Features and Amenities
Features and Amenities:
Wifi ready study area
Gym and Function Room
Features and Amenities:
2 Lap Pools
Ground Floor Commercial Areas
Features and Amenities:
3 Swimming Pools
Gym and Fitness Center
Outdoor Basketball Court
Contact us today for a no obligation quotation:
Copyright © 2018 SMDC :: SM Residences, All Rights Reserved.
000-N02 exam Dumps Source : IBM Managed File Transfer Technical Mastery Test v1
Test Code : 000-N02
Test Name : IBM Managed File Transfer Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor Name : IBM
: 33 Real Questions
It is great ideal to prepare 000-N02 exam with real exam questions.
Knowing very well about my time constraint, started searching for an easy way out before the 000-N02 exam. After a long searh, found the question and answers by killexams.com which really made my day. Presenting all probable questions with their short and pointed answers helped grasp topics in a short time and felt happy to secure good marks in the exam. The materials are also easy to memorise. I am impressed and satiated with my results.
Do now not spend big amount on 000-N02 courses, get this query financial institution.
It is about new 000-N02 exam. I bought this 000-N02 braindump before I heard of replace so I notion I had spent cashon some thing i might no longer be able to use. I contacted killexams.com assist personnel to double test, and they cautioned me the 000-N02 exam have been up to date nowadays. As I checked it towards the extremely-cutting-edge 000-N02 exam goalsit virtually appears up to date. A number of questions were added compared to older braindumps and all regionsprotected. I am impressed with their overall performance and customer support. Searching beforehand to taking my 000-N02 exam in 2 weeks.
Did you tried this terrific source of 000-N02 brain dumps.
hello there fellows, simply to tell you that I passed 000-N02 exam an afternoon or two ago with 88% marks. sure, the exam is tough and killexams.com and exam Simulator does make lifestyles easier - a brilliant deal! I suppose this unit is the unequalled motive I passed the exam. As a be counted of first importance, their exam simulator is a gift. I commonly cherished the questions and-solution enterprise and exams of different types in mild of the reality that this isthe most ideal approach to learn.
birthday celebration is over! Time to observe and bypass the exam.
Nice one, it made the 000-N02 easy for me. I used killexams.com and passed my 000-N02 exam.
Preparing 000-N02 exam with is matter of some hours now.
Howdy there fellows, clearly to tell you that I passed 000-N02 exam an afternoon or two ago with 88% marks. Sure, the exam is tough and killexams.com and exam Simulator does make life much less tough - a top class deal! I suppose this unit is the unrivaled cause I passed the exam. As a remember of first significance, their exam simulator is a gift. I generally loved the questions and-answer company and test of numerous kinds in light of the reality that is the maximum excellent method to test.
No more struggle required to pass 000-N02 exam.
i am opemarks into an IT company and therefore I hardly ever discover any time to put together for 000-N02 exam. therefore, I arise to an easy end of killexams.com dumps. To my surprise it worked like wonders for me. I ought to solve all the questions in least possible time than provided. The questions seem to be pretty clean with exquisite reference manual. I secured 939 marks which was honestly a top class wonder for me. remarkable thanks to killexams!
Real test questions of 000-N02 exam are available now.
I cleared all the 000-N02 exams effortlessly. This website proved very useful in clearing the exams as well as understanding the concepts. All questions are explanined very well.
terrific supply! I had been given real take a look at questions brand new 000-N02 examination.
it is amazing experience for the 000-N02 exam. With now not a whole lot stuff available on line, Im glad I were givenkillexams.com. The questions/solutions are just top class. With killexams.com, the exam become very easy, extraordinary.
000-N02 examination prep got to be this smooth.
I went crazy at the same time as my check turned into in per week and i misplaced my 000-N02 syllabus. I have been given blank and wasnt capable toparent out a way to manage up with the state of affairs. Manifestly, they all are aware about the importance the syllabus in the direction of the instruction length. Its far the best paper which directs the way. At the same time as i was almost mad, I got to comprehend about killexams. Cant thank my friend for making me privy to this form of blessing. Trainingbecame a lot easier with the assist of 000-N02 syllabus which I got via the website.
No questions was requested that became out of these bank.
im now 000-N02 licensed and it could not be viable without killexams.com 000-N02 trying out engine. killexams.com exam simulator has been tailored keeping in thoughts the necessities of the students which they confront at the time of taking 000-N02 exam. This trying out engine is very tons exam consciousness and each subject matter has been addressed in element simply to maintain apprised the scholars from each and each statistics. killexams.com team is aware of that this is the manner to maintain college students confident and ever equipped for taking exam.
