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IBM’s Watson tremendous laptop is studying to become a grasp winemaker.

At an enormous winery outside Modesto, Calif., E&J Gallo winery is testing a brand new irrigation device developed with IBM to develop grapes the use of less water. The plan is to at last observe the training discovered to Watson so that IBM’s information crunching know-how can assist farmers world wide.

cutting water use can store huge quantities of funds within the agriculture business. it could additionally play a large role in water conservation, principally all through droughts like the one which has plagued California for a couple of years.

“Water conservation has been a imperative focus,” pointed out Dr. Nick Dokoozlian, vice chairman, viticulture, chemistry, and enology at E&J Gallo. “Our stewardship of water continues.”

Even earlier than teaming with IBM (IBM), Gallo had used some innovative know-how to make its massive farming operations more effective. statistics scientists working for the company routinely analyzed satellite imagery of basically 20,000 acres of grape vines to judge their health.

although, Gallo’s irrigation equipment changed into imprecise, Dokoozlian explained. people might best alter the irrigation for plots as big as 10 acres, and not particular person flowers.

A Gallo winery backyard of Modesto

Gallo’s vineyard outdoor of Modesto, Calif.

according to satellite tv for pc imagery, Dokoozlian may see that some vines can be more healthy. but sending employees to water particular person plants could be too much work.

To solve the issue, Dokoozlian tapped IBM to support Gallo create a customized irrigation system that might automatically water small sections of vines in response to the analyzed satellite tv for pc facts. The irrigation gadget combines the winery’s records evaluation with personalized hardware.

“this is megastar Wars technology,” Dokoozlian pointed out.

Hendrik Hamann, a analysis supervisor in IBM’s actual sciences branch and the Watson analysis community, led the mission. He had little adventure working with wineries, however loads of event studying power management, sensor networks, and the physical sciences.

primary handle laptop

He and Dokoozlian labored out the technical necessities. They additionally tapped irrigation-manufacturing company Netafim to develop the irrigation system’s piping, valves, and linked infrastructure.

IBM constructed a laptop that acts because the manage middle for the ten-acre plot of Cabernet Sauvignon that serves as the test bed. Housed in an outsized electrical field close the field, it controls the irrigation schedule and carries a cellular link to a Gallo-run laptop community in Modesto, the place Gallo’s statistics science group is based.

Subscribe to statistics Sheet, Fortune’s day by day publication on the business of know-how.

body of workers can control water to 140 particular person sections within the vineyard—15 meters through 15 meters each—that include forty to 50 vines. adjustments to the electronics and valves support them handle the amount of water fed to the irrigation line working during the vines.

control container for irrigation system

handle container for irrigation device

“We know the way tons water to observe,” spoke of Dokoozlian. “We just mandatory someone to aid us to get the correct amount of water to each and every container.”

thus far, Dokoozlian said Gallo, situated greater than 80 years in the past, is pleased with the results. compared with before, the brand new device has reduce water use 25%. in the meantime, crop yield improved 26% in 2014, based on a research paper by IBM and Gallo.

And yes, the wine produced from the scan during the last three years is simply great. last 12 months, the harvest ended up as a version of Darkhorse Wines Cabernet Sauvignon.

IBM irrigation drip device

IBM irrigation drip device.

nevertheless, for the reason that the irrigation system is barely a prototype, there’s room for improvement. It’s too complex for a regular farm supervisor to operate, Dokoozlian observed. additionally, the device includes exposed wires and bins crammed with electronics, which makes it seem greater like a science undertaking and fewer like a commercially plausible undertaking. Hamann recounted the inconvenience of an enormous spider net of wires, and mentioned that plans are within the works for a instant-primarily based equipment that’s less complicated to operate.

“here is step one,” noted Dokoozlian.

at present, IBM is working on equivalent irrigation techniques for different forms of vegetation together with almond, citrus, and Marigold plants. The expertise giant desires to take what it realized from its scan with Gallo and practice it to its other initiatives.

Hendrik Hamann, a research supervisor in IBM’s physical sciences department and Watson research neighborhood

Hendrik Hamann, a analysis manager in IBM’s physical sciences department and Watson analysis community

IBM is hoping that it will sooner or later be able to promote records analytic know-how to farmers that they could access via IBM’s cloud computing system. The farmers would wire up their irrigation techniques while IBM would crunch the numbers.

For more on IBM, try here Fortune video:

It’s comparable to how healthcare agencies can entry Watson to research their records. still, IBM would face a couple of challengers in information analytics for agriculture. It’s a hot sector that comprises a couple of businesses that promote identical precision irrigation techniques like Canada-primarily based Hortau and Wisconsin-based Wellntel.

