s 44 peripherals was the 2311 disk storage pressure. each detachable disk pack kept 7.25 megabytes.
On that day, IBM introduced a intellect-boggling one hundred fifty new products: 6 computer systems; forty four peripherals, including tape drives, disk drives, printers, and handle gadgets; and a promise to supply the application integral to make every little thing work collectively. the click packet become an inch thick, and manuals describing all the machines, add-ons, utility, and their installing and operation crammed greater than 50 linear toes.
The central function of the system/360 changed into, of route, its compatibility. A turning out to be records core might deploy a small 360 computer and later improve to a bigger one with out rewriting software or replacing peripheral gadget. once widespread with the system, one did not need to be taught a superb deal extra to deal with an improve. The identify 360 became chosen to suggest the concept of 360 degrees, overlaying every little thing.
within the first month following the S/360 announcement, purchasers global ordered over one hundred,000 techniques. to put that quantity in point of view, in that equal year in the uk, all of Western Europe, the USA, and Japan, there have been a little bit greater than 20,000 computer systems of any kind installed. the first deliveries of the smaller machines were promised for the third quarter of 1965, and deliveries of the larger ones in the first quarter of 1966. The extend between announcement and transport date gave clients time to decide which fashions to purchase, get them authorized and budgeted, plan on the place to condominium them, instruct group of workers, comprehensive utility remediation, and the like. With the April announcement, IBM bought itself two years to make respectable on its guarantees and knock competitors returned on their heels.
From 7 April to when the business began supplying machines to shoppers, IBM entered probably the most unhealthy, intense, and difficult era of its heritage. The enterprise spent US $5 billion (about $40 billion these days) to boost the gadget/360, which at the time was greater than IBM made in a year, and it will at last rent more than 70,000 new workers. each IBMer believed that failure supposed the loss of life of IBM.
As Watson later recalled, “no longer the entire device on display [on 7 April] changed into true; some contraptions had been simply mockups made from wood. They explained that to their visitors, so there changed into no deception. however changed into a deadly slicing of corners—now not the style I believe company need to be executed—and an uncomfortable reminder to me of how some distance they had to go earlier than they might call the application successful.”
Watson assigned his brother, Arthur, to manipulate engineering and manufacturing going ahead. Learson would run earnings for the new system, “twisting the tails of their salesmen.” Tom Watson Jr. notion Learson had the more complicated project. The chance of purchasers converting to somebody else’s machines as opposed to to the S/360 significantly worried Watson.photograph: IBM IBM promised to start offering the primary S/360 machines within the third quarter of 1965. construction complications emerged presently.
because the variety of orders for the S/360 saved expanding, manufacturing was asked in 1965 to double production. One production supervisor mentioned it couldn't be completed and changed into replaced. first-rate declined. one of the vital electronic circuits inside an SLT, for instance, were no longer comprehensive, so electrons could not go the place they were imagined to. by way of the end of the yr, the fine manage branch had impounded 25 percent of all SLT modules, bringing production to a halt.photo: IBM With the S/360, IBM introduced its solid logic know-how (SLT), a precursor to built-in circuits. Doubling the production of the S/360 in 1965 led to defects in a quarter of the SLT modules.
After the complications were solved, manufacturing proceeded in 1966, leading to 90 million SLT modules convey produced, compared to simply 36 million the outdated 12 months. IBM opened a brand new plant in East Fishkill, just south of Poughkeepsie, which made greater semiconductor instruments than all different manufacturers global mixed. production additionally expanded to new amenities in Burlington, Vt., and in Corbeil-Essonnes, France.
To get to the bottom of manufacturing problems with the ferrite-core reminiscences, IBM set up a plant in Boulder, Colo., in 1965. however it took the craftsmanship of employees in Japan to get the production of reminiscences up to the necessary quantities and best.photograph: Mark Richards/desktop history Museum The S/360’s ferrite-core reminiscence additionally proved extremely complex to fabricate. This aircraft includes 1,536 memory cores.
As manufacturing grew to be a world effort, new issues arose in coordinating activities and fabricating machines. Arthur Watson had some event managing IBM’s small factories outdoor the U.S. but none with resolving engineering issues, not to mention massive world problems in development and manufacturing. He turned into out of his league, and his brother challenged him to resolve the problems. in the meantime, Learson and his revenue groups desired additional advancements to the product line. members of the family between Learson and Arthur completely deteriorated. In October 1964, IBM introduced huge delays in delivery products.