Managed File transfer Softwarr Market via purposes BFSI, Media & enjoyment, Retail
This press liberate was orginally distributed by using SBWire
Edison, NJ -- (SBWIRE) -- 01/18/2019 -- HTF MI currently introduced international Managed File switch application Market study with concentrated method on market size & volumes by way of application, industry selected process, product classification, gamers, and production & Consumption evaluation considering the fact that predominant elements, cost structure and regulatory components. At present, the market is establishing its presence and some of the important thing players from the comprehensive look at are IBM, Axway, Saison assistance systems, OpenText(Hightail), CA technologies, Accellion, GlobalSCAPE, Primeur, Signiant, Ipswitch, Micro focal point, TIBCO, Attunity & SSH (Tectia).
The report presents a complete comparison of the market. It does so by means of in-depth qualitative insights, historical information, and verifiable projections about market dimension. The projections featured within the document were derived the usage of confirmed research methodologies and assumptions.
Get the inner scoop of the pattern record @: https://www.htfmarketreport.com/pattern-record/1513679-global-managed-file-switch-application-market-13
Market segmentationOn The basis Of class: , equipment-centric File transfer, individuals-centric File switch & extreme File TransferOn The foundation Of functions/ conclusion users: BFSI, Media & enjoyment, Retail, Manufacturing, Telecommunication & OthersOn The groundwork Of areas: u.s., Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India & relevant & South america
This analyze also carries enterprise profiling, product graphic and standards, earnings, market share and speak to suggestions of various overseas, regional, and native companies of international Managed File switch software Market, some of them are IBM, Axway, Saison suggestions systems, OpenText(Hightail), CA technologies, Accellion, GlobalSCAPE, Primeur, Signiant, Ipswitch, Micro focus, TIBCO, Attunity & SSH (Tectia). The market competitors is normally becoming greater with the upward push in technological innovation and M&A actions within the business. moreover, many local and regional carriers are offering specific utility products for diverse end-users. the brand new supplier entrants available in the market are finding it hard to compete with the foreign providers in line with satisfactory, reliability, and improvements in expertise.
** The Values marked with XX is confidential statistics. to grasp greater about CAGR figures fill in your counsel the usage of beneath enquiry link or e-mail us at email@example.com in order that their company development executive can get in touch with you.
Enquire for customization in document @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/enquiry-before-purchase/1513679-world-managed-file-transfer-utility-market-13
Highlights about report coverage:- a complete heritage analysis, which includes an evaluation of the world Managed File transfer application market- crucial adjustments in Managed File switch software market dynamics- Managed File switch application Market segmentation up to the 2d & third stage regional bifurcation- old, current, and projected dimension of the world Managed File transfer application market with respect to both value (income) and volume (construction & Consumption)- Reporting and evaluation of recent Managed File transfer utility industry developments- Managed File transfer utility Market shares and strategies of key gamers- emerging niche segments and regional markets- An purpose evaluation of the trajectory of the Managed File transfer utility market- options to agencies for strengthening their foothold within the Managed File transfer software market
additionally the export and import guidelines that can make an instantaneous impact on the global Managed File switch utility market. This study carries a EXIM* connected chapter on the Managed File switch application market and all its associated groups with their profiles, which offers valuable records pertaining to their outlook when it comes to budget, product portfolios, funding plans, and advertising and business options.
buy this analysis report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/buy-now?layout=1&file=1513679
There are 15 Chapters to monitor the world Managed File transfer utility market.
table of Contents1 Market Overview1.1 international Managed File switch utility Introduction1.2 Market evaluation with the aid of Type1.three Market evaluation through Applications1.4 Market analysis through Regions1.5 Market Dynamics1.5.1 Market Opportunities1.5.2 Market Risk1.5.3 Market using drive
2 producers Profiles2.1.1 company Overview2.1.2 Managed File transfer utility classification and Applications2.1.3 Managed File transfer application revenue, rate, salary, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
3 global Managed File transfer SoftwareMarket competitors, by using Manufacturer4 international Managed File switch SoftwareMarket evaluation with the aid of Regions5 place 1, type, software and manufacturers.
10 international Managed File transfer application Market segment via Type11 Managed File switch utility Market section by way of Application12 Managed File switch utility Market Forecast (2019-2025)13 income Channel, Distributors, merchants and Dealers14 research Findings and Conclusion15 Appendix....persevered
complete record on Managed File switch utility market file spread throughout 100+ pages, listing of tables & figures, profiling 10+ corporations. study distinct Index of full analysis study at @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/stories/1513679-international-managed-file-switch-utility-market-13
Thanks for reading this article; that you may also get particular person chapter smart part or location smart record edition like North the usa, Europe or Asia.