“it's fair to say they spent a fair amount of money,” Hamann mentioned about the charge of the Gallo test. but he referred to it turned into price it to study by means of doing.

global grasp records administration Market | recent developments, boom factors and enterprise development approach 2019-2028 | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Feb 06, 2019 (WiredRelease by the use of COMTEX) -- add the newest record on “world grasp records management Market by using category (consumer statistics, and Product facts), by means of software (Banking, Finance and assurance (BFSI), IT and Telecommunications, govt & health Care, and Manufacturing & Logistics), through place and Key agencies – business phase Outlook, Market evaluation, competition state of affairs, developments and Forecast 2019-2028” to its colossal file online shop.

grasp information management Market 2019 gives notable perception into the for the forecast from (2019-2028). The evaluation has coated the factors which can be contributing to the boom of the global grasp data management market. Highlighting the simple inclinations equivalent to drivers, master records management market tendencies, together with restraints which can be currently influencing. a trademark has been offered by using this report to the pursuers around the latest update on the business.

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The scope of this grasp statistics administration document

The global grasp information administration market covers product and scope abstract to specify the product kinds and should be offering grade by grade suggestions involving market dynamics. that's followed closely investigates and with the standpoint and the master facts management record consists of these truths and attributes of this market regarding salary and extent, earnings and its boom speed.

with the aid of type, the market is segmented into client facts, Product statistics. by utility, the market is split into Banking, Finance and insurance (BFSI), IT and Telecommunications, executive & health Care, Manufacturing & Logistics. in accordance with geography, a market is analyzed throughout North the usa, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin the usa and middle East and Africa. major gamers profiled in the file encompass SAP, Oracle, IBM, Informatica, Stibo methods, TIBCO software, Riversand applied sciences, Orchestra Networks, EnterWorks, Magnitude, Talend, SAS Institute, Microsoft, KPMG, Teradata agency, application AG, Agility Multichannel, VisionWare, SupplyOn AG, Sunway World, Yonyou.

probably the most many a must-have elements in grasp statistics management report would be competitive evaluation. The analysis covers market plans of the players and world master records administration market share, sales construction and research, all of the parameters like product introduction, and promote skilled perspectives.

in accordance with of this product kinds peculiarly cut up into:

consumer DataProduct statistics

by software notably split into:

Banking, Finance and assurance (BFSI)IT and TelecommunicationsGovernment & fitness CareManufacturing & Logistics

Regional prognosis:

North AmericaEuropeAsia-PacificLatin AmericaMiddle East and Africa

The master records administration market evaluating the business reputation, highlighting changes, hazard evaluation, and leveraged with all tactical resolution service. The business analysis is placing an outstanding deal of focal point on regulatory issues, macroeconomic impacting points, key grasp data management market dimension, and increase drivers which are altering the business dynamics. In accession for the special quantitative analysis of financial increase features and hazards, chances within grasp records administration challenges and industry are covered on the outline area. As a method to find a deeper point of view of economy measurement, the aggressive landscape is given, i.e. profits (Mn/Bn USD) via master statistics administration gamers (2019-2028), salary market share (percent) by means of participants (2019-2028) and a qualitative investigation is made in opposition t economic system immersion master data administration increase, product/service transformations, and new entrants together with the technical traits.

Browse Full grasp statistics administration research report with finished TOC @

principal Key producers of master statistics administration:

SAPOracleIBMInformaticaStibo SystemsTIBCO SoftwareRiversand TechnologiesOrchestra NetworksEnterWorksMagnitudeTalendSAS InstituteMicrosoftKPMGTeradata CorporationSoftware AGAgility MultichannelVisionWareSupplyOn AGSunway WorldYonyou

other attributes covered within the grasp facts administration market debts are:

1. economic system grasp facts management assistance: quantity and price tips with expansion contrast for 2019-2028;

2. evaluation: importance and growing contrast to the foreign grasp records management market with inputs inside a single part display interior every class and their shift on the market share during the forecast duration for 2019-2028;

3. grasp records administration Market deliver information: amount of income within every segment via deliver stations;

4. Market gamers: share and dimension of grasp records administration market of private labels and brands;

predominant vital facets of international master data management financial system:

* foreign master statistics administration market important producers with product tips, company guidance, contact info, and manufacturing details;

* grasp statistics management document moreover simplifies merchants/distributors, market affect variable contrast and investigation of the plan;

* master information administration evaluation of the downstream sector, business sequence construction and upstream sector;

* Intro of world master records administration market with prospective boom and standing;

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* economy prediction of with import and export, demand and distribution, global grasp facts management market shares, income, and value;

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What constitutes an educated Trini? | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

part II

“The college curriculum is not offering the excellent of individual they need to construct the nation.” —Paula-Mae Weekes, President of Trinidad and Tobago

NEAL Phillip, professor and chairman of Chemistry and Chemical expertise at Bronx neighborhood faculty, metropolis institution of long island (CUNY), wrote right here article “getting ready college students to enter a twenty first Century body of workers” at my instigation.