Tom eliminated Arthur from his job and grew to become over his duties to Learson, who in turn introduced in 4 engineering managers to punch throughout the issues. Nicknamed the “4 horsemen,” that they had full authority international for getting the S/360 manufactured and dropped at shoppers. Their assortment of problems, probably the most managers mentioned later, became “an absolute nightmare,” “a gray blur of 24-hour days, seven days a week—in no way being home.” And yet, in 5 months, they'd worked out enough of the issues to start meeting birth dates. In January 1966, Learson grew to become president of IBM.photos: IBM dealing with unacceptable production delays, Learson brought in [left to right] Henry E. Cooley, Clarence E. Frizzell, John W. Gibson, and John Haanstra, who sorted out manufacturing complications worldwide and bought the S/360 lower back on course.
Arthur become shunted into the function of vice president. His career turned into broken, and he retired in 1970. In his memoirs, Tom Watson Jr. admitted to being in an almost continual panic from 1964 to 1966 and deeply regretted his medicine of Arthur. “I felt nothing however shame and frustrations at the way I’d handled him…. because it became, they remade the desktop industry with the system/360, and objectively it became the most beneficial triumph of my business career. however on every occasion I look back on it, I consider about my brother I injured.”
utility problems additionally slowed construction of the 360. The application development personnel was described as being in “disarray” as early as 1963. The operating gadget, known as OS/360, struggled to run a couple of job at a time, which become elementary to creating the S/360 quick and productive. different issues surfaced with telecommunications and with utility courses. Programming support became an additional contentious difficulty.
Fred Brooks volunteered to aid, and IBM introduced 1,000 individuals to the working system undertaking, costing the company more for utility in 12 months than had been planned for the complete building of the S/360 system. but throwing greater programmers at the assignment didn't aid. in accordance with the S/360 adventure, Brooks would later expand on that theme within the legendary Man-Month (Addison-Wesley, 1975), nonetheless one of the most widely examine books on computing. The utility would take years to comprehensive, but in the conclusion it labored smartly adequate to keep the shipping extend to one month.image: IBM A device/360 arrives at Tokai financial institution in Japan. Demand for computing grew totally in the years following the S/360’s launch.
despite the charges and nervousness, in 1965—the year IBM had dedicated to shipping the first contraptions to consumers—it managed “with the aid of some miracle” (Watson’s words) to deliver a whole lot of medium-dimension S/360s. Their satisfactory didn't at all times suit the common design necessities. Shortages of elements, different elements that did not work, and utility full of bugs unfold to many international locations. nearly every initial consumer encountered problems.
department offices were hiring programs engineers to support. SEs had been college graduates, continually with technical degrees, who knew how to debug application and assisted the sales drive in selling and supporting computers. The SEs heroically tackled S/360’s application problems, whereas box engineers, who installed machine, mounted hardware problems. Salesmen calmed their customers, while department managers worked to maintain their staffs prompted and focused.
And despite the various problems, “customers have been nonetheless ordering 360s quicker than they could construct them,” Watson recalled, forcing start dates out as a good deal as three years. by way of the conclusion of 1966, valued clientele had taken delivery of nine models of the S/360, for a complete of seven,seven-hundred.
IBM’s competitors answered. Burroughs, GE, Honeywell, NCR, and Sperry Rand, operating mostly within the united states, CII in France, and ICT (later ICI) in first-rate Britain introduced techniques appropriate with one one other’s machines, however not appropriate with IBM’s. A 2nd, smaller community chose to fabricate machines that were suitable with IBM’s, including RCA and others in Europe and Japan, relying on RCA’s licenses.image: IBM NASA bought a number of S/360s, including this one at Goddard area Flight middle. a number of others at mission manage in Houston were used to display screen Apollo 11.
5 years later, the global inventory of put in IBM computers had grown to $24 billion, whereas that of competitors had reached $9 billion. In different phrases, IBM’s S/360 elevated general demand for computing so vastly that it raised all boats. The trade’s annual boom within the 2nd half of the Nineteen Sixties became in double digits year over 12 months, as many hundreds of businesses extended their use of computers. Demand for computing grew as a result of the technological innovations brought forth through IBM, but additionally as a result of clients have been amassing adequate adventure to take note a laptop’s price in driving down fees and performing new features.
