Sales Tel: +63 945 7983492  |  Email Us    
SMDC Residences

Air Residences

Features and Amenities

Reflective Pool
Function Terrace
Seating Alcoves

Air Residences

Green 2 Residences

Features and Amenities:

Wifi ready study area
Swimming Pool
Gym and Function Room

Green 2 Residences

Bloom Residences

Features and Amenities:

Recreational Area
2 Lap Pools
Ground Floor Commercial Areas

Bloom Residences

Leaf Residences

Features and Amenities:

3 Swimming Pools
Gym and Fitness Center
Outdoor Basketball Court

Leaf Residences

Contact Us

Contact us today for a no obligation quotation:


+63 945 7983492
+63 908 8820391

Copyright © 2018 SMDC :: SM Residences, All Rights Reserved.


































































Smartest 000-N04 preparation method at killexams.com | braindumps | smresidences.com.ph

Killexams.com 000-N04 exam test framework is the best plan instrument that uses revived exam prep - braindumps - and examcollection to set you up for the 000-N04 test - braindumps - smresidences.com.ph

Pass4sure 000-N04 dumps | Killexams.com 000-N04 existent questions | http://smresidences.com.ph/

000-N04 IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Study steer Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 000-N04 Dumps and existent Questions

100% existent Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



000-N04 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : 000-N04
Test title : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor title : IBM
: 30 existent Questions

am i able to find state-of-the-art dumps Q & A brand recent 000-N04 exam?
the usual of killexams.com is elevated sufficient to assist the candidates in 000-N04 exam education. everything the products that I had used for 000-N04 exam coaching had been of the exceptional noteworthy in order that they assisted me to cleanly the 000-N04 exam shortly.


Very smooth to net licensed in 000-N04 examination with this believe a inspect at manual.
To net organized for 000-N04 exercise examination requires a number of tough paintings and time. Time control is this nature of complicated trouble, that may be hardly ever resolved. But killexams.Com certification has certainly resolved this issue from its root level, by using imparting variety of time schedules, so that you can effortlessly complete his syllabus for 000-N04 exercise exam. Killexams.Com certification provides everything of the educational courses which might be necessary for 000-N04 rehearse exam. So I ought to convey with out losing a while, start your training beneath killexams.Com certifications to net a excessive rating in 000-N04 exercise examination, and obtain yourself suffer at the pinnacle of this world of expertise.


wherein will I determine material for 000-N04 examination?
It ended up being a frail department of expertise to plot. I required a e-book which could kingdom query and respond and i without a doubt allude it. killexams.com Questions & answers are singularly in impregnate of every final one in everything credits. a total lot obliged killexams.com for giving nice conclusion. I had endeavored the examination 000-N04 exam for 3 years continuously but couldnt obtain it to passing score. I understood my cavity in information the theme of creating a session room.


wherein to register for 000-N04 examination?
000-N04 exam was really tough for me as I was not getting enough time for the preparation. Finding no course out, I took befriend from the dump. I moreover took befriend from Official Certification Guide. The dump was amazing. It dealt with everything the topics in an simple and friendly manner. Could net through most of them with microscopic effort. Answered everything the question in just 81 minutes and got 97 mark. Felt really satisfied. Thanks a lot to killexams.com for their priceless guidance.


Is there 000-N04 exam recent sayllabus?
i would clearly recommend killexams.com to each person whos giving 000-N04 examination as this now not just helps to skim up the concepts inside the workbook but additionally gives a grotesque concept about the sample of questions. first rate befriend ..for the 000-N04 examination. thank you a lot killexams.com crew !


Get cost percent of expertise to Put together 000-N04 exam.
000-N04 questions from killexams.Com are splendid, and replicate precisely what check middle gives you at the 000-N04 exam. I cherished the entirety approximately the killexams.Com guidance material. I exceeded with over 80%.


virtually the ones 000-N04 modern-day day dumps and commemorate steer is required to skip the buy a inspect at.
A portion of the lessons are quite problematic but I understand them utilising the killexams.Com and Exam Simulator and solved everything questions. Essentially on account of it; I breezed thru the test horribly essentially. Your 000-N04 dumps Product are unmatchable in fine and correctness. everything the inquiries in your remonstrate were inside the test as nicely. I was flabbergasted to examine the exactness of your material. Much obliged over again on your assistance and everything the assist that you furnished to me.


can i locate finger data trendy 000-N04 certified?
Going thru killexams.Com has near to be a addiction whilst exam 000-N04 comes. And with assessments springing up in pretty a total lot 6 days changed into getting extra critical. But with subjects I want a few reference manual to split occasionally in order that i would net better help. Manner to killexams.Com their that made it everything simple to net the subjectsinterior your head easily which would in any other case might be no longer viable. And its far everything because of killexams.Com products that I controlled to gain 980 in my exam. Thats the highest rating in my beauty.


These 000-N04 dumps works in the existent test.
I used killexams.Com cloth which provides sufficient information to obtain my purpose. I commonly commonly memorize the matters earlier than going for any exam, but this is the noteworthy one examination, which I took with out trulymemorizing the wished things. I thank you actually from the lowest of my heart. I am able to near to you for my next examination.


proper source to locate 000-N04 existent question paper.
i was approximately to give up examination 000-N04 because I wasnt confident in whether or not id bypass or not. With just a week terminal I decided to exchange to killexams.com for my examination education. in no course concept that the subjects that I had constantly elope away from might be so much fun to believe a inspect at; its smooth and quick manner of getting to the factors made my coaching lot less difficult. everything course to killexams.com , I by no means concept id skip my exam but I did bypass with flying colors.


IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order

IBM (IBM) Down 10.three% when you deem that remaining salary document: Can It Rebound? | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A month has passed by when you deem that the ultimate income record for IBM (IBM). Shares believe lost about 10.3% in that time frame, underperforming the S&P 500.

Will the simultaneous terrible vogue proceed leading up to its next income liberate, or is IBM due for a breakout? earlier than they dive into how traders and analysts believe reacted as of late, let's buy a quick loom on the most fresh income file to be able to net a stronger tackle on the faultfinding catalysts.

IBM’s Q2 results capitalize from cost reducing, decrease partake count

IBM mentioned third-quarter 2018 non-GAAP earnings of $3.forty two per share, which beat the Zacks Consensus assess by brace of cents. revenue per partake (EPS) expanded 4.9% from the yr-ago quarter.

The year-over-12 months boom in EPS can moreover be attributed to tenacious pre-tax margin operating leverage (28 cents contribution) and aggressive partake buybacks (19 cents contribution). This become partially offset by course of decrease revenues (seven cents poverty-stricken influence) and better tax cost (17 cents poverty-stricken believe an result on).

Revenues of $18.seventy six billion lagged the Zacks Consensus assess of $19.10 billion and declined 2.1% on a year-over-12 months foundation. At regular forex (cc), revenues remained flat.

IBM brought up that signings plunged 21% to $8 billion. services backlog declined 3% from the 12 months-ago quarter to $113 billion.

Geographic salary details

Revenues from Americas inched up 1%, driven with the aid of continued boom in Canada and Latin the united states and modest multiply within the united states.

Europe, middle-East and Africa reduced 2% from the 12 months-in the past quarter, driven by decline in Germany and France, partially offset by multiply in Spain and the UK.

Asia-Pacific revenues declined 1% on a year-over-yr groundwork with modest multiply in Japan.

Strategic Imperatives multiply Continues

Strategic Imperatives (cloud, analytics, mobility and security) grew 7% at cc from the year-in the past quarter to $9.three billion. protection revenues surged 34%. On a trailing 12-month groundwork, Strategic Imperatives revenues believe been $39.5 billion, up 13% (eleven% at cc).

Cloud revenues surged 13% from the yr-ago quarter to $4.6 billion. The annual elope expense for cloud as-a-service revenues elevated 24% at cc on a year-over-year basis to $11.4 billion.

Cloud revenues of $19 billion on a trailing 12-month basis increased 20% (18% at cc) and now debts for 24% of IBM’s complete revenues.

Cognitive Revenues Decline

Cognitive options’ revenues-external lowered 5.7% year over 12 months (down 5% at cc) to $4.15 billion. Segmental revenues relating Strategic Imperatives and Cloud declined 4% and 2%, respectively. Cloud as-a-provider salary annual elope rate was $2 billion.

solutions utility contains choices in strategic verticals relish health, area-certain capabilities relish analytics and security, and IBM’s emerging applied sciences of AI and blockchain. The segment moreover includes choices that address horizontal domains relish collaboration, commerce and skill. solutions utility revenues lowered 3% 12 months over year in the quarter.

IBM cited that in commerce region the infusion of AI into choices relish consumer suffer analytics helped SaaS signings to grow double digit in the quarter. The simultaneous launch of Notes Domino version 10, which is optimized for cellular, and helps JavaScript and node.js will multiply increase collaboration in 2019.

Transaction Processing software includes application that runs mission-vital workloads, leveraging IBM’s hardware platforms. Revenues fell 8% on a 12 months-over-year groundwork.

IBM witnessed growth in trade verticals relish health, key areas of analytics and security within the quarter. Watson health witnessed huge-based multiply in Payer, issuer, Imaging and being Sciences domains.

all the course through the quarter, the Sugar.IQ software, developed by means of Medtronic in partnership with IBM, hit the market. The software is designed to simplify and enhance day by day diabetes administration.

IBM cited that analytics carried out smartly in the quarter, driven via statistics science offerings and IBM Cloud private for statistics offering.

all through the quarter, the commerce announced bias detection services and launched recent Watson functions on the IBM Cloud private platform.

safety boom changed into pushed by course of choices in orchestration, facts safety and endpoint management.

In blockchain, IBM food believe self-confidence network for meals security went are animated within the quarter. Reatiler Carrefour joined IBM’s blockchain community. The company moreover collectively introduced TradeLens with Maersk that addresses inefficiencies in the global deliver chain. IBM currently supports 75 dynamic blockchain networks.

world enterprise functions Revenues raise

Revenues from world commerce services-exterior segment believe been $four.13 billion, up 0.9% from the year-in the past quarter (up three% at cc). Segmental revenues pertaining to Strategic Imperatives grew 9%. Cloud apply surged 18%. Cloud as-a-provider income annual elope rate turned into $1.9 billion.

utility management revenues declined 1% from the yr-in the past quarter. besides the fact that children, global method functions revenues climbed 2%. in addition, Consulting revenues improved 7% 12 months over year, pushed with the aid of robust efficiency from IBM’s digital business.

expertise capabilities & Cloud structures: Revenues Dip

Revenues from technology services & Cloud structures-external diminished 2% from the 12 months-in the past quarter (flat at cc) to $8.29 billion. Segmental revenues manner on Strategic Imperatives superior 16%, pushed through hybrid cloud features. Cloud surged 22% from the yr-ago quarter. Cloud as-a-provider salary annual elope rate was $7.5 billion.