i wished to follow via on assistance to enhance excessive faculty education in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). I reproduce Prof Phillip’s article with a couple of editorial adjustments:

I grew up in Tacarigua and attended Tacarigua AC and D’Abadie government colleges before I went on to Queen’s Royal faculty (QRC) the place I got what can also be described as a classical schooling. youngsters the junior secondary, senior secondary and technical schools moved far from the classical mannequin, I trust T&T faculties need to focus more effort on high impact practices, particularly on experiential learning, to better put together their college students to characteristic in an ever-expanding technical world.

after I investigate the requirements for the twenty first century workforce, just earning a Bachelor’s, master’s and PhD levels would be inadequate and, below certain circumstances, may be rendered out of date. Technical knowledge, in place of degrees, have become paramount. I present some examples of experiential gaining knowledge of fashions from my experiences within the united states and programmes I developed.

I sit on the professional Advisory Committee for big apple Harbor high faculty which is committed to planting 1000000000 oysters in ny Harbor to improve the water excellent. despite the fact the college students engage in average subjects comparable to arithmetic, Chemistry, Biology and English, they additionally pay attention to the oyster venture. students learn how to build and pilot boats, dive and look after the oyster beds, computer screen the water excellent and the fitness of the oysters.

These college students additionally take classes in Geographic tips device (GIS) and remote Sensing to make use of satellites and different spatial equipment to better learn concerning the atmosphere. on the completion of their stories they're prepared to enter a school with sound technical practicing. This ensures they're going to enter the team of workers eventually with enormously sought-after technical expertise.

My work also takes me backyard the us. In Australia I visited elementary schools where an analogous experiential learning model is adopted. At Hermit Park State basic faculty in Townsville, Queensland, the focus is on sustainability. together with researching traditional subjects comparable to mathematics, Science, and English, college students have interaction in growing plants, participate in aquaculture, growing to be chickens and caring for bees.

They also sharpen their competencies in science and other fields through checking the pH of the water within the fish tank, monitoring the acidity of the soil, and checking on the wind velocity that powers the wind-powered floor water pump. rather than relying on class exams and assessments most effective, the college students’ performance in these activities is part of their universal evaluation. They gain knowledge of beneficial technical abilities ‘via doing’.

The change become reciprocal. college students from Hermit Park informed my college students on a way to construct least expensive environmental sensors to measure temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide throughout their seek advice from there in November.

I even have also engaged with IBM throughout the Smarter Cities program and have turn into a large fan of their P-Tech schools. P-Tech is a collaboration between IBM, the manhattan city faculty equipment and CUNY that pretty much offers excessive school students with high degree technical potential, exceptionally in coding and synthetic intelligence so that they earn each a high faculty diploma and an affiliate degree upon commencement. With the skills they have acquired, they're instantly scooped up by using IBM into lucrative technical careers at the age of 18 and 19.

This device is now adopted broadly in the united states, Australia, Europe, and South america. It is usually a model for T&T the place groups can accomplice with educational associations to deliver a stronger organized staff for a specific sector of the economic system.

i'm also a mentor for the CUNY-IBM Watson Case competitors where students work in groups and vie for a US$5,000 first region prize to use IBM Watson and blue-mix technologies to improve better training and NYC government features. This programme has supplied the students with abilities in AI and cognitive computing that prepares them for the 21st century staff. Some of these students have even shaped groups with apps and concepts they developed for the programme.

Get caught up with information from the news leaderSubscribe now and get entry to the Trinidad categorical E-paperSUBSCRIBE/ LOG IN

I actually have also all started examine-overseas programmes in CUNY to boost college students’ technical expertise and their language, cultural and international skills so they can feature at the highest stage in the 21st century. recently, they spent two weeks in Mallorca, Spain and Townsville, Australia respectively installation solar powered instant weather stations, monitoring climate circumstances and pollutants, block by using block, with their especially developed again pack weather station. They educated students in those international locations about sustainability the usage of collective social studying and thematic communique strategies.

My students additionally took away lifestyles-long technical and different expertise from their international counterparts so as to permit them to be tremendously aggressive of their expert careers.

T&T needs to start conversations on adopting most fulfilling educational and excessive influence practices to better put together technically-sound college students who could be competitive in a twenty first Century body of workers that's additionally becoming more world.

Prof Phillip has distinguished himself in experimental strategies for teaching of excessive college college students.

He has donated the same weather station to QRC and worked with students and their geography trainer to set up it.

there is so a great deal their educators can learn from his experience.

Prof Cudjoe’s email handle is He can also be reached @ProfessorCudjoe.

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Finding the Sweet Spot for Innovation Within Government Systems | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

STiR network members meeting in Uganda.

“A good tennis player can play with a broom and still win their matches,” a former tennis coach once told me.