IBM additionally grew, greater than doubling from 127,000 personnel global in 1962 to 265,000 through the end of 1971. profits rose from $3.2 billion in 1964 to $eight.2 billion in 1971.photo: IBM The S/360 bolstered IBM’s domination of the world laptop business. One government, requested whether the business would ever take on a further such challenge, spoke back, “Hell no, in no way again.”
because the S/360 changed into the heart of plenty computing with the aid of the end of the Nineteen Sixties, its users constituted a world of their own. heaps of programmers simplest knew how to use utility that ran on S/360s. extra thousands of records-processing personnel had labored most effective with IBM device, including keypunch machines, printers, tape drives, disk drives, and application, which in lots of instances took years to grasp. by means of the early Seventies the computing area become largely an IBM world on each side of the Atlantic, in the rising markets in Latin the us, and in Japan.
Years later, when requested no matter if IBM would ever engage in such a massive assignment once again, one government barked out, “Hell no, on no account once more.” Watson tilted toward a similar response. Commenting in 1966, he mentioned, “At their measurement, they will’t go 100 percent with anything else new once more,” meaning anything that large. After the 360, Watson made it a coverage “certainly not to announce a new technology in order to require us to dedicate greater than 25 p.c of their production to that know-how.”
The generation that introduced out the S/360 remained enjoyable within the company, a special clan bonded ferociously to IBM. Careers had been made and damaged, very own lives and marriages upended. IBMers did not recognize at the time how appreciably their products would alternate the world, but they do.
this text is according to excerpts from IBM: the upward thrust and Fall and Reinvention of a world Icon (MIT Press, 2019).
James W. Cortada is a senior research fellow on the college of Minnesota’s Charles Babbage Institute. He worked at IBM for 38 years in sales, consulting, managerial, and analysis positions.
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The International Business Machines Corporation, better known simply as IBM, is a world leader in IT products and services. It covers IT comprehensively, encompassing enterprise applications, middleware and operating systems, computing systems, storage, cloud computing, and business analytics.
IBM became known as Big Blue, most likely because of the color of its mainframes in the late 1960s. Some of IBM's best-known product brands include B2, Lotus, Tivoli and WebSphere. Today, the company is making its name known with Watson, IBM's cognitive technology.IBM certification program overview
A company as large, widely followed and revered as IBM is bound to have a well-developed certification program, and indeed it does. The IBM Professional Certification Program boasts almost 300 credentials.
In the past, IBM classified its certifications according to software, hardware, IBM PureSystems, solutions and "other." While individual certifications may still fall into those general categories, certification classifications have been revamped to more closely align with the company's product portfolio. IBM currently classifies its certifications across 11 main categories:
Certifications are aimed at IT professionals who implement, support or sell IBM products at the Associate, Professional and Advanced Professional (including Expert) tiers. Most certifications can be achieved by passing one or two exams focused on a specific IBM application, system or service, although some expert-level certs require up to five exams.IBM exams and retake policy
IBM certification exams are delivered through Pearson VUE testing centers. An exam may last 60 to 150 minutes, include anywhere from 22 to 97 questions, and cost $100 to $200. Exam details vary greatly across certifications, so they provide only high/low information here, and exam prices may change as of the first day of any calendar year. Exam prices also vary by geography, so candidates need to check prices for their localities.
A candidate who fails an exam the first time may retake it as soon as possible but must wait 30 days before making subsequent attempts. To help defray costs, IBM occasionally offers a Take It Again promotion in which candidates can retake an exam for free if they fail the first attempt. IBM has also been known to offer exams for free at events such as InterConnect 2017. Seating is frequently limited, so interested professionals should check out event offerings and register early.
IBM makes navigating certification easy with webpages dedicated to its certification process, along with one-stop shopping for test information (exam name and number, associated certification, number of questions, exam length, passing score requirements, plus links to the individual exam page) and easy-to-find exam pricing.
The following sections provide a high-level view of IBM certifications in each of the main categories.IBM Analytics
Featuring more than 100 certifications, IBM Analytics is IBM's largest certification category, reflecting the growing industry use of analytics and IBM's leadership in this area. Analytics certifications are designed for professionals working with IBM solutions for performance management and business intelligence.