Integration utility accelerated 1% from the 12 months-ago quarter. birthright through the quarter, ninety five organizations worldwide chosen IBM Cloud private providing. Infrastructure services revenues moreover elevated 1% on a yr-over-12 months groundwork.

however, Technical befriend capabilities revenues diminished 3% from the yr-in the past quarter.

power & z14 obligate methods Revenues

techniques revenues expanded 0.9% on a year-over-12 months foundation (up 2% at cc) to $1.74 billion. Segmental revenues manner on Strategic Imperatives surged 5%, while Cloud revenues declined 8%.

IBM Z revenues improved 6% yr over year on greater than 20% MIPS growth, pushed by huge-primarily based adoption of the z14 mainframe.

vigor revenues expanded 17% from the yr-ago quarter. during the quarter, IBM launched its subsequent generation POWER9 processors for midrange and high-end systems which are designed for managing advanced analytics, cloud environments and records-intensive workloads in AI, HANA, and UNIX markets.

IBM moreover delivered recent choices optimizing both hardware and application for AI. management believes that products relish PowerAI vision and PowerAI enterprise will assist obligate recent consumer adoption.

although, storage hardware revenues declined 6% as a result of susceptible performance in the midrange and elevated conclusion, in portion offset via tenacious growth in everything sparkle Arrays. IBM cited that pricing pressure in the immensely competitive storage market is hurting revenues. The commerce introduced its recent FlashSystems with next technology NVMe expertise everything through the quarter.

operating methods utility revenues declined four%, while programs Hardware superior 4% from the year-in the past quarter.

eventually, world Financing (contains financing and used tackle revenue) revenues decreased 9.1% at cc to $388 million.

working details

Non-GAAP Gross margin remained unchanged from the yr-ago quarter at forty seven.4%. This become IBM’s most efficient Gross margin performance in years and changed into essentially driven by 160 basis points (bps) expansion in functions margin. however, unfavourable combine in z14 mainframe and application fully offset this expansion.

working charge declined 4% 12 months over year, as a result of consciousness of acquisition synergies and improving operational efficiencies. IBM continues to Put money into speedy turning out to be fields relish hybrid cloud, ersatz intelligence (AI), protection and blockchain.

Pre-tax margin from continuing operations extended 50 bps on a year-over-yr basis to 19.2%.

Cognitive solutions and global enterprise functions section pre-tax margins increased one hundred ninety bps and 320 bps, respectively, on a 12 months-over-year basis. despite the fact, technology features & Cloud structures segment pre-tax margin shriveled one hundred bps.

techniques pre-tax profits become $209 million down 38% year over 12 months. world Financing section pre-tax income jumped 26.7% to $308 million.

stability Sheet & money rush details

IBM ended third-quarter 2018 with $14.70 billion in total cash and marketable securities in comparison with $11.ninety three billion at the conclusion of second-quarter 2018. total debt (together with world financing) was $46.9 billion, up $1.four million from the customary quarter.

IBM pronounced cash rush from operations (except world Financing receivables) of $3.1 billion and generated free cash circulation of $2.2 billion in the quarter.

in the suggested quarter, the enterprise returned $2.1 billion to shareholders through dividends and partake repurchases. on the conclusion of the quarter, the company had $1.four billion remaining under existing buyback authorization.

tips

IBM reiterated EPS forecast for 2018. Non-GAAP EPS is expected to be as a minimum $13.80.

IBM noiseless anticipates 2018 free cash circulate of $12 billion.

Story Continues

How believe Estimates Been relocating since Then?

during the past month, buyers believe witnessed a downward style in sparkling estimates.

VGM ratings

at the present, IBM has an ordinary multiply score of C, although it is lagging a microscopic bit on the Momentum ranking front with a D. however, the stock became allocated a grade of A on the value aspect, putting it within the suitable quintile for this funding method.

overall, the inventory has an composite VGM rating of B. if you don't appear to be concentrated on one method, this score is the one remember to be attracted to.

Outlook

Estimates believe been generally trending downward for the inventory, and the magnitude of those revisions indicates a downward shift. specifically, IBM has a Zacks Rank #three (hold). They are expecting an in-line return from the inventory within the following brace of months.

need the newest techniques from Zacks investment analysis? these days, which you could down load 7 most desirable stocks for the subsequent 30 Days. click on to net this free record foreign commerce Machines supplier (IBM) : Free inventory evaluation document To read this article on Zacks.com click on birthright here. Zacks funding research


Did IBM overhype Watson fitness's AI promise? | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

5 methods to obtain windows 10 act relish home windows 7

Metro shoes taps IBM Watson For Digital Commerce | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

ibm shoes

Metro shoes Ltd, one in everything India’s leading multi-brand footwear chains, is launching a recent Digital Commerce platform powered with the aid of Watson customer rendezvous hosted on IBM Cloud. this would include IBM Watson Order administration and Commerce for seamless digital engagement. Working with IBM company companion CEBS worldwide, IBM solutions will now not most effectual befriend power advanced customer experiences and recent levels of convenience however convey efficiencies to the give chain.

With a countrywide footprint of 350 actual showrooms, an expanding brand portfolio and changing client preferences, Metro shoes Ltd became dealing with challenges in managing orders coming from distinct online structures.  previous dealt with by course of unreliable software, leading to requisite of visibility of real-time statistics of income, inventory spot and returns. in addition to its stock management challenges, Metro shoes Ltd crucial to better on-line presence for a few of their regular inner manufacturers which believe been getting low visibility impacting usual earnings.

“expertise is redefining client rendezvous and will be the distinguished thing differentiator for retail manufacturers of the long run. We’re excited to collaborate with IBM and CEBS to embark on their digital transformation journey,” noted Alisha Malik, vp, Digital, Metro shoes. “With IBM’s capabilities within the omni-channel commerce and retail area, we're assured that these alterations will now not handiest back accelerate the execution of their approach, but moreover supply us an edge over competitors. At Metro footwear, they strongly reliance that the recent solution will boost the ordinary person journey, thereby increasing revisits, site visitors and loyalty.”

With IBM, Metro footwear Ltd can profit recent stages of consumer insight, which can be used to personalize the online journey for every traveller as they navigate throughout the site. Delivered through a sole platform, Metro footwear will be in a position to exhibit everything of its brands and intimate specific objects in response to insights shared by customers. This personalised suffer will include recent and handy fulfillmentoptions corresponding to purchase on-line, select up in keep, reserve in maintain and simple returns. on account of these recent capabilities, Metro shoes will be able to elevate every vacationer’s event on the web page by enabling commerce practitioners with cognitive tools which back them bring omni-channel experiences that believe interaction shoppers and pressure revenue.

With IBM’s know-how capabilities and CEBS advantage with marketplace integration, Metro footwear as a manufacturer/vendor will moreover be in a position to integrate with greater than 14 e-marketplaces relish Amazon, Flipkart and different leading portals with a centralized procedure and inventory engine to allow Metro to scale up to the needs of a becoming marketplace enterprise. extra, IBM Cloud will befriend elevate the potential to configure cumbersome workloads and thereby convey performance required for height usage everything through the searching season.

speaking concerning the collaboration, Nishant Kalra, commerce unit leader – IBM Watson consumer rendezvous - India/South Asiaadded, “IBM is at the forefront of assisting valued clientele include more moderen the course to work and digitally reworking the course they interact with their conclusion purchasers. we're pleased to be portion of Metro shoes’ digital transformation adventure by means of delivering superior digital commerce experience, leveraging the stores by merging them with online, and eventually using company advocacy. IBM in association with CEBS will permit deep innovation, sooner-go-to-market and streamline tactics for scalability.”

The IBM platform will create a bridge between its online and offline company which the retailer previously lacked. With the brand recent integrated sole view, Metro shoes in the future could be in a position to utilize insights received from the digital realm to design special offering for purchasers as they stroll into any of their stores. in consequence, they can tolerate in intelligence what customers desire, obtain inescapable availability when and the spot they requisite it and even study split selling and upselling across their a considerable number of brands.

For Metro footwear, IBM Watson Order administration and Commerce solutions can pave course for IBM’s cognitive applied sciences to carry insights that befriend them provide purchasers with customized ideas and an more advantageous user adventure –from click on to birth.

“With over 15 years of journey in establishing e-business equipment, CEBS has been a depended on options company and accomplice for groups throughout the globe,”talked about Satish Swaroop, President, CEBS international. Their positive and elastic software options paired with IBM’s deep expertise potential will supply Metro footwear a real-time, centralized gadget for client administration.”


000-N04 IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Study steer Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 000-N04 Dumps and existent Questions

100% existent Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



000-N04 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : 000-N04
Test title : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor title : IBM
: 30 existent Questions

am i able to find state-of-the-art dumps Q & A brand recent 000-N04 exam?
the usual of killexams.com is elevated sufficient to assist the candidates in 000-N04 exam education. everything the products that I had used for 000-N04 exam coaching had been of the exceptional noteworthy in order that they assisted me to cleanly the 000-N04 exam shortly.


Very smooth to net licensed in 000-N04 examination with this believe a inspect at manual.
To net organized for 000-N04 exercise examination requires a number of tough paintings and time. Time control is this nature of complicated trouble, that may be hardly ever resolved. But killexams.Com certification has certainly resolved this issue from its root level, by using imparting variety of time schedules, so that you can effortlessly complete his syllabus for 000-N04 exercise exam. Killexams.Com certification provides everything of the educational courses which might be necessary for 000-N04 rehearse exam. So I ought to convey with out losing a while, start your training beneath killexams.Com certifications to net a excessive rating in 000-N04 exercise examination, and obtain yourself suffer at the pinnacle of this world of expertise.


wherein will I determine material for 000-N04 examination?
It ended up being a frail department of expertise to plot. I required a e-book which could kingdom query and respond and i without a doubt allude it. killexams.com Questions & answers are singularly in impregnate of every final one in everything credits. a total lot obliged killexams.com for giving nice conclusion. I had endeavored the examination 000-N04 exam for 3 years continuously but couldnt obtain it to passing score. I understood my cavity in information the theme of creating a session room.


wherein to register for 000-N04 examination?
000-N04 exam was really tough for me as I was not getting enough time for the preparation. Finding no course out, I took befriend from the dump. I moreover took befriend from Official Certification Guide. The dump was amazing. It dealt with everything the topics in an simple and friendly manner. Could net through most of them with microscopic effort. Answered everything the question in just 81 minutes and got 97 mark. Felt really satisfied. Thanks a lot to killexams.com for their priceless guidance.


Is there 000-N04 exam recent sayllabus?
i would clearly recommend killexams.com to each person whos giving 000-N04 examination as this now not just helps to skim up the concepts inside the workbook but additionally gives a grotesque concept about the sample of questions. first rate befriend ..for the 000-N04 examination. thank you a lot killexams.com crew !