Later I learned Roger Federer—in many minds, the most naturally gifted player of all time—spent years working with the sports equipment manufacturer Wilson to build a perfectly honed racket head for his game; designed with a “sweet spot” on the strings which made the most of his type of shots.

Since the founding of STiR—an NGO that uses networks to motivate teachers and teacher-support officials within governments—nearly seven years ago, we’ve been playing with a proverbial broom, not quite knowing where they best fit within government-run education systems. They kept thinking, “Let’s just get their core approach to sparking intrinsic motivation clear, and the system around us will largely take care of itself.”

Well, it did, sort of. At times, their adaptations have confused their partners and supporters—and even ourselves. They were also almost certainly too swayed by the dominant thinking on scaling in international development. But patience from donors, partners, and the systems themselves have allowed us to clumsily but earnestly discover, rather than design upfront, their true sweet spot. They hope their experiences can prove useful to other groups working in education and other areas of international development, who are trying to find their place within government systems.

An Evolution

STiR began in 2012 with a single pilot involving 25 teachers in Delhi. Today, they work with 200,000 teachers and six million children across four states in India and a quarter of all districts in Uganda. With the benefit of hindsight, they can see that we’ve actually tried out four distinct brooms over time.

Over the years, they have tried, experimented and iterated on four different approaches—each with varying levels of ownership and varying levels of interaction with government-run education systems.

We’ve basically been moving from the left to the right of the continuum. We’ve almost overshot into “system controlled” in a few regions where they work, only to course correct. Each time, the impetus for testing a new sweet spot wasn’t the result of great internal wisdom; it was pressure from sage leaders within government-run education systems who saw a path they didn’t.

We’ve finally settled into the “system learning partnership” approach, and we’re starting to see positive early results on a system level. Last year, for example, the Delhi education government system achieved the best academic results in its history, with government schools even overtaking private schools.

Three Guiding Principles

Today, they know everything in their operating model—including their values, measurement approach, and people-development strategies—needs to align to achieve a genuine system learning partnership. They rely on three guiding principles:

1. People are the solution, not just conduits to drive processes.

Too often they design for the lowest common denominator, meaning they try to use processes to control people within systems. In education, for example, that can mean forcing (often good) prescriptive practices that crowd out any sense of teacher autonomy.

Teachers in their networks need case studies showing what improves teaching practice. For example, they need to see how creating effective routines can maximize available learning time. But they also need a collaborative space to decide how to put that evidence to use in their own classrooms. So rather than creating tight dependency on a rigidly prescribed approach, they help teachers develop their own professional judgement through working with peers. The feeling that they are in control of their classrooms motivates them to want to become better teachers and to work toward professional mastery. It sounds basic, but we’ve occasionally compromised this belief by making the network meetings too prescriptive. Each time they did, it came back to haunt us; teachers and district officials were less inclined to do the kind of deep reflection that can lead to sustained practice.

2. They need to design for system conditions that optimize interventions.

Many organizations focus on designing the perfect intervention to fit an identified challenge. But unless they can persuade systems to adopt them, it’s unlikely we’ll achieve success.

Great technical interventions abound in education—such as Pratham’s Teaching at the Right Level—and they’re growing ever more powerful. But much of the new systems research coming out of DFID’s RISE Education Systems Research Programme and elsewhere shows that demotivated teachers and local officials often fail to internalize and sometimes actively resist strong technical interventions. We’ve heard similar comments from colleagues in other sectors; Digital Green, for example, uses video to encourage farmers to change practices.  

This insight made us realize that if they can get their intrinsic motivation approach right (and they still have much to improve), they can create three pathways to system impact:

  • Direct: Developing more intrinsically motivated teachers should lead to students who are more engaged in the learning process, who apply themselves, and who believe in themselves and their teachers.
  • Amplification: Intrinsically motivated teachers will engage more deeply in the technical interventions already taking place in a system.
  • Structural: Improving the underlying structural conditions in systems sustains intrinsic motivation over time.
  • We’ve created self-reinforcing linkages between all three paths. For example, the Delhi system initially lacked a well-functioning cadre of officials to run the teacher networks within its large secondary schools. They worked with the government to define profiles of who they needed and helped design a robust recruitment process. This not only made their own approach more effective, but also created a new structure to make other technical interventions more effective. They now need to develop innovative methods for measuring all three paths, rather than just the first.

    3. Creating genuine partnerships is enormously demanding in terms of culture—but so worth it.

    Genuine system learning partnerships require real honesty on both sides. They call it the “chai test”: Can they sit down over a cup of chai (tea) with leading officials and have an open conversation about the tough stuff?