IBM offers Analytics certifications in four areas: Cloud Content Services, Cognos Analytics, Collaboration Solutions and Social Business, and Platform Analytics. While there is some overlap among products, each concentration area features credentials in different portions of the IBM Analytics product portfolio:
IBM offers Analytics credentials from entry level to expert.IBM Cloud
Formerly IBM Cloud and Mobility, the IBM Cloud certification portfolio has grown exponentially and now offers more than 70 certifications, making it IBM's second largest certification portfolio. IBM Cloud credentials focus on six primary areas:
This portfolio features credentials for developers, administrators and solution architects.IBM Cognitive Solutions
IBM Cognitive Solutions certifications focus mainly on the Cognos, OpenPages and Algo One products. Where Cognos is geared toward business intelligence, analytics and financial strategy management, OpenPages facilitates governance, risk and compliance management. Algo One is a tool used for analyzing risk factors and models. IBM's Cognitive Solutions certifications are available at the administrator, associate and advanced developer, solution designer, and specialist levels.IBM Commerce
IBM Commerce certifications are all about the customer, and how professionals working with IBM technology can help the customer conduct and grow its business. Commerce certs come in three flavors: engaging the customer, partner and supplier relationships, and digital commerce. These certs cover a wide swath of credential roles, including business analysts, solution designers, system administrators, application developers, and deployment and implementation professionals.
The Customer Engagement category features credentials that focus on maximizing the customer product experience for WebSphere Commerce, Digital Analytics, Tealeaf, Marketing Operations, Sterling (Configuration, Order Management), Campaign and Interact.
Partner and Supplier Engagement certifications focus on professionals managing partner and supplier relationships. Products featured include Sterling Connect Direct, WebSphere Transformation Extender, Emptoris Contract Management and Sterling B2B Integrator.
Digital Experience credentials target professionals charged with enhancing the customer's digital experience and focus on WebSphere Portal, Web Content Manager, Digital Experience, Forms, Forms Experience Builder and Web Experience Factory.IBM Global Financing
IBM offers a single Global Financing credential, the IBM Global Financing Sales Master Specialist Professional certification. A single exam is required to earn the credential.IBM Global Technology Services
IBM Global Technology Services is promoted as the IBM group that builds and manages "the backbone that powers the era of enterprise hybrid IT." Simply put, GTS is all about services (both outsourced and managed services) for Watson, hardware, software and general technical support.
IBM offers a single cert in this category: the IBM Certified Specialist – IBM U.S. Technical Support Services V2. This certification is only available in the U.S. and is geared toward business partners who provide Level 1 or 2 technical support. Candidates must pass a single exam to earn the credential.IBM Security
In today's cognitive era, IT infrastructure security is essential to ensuing IT services are not only predictable but compliant and secure as well. An individual with an IBM Security certification has proven skills in designing, implementing, configuring, testing and/or supporting specific IBM security products. Many IBM Security certifications target professionals who process and analyze specialized data geared toward law enforcement, government agencies and municipalities (utility-related).
IBM security products include IBM Security Guardium, Security QRadar, i2 Analysts Notebook, Security SiteProtector, Endpoint Manager, MobileFirst Protect and many others. The IBM Security certification portfolio offers IT professionals 32 different options to hone and validate their security skills.
Depending on the certification, available credentials include administrator and associate administrator, analyst and associate analyst, associate, deployment professional, integration professional, solution advisor, security intelligence, and specialist. Deployment professional certs make up approximately one-third of the available security credentials (11 total).IBM Systems
IBM currently offers 29 different IBM Systems certifications aimed at users, advanced users, implementers and sellers. IBM Systems certs fall into five categories:
You may remember the now-famous bout where IBM's Watson supercomputer won the "Jeopardy" game show challenge, ushering in a new era in cognitive computing, big data and analytics. Since that time, IBM kick-started the IBM Watson Group with a healthy $1 billion in startup funding. Today, IBM Watson is rapidly becoming an industry leader for technology platforms that leverage the power of natural language and machine learning.