Get cost percent of expertise to Put together 000-N04 exam.
000-N04 questions from killexams.Com are splendid, and replicate precisely what check middle gives you at the 000-N04 exam. I cherished the entirety approximately the killexams.Com guidance material. I exceeded with over 80%.


virtually the ones 000-N04 modern-day day dumps and commemorate steer is required to skip the buy a inspect at.
A portion of the lessons are quite problematic but I understand them utilising the killexams.Com and Exam Simulator and solved everything questions. Essentially on account of it; I breezed thru the test horribly essentially. Your 000-N04 dumps Product are unmatchable in fine and correctness. everything the inquiries in your remonstrate were inside the test as nicely. I was flabbergasted to examine the exactness of your material. Much obliged over again on your assistance and everything the assist that you furnished to me.


can i locate finger data trendy 000-N04 certified?
Going thru killexams.Com has near to be a addiction whilst exam 000-N04 comes. And with assessments springing up in pretty a total lot 6 days changed into getting extra critical. But with subjects I want a few reference manual to split occasionally in order that i would net better help. Manner to killexams.Com their that made it everything simple to net the subjectsinterior your head easily which would in any other case might be no longer viable. And its far everything because of killexams.Com products that I controlled to gain 980 in my exam. Thats the highest rating in my beauty.


These 000-N04 dumps works in the existent test.
I used killexams.Com cloth which provides sufficient information to obtain my purpose. I commonly commonly memorize the matters earlier than going for any exam, but this is the noteworthy one examination, which I took with out trulymemorizing the wished things. I thank you actually from the lowest of my heart. I am able to near to you for my next examination.


proper source to locate 000-N04 existent question paper.
i was approximately to give up examination 000-N04 because I wasnt confident in whether or not id bypass or not. With just a week terminal I decided to exchange to killexams.com for my examination education. in no course concept that the subjects that I had constantly elope away from might be so much fun to believe a inspect at; its smooth and quick manner of getting to the factors made my coaching lot less difficult. everything course to killexams.com , I by no means concept id skip my exam but I did bypass with flying colors.


Whilst it is very hard job to pick trustworthy exam questions / answers resources regarding review, reputation and validity because people net ripoff due to choosing incorrect service. Killexams. com obtain it inescapable to provide its clients far better to their resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other peoples ripoff report complaint clients near to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams enjoyably and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and trait because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client self self-confidence is distinguished to everything of us. Specially they manage killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. If perhaps you descry any bogus report posted by their competitor with the title killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams.com ripoff report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com complaint or something relish this, just maintain in intelligence that there are always corrupt people damaging reputation of suitable services due to their benefits. There are a large number of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams rehearse questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their test questions and sample brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.


Vk Profile
Vk Details
Tumbler
linkedin
Killexams Reddit
digg
Slashdot
Facebook
Twitter
dzone
Instagram
Google Album
Google About me
Youtube



6207-1 study guide | CTFA braindumps | 9L0-508 questions and answers | HP3-C24 bootcamp | 190-800 rehearse Test | 000-078 test prep | LOT-955 braindumps | 050-707 rehearse test | 010-111 questions and answers | COG-122 free pdf | 9A0-164 free pdf | 920-334 rehearse test | 200-045 rehearse exam | S90-02A study guide | 9L0-827 free pdf | CD0-001 existent questions | 642-889 mock exam | HP0-450 exam prep | 1Z0-333 exam prep | HP0-D17 sample test |


000-N04 exam questions | 000-N04 free pdf | 000-N04 pdf download | 000-N04 test questions | 000-N04 real questions | 000-N04 practice questions

Audit 000-N04 existent question and answers before you step through exam
killexams.com present bleeding edge and refreshed rehearse Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for recent syllabus of IBM 000-N04 Exam. rehearse their existent Questions and Answers to better your know-how and pass your exam with elevated Marks. They ensure your accomplishment in the Test Center, covering the majority of the points of exam and fabricate your lore of the 000-N04 exam. Pass 4 beyond any doubt with their birthright questions.

killexams.com believe its specialists operative ceaselessly for the gathering of existent test questions of 000-N04. everything the pass4sure Questions and Answers of 000-N04 accumulated by their team are appeared into and updated by their 000-N04 assured cluster. they believe an approach to maintain associated with the candidates showed up within the 000-N04 exam to induce their reviews regarding the 000-N04 exam, they believe an approach to accumulate 000-N04 exam tips and tricks, their indulge in regarding the techniques applied as an region of the distinguished 000-N04 exam, the errors they did within the actual test and presently modify their braindumps as required. Click http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/000-N04 killexams.com Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as underneath; WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for everything tests on website PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders over $69 DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders larger than $99 SEPSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for everything Orders When you fancy their pass4sure Questions and Answers, you will sense positive regarding each one of the topic matters of test and feel that your lore has been notably captive forward. These pass4sure Questions and Answers are not merely rehearse questions, those are actual test Questions and Answers that are sufficient to pass the 000-N04 exam at the first attempt.

On the off danger which you are looking for 000-N04 rehearse Test containing existent Test Questions, you're at remedy location. They believe accumulated database of questions from Actual Exams with a specific cessation goal to enable you to devise and pass your exam at the primary undertaking. everything coaching materials at the web site are Up To Date and confirmed by means of their experts.

killexams.com supply most current and updated rehearse Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for recent syllabus of IBM 000-N04 Exam. rehearse their existent Questions and Answers to better your perception and pass your exam with elevated Marks. They guarantee your success within the Test Center, overlaying each one of the points of exam and construct your lore of the 000-N04 exam. Pass beyond any doubt with their unique questions.

Our 000-N04 Exam PDF includes Complete Pool of Questions and Answers and Brain dumps checked and showed which include references and explanations (in which applicable). Their objective to accumulate the Questions and Answers isnt just to pass the exam before everything attempt however Really better Your lore approximately the 000-N04 exam points.

000-N04 exam Questions and Answers are Printable in elevated trait Study steer that you may down load in your Computer or a few other device and start setting up your 000-N04 exam. Print Complete 000-N04 Study Guide, deliver with you when you are at Vacations or Traveling and indulge in your Exam Prep. You can net to updated 000-N04 Exam from your on line document whenever.

killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for everything tests on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $ninety nine
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for everything Orders


Download your IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1 Study steer immediately next to purchasing and Start Preparing Your Exam Prep birthright Now!

000-N04 Practice Test | 000-N04 examcollection | 000-N04 VCE | 000-N04 study guide | 000-N04 practice exam | 000-N04 cram


Killexams HP0-281 questions and answers | Killexams A2090-312 rehearse test | Killexams E20-060 VCE | Killexams 000-M44 rehearse questions | Killexams ACCP test prep | Killexams 1Y0-A14 dumps | Killexams CAT-140 braindumps | Killexams 351-018 exam prep | Killexams 300-070 braindumps | Killexams H12-721 brain dumps | Killexams C2040-929 dump | Killexams 304-200 study guide | Killexams A2180-271 braindumps | Killexams 1Z0-338 questions and answers | Killexams FN0-202 study guide | Killexams 190-983 existent questions | Killexams HP2-B121 free pdf | Killexams 70-765 existent questions | Killexams HP2-E62 brain dumps | Killexams 000-779 study guide |


killexams.com huge List of Exam Braindumps

View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


Killexams NBCOT cheat sheets | Killexams 70-703 free pdf download | Killexams HP2-Q05 dumps questions | Killexams 050-890 questions and answers | Killexams 920-462 dumps | Killexams CTAL-TM_Syll2012 existent questions | Killexams CTAL-TA VCE | Killexams HP0-M43 existent questions | Killexams ACSM-GEI rehearse test | Killexams CEN test prep | Killexams COG-642 free pdf | Killexams 000-418 rehearse Test | Killexams 000-733 dump | Killexams JN0-520 cram | Killexams COG-112 brain dumps | Killexams M6040-520 sample test | Killexams 000-723 test prep | Killexams S10-100 exam prep | Killexams GB0-323 braindumps | Killexams 1Z0-228 rehearse questions |


IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Pass 4 confident 000-N04 dumps | Killexams.com 000-N04 existent questions | http://smresidences.com.ph/

HP TouchPad Needs 6 to 8 Weeks for Additional Shipments | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

First Name: Last Name: E-mail Address: Password: Confirm Password: Username:

Title: C-Level/President Manager VP Staff (Associate/Analyst/etc.) Director

Function:

Role in IT decision-making process: Align commerce & IT Goals Create IT Strategy Determine IT Needs Manage Vendor Relationships Evaluate/Specify Brands or Vendors Other Role commission Purchases Not Involved

Work Phone: Company: Company Size: Industry: Street Address City: Zip/postal code State/Province: Country:

Occasionally, they route subscribers special offers from select partners. Would you relish to receive these special colleague offers via e-mail? Yes No

Your registration with Eweek will include the following free email newsletter(s): intelligence & Views

By submitting your wireless number, you disagree that eWEEK, its related properties, and vendor partners providing content you view may contact you using contact center technology. Your consent is not required to view content or utilize site features.

By clicking on the "Register" button below, I disagree that I believe carefully read the Terms of Service and the Privacy Policy and I disagree to be legally bound by everything such terms.

Register

Continue without consent      

Uniqlo’s recent Mobile e-Commerce commerce Model | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

By Si Chen

Article Rating:

February 20, 2015 01:26 PM EST

Reads:

318

Watch this video — it might just be the future of mobile commerce:

Did you notice

  • A icy mobile app
  • Creating DIY art
  • Did you moreover notice that it’s a commerce model without

  • Upfront design
  • Inventory
  • Advertising
  • Uniqlo is not just thinking, Gee how result they net more Instagram followers to sell the selfsame customary T-shirts?

    They’re creating a total recent commerce model by taking the mobile platform to its analytic conclusion.  Their app, which does a lot more than Instagram’s simple filters, works hand-in-hand with a commerce model to turn a T-shirt (commodity) into your own work of know-how (priceless.)

    If microscopic Instagram could build a billion-dollar commerce by turning the mobile phone into the ultimate device of self-expression, why couldn’t Uniqlo…or you?

    Read the original blog entry...

    Si Chen is the founder of Open Source Strategies, Inc. and Project Manager for opentaps Open Source ERP + CRM (www.opentaps.org).

    Latest Stories

    By Elizabeth White

    Nov. 17, 2018 03:45 PM EST

    By Yeshim Deniz

    Nov. 17, 2018 11:15 AM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    Nov. 12, 2018 12:00 PM EST

    By Yeshim Deniz

    Nov. 12, 2018 09:00 AM EST

    By Pat Romanski

    Nov. 12, 2018 01:45 AM EST

    By Yeshim Deniz

    Nov. 12, 2018 12:00 AM EST

    By Pat Romanski

    Nov. 12, 2018 12:00 AM EST

    By Liz McMillan

    Nov. 11, 2018 10:45 PM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    David Friend is the co-founder and CEO of Wasabi, the inflamed cloud storage company that delivers fast, low-cost, and trustworthy cloud storage. Prior to Wasabi, David co-founded Carbonite, one of the world's leading cloud backup companies. A successful tech entrepreneur for more than 30 years, David got his start at ARP Instruments, a manufacturer of synthesizers for rock bands, where he worked with leading musicians of the day relish Stevie Wonder, Pete Townsend of The Who, and Led Zeppelin. David has ...