    A tough conversation around system conditions is really important, regardless of the sector you are in. We’ve come to learn that their particular approach is highly sensitive to four conditions:

  • The system itself must articulate a clear vision of what it really wants to prioritize achieving.
  • There must be a strong middle-tier of officials to lead the delivery and management of their approach.
  • There need to be other technical interventions that their approach can amplify (such as a reading program).
  • We need to establish basic system “hygiene” factors (such as getting teachers paid on time) to avoid de-motivating teachers before they start.
  • We’ve created a system diagnostic tool to help pinpoint these conditions. In general, they try to enter new government-run education systems either when these conditions already exist or when the government is authentically committed to them. But when they find ourselves working in a difficult system, they try to develop smart workaround strategies to circumvent challenges. For example, they found that they needed to introduce classroom observation to improve day-to-day classroom behavior. When existing supervisors didn’t have the time to assume that role in Uganda, they worked to allow teacher-to-teacher observation instead.

    In the medium- and long-term, they will need to work with the system—and often the bilateral and multilateral donors that contribute to the system’s funding—to improve underlying conditions. That might mean, in Uganda, for example, revitalizing and reinvesting in the roles of supervisors in the first place.

    Our hope is that by sharing these lessons from working within systems, they save others similar pain and perhaps fast track their gain. Every organization should think carefully and candidly about the system sweet spot they really want (and are best positioned) to occupy. And once they’re clear, they should align everything in their operating model around it—particularly their values and culture.

    Contrary to what my coach told me, there really is no need to play tennis with brooms. Roger that.

    Observability-Driven Development for Tackling the Great Unknown | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Key Takeaways
  • As microservices and containers make systems more distributed and complicated, there is an increase of unknown unknowns.
  • Monitoring only after release no longer scales, you can only succeed when you fully understand the potential failures of your system.
  • Observability-driven development (ODD) uses a mix of tools and devs to observe the state and behavior of a system in a way that you learn more about its patterns of weakness.
  • Monitoring is traditionally done by operations after release, while observability is event-first testing in production.
  • Observability, like the entire DevOps movement, is about being a better software steward, leaving bread crumbs to explain to the next developer why you did that to your product.
  • There’s no doubt that systems become more and more complicated the more distributed they are. It makes 24/7 monitoring and on-call rotations essential for most companies. But how has observability affected their ever shorter DevOps feedback loops? In this article, they summarize learnings about observability-driven development from  Charity Majors, founder of Honeycomb and fierce proponent of observability.

    DevOps is called upon to re-motivate developers

    "Originally the feedback loop was you would break stuff, people would yell at you, and then they would praise you when you fixed it, but then the Internet became a thing and their systems got more complicated,” Majors told the crowd at CloudNative 2018 in London. 

    Majors recalled that they all began by owning their own software — because who else was going to own it — but, as they got farther from that ownership, they lost the ability to know when something isn’t right. Silos got developers further and further away from running their code and the DevOps movement appeared as “an attempt to return to grace, to return to the state of that virtuous feedback loop,” Majors said. 

    Each developer needs to own their code, from writing to deploying to debugging and deploying again. Anything less is not full DevOps ownership, Majors argues:

    It makes software better, the person who is debugging has the most relevant context to debug it when it’s live.

    She went on to offer Charity’s Law of DevOps:

    They who write the code can and should deploy their code and support it in production.

    The purpose of DevOps automation isn’t just speed, it’s about leveraging the intrinsic motivation and creativity of developers again by freeing them from non-creative, tedious repair work:

    What makes us feel fulfilled and satisfied is all about autonomy, feeling empowered, building something that matters, and caring about it being done well.

    This, of course, is in line with Dan Pink’s three key intrinsic motivators for knowledge workers: autonomy, mastery, and purpose.

    However, time and again devs are releasing code that looks fine in their local setup, but as soon as they deploy, all sorts of issues ensue. It can take days to discover what’s wrong, let alone fixing the issue. Majors warns:

    The first lesson of a distributed system is that your system is never up — its many catastrophic states exist at any given time.

    However, once observability-driven development is in place with the right stack, instrumentation, and, especially, visualization, those same system flaws can be discovered and addressed much faster, typically hours or even minutes.

    How observability-driven development is educating developers about their systems

    What is observability-driven development? It’s leveraging tools and hands-on developers to observe the state and behavior of a system in a way that you learn more about said system, including patterns of weakness. ODD is actually interrogating the system, while monitoring is just setting and measuring thresholds for it.

    Majors argues that test-driven development — the process of writing a test and then writing code that passes that test — is now ready to evolve into observability-driven development. Both fall under the umbrella of behavior-driven development, but ODD shows a greater understanding of that behavior.

    Majors says observability-driven development is a process that you can use to be on call as well. Observability is part of control theory which examines how they can possibly control complicated distributed systems.

    You understand what’s happening inside your system, inside your code, just by interrogating it. Can you answer new questions without shipping new code?