Eighteen IBM Watson certs are available. Seven certifications focus on Maximo Asset Management solutions, while the remaining certs are divided between TRIRIGA, Collaborative Lifecycle Management, Rhapsody, Predictive Maintenance and Quality, and Rational. Available credentials include associate, consultant, solutions (specialist, expert and advisor), deployment (infrastructure and advanced) and application developer.IBM Watson Health
A brainchild of The Watson Group, Watson Health is one of the newest rising stars at IBM. Watson Health boasts numerous partnerships with healthcare industry leaders.
There are currently two Watson Health certs available: IBM Certified Application Developer – Curam V604 and IBM Certified Associate Business Process Analyst – Curam V605. The Certified Application Developer – Curam is an intermediate credential that targets Java professionals who also work as Curam developers. The Associate Business Process Analyst – Curam is an entry-level credential for testers, business analysts or consultants seeking to establish foundation-level Curam skills or implement Curam projects. A single test is required for each certification. Note: IBM Business Partner candidates who've purchased a Value Package qualify for IBM's You Pass, They Pay (YPWP) Program. Under the YPWP program, candidates are reimbursed for exams and some preparatory courses.IBM Watson: Internet of Things
The internet of things, or IoT, is certainly changing the way they connect, interact and conduct business. The IBM Watson: Internet of Things portfolio is a new addition to the IBM family. Like IBM Watson certs, the IBM IoT certs focus primarily on Maximo Asset Management, Rational and TRIRIGA products. Credentials include specialists, associates, deployment professionals and more.Related jobs, careers and training resources
You'll find IBM-certified professionals employed in a variety of job roles that span all industry sectors. A simple job search for "IBM professionals" on Simply Hired turned up more than 40,000 job postings. For example, they found these postings:
Other common job roles included developers, business analysts, technical solution engineers, platform support engineers and integration leads. Career choices are limited only by your personal interests and aspirations.
IBM maintains a list of training resources for each exam on the individual exam webpage. Here, candidates will find test objectives, sample exams and assessment tests, as well as links to more formal training and other resources. Additional training materials, including books and e-books, may be purchased from the IBM Professional Certification Marketplace. On the IBM Training and Skills webpage, candidates will find links to blogs, articles, learning opportunities, events, Redbooks and PartnerWorld.
IBM has launched its latest, newest, biggest, baddest mainframe, the z14 system.
It features the next generation of IBM's CMOS mainframe chip technology, with 10-core processors using 14nm silicon-on-insulator technology, and running at 5.2GHz, claimed to be the fastest processor in the industry. Each core has hardware accelerated encryption implementing a CP Assist for Cryptographic Function (CPACF). The CPU also has 1.5 times more on-chip cache per core compared to the z13. There can be up to 32TB of memory, three times the z13 maximum, and its IO is three times faster as well.
A compression co-processor in each core has been improved to use fewer CPU cycles for compression/de-compression and DB2 will take advantage of that in the future.
IBM says the z14 has 10 per cent more performance per core than z13, and there are up to 170 configurable cores, meaning up to 35 per cent more total capacity in a single footprint compared to a z13.
IBM z14 PR shot
The z14 CPU has new instructions in the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) facility that speeds traditional decimal operation workloads (i.e. COBOL 6.2, PL/I 5.2) and analytics (ie, Apache Spark for z/OS) beyond that provided by the faster processor.
IBM claims the z14 can run Java workloads 50 per cent faster than x86 alternatives. FICON SAN access features 10 times lower latency than the z13 with the zHyperLink Express, enabling application response time to be cut in half.
The z14 has a scalable system structure that delivers up to a 35 per cent capacity increase for traditional workloads and an up to a 35 per cent capacity increase for Linux workloads compared to the previous generation z13.
There is coming z/OS software that will provide capabilities for private cloud service delivery, that will include support of workflow extensions for IBM Cloud Provisioning and Management for z/OS and real-time SMF analytics infrastructure support.Encryption
The z13 was launched in 2015. At the time they wrote it was grunty enough to do “real time encryption of all mobile transactions at any scale” up to a claimed 2.5 billion transactions a day. The z14 is even gruntier and bumps that up almost five fold to 12 billion encrypted transactions per day.
Big Blue burbles it can run the world's largest MongoDB instance with 2.5x faster NodeJS performance compared to paltry x86-based platforms. It supports 2,000,000 Docker containers and 1,000 concurrent NoSQL databases, it's claimed.