    Nov. 11, 2018 05:30 PM EST

    By Liz McMillan

    Nov. 11, 2018 04:15 PM EST

    By Liz McMillan

    Nov. 11, 2018 04:00 PM EST  Reads: 3,170

    By Elizabeth White

    Nov. 11, 2018 02:45 PM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    Nov. 11, 2018 02:30 PM EST

    By Zakia Bouachraoui

    Nov. 11, 2018 02:15 PM EST

    By Pat Romanski

    Nov. 11, 2018 11:45 AM EST  Reads: 2,273


    Modeled larval connectivity of a multi-species reef fish and invertebrate assemblage off the coast of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Introduction

    Knowledge of population connectivity is necessary for effectual management in marine environments (Mitarai, Siegel & Winters, 2008; Botsford et al., 2009; Toonen et al., 2011). For many species of marine invertebrate and reef fish, dispersal is mostly limited to the pelagic larval life stage. Therefore, an understanding of larval dispersal patterns is faultfinding for studying population dynamics, connectivity, and conservation in the marine environment (Jones, Srinivasan & Almany, 2007; Lipcius et al., 2008; Gaines et al., 2010; Toonen et al., 2011). Many coastal and reef species believe a bi-phasic life history in which adults panoply limited geographic sweep and elevated site fidelity, while larvae are pelagic and highly mobile (Thorson, 1950; Scheltema, 1971; Strathmann, 1993; Marshall et al., 2012). This life history strategy is not only common to sessile invertebrates such as corals or limpets; many reef fish species believe been shown to believe a home sweep of <1 km as adults (Meyer et al., 2000; Meyer, Papastamatiou & Clark, 2010). Depending on species, the mobile planktonic stage can terminal from hours to months and has the potential to transport larvae up to hundreds of kilometers away from a site of origin (Scheltema, 1971; Richmond, 1987; Shanks, 2009). lore of larval dispersal patterns can be used to inform effectual management, such as marine spatial management strategies that sustain source populations of breeding individuals capable of dispersing offspring to other areas.

    Both biological and physical factors repercussion larval dispersal, although the relative moment of these factors is likely variable among species and sites and remains debated (Levin, 2006; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009; White et al., 2010). In situ data on pelagic larvae are sparse; marine organisms at this life stage are difficult to capture and identify, and are typically organize in low densities across large areas of the open ocean (Clarke, 1991; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). A variety of genetic and chemistry techniques believe therefore been developed to assess larval connectivity (Gillanders, 2005; Leis, Siebeck & Dixson, 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2018). Computer models informed by bailiwick and laboratory data believe moreover become a valuable utensil for estimating larval dispersal and population connectivity (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Botsford et al., 2009; Sponaugle et al., 2012; Kough, Paris & Butler IV, 2013; Wood et al., 2014). Individual-based models, or IBMs, can incorporate both biological and physical factors known to influence larval movement. Pelagic larval duration (PLD), for example, is the amount of time a larva spends in the water column before settlement and can vary widely among or even within species ( Toonen & Pawlik, 2001). PLD affects how far an individual can be successfully transported by ocean currents, and so is expected to directly impress connectivity patterns (Siegel et al., 2003; Shanks, 2009; Dawson et al., 2014). In addition to PLD, adult reproductive strategy and timing (Carson et al., 2010; Portnoy et al., 2013), fecundity (Castorani et al., 2017), larval mortality (Vikebøet al., 2007), and larval developmental, morphological, and behavioral characteristics (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007) may everything play a role in shaping connectivity patterns. Physical factors such as temperature, bathymetry, and current direction can moreover substantially influence connectivity (Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009). In this study, they incorporated both biotic and abiotic components in an IBM coupled with an oceanographic model to call fine-scale patterns of larval exchange around the island of Moloka‘i in the Hawaiian archipelago.

    The main Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and are bordered by the North Hawaiian Ridge current along the northern coasts of the islands and the Hawaii Lee Current along the southern coasts, both of which elope east to west and are driven by the current easterly trade winds (Lumpkin, 1998; Friedlander et al., 2005). The Hawai‘i Lee Countercurrent, which runs along the southern perimeter of the chain, flows west to east (Lumpkin, 1998). The pattern of mesoscale eddies around the islands is involved and varies seasonally (Friedlander et al., 2005; Vaz et al., 2013).

    Hawaiian marine communities physiognomy unprecedented pressures, including coastal development, overexploitation, disease, and increasing temperature and acidification due to climate change (Smith, 1993; Lowe, 1995; Coles & Brown, 2003; Friedlander et al., 2003; Friedlander et al., 2005; Aeby, 2006). Declines in Hawaiian marine resources argue for implementation of a more holistic approach than traditional single-species maximum sustainable succumb techniques, which believe proven ineffective (Goodyear, 1996; Hilborn, 2011). There is a universal movement toward the utilize of ecosystem-based management, which requires lore of ecosystem structure and connectivity patterns to establish and manage marine spatial planning areas (Slocombe, 1993; Browman et al., 2004; Pikitch et al., 2004; Arkema, Abramson & Dewsbury, 2006). Kalaupapa National Historical Park is a federal marine protected region (MPA) located on the north shore of Moloka‘i, an island in the Maui Nui involved of the Hawaiian archipelago, that includes submerged lands and waters up to 1 4 mile offshore (NOAA, 2009). At least five IUCN red-listed coral species believe been identified within this area (Kenyon, Maragos & Fenner, 2011), and in 2010 the Park showed the greatest fish biomass and species diversity out of four Hawaiian National Parks surveyed (Beets, Brown & Friedlander, 2010). One of the major benefits expected of MPAs is that the protected waters within the region provide a source of larval spillover to other sites on the island, seeding these areas for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing (McClanahan & Mangi, 2000; Halpern & Warner, 2003; Lester et al., 2009).

    In this study, they used a Lagrangian particle-tracking IBM (Wong-Ala et al., 2018) to simulate larval dispersal around Moloka‘i and to assess the larval exchange among sites at the scale of an individual island. They believe parameterized their model with biological data for eleven species covering a breadth of Hawaiian reef species life histories (e.g., habitat preferences, larval behaviors, and pelagic larval durations, Table 1), and of interest to both the local community and resource managers. Their goals were to examine patterns of species-specific connectivity, characterize the location and relative magnitude of connections around Moloka‘i, report sites of potential management relevance, and address the question of whether Kalaupapa National Historical Park provides larval spillover for adjacent sites on Moloka‘i, or connections to the adjacent islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, O‘ahu, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe.

    Table 1:

    Target taxa selected for the study, based on cultural, ecological, and/or economic importance.

    PLD = pelagic larval duration. Short dispersers (3–25 day minimum PLD) in white, medium dispersers (30–50 day minimum PLD) in light gray, and long dispersers (140–270 day minimum PLD) in shadowy gray. Spawn season and timing from traditional ecological lore shared by cultural practitioners on the island. Asterisk indicates that congener-level data was used. Commonname Scientific name Spawn type # of larvae spawned Spawningday of year Spawning hour of day Spawning moon phase Larval depth (m) PLD (days) Habitat ’Opihi/ Limpet Cellana spp. Broadcast1 861,300 1–60 & 121–181 – New 0–5 3–181,2 Intertidal1 Ko’a/ Cauliflower coral Pocillopora meandrina Broadcast3 1,671,840 91–151 07:15–08:00 Full 0–54 5–90*5 Reef He’e/ Octopus Octopus cyanea Benthic6 1,392,096 1–360 – – 50–100 216 Reef, rubble7 Moi/ Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis Broadcast 1,004,640 152–243 – – 50–1008 259 Sand10 Uhu uliuli/ Spectacled parrotfish Chlorurus perspicillatus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Reef10 Uhu palukaluka/ Reddlip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Rock, reef10 Kumu/ Whitesaddle Goatfish Parupeneus porphyreus Broadcast 1,071,252 32–90 – – 0–50*11 41–56*12 Sand, rock, reef10 Kole/ Spotted surgeonfish Ctenochaetus strigosus Broadcast 1,177,200 60–120 – – 50–10011 50*12 Rock, reef, rubble10 ‘Ōmilu/ Bluefin trevally Caranx melampygus Broadcast 1,310,616 121–243 – – 0–80*11 140*13,14 Sand, reef10 Ulua/ Giant trevally Caranx ignoblis Broadcast 1,151,040 152–243 – Full 0–80*11 14013,14 Sand, rock, reef10 Ula/ Spiny lobster Panulirus spp. Benthic15 1,573,248 152–243 – – 50–10016 27017 Rock, pavement16 Methods Circulation model

    We selected the hydrodynamic model MITgcm, which is designed for the study of dynamical processes in the ocean on a horizontal scale. This model solves incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to report the motion of viscous fluid on a sphere, discretized using a finite-volume technique (Marshall et al., 1997). The one-km resolution MITgcm domain for this study extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N, an region that includes the islands of Moloka‘i, Maui, Lana‘i, Kaho‘olawe, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i. While Ni‘ihau and southern Kaua’i moreover descend within the domain, they discarded connectivity to these islands because they fib within the 0.5° confine zone of the current model. confine conditions are enforced over 20 grid points on everything sides of the model domain. Vertically, the model is divided into 50 layers that multiply in thickness with depth, from five m at the surface (0.0–5.0 m) to 510 m at the foundation (4,470 –4,980 m). Model variables were initialized using the output of a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) at a horizontal resolution of 0.04° (∼four km) configured for the main Hawaiian Islands, using the universal Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans database (GEBCO, 1/60°) (Jia et al., 2011).

    The simulation runs from March 31st, 2011 to July 30th, 2013 with a temporal resolution of 24 h and shows seasonal eddies as well as persistent mesoscale features (Fig. S1). They result not include tides in the model due to temporal resolution. Their model epoch represents a neutral ocean state; no El Niño or La Niña events occurred during this time period. To ground-truth the circulation model, they compared surface current output to real-time trajectories of surface drifters from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly center (Fig. S2) (Elipot et al., 2016), as well as other current models of the region (Wren et al., 2016; Storlazzi et al., 2017).