    Majors emphasized that it’s about achieving the right level of abstraction, not contributing to a more complicated codebase: 

    When you do have an observable system your team will quickly and reliably track down any new problem with no prior knowledge. [They will] understand UX and behavior and reasons for your codes and bugs.

    Observability doesn’t negate monitoring, which is still an important piece of DevOps coverage. But according to Majors, monitoring has not kept up in the last 20 years, being still mostly suited for on-premise requirements.

    It takes the remnants of outages gone past to translate it into what those dashboards mean — only about two percent of software engineers understand that.

    Majors quoted workflow for automation tool Sensu’s VP of Engineering Greg Poirier saying “monitoring is dead.” Poirier argues that it’s the act of observing and checking the behavior and outputs of a system and its components over time — a good definition of observability-driven development — which makes monitoring an outdated model for complex systems.

    "It’s important to build tools for people that make sense with them so they live in one reality", Majors said, talking about the need for clear, cross-organizational dashboards 

    For Majors, observability is about making sure the “known unknowns” are greater than or equal to the “unknown unknowns.

    There are some problems you can only see if you are way out. You have to gather the detail that will let you find any of those.

    Majors calls observability a game of looking for outliers — if you have a dozen failures, what do they all have in common, based on collected and queried data? She said you should care about whether each request can succeed and if you can get the resources to work end-to-end.

    The immense challenge of distributed systems is compounded by the fact that they’re actually more akin to an interconnected network of systems, many of which are out of their sphere of control. They are therefore impossible to observe directly.

    Monitoring is monitoring. Observing is event-first testing in production.

    "Every piece of architecture is unique so you have to test it. And you have to test it in prod because you can only test so much before you get into prod", Majors said, explaining that deploying code is not an on-off, binary switch.

    You could, of course, test before deploy in staging and after deploy in production, but that might exhaust the often limited engineering resources. Majors advocates for embracing the reality that you are testing in production whether you intend to or not, and recommends using techniques like canary testing as guardrails to help achieve observability.

    She calls observability the missing link, allowing software owners to test in production, offering an event-first perspective of the software, how it’s being used and how it’s reacting to that use.

    Majors says good automated monitoring includes these best practices:

  • Many actionable active checks and alerts
  • Proactively notifying engineers of failures and warnings
  • Maintaining a runbook for stability and predictability in production systems
  • Expecting clusters and clumps of tightly coupled systems to all break at once
  • But with microservices it gets much more complicated, with many more of the “unknown unknowns.”

    There are so many components and storage systems, you cannot model the entire system in your head. The health of the system is irrelevant — the health of every individual request is of supreme consequence.

    TDD only covers the known unknowns, which become a support problem. These are predictable and can be dealt within a predictable time frame, and can be monitored on a dashboard. 

    The “unknown unknowns” remain an engineering problem. These are often open-ended in the timeframe it takes to fix, and they require exploration of the systems and creativity. It’s what devs should be spending their time on. Observability tackles this great unknown.

    Observability is about hunting your unknowns and uncovering your events

    Majors says, to do observability right, you should bring it in the moment you even consider building something, making it an inherent part of your development process. 

    She says it’s about hunting your unknowns, fine-tuning your instruments from the inside-out. And it’s about being a good software steward for the next user, even if that user is you six months down the line wondering why you ever made that choice. 

    Getting inside the software’s head and explaining it back to you and a naive user — finding those breadcrumbs and leaving them so your future self can trace it back to the source.

    Monitoring is mostly about metrics, while observability is about events. Majors recommends that you first focus on debugging high-cardinality events — important but often unique information like identification numbers, usernames, and email addresses — because these involve a lot of context and tracking.

    She says events tell stories that help you uncover that context and the outliers, which in turn helps you identify what’s wrong. She continued that bandwidth and cost restrict your ability to store "all the data all of the time”, but it’s essential to structure your aggregated data logs “because this how their brains work and this is how their code works.”

    According to Majors, creating a dashboard is not the answer: "It’s an artifact of some past failure. It jumps to the answer instead of starting with a question", Majors argues for everything in real-time, instead of grasping at trends. She continued to explain that observability requires the ability to drill down the sampled data all the way to the raw requests. Aggregation doesn’t work because you can never expand again the data that was previously merged together. Sampling, however, allows you to retain a sufficient level of detail for asking more questions later on. Observability is about asking a question and following the answer. Then ask a new question. And repeating this cycle until you discover that “unknown unknown”.

    Service owners, not just operators

    Services really do need owners, not operators, and they need their owners to care about observability before you even write one line of code.

    In the new world of always-on DevOps, this means developers need a higher level of operational literacy and to be fluent in their own code. Majors says to achieve this proficiency and to really get a grasp on what “abnormal” looks like, devs need to be watching their code run in production. Majors suggests this could bring down the number of production incidents by up to 80 percent.

    She reckons that at some point in the future artificial intelligence and machine learning will get to the level that software becomes context-aware and self-healing.