The system has an encryption engine, has a 7x increase in cryptographic performance over the z13, with a 4x increase in silicon dedicated to cryptographic algorithms. It protects encryption keys with so-called tamper responding hardware which invalidates keys at any sign of meddling, and IBM says they can be later restored safely. This capability can be extended outside the z14 to storage systems and servers in the cloud.
A Secure Service Container protects is claimed to protect against insider threats from contractors and privileged users, providing automatic data and code encryption in-flight and at-rest, and tamper-resistance during installation and runtime. Information has to be decrypted before it is processed, of course.
This mainframe responds to API calls from cloud services and z14 developers can call any cloud service. These APIs can be encrypted nearly three times faster than x86 systems, claims IBM.
The z14 can "pervasively encrypt data associated with any application, cloud service or database all the time," including IBM's Cloud Blockchain service. The company has set up IBM Cloud Blockchain data centres in Dallas, London, Frankfurt, Sao Paolo, Tokyo and Toronto, which are secured using the capital Z mainframe as the encryption engine.
Ross Mauri, general manager IBM Z, gave out an (unencrypted) canned quote saying: "The vast majority of stolen or leaked data today is in the open and easy to use because encryption has been very difficult and expensive to do at scale. They created a data protection engine for the cloud era to have a significant and immediate impact on global data security."
There are new container pricing models:
These pricing models are scalable within and across logical partitions (LPARs) and provide better metering, capping and billing.Our thoughts
The two biggest threats to IBM's continued mainframe revenue stream are x86 servers and the public cloud, hence IBM's Z release being littered with "better than x86" statements and claims. The pervasive encryption should encourage security-conscious CIOS to keep mainframe apps on the mainframe and in-house, helping to stem the dykes walling off the x86 server and public cloud seas threatening to breach its proprietary mainframe profit centre.
The pricing changes are intended to fend off the public cloud as well.
An analysis from Toni Sacconaghi Jr for Bernstein Research says IBM's hardware business is in secular decline, and, while mainframe hardware contributes just 3 per cent of revenues, the overall mainframe platform accounted for nearly a quarter of total IBM revenues and an estimated 40 per cent of profits in 2016.
Sacconaghi said he has seen a decline in mainframe hardware revenues from a historic $3bn - $4bn a year to $2bn in fiscal 2016, attributable to fewer new workloads or volumes moving to the mainframe, and some potential migration of Linux workloads off the mainframe.
The overall mainframe platform revenues come from IBM's base and not from new hardware sales. Consequently the z14's prime role is to support and continue this installed base revenue stream.
Container pricing for IBM Z is planned to be available by year-end 2017 and enabled in z/OS V2.2 and z/OS V2.3. Get a z14 datasheet here. ®
Sponsored: Becoming a Pragmatic Security Leader
Intel still has one more processor to get out the door to complete the “Haswell” generation, with the impending Xeon E5-4600 v3 for low-end, four-socket machines. But with higher end Xeon E7-4800 and E7-8800 v3 chips launched and representing the bulk of sales for four-socket and larger systems, most of IT shops will focus their attention on the Xeon E7s for jobs that need more scalability than the Xeon E5-2600 v3 processors, used in workhorse two-socket systems, can provide.
But the thing to remember is that more cores and more memory alone are not going to drive the upgrade cycle for Xeon E7 systems. There are a lot of different forces in effect in the datacenter right now, and these will help push Xeon E7 system sales – perhaps even more than Intel and its server partners expect.
At this point in history, after ten years of selling credible four-socket Xeon E7-class machines into the datacenter, it turns out that Intel’s server partners have a very large installed base of systems that are attractive upgrade targets for shiny new Xeon E7 v3 iron. But the performance increases between machines sold five or ten years ago and those that can be put into the field today are so large that, thanks to virtualization and consolidation, a large number of footprints might be removed from the datacenter, shrinking the Xeon E7 installed base considerably as machines are updated.
This is precisely what happened to the RISC and Itanium server bases over the past decade and a half since virtualization was introduced on Unix and proprietary systems back in the late 1990s. The database and transaction processing workloads on these mission critical, back-end systems do not grow like some of the web infrastructure workloads do and tend to follow a more modest curve that is reflective of the economy at large and normal growth. It is not easy and risky to generalize, but enterprises see something more akin to 25 percent or 30 percent growth per year in transaction processing instead of the more explosive growth seen for certain kinds of distributed computing.