    Biological model

    To simulate larval dispersal, they used a modified version of the Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM, a 3D Lagrangian particle-tracking model written in the R programming language (R Core Team, 2017). The model takes the aforementioned MITgcm current products as input, as well as shoreline shapefiles extracted from the full resolution NOAA Global Self-consistent Hierarchical High-resolution Geography database, v2.3.0 (Wessel & Smith, 1996). Their model included 65 land masses within the geographic domain, the largest being the island of Hawai‘i and the smallest being Pu‘uki‘i Island, a 1.5-acre islet off the eastern coast of Maui. To model depth, they used the one arc-minute-resolution ETOPO1 bathymetry, extracted using the R package ‘marmap’ (Amante & Eakins, 2009; Pante & Simon-Bouhet, 2013).

    Each species was simulated with a separate model run. Larvae were modeled from spawning to settlement and were transported at each timestep (t = 2 h) by advection-diffusion transport. This transport consisted of (1) advective displacement caused by water flow, consisting of east (u) and north (v) velocities read from daily MITgcm files, and (2) additional random-walk displacement, using a diffusion constant of 0.2 m2/s−1 (Lowe et al., 2009). perpendicular velocities (w) were not implemented by the model; details of perpendicular larval movement are described below. Advection was interpolated between data points at each timestep using an Eulerian 2D barycentric interpolation method. They chose this implementation over a more computationally intensive interpolation method (i.e., fourth-order Runge–Kutta) because they did not commemorate a incompatibility at this timestep length. Biological processes modeled include PLD, reproduction timing and location, mortality, and ontogenetic changes in perpendicular distribution; these qualities were parameterized via species-specific data obtained from previous studies and from the local fishing and management community (Table 1).

    Larvae were released from habitat-specific spawning sites and were considered settled if they fell within a roughly one-km contour around reef or intertidal habitat at the cessation of their pelagic larval duration. Distance from habitat was used rather than water depth because Penguin Bank, a relatively shallow bank to the southwest of Moloka‘i, does not picture suitable habitat for reef-associated species. PLD for each larva was a randomly assigned value between the minimum and maximum PLD for that species, and larvae were removed from the model if they had reached their PLD and were not within a settlement zone. No data on pre-competency epoch were available for their study species, so this parameter was not included. Mortality rates were calculated as larval half-lives; e.g., one-half of everything larvae were assumed to believe survived at one-half of the maximum PLD for that species (following Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Since their focus was on potential connectivity pathways, reproductive rates were calibrated to allow for saturation of possible settlement sites, equating from ∼900,000 to ∼1,7000,000 larvae released depending on species. Fecundity was therefore derived not from biological data, but from computational minimums.

    Development, and resulting ontogenetic changes in behavior, is specific to the life history of each species. Broadcast-spawning species with weakly-swimming larvae (P. meandrina and Cellana spp., Table 1) were transported as passive particles randomly distributed between 0–5 m depth (Storlazzi, Brown & Field, 2006). Previous studies believe demonstrated that fish larvae believe a elevated degree of control over their perpendicular position in the water column (Irisson et al., 2010; Huebert, Cowen & Sponaugle, 2011). Therefore, they modeled broadcast-spawning fish species with a 24-hour passive buoyant angle to simulate eggs pre-hatch, followed by a pelagic larval angle with a species-specific depth distribution. For C. ignoblis, C. melampygus, P. porphyreus, C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus, they used genus-level depth distributions (Fig. S3) obtained from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton perpendicular distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996). P. sexfilis and C. strigosus larvae were randomly distributed between 50–100 m (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992). Benthic brooding species (O. cyanea and Panulirus spp.) result not believe a passive buoyant phase, and thus were released as larvae randomly distributed between 50–100 m. At each time step, a larva’s depth was checked against bathymetry, and was assigned to the nearest available layer if the species-specific depth was not available at these coordinates.

    For data-poor species, they used congener-level estimates for PLD (see Table 1). For example, there is no assess of larval duration for Caranx species, but in Hawai‘i peak spawning occurs in May–July and peak recruitment in August–December (Sudekum, 1984; Longenecker, Langston & Barrett, 2008). In consultation with resource managers and community members, a PLD of 140 days was chosen pending future data that indicates a more accurate pelagic period.

    Habitat selection

    Spawning sites were generated using data from published literature and modified after input from native Hawaiian cultural practitioners and the Moloka‘i fishing community (Fig. 1). Species-specific habitat suitability was inferred from the 2013–2016 Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (Costa & Kendall, 2016). They designated coral habitat as areas with 5–90% coral cover, or ≥1 site-specific coral species richness, for a total of 127 spawning sites on Moloka‘i. Habitat for reef invertebrates followed coral habitat, with additional sites added after community feedback for a total of 136 sites. Areas with a predicted reef fish biomass of 58–1,288 g/m2 were designated as reef fish habitat (Stamoulis et al., 2016), for a total of 109 spawning sites. Sand habitat was designated as 90–100% uncolonized for a total of 115 sites. Intertidal habitat was designated as any rocky shoreline region not covered by sand or mud, for a total of 87 sites. Number of adults was assumed equal at everything sites. For regional analysis, they pooled sites into groups of two to 11 sites based on benthic habitat and surrounding geography (Fig. 1A). Adjacent sites were grouped if they shared the selfsame benthic habitat classification and current wave direction, and/or were portion of the selfsame reef tract.

    Figure 1: Spawning sites used in the model by species. (A) C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, P. porphyreus, C. strigosus, C. ignoblis, and C. melampygus, n = 109; (B) P. meandrina, n = 129;(C) O. cyanea and Panulirus spp., n = 136; (D) P. sexfilis, n = 115; and (E) Cellana spp., n = 87. Region names are displayed over associated spawning sites for fish species in (A). Regions are made up of two to 11 sites, grouped based on coastal geography and surrounding benthic habitat, and are designated in (A) by adjacent colored dots. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green in (A). Source–sink dynamics and local retention

    Dispersal distance was measured via the distm office in the R package ‘geosphere’, which calculates distance between geographical points via the Haversine formula (Hijmans, 2016). This distance, measured between spawn and settlement locations, was used to calculate dispersal kernels to examine and compare species-specific distributions. They moreover measured local retention, or the percentage of successful settlers from a site that were retained at that site (i.e., settlers at site A that originated from site A/total successful settlers that originated from site A). To assess the role of specific sites around Moloka‘i, they moreover calculated a source–sink index for each species (Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014; Wren et al., 2016). This index defines sites as either a source, in which a site’s successful export to other sites is greater than its import, or a sink, in which import from other sites is greater than successful export. It is calculated by dividing the incompatibility between number of successfully exported and imported larvae by the sum of everything successfully exported and imported larvae. A value <0 indicates that a site acts as a net sink, while a value >0 indicates that a site acts as a net source. While they measured successful dispersal to adjacent islands, they did not spawn larvae from them, and therefore these islands picture exogenous sinks. For this reason, settlement to other islands was not included in source–sink index calculations.

    We moreover calculated settlement balance between different regions for each species (Calabrese & Fagan, 2004). They calculated the forward settlement proportion, i.e., the balance of settlers from a specific settlement site (s) originating from an observed source site (o), by scaling the number of successful settlers from site o settling at site s to everything successful settlers originating from site o. Forward balance can be represented as Pso = Sos∕∑So. They moreover calculated rearward settlement proportion, or the balance of settlers from a specific source site (o) observed at settlement site (s), by scaling the number of settlers observed at site s originating from site o to everything settlers observed at site s. The rearward balance can be represented as Pos = Sos∕∑Ss.

    Graph-theoretic analysis

    To quantify connections between sites, they applied graph theory to population connectivity (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Graph theoretic analysis is highly scalable and can be used to examine fine-scale networks between reef sites up to broad-scale analyses between islands or archipelagos, mapping to both local and regional management needs. It moreover allows for both network- and site-specific metrics, enabling the comparison of connectivity between species and habitat sites as well as highlighting potential multi-generational dispersal corridors. Graph theory moreover provides a powerful utensil for spatial visualization, allowing for rapid, intuitive communication of connectivity results to researchers, managers, and the public alike. This nature of analysis can be used to model pairwise relationships between spatial data points by breaking down individual-based output into a chain of nodes (habitat sites) and edges (directed connections between habitat sites). They then used these nodes and edges to examine the relative moment of each site and dispersal pathway to the greater pattern of connectivity around Moloka‘i, as well as differences in connectivity patterns between species (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). They used the R package ‘igraph’ to examine several measures of within-island connectivity (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). Edge density, or the balance of realized edges out of everything possible edges, is a multi-site measure of connectivity. Areas with a higher edge density believe more direct connections between habitat sites, and thus are more strongly connected. They measured edge density along and between the north, south, east, and west coasts of Moloka‘i to examine possible population structure and degree of exchange among the marine resources of local communities.

    The distribution of shortest path length is moreover informative for comparing overall connectivity. In graph theory, a shortest path is the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. For example, two sites that exchange larvae in either direction are connected by a shortest path of one, whereas if they both partake larvae with an intermediate site but not with each other, they are connected by a shortest path of two. In a biological context, shortest path can correspond to number of generations needed for exchange: sites with a shortest path of two require two generations to obtain a connection. tolerable shortest path, therefore, is a descriptive statistic to assess connectivity of a network. If two sites are unconnected, it is possible to believe infinite-length shortest paths; here, these infinite values were celebrated but not included in final analyses.

    Networks can moreover be broken in connected components (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). A weakly connected component (WCC) is a subgraph in which everything nodes are not reachable by other nodes. A network split into multiple WCCs indicates separate populations that result not exchange any individuals, and a large number of WCCs indicates a low degree of island-wide connectivity. A strongly connected component (SCC) is a subgraph in which everything nodes are directly connected and indicates a elevated degree of connectivity. A region with many miniature SCCs can attest elevated local connectivity but low island-wide connectivity. Furthermore, component analysis can identify slice nodes, or nodes that, if removed, crash a network into multiple WCCs. Pinpointing these slice nodes can identify potential distinguished sites for preserving a population’s connectivity, and could inform predictions about the repercussion of site loss (e.g., a large-scale coral bleaching event) on overall connectivity.

    On a regional scale, it is distinguished to note which sites are exporting larvae to, or importing larvae from, other sites. To this end, they examined in-degree and out-degree for each region. In-degree refers to the number of inward-directed edges to a specific node, or how many other sites provide larvae into site ‘A’. Out-degree refers to the number of outward-directed edges from a specific node, or how many sites receive larvae from site ‘A’. Habitat sites with a elevated out-degree seed a large number of other sites, and attest potentially distinguished larval sources, while habitat sites with a low in-degree reliance on a limited number of larval sources and may therefore be relative on connections with these few other sites to maintain population size. Finally, betweenness centrality (BC) refers to the number of shortest paths that pass through a given node, and may therefore attest connectivity pathways or ‘chokepoints’ that are distinguished to overall connectivity on a multigenerational timescale. BC was weighted with the balance of dispersal as described in the preceding section. They calculated in-degree, out-degree, and weighted betweenness centrality for each region in the network for each species.