    Majors’ key premise is that proper observability will lead to drastically fewer pager alerts, with only latency complaints flagging up.

    About the Author

    Jennifer Riggins is a tech storyteller and writer, where digital transformation meets culture, hopefully changing the world for a better place. Follow her on Twitter @jkriggins.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) – longer wavelengths can improve imaging depths | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Left: overview of the 4-μm OCT system. The OCT system consists of five parts that are connected via optical fiber: a broadband mid-IR SC source based on a MOPA pump laser and fluoride fiber, a free-space Michelson interferometer, a scanning x,y translation stage, a frequency upconversion module, and a silicon CMOS-based spectrometer. OCT optical coherence tomography, IR infrared, SC supercontinuum, MOPA master-oscillator power amplifier, CMOS complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor. Right: overview 1.3 µm OCT system setup used as a benchmark for comparison of its images with those produced by the 4 µm OCT system. Main components are a supercontinuum source, fiber coupler (50/50), spectrometer, sample (S), and reference (R). S and R encompass collimating lenses (L), galvonometric scanners (XY), scanning objective (SO), dispersion compensating element (DC). The graph shows an example of an interferogram of a channeled spectrum. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging technique currently used in clinical diagnostics to examine organs in vivo. The technique uses interferometry; in which light reflected from an examined object combines with reference light that does not encounter the object to generate interference patterns that form 2-D and 3-D OCT images. It is possible to use longer wavelengths of light in the imaging technique for deeper penetration in light scattering materials. Such features offer possibilities for OCT in non-destructive testing (NDT) of samples, and improved non-invasive biomedical imaging. In a recent study, Niels M. Israelsen and co-workers at the Technical University of Denmark, together with collaborators in Austria and the U.K., developed a new method to overcome the technical challenges of OCT imaging.

    In the study, they obtained images using mid-infrared light to reveal microscopic structures not visible under the conventional shorter wavelength near-infrared light. For this, the team experimentally combined broadband supercontinuum light and frequency upconversion for real-time image acquisition at high resolution. The results are now published in Light: Science & Applications, with potential for promising clinical advances in defect detection and thickness measurements in vivo. The potential to improve depth penetration of OCT by using longer wavelengths has been known since its inception in the early 1990s. The development of mid-infrared OCT was long challenged by optical components in this spectral region, resulting in slow acquisition, low-sensitivity and poor axial resolution.

    Israelsen et al. demonstrated the first practical mid-infrared OCT system in the present study. The researchers used a mid-infrared spectral-domain OCT system operating at a central wavelength of 4 micron (µm) to provide an axial resolution of 8.6 µm. The images produced by the mid-infrared system were compared with those delivered using a state-of-the-art ultra-high resolution near-infrared OCT system operating at 1.3 µm. The experimental setup has immediate applications in real-time non-destructive testing of samples that exhibit strong scattering at shorter wavelengths.

    As an optical technique, OCT is best suited for biophotonics and clinical biomedical imaging, with notable applications in ophthalmology. The technique allows real-time, non-invasive and non-contact measurements for 3-D sample visualization. The setup has rapidly advanced with advanced light sources, detectors and components in the visible and near infra-red spectral region for high-speed and high-resolution imaging in vivo. The OCT system is an industry-ready technology that is robust and easy to implement using low optical power. The main limitation of the system is the strong scattering of light at visible and near-infrared wavelengths that limit the penetration depth in turbid media from a few tens to hundreds of microns, depending on the sample.

    Characterization of the 4-μm OCT system. a) Superposition of the SC spectra before (red) and after (dark blue) upconversion together with an example of the interference spectrum (light blue). b) Lateral spatial resolution characterization using an USAF 1951 (left) resolution test chart. The smallest resolvable features in the image (right) are elements 1 and 2 in group 6 marked by red arrows, which gives a lateral resolution of ~15 μm. c Sensitivity roll-off curve showing an axial range of up to 2.5-mm OPD. The inset shows a Gaussian fit of the zero-padded A-scan peak at ~100 μm OPD, giving a FWHM axial resolution of 8.6 μm. OCT optical coherence tomography, SC supercontinuum, OPD optical path difference, FWHM full-width half-maximum. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi:

    In this work, Israelsen et al. provided an experimental setup of the mid-infrared OCT system, with five modular parts:

  • A custom-mid IR supercontinuum (SC) source for illumination, based on a master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) pump laser and single-mode zirconium fluoride fiber.
  • An in-house developed, broadband frequency upconversion system for detection.
  • A free-space Michelson interferometer
  • A scanning sample X, Y translation stage system, and
  • A silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based spectrometer.
  • Video of ceramic stack imaged from the top using OCT. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi:

    To ease coupling and alignment between the subsystems, the scientists connected each system with an optical fiber. They then focused the beam generated on to the sample using a barium fluoride (BaF2) lens, the images were acquired by moving the sample on the motorized translation stages. Israelsen et al. collected the sample and reference signals in a single-mode indium fluoride fiber to then relay them to the upconversion module for spectral conversion to the near IR. Thereafter, they demonstrated the superposition of the SC spectra before (red) and after (dark blue) upconversion, alongside an example of the spectrum of interference in light blue.