This is wonderful for customers because they can put their big iron machines on a five or six year upgrade cycle (instead of the two, three, or four year cycle that is typical for distributed workloads running on Xeon E5 machines) and know at the end of that time they will not only get much more capable machines, but need fewer of them and less expensive ones (in terms of the price per unit of computing) when they do get around to upgrading some years hence.
But this fact has been disastrous for the Unix and proprietary systems businesses of IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Oracle, Fujitsu, Bull, and others. There is nothing they can do but ride the revenue curve down for those customers who stick with their platforms and lament the losses of customers who decide to go one step further and port their applications to Windows or Linux platforms running atop Xeon E7 machines.
The data in the chart above comes from IDC, and just under 210,000 machines were shipped in 2014 that had four sockets or more. About 9,000 machines had RISC or proprietary mainframe processors in them, and the remaining 94 percent were X86 architecture boxes, with the overwhelming majority of them being Xeon machines, not Opterons. The tiny fraction that was left is presumably the remaining few Itanium-based systems that get sold by HP, Bull, NEC, Inspur, and a few others. This high-end server market is not as big as many think – and it includes large shared memory systems like those made by SGI – but a couple of forces are driving its growth even though Moore’s Law allows a massive consolidation of machines.
“Our expectation is that technologies like in-memory will help it to grow. It has been pretty flat over the past few years, with slight ups and downs. But with in-memory, it opens up a whole new set of possibilities in the datacenter and they see a lot of people testing in-memory to find the best way to take advantage of it.”
Ed Goldman, who is CTO for the enterprise segment within Intel’s Data Center Group, says that 2009 was the only year in the past decade that the Xeon E7-class of machines had a revenue and shipment decline, and this was understandable given that this was the belly of the Great Recession and high-end machines are exactly the kind of boxes that are not replaced quickly during tough economic times.
In this case, whatever big iron machines were in the middle of being upgraded when the recession started in late 2007 and early 2008 were completed because of the long procurement cycle, and then sales stalled across all types of big iron in 2009 and 2010. Clusters based on two-socket machines were pushed out first and came back first, as is normal, because they have a faster procurement cycle and are often being used for greenfield applications, in this case Hadoop and other analytics workloads or virtual desktop infrastructure, which drive new revenues or cut costs.
With the broader adoption of in-memory processing (not just SAP HANA, but other technologies such as Pivotal GemFire and Apache Spark) and the Xeon E7 having twice the memory footprint of a Xeon two-socket E5-2600 or four-socket Xeon E5-4600 system, it stands to reason that as companies put more in-memory databases in the field, they will want to get the right balance of compute to memory for their workloads and this will drive Xeon E7 system sales. But don’t get too enthusiastic about a Xeon E7 explosion.
“Our expectation is that technologies like in-memory will help it to grow,” Goldman tells The Next Platform concerning the revenue stream from such big systems. “It has been pretty flat over the past few years, with slight ups and downs. But with in-memory, it opens up a whole new set of possibilities in the datacenter and they see a lot of people testing in-memory to find the best way to take advantage of it. Not every application is geared for scale out architecture. It takes a long time to switch the architecture, and certain problems need cache coherency and they need all of the features and functions of a scale up server. They expect to see single-digit growth in this environment – it is not something that is going to grow at 50 percent.”
While the machine count for scale-up machines is low, these systems still account for around 57 percent of revenues across all architectures, according to data cited by Intel in its briefings about the Xeon E7 v3 processors. (This seems a bit high to us.) The lowest hanging fruit for Xeon E7 v3 system sales is to get customers who are already using four-socket and larger Xeon machines and who haven’t upgraded. Customers who just bought an “Ivy Bridge-EX” Xeon E7 v2 system, which came to market fourteen months ago, are not very likely to upgrade, but customers using Xeon 7400 processors from 2010 or Xeon 7500s from 2011 are better prospects. The performance improvement, which can be expressed as a scaling factor, is quite impressive, as you can see:
It is hard to remember a time when they did not have multicore processors, but back with the Xeon MP in 2005, the chip only had a single core running at 3.66 GHz. Generally speaking, clock speeds have trended down a bit over time for the top-bin SKUs in the Xeon processors because you can get more throughput out of a chip by adding cores than you can by cranking clocks within a set thermal envelope. (Which hasn’t changed all that much in a decade, to be fair.)