    As with the source–sink index, they did not include sites on islands other than Moloka‘i in their calculations of edge density, shortest paths, connected components, slice nodes, in- and out-degree, or betweenness centrality in order to focus on within-island patterns of connectivity.

    Results Effects of biological parameters on fine-scale connectivity patterns

    The species-specific parameters that were available to parameterize the dispersal models substantially influenced final output (Fig. 2). The balance of successful settlers (either to Moloka‘i or to neighboring islands) varied widely by species, from 2% (Panulirus spp.) to 25% (Cellana spp.). Minimum pelagic duration and settlement success were negatively correlated (e.g., an estimated −0.79 Pearson correlation coefficient). Species modeled with batch spawning at a specific moon angle and/or time of day (Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis) displayed slightly higher settlement success than similar species modeled with constant spawning over specific months. On a smaller scale, they moreover examined tolerable site-scale local retention, comparing only retention to the spawning site versus other sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). Local retention was lowest for Caranx spp. (<1%) and highest for O. cyanea and P. sexfilis (8.1% and 10%, respectively).

    Figure 2: Summary statistics for each species network. Summary statistics are displayed in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right. Heatmap colors are based on normalized values from 0–1 for each analysis. Successful settlement refers to the balance of larvae settled out of the total number of larvae spawned. Local retention is measured as the balance of larvae spawned from a site that settle at the selfsame site. Shortest path is measured as the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. Strongly connected sites refers to the balance of sites in a network that belong to a strongly connected component. impress dispersal distance is measured in kilometers from spawn site to settlement site.

    We measured network-wide connectivity via distribution of shortest paths, or the minimum number of steps between a given two nodes in a network, only including sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). O. cyanea and P. sexfilis showed the smallest shortest paths overall, signification that on average, it would buy fewer generations for these species to demographically bridge any given pair of sites. Using maximum shortest path, it could buy these species three generations at most to connect sites. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, by comparison, could buy as many as five generations. Other medium- and long-dispersing species showed relatively equivalent shortest-path distributions, with trevally species showing the highest impress path length and therefore the lowest island-scale connectivity.

    The number and size of weakly-connected and strongly-connected components in a network is moreover an informative measure of connectivity (Fig. 2). No species in their study group was broken into multiple weakly-connected components; however, there were species-specific patterns of strongly connected sites. O. cyanea and P. sexfilis were the most strongly connected, with everything sites in the network falling into a sole SCC. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina each had approximately 60% of sites included in a SCC, but both clarify fragmentation with seven and six SCCs respectively, ranging in size from two to 22 sites. This SCC pattern suggests low global connectivity but elevated local connectivity for these species. Medium and long dispersers showed larger connected components; 70% of parrotfish sites fell within two SCCs; 40% of P. porphyreus sites fell within two SCCs; 70% of C. strigosus sites, 55% of C. melampygus sites, and 40% of Panulirus sites fell within a sole SCC. In contrast, only 26% of C. ignoblis sites fell within a sole SCC. It is moreover distinguished to note that the lower connectivity scores observed in long-dispersing species likely reflect a larger scale of connectivity. Species with a shorter PLD are highly connected at reef and island levels but may clarify weaker connections between islands. Species with a longer PLD, such as trevally or spiny lobster, are likely more highly connected at inter-island scales which reflects the lower connectivity scores per island shown here.

    Figure 3: Dispersal distance density kernels. Dispersal distance is combined across species by minimum pelagic larval duration (PLD) length in days (short, medium, or long). Most short dispersers settle immediate to home, while few long dispersers are retained at or near their spawning sites.

    Minimum PLD was positively correlated with impress dispersal distance (e.g., an estimated 0.88 Pearson correlation coefficient with minimum pelagic duration loge-transformed to linearize the relationship), and dispersal kernels differed between species that are short dispersers (3–25 days), medium dispersers (30–50 days), or long dispersers (140–270 days) (Fig. 3). Short dispersers travelled a impress distance of 24.06 ± 31.33 km, medium dispersers travelled a impress distance of 52.71 ± 40.37 km, and long dispersers travelled the farthest, at a impress of 89.41 ± 41.43 km. However, regardless of PLD, there were essentially two peaks of impress dispersal: a short-distance peak of <30 km, and a long-distance peak of roughly 50–125 km (Fig. 3). The short-distance peak largely represents larvae that settle back to Moloka‘i, while the long-distance peak largely represents settlement to other islands; the low point between them corresponds to deep-water channels between islands, i.e., unsuitable habitat for settlement. Median dispersal distance for short dispersers was substantially less than the impress at 8.85 km, indicating that most of these larvae settled relatively immediate to their spawning sites, with rare long-distance dispersal events bringing up the average. Median distance for medium (54.22 km) and long (91.57 km) dispersers was closer to the mean, indicating more even distance distributions and thus a higher probability of long-distance dispersal for these species. Maximum dispersal distance varied between ∼150–180 km depending on species, except for the spiny lobster Panulirus spp., with a PLD of 270 d and a maximum dispersal distance of approximately 300 km.

    Settlement to Moloka‘i and other islands in the archipelago

    Different species showed different forward settlement balance to adjacent islands (Fig. 4), although every species in the study group successfully settled back to Moloka‘i. P. meandrina showed the highest percentage of island-scale local retention (82%), while C. ignoblis showed the lowest (7%). An tolerable of 74% of larvae from short-dispersing species settled back to Moloka‘i, as compared to an tolerable of 41% of medium dispersers and 9% of long dispersers. A large balance of larvae moreover settled to O‘ahu, with longer PLDs resulting in greater proportions, ranging from 14% of O. cyanea to 88% of C. ignoblis. Moloka‘i and O‘ahu were the most commonly settled islands by percentage. Overall, settlement from Moloka‘i to Lana‘i, Maui, Kaho‘olawe, and Hawai‘i was moderately lower. Larvae of every species settled to Lana‘i, and settlement to this island made up less than 5% of settled larvae across everything species. Likewise, settlement to Maui made up less than 7% of settlement across species, with P. meandrina as the only species that had no successful paths from Moloka‘i to Maui. Settlement to Kaho‘olawe and Hawai‘i was less common, with the exception of Panulirus spp., which had 16% of everything settled larvae on Hawai‘i.

    Figure 4: Forward settlement from Moloka’i to other islands. Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from Moloka‘i by species, organized in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right.

    We moreover examined coast-specific patterns of rearward settlement balance to other islands, discarding connections with a very low balance of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species settling to other islands). Averaged across species, 83% of larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i were spawned on the north shore of Moloka‘i, with 12% spawned on the west shore (Fig. S4). Spawning sites on the east and south shores contributed <5% of everything larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i. The east and south shores of Moloka‘i had the highest tolerable percentage of larvae settling to Lana‘i from Moloka‘i, at 78% and 20% respectively, and to Kaho‘olawe from Moloka‘i at 63% and 34%. Of the species that settled to Maui from Moloka‘i, on tolerable most were spawned on the east (53%) or north (39%) shores, as were the species that settled to Hawai‘i Island from Moloka‘i (22% east, 76% north). These patterns attest that multiple coasts of Moloka‘i believe the potential to export larvae to neighboring islands.

    Temporal settlement profiles moreover varied by species (Fig. 5). Species modeled with moon-phase spawning and relatively short settlement windows (Cellana spp. and C. ignoblis) were characterized by discrete settlement pulses, whereas other species showed settlement over a broader epoch of time. Some species moreover showed distinctive patterns of settlement to other islands; their model suggests specific windows when long-distance dispersal is possible, as well as times of year when local retention is maximized (Fig. 5).

    Figure 5: Species-specific temporal recruitment patterns. Proportion densities of settlement to specific islands from Moloka‘i based on day of year settled, by species. Rare dispersal events (e.g., Maui or Lana‘i for Cellana spp.) loom as narrow spikes, while broad distributions generally attest more common settlement pathways. Regional patterns of connectivity in Moloka‘i coastal waters

    Within Moloka‘i, their model predicts that coast-specific population structure is likely; averaged across everything species, 84% of individuals settled back to the selfsame coast on which they were spawned rather than a different coast on Moloka‘i. Excluding connections with a very low balance of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species that settled to Moloka‘i), they organize that the balance of coast-scale local retention was generally higher than dispersal to another coast, with the exception of the west coast (Fig. 6A). The north and south coasts had a elevated degree of local retention in every species except for the long-dispersing Panulirus spp., and the east coast moreover had elevated local retention overall. Between coasts, a elevated balance of larvae that spawned on the west coast settled on the north coast, and a lesser amount of larvae were exchanged from the east to south and from the north to east. With a few species-specific exceptions, larval exchange between other coasts of Moloka‘i was negligible.

    Figure 6: Coast-by-coast patterns of connectivity on Moloka‘i. (A) tolerable rearward settlement balance by species per pair of coastlines, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by everything settled larvae at site s. Directional coastline pairs (Spawn > Settlement) are ordered from left to birthright by increasing median settlement proportion. (B) Heatmap of edge density for coast-specific networks by species. Density is calculated by the number of everything realized paths out of total possible paths, disregarding directionality.

    We moreover calculated edge density, including everything connections between coasts on Moloka‘i regardless of settlement balance (Fig. 6B). The eastern coast was particularly well-connected, with an edge density between 0.14 and 0.44, depending on the species. The southern shore showed elevated edge density for short and medium dispersers (0.16–0.39) but low for long dispersers (<0.005). The north shore moreover showed relatively elevated edge density (0.20 on average), although these values were smaller for long dispersers. The west coast showed very low edge density, with the exceptions of O. cyanea (0.37) and P. sexfilis (0.13). Virtually everything networks that included two coasts showed lower edge density. One exception was the east/south shore network, which had an edge density of 0.10–0.65 except for Cellana spp. Across species, edge density between the south and west coasts was 0.12 on average, and between the east and west coasts was 0.04 on average. Edge density between north and south coasts was particularly low for everything species (<0.05), a divide that was especially distinct in Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, which showed zero realized connections between these coasts. Although northern and southern populations are potentially weakly connected by sites along the eastern ( P. meandrina) or western (Cellana spp.) shores, their model predicts very little, if any, demographic connectivity.

    To explore patterns of connectivity on a finer scale, they pooled sites into regions (as defined in Fig. 1) in order to anatomize relationships between these regions. Arranging model output into node-edge networks clarified pathways and regions of note, and revealed several patterns which did not succeed simple predictions based on PLD (Fig. 7). Cellana spp. and P. meandrina showed the most fragmentation, with several SCCs and low connectivity between coasts. Connectivity was highest in O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, which had a sole SCC containing everything regions. Medium and long dispersers generally showed fewer strongly connected regions on the south shore than the north shore, with the exception of C. strigosus. P. porphyreus showed more strongly connected regions east of Kalaupapa but lower connectivity on the western half of the island.