    By design, the upconversion module could convert a broad bandwidth of more than 1 µm in the mid-IR region (3576-4625 nm) to a narrow band in the near-IR (820-865 nm) without parametric tuning. The generated near-IR sum frequency signal did not lose any information encoded in the spectral mode of the mid-IR signal. Since state-of-the-art mid-IR detectors suffered from intrinsic thermal background noise compared to their near-IR counterparts, broadband nonlinear frequency upconversion technology allowed for faster and low-noise detection in the study.

    Demonstrating the reduction in multiple scattering at 4 µm. Left: Top-view photograph of the alumina on cellulose acetate foil with green dotted lines indicating the different B-scan sections P1–P5. It should be noted that P1 is a reference point where there is no alumina deposited on the foil. Middle: Sample B-scans at positions P1–P5 using the 1.3-μm OCT system showing the detrimental effect of multiple scattering. Right: corresponding sample B-scans at positions P1–P5 using the 4-μm OCT system showing significantly reduced scattering. Bottom: average of ten A-scans (corresponding to the vertical dashed lines at P3) for both OCT systems. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi:

    As proof-of-principle of the OCT imaging system developed in the study, the scientists successfully replicated experiments that were previously conducted by Su et al. in industrial ceramics. The previous work had determined that a 4 µm wavelength OCT system was able to image through a milled alumina plate to reveal its internal structure. To test this, Israelsen et al. obtained similar ceramic samples from the same provider; where the ceramic stack contained three layers of plates (C1-C3; zirconium, 476 µm thick alumina and 300 µm thick alumina). The sample was scanned and imaged from the top zirconium plate downwards, the results were consistent with the previous findings. To further support the findings, the scientists performed a series of Monte Carlo simulations using MCX open source software, to qualitatively confirm improved visualization of in-depth interfaces in the 4 µm OCT images.

    The scientists then showed reduced scattering for 4 µm OCT compared to the 1.3 µm OCT setup using an alumina tape material. The results indicated that image distortion due to dispersion was less pronounced in the 4 µm OCT system. The feature could be useful to characterize silicon-based devices, including microelectromechanical systems, solar cells and waveguides.

    For 3-D imaging of more complex, non-uniform structures, the scientists imaged a Europay, MasterCard, Visa-chip (EMV chip) and a near-field communication antenna embedded in a standard credit card. Credit cards are commonly made from several laminated polymer layers mixed with a variety of dyes and additives. Using the 4 µm OCT setup, the scientists identified three layers of highly scattering polymers, which could not be penetrated by the 1.3 µm OCT system due to its high scattering properties in the near-IR region.

    In some instances, they even detected the rear of the card at a thickness of 0.76 mm. Israelsen et al. observed that below the first scattering polymer layer, an encapsulation layer protected the embedded silicon microprocessor. They also observed the bonded wires and circuitry that connected the microprocessor to the underlying gold contact pad.

    Video of credit card under OCT. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi:

    Research work by Israelsen et al. indicated that the 4 µm OCT system was superior to the 1.3 µm OCT system. Since OCT imaging at longer wavelengths increased water absorption in samples this naturally excluded biological samples from the setup. However, the system was remarkably devoid of vibrational resonances (i.e. showed low noise and reduced scattering) and therefore ideal for non-destructive testing (NDT) of solid structures.

    In this way, Israelsen et al. demonstrated fast, real-time, spectral-domain OCT imaging in the mid-IR region. The resulting axial resolution of imaged samples was as high as 8.6 µm, together with a lateral resolution of 15 µm to obtain microscopic details of structures embedded in highly scattering media. The results were superior in comparison to the more conventional 1.3 µm wavelength OCT setup. The scientists meticulously validated the new results by successfully replicating previous reports. The new work bridges a gap by realizing the mid-IR OCT technology in real-time for practical applications as an industry ready-tool for non-destructive testing.

    Explore further: Using a crystal to link visible light to infrared opens a window on infrared sensing

    More information: Niels M. Israelsen et al. Real-time high-resolution mid-infrared optical coherence tomography, Light: Science & Applications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41377-019-0122-5

    Nathan D. Shemonski et al. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina, Nature Photonics (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2015.102

    Qianqian Fang et al. Monte Carlo Simulation of Photon Migration in 3D Turbid Media Accelerated by Graphics Processing Units, Optics Express (2009). DOI: 10.1364/OE.17.020178

    © 2019 Science X Network

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    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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