Over the past decade, a four-socket Xeon machine running online transaction processing workloads has increased its throughput by a factor of 44X, which means you can have a single machine do the work of five racks of machines from a decade ago – as hard as that might be to believe. Because there are more devices hitting applications more frequently, and generating ever-larger amounts of data to be processed, the workloads keep growing and that is why there is even modest single-digit revenue growth for Intel for four-socket Xeon E5 and Xeon E7 processors. (The performance of the machines in the chart above is gauged using Intel’s own Warehouse OLTP benchmark, which simulates the data processing of a wholesale company managing its warehouses – the ones with forklifts, not parallel databases. They gave you OLTP Warehouse benchmark ratings for all of the past three generations of Xeon E7 processors in their coverage of the launch of the Haswell-EX chips.) Back in 2005, a four-socket machine could process 150.7 transactions per minute on the test, and using the top-bin E7-8890 v3, a four-socket machine can handle 6,602 TPM today.
No one is suggesting that customers even have 44 database servers and will consolidate them down to one machine. But what they might do is allow those databases to house more information on a new Xeon E7 box and then add in-memory processing to those databases to do more real-time analytics against production data without adversely affecting the performance of OLTP workloads running on the machine. You don’t have to move to SAP HANA to see benefits of more processing and memory capacity.
The thing to remember about upgrading big iron is that it is not just the processor that is changing. Customers are upgrading their operating systems and other systems software like databases and middleware, as well as other elements of the system, including faster and more capacious main memory and the addition of (relatively) affordable flash storage. All of these together can radically improve the performance of the system, more than the relative performance of the Xeon E7 processors alone imply.
Take server virtualization, for example, and start out with a Xeon X7460 four-socket machine from 2010, as shown in this comparison below:
The initial machine above had four six-core Xeon X7460 processors with 192 GB of memory plus 36 15K RPM SAS disks on an external JBOD disk enclosure; it cost $31,000, according to Intel. This system could support six virtual machines and had a relative performance of 94.28 on Intel’s own virtualization benchmark suite, which runs a set of infrastructure workloads on the VMs. Just upgrading that machine from the ESXi 4.1 hypervisor from, VMware to a more current ESXi 5.5 release gets about a 20 percent performance boost in terms of throughput while nearly doubling up the VM count to eleven; this drops the cost per VM by nearly half.
Upgrading this system to a four-socket machine based on E7-8890 v3 processors and loading it up with 1 TB of main memory and some 15K RPM disks yields a machine that can support 21 VMs at a cost of $50,500. Moving from 1 Gb/sec to 10 Gb/sec networking allows for more VMs to be added to the box, in this case doubling up to 42 VMs with an aggregate of 678.8 units of performance on the virtualization throughput test. To double the performance again (and about double the price of the system) Intel added four dozen 64 GB and two dozen 100 GB SATA SSDs to the JBOD enclosures, yielding 74 VMs with an aggregate throughput rating of 1,327 on the VM benchmark. Finally, Intel activated Single Root-I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) on the 10 Gb/sec Ethernet cards, and it could put 90 VMs on the box and push performance up to 1,603 on the test. That is a factor of 17X improvement in performance with the cost per VM dropping by nearly 80 percent.
For in-memory workloads, a similar change can be accomplished using a mix of software and hardware upgrades. Take SAP HANA, for instance:
During its Xeon E7 v3 announcement, Intel said SAP HANA could be accelerated by 6X, but the chart above shows you how this was actually accomplished. The upgrade from HANA SP8 to SP9 accounts for an 80 percent boost all by itself. Upgrading from a 15-core Ivy Bridge Xeon E7 to an 18-core Haswell Xeon E7 boosts the performance by another 50 percent on top of that, and turning on the TSX transactional memory feature more than doubles the performance on top of that again to get to the 6X overall increase. The processor cores are the smallest part of the performance bump in that overall system upgrade.
Up next, they will take a look at the relative performance and price/performance of Xeon E7 systems compared to the Power and Sparc alternatives in the big iron arena.
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