    Figure 7: Moloka’i connectivity networks by species. Graph-theoretic networks between regions around Moloka’i by species arranged in order of minimum pelagic larval duration. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Node size reflects betweenness centrality of each region, scaled per species for visibility. Node color reflects out-degree of each region; yellow nodes believe a low out-degree, red nodes believe a medium out-degree, and black nodes believe a elevated out-degree. Red edges are connections in a strongly connected component, while gray edges are not portion of a strongly connected component (although may noiseless picture substantial connections). Edge thickness represents log-transformed balance of dispersal along that edge.

    Region-level networks showed both species-specific and species-wide patterns of connectivity (Fig. 8). With a few exceptions, sites along the eastern coast—notably, Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor—showed relatively elevated betweenness centrality, and may therefore act as multigenerational pathways between north-shore and south-shore populations. In Cellana spp., Leinapapio Point and Mokio Point had the highest BC, while in high-connectivity O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the west coast had elevated BC scores. P. meandrina and C. strigosus showed several regions along the south shore with elevated BC. For Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, regions in the northeast had the highest out-degree, and therefore seeded the greatest number of other sites with larvae (Fig. 8). Correspondingly, regions in the northwest (and southwest in the case of P. meandrina) showed the highest in-degree. For O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the western and southern coasts showed the highest out-degree. For most species, both out-degree and in-degree were generally highest on the northern and eastern coasts, suggesting higher connectivity in these areas.

    Figure 8: Region-level summary statistics across everything species. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the number of paths that pass through a inescapable region; a elevated score suggests potentially distinguished multi-generation connectivity pathways. In-degree and out-degree refer to the amount of a node’s incoming and outgoing connections. Betweenness centrality, in-degree, and out-degree believe everything been normalized to values between 0 to 1 per species. Local retention is measured as the balance of larvae that settled back to their spawn site out of everything larvae spawned at that site. Source-sink index is a measure of net export or import; negative values (blue) attest a net larval sink, while positive values (red) attest a net larval source. White indicates that a site is neither a tenacious source nor sink. Gray values for Cellana spp. denote a requisite of suitable habitat sites in that particular region.

    Several species-wide hotspots of local retention emerged, particularly East Kalaupapa Peninsula/Leinaopapio Point, the northeast point of Moloka‘i, and the middle of the south shore. Some species moreover showed some degree of local retention west of Kalaupapa Peninsula. While local retention was observed in the long-dispersing Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., this amount was essentially negligible. In terms of source–sink dynamics, Ki‘oko‘o, Pu‘ukaoku Point, and West Kalaupapa Peninsula, everything on the north shore, were the only sites that consistently acted as a net source, exporting more larvae than they import (Fig. 8). Kaunakakai Harbor, Lono Harbor, and Mokio Point acted as net sinks across everything species. Puko‘o, Pauwalu Harbor, and Cape Halawa were either frail net sources or neither sources nor sinks, which corresponds to the elevated levels of local retention observed at these sites. Pala‘au and Mo‘omomi acted as either frail sinks or sources for short dispersers and as sources for long dispersers.

    Only four networks showed regional cut-nodes, or nodes that, if removed, crash a network into multiple weakly-connected components (Fig. S5). Cellana spp. showed two cut-nodes: Mokio Point in northwest Moloka‘i and La‘au Point in southwest Moloka‘i, which if removed isolated miniature Bay and Lono Harbor, respectively. C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus showed a similar pattern in regards to Mokio Point; removal of this node isolated miniature Bay in this species as well. In C. ignoblis, loss of Pauwalu Harbor isolated Lono Harbor, and loss of Pala‘au isolated Ilio Point on the northern coast. Finally, in Panulirus spp., loss of Leinaopapio Point isolated Papuhaku Beach, since Leinapapio Point was the only larval source from Moloka‘i for Papuhaku Beach in this species.

    Figure 9: Connectivity matrix for larvae spawned on Kalaupapa Peninsula. Includes larvae settled on Molokaí (regions below horizontal black line) and those settled on other islands (regions above horizontal black line), spawned from either the east (E) or west (W) coast of Kalaupapa. Heatmap colors picture rearward proportion, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by everything settled larvae at site s. White squares attest no dispersal along this path. The role of Kalaupapa Peninsula in inter- and intra-island connectivity

    Our model suggests that Kalaupapa National Historical Park may play a role in inter-island connectivity, especially in terms of long-distance dispersal. Out of everything regions on Moloka‘i, East Kalaupapa Peninsula was the sole largest exporter of larvae to Hawai‘i Island, accounting for 19% of everything larvae transported from Moloka‘i to this island; West Kalaupapa Peninsula accounted for another 10%. The park moreover contributed 22% of everything larvae exported from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, and successfully exported a smaller percentage of larvae to Maui, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Fig. 9). Kalaupapa was not marked as a cut-node for any species, signification that full population breaks are not predicted in the case of habitat or population loss in this area. Nevertheless, in their model Kalaupapa exported larvae to multiple regions along the north shore in everything species, as well as regions along the east, south, and/or west shores in most species networks (Figs. 9 and 10). The park may play a particularly distinguished role for long-dispersing species; settlement from Kalaupapa made up 18%–29% of everything successful settlement in Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., despite making up only 12% of spawning sites included in the model. In C. strigosus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus, Kalaupapa showed a particularly elevated out-degree, or number of outgoing connections to other regions, and West Kalaupapa was moreover one of the few regions on Moloka‘i that acted as a net larval source across everything species (Fig. 8). Their study has moreover demonstrated that different regions of a marine protected region can potentially perform different roles, even in a miniature MPA such as Kalaupapa. Across species, the east coast of Kalaupapa showed a significantly higher betweenness centrality than the west (p = 0.028), while the west coast of Kalauapapa showed a significantly higher source–sink index than the east (p = 2.63e−9).

    Figure 10: Larval spillover from Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Site-level dispersal to sites around Moloka‘i from sites in the Kalaupapa National Historical Park protected area, by species. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Edge color reflects balance of dispersal along that edge; red indicates higher balance while yellow indicates lower proportion. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green. Discussion Effects of biological and physical parameters on connectivity

    We incorporated the distribution of suitable habitat, variable reproduction, variable PLD, and ontogenetic changes in swimming capacity and empirical perpendicular distributions of larvae into their model to multiply biological realism, and assess how such traits repercussion predictions of larval dispersal. The Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM provides a highly elastic model framework that can easily be modified to incorporate either additional species-specific data or entirely recent biological traits. In this study, they included specific spawning seasons for everything species, as well as spawning by moon angle for Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis because such data was available for these species. It proved difficult to obtain the necessary biological information to parameterize the model, but as more data about life history and larval conduct become available, such information can be easily added for these species and others. Some potential additions to future iterations of the model might include density of reproductive-age adults within each habitat patch, temperature-dependent pelagic larval duration (Houde, 1989), ontogenetic-dependent behavioral changes such as orientation and diel perpendicular migration (Fiksen et al., 2007; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007), pre-competency period, and larval habitat preferences as such information becomes available.

    In this study, they believe demonstrated that patterns of fine-scale connectivity around Moloka‘i are largely species-specific and can vary with life history traits, even in species with identical pelagic larval duration. For example, the parrotfish S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus clarify greater connectivity along the northern coast, while the goatfish P. porphyreus shows higher connectivity along the eastern half of the island. These species believe similar PLD windows, but vary in dispersal depth and spawning season. Spawning season and timing altered patterns of inter-island dispersal (Fig. 5) as well as overall settlement success, which was slightly higher in species that spawned by moon angle (Fig. 2). While maximum PLD did loom play a role in the probability of rare long-distance dispersal, minimum PLD appears to be the main driver of tolerable dispersal distance (Fig. 2). Overall, species with a shorter minimum PLD had higher settlement success, shorter impress dispersal distance, higher local retention, and higher local connectivity as measured by the amount and size of strongly connected components.

    The interaction of biological and oceanographic factors moreover influenced connectivity patterns. Because mesoscale current patterns can vary substantially over the course of the year, the timing of spawning for inescapable species may be faultfinding for estimating settlement (Wren et al., 2016; Wong-Ala et al., 2018). Intermittent ocean processes may influence the probability of local retention versus long-distance dispersal; a large balance of larvae settled to O‘ahu, which is moderately surprising given that in order to settle from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, larvae must cross the Kaiwi Channel (approx. 40 km). However, the intermittent presence of mesoscale gyres may act as a stabilizing pathway across the channel, sweeping larvae up either the windward or leeward coast of O‘ahu depending on spawning site. Likewise, in their model long-distance dispersal to Hawai‘i Island was possible at inescapable times of the year due to a gyre to the north of Maui; larvae were transported from Kalaupapa to this gyre, where they were carried to the northeast shore of Hawai‘i (Fig. S6). preparatory analysis moreover suggests that distribution of larval depth influenced edge directionality and size of connected components (Fig. 7); surface currents are variable and primarily wind-driven, giving positively-buoyant larvae different patterns of dispersal than species that disperse deeper in the water column (Fig. S7).

    Model limitations and future perspectives

    Our findings believe several caveats. Because fine-scale density estimates are not available for their species of interest around Moloka’i, they assumed that fecundity is equivalent at everything sites. This simplification may lead us to under- or over-estimate the power of connections between sites. requisite of adequate data moreover necessitated estimation or extrapolation from congener information for larval traits such as larval dispersal depth and PLD. Since it is difficult if not impossible to identify larvae to the species flush without genetic analysis, they used genus-level larval distribution data (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996), or lacking that, an assess of 50–100 m as a depth layer that is generally more enriched with larvae (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). They moreover estimated PLD in several cases using congener-level data (see Table 1). While specificity is exemplar for making informed management decisions about a inescapable species, past sensitivity analysis has shown that variation in PLD length does not greatly repercussion patterns of dispersal in species with a PLD of >40 days (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016).

    Although their MITgcm current model shows annual consistency, it only spans two and a half years chosen as neutral situation ‘average’ ocean conditions. It does not span any El Niño or La Niña (ENSO) events, which occasions wide-scale sea-surface temperature anomalies and may therefore impress patterns of connectivity during these years. El Niño can believe a particularly tenacious repercussion on coral reproduction, since the warm currents associated with these events can lead to austere temperature stress (Glynn & D’Croz, 1990; Wood et al., 2016). While there has been microscopic study to date on the effects of ENSO on fine-scale connectivity, previous work has demonstrated increased variability during these events. For example, Wood et al. (2016) showed a decrease in eastward Pacific dispersal during El Niño years, but an multiply in westward dispersal, and Treml et al. (2008) showed unique connections in the West Pacific as well as an multiply in connectivity during El Niño. While these effects are difficult to predict, especially at such a miniature scale, additional model years would multiply self-confidence in long-term connectivity estimations. Additionally, with a temporal resolution of 24 h, they could not adequately address the role of tides on dispersal, and therefore did not include them in the MITgcm. Storlazzi et al. (2017) showed that tidal forces did impress larval dispersal in Maui Nui, underlining the moment of including both fine-scale, short-duration models and coarser-scale, long-duration models in final management decisions.

    We moreover confine their model’s scope geographically. Their goal was to determine whether they could resolve predictive patterns at this scale relevant to management. Interpretation of connectivity output can be biased by spatial resolution of the ocean model, since involved coastal processes can be smoothed and therefore repercussion larval trajectories. To confine this bias, they focused mainly on coastal and regional connectivity on scales greater than the current resolution. They moreover used the finest-scale current products available for their study area, and their results clarify universal agreement with similar studies of the region that utilize a coarser resolution (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016) and a finer resolution (Storlazzi et al., 2017). Also, while lore of island-scale connectivity is distinguished for local management, it does disregard potential connections from other islands. In their calculations of edge density, betweenness centrality and source-sink index, they included only settlement to Moloka‘i, discarding exogenous sinks that would bias their analysis. Likewise, they cannot call the balance of larvae settling to other islands that originated from Moloka‘i, or the balance of larvae on Moloka‘i that originated from other islands.

    It is moreover distinguished to note scale in relation to measures of connectivity; they await that long-dispersing species such as Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp. will clarify much higher measures of connectivity when measured across the total archipelago as opposed to a sole island. The cut-nodes observed in these species may not actually crash up populations on a large scale due to this inter-island connectivity. Nevertheless, cut-nodes in species with short- and medium-length PLD may indeed ticket distinguished habitat locations, especially in terms of providing links between two otherwise disconnected coasts. It may be that for inescapable species or inescapable regions, stock replenishment relies on larval import from other islands, underscoring the moment of MPA selection for population maintenance in the archipelago as a whole.

    Implications for management

    Clearly, there is no sole management approach that encompasses the breadth of life history and conduct differences that repercussion patterns of larval dispersal and connectivity (Toonen et al., 2011; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). The spatial, temporal, and species-specific variability suggested by their model stresses the requisite for multi-scale management, specifically tailored to local and regional connectivity patterns and the suite of target species. Even on such a miniature scale, different regions around the island of Moloka‘i can play very different roles in the greater pattern of connectivity (Fig. 8); sites along the west coast, for example, showed fewer ingoing and outgoing connections than sites on the north coast, and therefore may be more at risk of isolation. Seasonal variation should moreover be taken into account, as mesoscale current patterns (and resulting connectivity patterns) vary over the course of a year. Their model suggests species-specific temporal patterns of settlement (Fig. 5); even in the year-round spawner O. cyanea, local retention to Moloka‘i as well as settlement to O‘ahu was maximized in spring and early summer, while settlement to other islands mostly occurred in late summer and fall.

    Regions that clarify similar network dynamics may capitalize from similar management strategies. Areas that act as larval sources either by balance of larvae (high source–sink index) or number of sites (high out-degree) should receive management consideration. On Moloka‘i, across everything species in their study, these sources fell mostly on the northern and eastern coasts. Maintenance of these areas is especially distinguished for downstream areas that depend on upstream populations for a source of larvae, such as those with a low source–sink index, low in-degree, and/or low local retention. Across species, regions with the highest betweenness centrality scores fell mainly in the northeast (Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor). These areas should receive consideration as potentially distinguished intergenerational pathways, particularly as a means of connecting north-coast and south-coast populations, which showed a requisite of connectivity both in total number of connections (edge density) and balance of larvae. Both of these connectivity measures were included because edge density includes everything connections, even those with a very miniature balance of larvae, and may therefore include rare dispersal events that are of microscopic relevance to managers. Additionally, edge density comparisons between networks should be viewed with the caveat that these networks result not necessarily believe the selfsame number of nodes. Nevertheless, both edge density and balance clarify very similar patterns, and include both demographically-relevant common connections as well as rare connections that could influence genetic connectivity.

    Management that seeks to establish a resilient network of spatially managed areas should moreover deem the preservation of both weakly-connected and strongly-connected components, as removal of key cut-nodes (Fig. S5) breaks up a network. Sites within a SCC believe more direct connections and therefore may be more resilient to local population loss. care should be taken to preserve breeding populations at larval sources, connectivity pathways, and cut-nodes within a SCC, since without these key sites the network can fragment into multiple independent SCCs instead of a sole stable network. This rehearse may be especially distinguished for species for which they assess multiple miniature SCCs, such as Cellana spp. or P. meandrina.

    Kalaupapa Peninsula emerged as an distinguished site in Moloka‘i population connectivity, acting as a larval source for other regions around the island. The Park seeded areas along the north shore in everything species, and moreover exported larvae to sites along the east and west shores in everything species except P. meandrina and Cellana spp. Additionally, it was a larval source for sites along the south shore in the fishes C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus as well as Panulirus spp. Western Kalaupapa Peninsula was one of only three regions included in the analysis (the others being Ki‘oko‘o and Pu‘ukaoku Point, moreover on the north shore) that acted as a net larval source across everything species. Eastern Kalaupapa Peninsula was particularly highly connected, and was portion of a strongly connected component in every species. The Park moreover emerged as a potential point of connection to adjacent islands, particularly to O‘ahu and Hawai‘i. Expanding the spatial scale of their model will further elucidate Kalaupapa’s role in the greater pattern of inter-island connectivity.

    In addition to biophysical modeling, genetic analyses can be used to identify persistent population structure of relevance to managers (Cowen et al., 2000; Casey, Jardim & Martinsohn, 2016). Their finding that exchange among islands is generally low in species with a short- to medium-length PLD agrees with population genetic analyses of marine species in the Hawaiian Islands (Bird et al., 2007; Rivera et al., 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Concepcion, Baums & Toonen, 2014). On a finer scale, they call some flush of shoreline-specific population structure for most species included in the study (Fig. 6). Unfortunately, genetic analyses to date believe been performed over too broad a scale to effectively compare to these fine-scale connectivity predictions around Moloka‘i or even among locations on adjacent islands. These model results justify such miniature scale genetic analyses because there are species, such as the coral P. meandrina, for which the model predicts pellucid separation of north-shore and south-shore populations which should be simple to test using genetic data. To validate these model predictions with this technique, more fine-scale population genetic analyses are needed.

    Conclusions

    The maintenance of demographically connected populations is distinguished for conservation. In this study, they contribute to the growing cadaver of work in biophysical connectivity modeling, focusing on a region and suite of species that are of relevance to resource managers. Furthermore, they demonstrate the value of quantifying fine-scale relationships between habitat sites via graph-theoretic methods. Multispecies network analysis revealed persistent patterns that can befriend define region-wide practices, as well as species-specific connectivity that merits more individual consideration. They demonstrate that connectivity is influenced not only by PLD, but moreover by other life-history traits such as spawning season, moon-phase spawning, and ontogenetic changes in larval depth. elevated local retention of larvae with a short- or medium-length PLD is consistent with population genetic studies of the area. They moreover identify regions of management importance, including West Kalaupapa Peninsula, which acts as a consistent larval source across species; East Kalaupapa Peninsula, which is a strongly connected region in every species network, and Pauwalu Harbor/Cape Halawa, which may act as distinguished multigenerational pathways. Connectivity is only one piece of the perplex of MPA effectiveness, which must moreover account for reproductive population size, long-term persistence, and post-settlement survival (Burgess et al., 2014). That being said, their study provides a quantitative roadmap of potential demographic connectivity, and thus presents an effectual utensil for estimating current and future patterns of dispersal around Kalaupapa Peninsula and around Moloka‘i as a whole.

    Supplemental Information Current patterns in the model domain.

    Current direction and velocity is displayed at a depth of 55 m below sea surface on (A) March 31st, 2011, (B) June 30th, 2011, (C) September 30th, 2011, and (D) December 31st, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, elevated velocity). Domain extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N. The island of Moloka‘i is highlighted in red.

    Subset of validation drifter paths.

    Drifter paths in black and corresponding model paths are colored by drifter ID. everything drifter information was extracted from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly center (Elipot et al., 2016). Drifters were included if they fell within the model domain spatially and temporally, and were tested by releasing 1,000 particles on the remedy day where they entered the model domain, at the uppermost depth layer of their oceanographic model (0–5 m).

    Selected larval depth distributions.

    Modeled perpendicular larval distributions for Caranx spp. (left), S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus (middle), and P. porphyreus (right), using data from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton perpendicular distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy 1996).

    Coast-specific rearward settlement patterns by island

    Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from sites on each coast of Moloka‘i, averaged across everything species that successfully settled to that island.

    Regional cut-nodes for four species networks

    Mokio Point and La‘au Point were cut-nodes for Cellana spp., Mokio Point was a cut-node for C. perspicillatus and S. rubroviolaceus, Pauwalu Harbor and Pala‘au were cut-nodes for C. ignoblis, and Leinaopapio Point was a cut-node for Panulirus spp.

    Selected dispersal pathways for Panulirus spp. larvae

    500 randomly sampled dispersal pathways for lobster larvae (Panulirus spp.) that successfully settled to Hawai‘i Island after being spawned off the coast of Moloka‘i. Red tracks attest settlement earlier in the year (February–March), while black tracks attest settlement later in the year (April–May). Most larvae are transported to the northeast coast of Hawai‘i via a gyre to the north of Maui, while a smaller balance are transported through Maui Nui.

    Eddy differences by depth layer.

    Differences in eddy pattern and power in surface layers (A, 2.5 m) vs. deep layers (B, 55 m) on March 31, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, elevated velocity). While large gyres remain consistent at different depths, smaller features vary along this gradient. For example, the currents around Kaho‘olawe, the miniature gyre off the eastern coast of O‘ahu, and currents to the north of Maui everything vary in direction and/or velocity.



    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11740004
    Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-1p8
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12306763
    Issu : https://issuu.com/trutrainers/docs/000-n04
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/11/actual-000-n04-take-look-at-questions-i.html
    RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/LookAtThese000-n04RealQuestionAndAnswers
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/ku8wklwvkv74u16ironofoix7saenwk1
    zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/62c50ac24b7cc66ba4c739e95c2efed11f358






    Back to Main Page





    Killexams exams | Killexams certification | Pass4Sure questions and answers | Pass4sure | pass-guaratee | best test preparation | best training guides | examcollection | killexams | killexams review | killexams legit | kill example | kill example journalism | kill exams reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review | review quizlet | review login | review archives | review sheet | legitimate | legit | legitimacy | legitimation | legit check | legitimate program | legitimize | legitimate business | legitimate definition | legit site | legit online banking | legit website | legitimacy definition | pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | certification material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure exams | pass4sure reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure security | pass4sure cisco | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure braindumps | pass4sure test | pass4sure torrent | pass4sure download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |

    www.pass4surez.com | www.killcerts.com | www.search4exams.com | http://smresidences.com.ph/