For extra information on this press release discuss with: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/managed-file-transfer-software-market-to-witness-huge-increase-by-key-gamers-ibm-axway-saison-suggestions-systems-1125856.htm
IBM's 4Q and FY14 revenue: Transition Has Yet to Yield respectable effects (half 9 of 17)
(continued from half 8)
IBM is the leader within the middleware and software market
in line with Gartner, IBM (IBM) with a market cap of approximately $one hundred sixty billion is a market chief in the middleware and software house. in response to IBISWorld, “Middleware provides interoperability between disparate styles of utility, enabling the persevered use of obsolete, legacy or unrelated application programs with modern application.” according to its file in 2014, with a 30% market share, IBM has maintained this place right through the past 13 years.
among the eleven application infrastructures and middleware markets that Gartner studied, IBM changed into number 1 in eight of these markets, followed by means of Oracle with a market share of 15%. Microsoft (MSFT), SAP AG (SAP), and Tibco held 5%, 4%, and three% market share, respectively.
IBM continues to retain its right place with a sixty seven% market share in Message Oriented Middleware that's a key enabler for mobile computing. there's an accelerated demand to hyperlink collectively large facts, cell, cloud, and social computing applied sciences into core enterprise software techniques. In business-to-enterprise (or B2B) middleware, IBM is the chief that drives enhanced collaboration among partners and customers. The enterprise is also a frontrunner in managed file transfer suites, a phase it is supposed for comfy, legitimate birth of statistics between individuals, tactics, and methods.
To gain diverse publicity to IBM, which you could invest in the know-how SPDR (XLK). XLK invests 3.fifty one% of its holdings in IBM.
Strategic boom areas registered decent boom
In fiscal year 2014, IBM’s cloud revenues and cloud delivered as a carrier profits stood at $7 billion and $three billion, respectively. These revenues grew with the aid of 60% and seventy five% on a year-over-year foundation, respectively. business analytics noticed its revenues increase with the aid of 7% on a year-over-12 months groundwork to $17 billion.
in the past 11 consecutive quarters, IBM’s salary has declined. The business has again and again cited that its focus now lies on strategic imperatives that consist of 5 groups: cloud, information analytics, cell, social, and safety efforts.
within the March 2015 Morgan Stanley (MS) technology, Media, and Telecom convention, IBM’s CFO, Martin Schroeter, mentioned that the enterprise’s strategic areas (large statistics, analytics, cloud mobile, and protection) posted $25 billion of revenues or 27% of ordinary revenues, an increase of sixteen% on a yr-over-12 months basis. via investing $4 billion in 2015, the business intends to increase the contribution of those areas to 44% of typical revenues via 2018.
proceed to part 10
Browse this collection on Market Realist:
IBM is acquiring Aspera, a bootstrapped file switch business that counts media organizations, SaaS providers and big firms as consumers. Aspera has many enterprise use circumstances, including sending big amounts of genome records and have-size films. phrases of the deal had been not disclosed.
Aspera’s utility is constructed on “fasp,” its patented file switch technology. Fasp is designed to leverage a corporation’s wide enviornment network (WAN) and commodity hardware to obtain speeds that are sooner than FTP and HTTP over a relaxed community. A WAN is pretty much an organization’s network across a large geographic region. Aspera’s technology optimizes the WAN via its utility that permits for granularity within the means the technology is used. during the manner, Aspera optimizes the bandwidth, latency, bottlenecks and a bunch of other elements.
Apple makes use of Aspera for video uploads to the iTunes shop. earlier than they began the usage of Aspera it from time to time took content material providers three.5 hours to add big video data. With Aspera, the content material provider pronounced the time for upload diminished to five minutes.
IBM sees a chance to give customers with a file switch device that should be necessary as extra facts turns into attainable through social media, devices and sensors connected to well-nigh everything we know. Sensors could be on the furniture in their homes, the vehicles they drive, even their own bodies. it'll turn everything that they comprehend into an information object requiring extra innovation in how facts moves round.
The “cloud” and “massive data” get loads of mention within the IBM press unencumber concerning the acquisition. It may also be anticipated that IBM will spotlight its file switch skill as a part of its cloud computing approach. IBM is showing renewed vigour in the cloud computing market. earlier this year the company obtained SoftLayer and the day before today it introduced a partnership with 21Vianet, a internet hosting enterprise to provide “business” workloads to consumers in China.
The WAN optimization market will hit $four.4 billion by means of 2014, in response to Gartner analysis. The IBM Sterling Commerce neighborhood also offers high-speed file switch as do a broad set of alternative agencies that include Ipswitch, Tibco and Globalscape.
(characteristic photo via Flickr)
While it is hard errand to pick solid certification questions/answers assets regarding review, reputation and validity since individuals get sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets as for exam dumps update and validity. The greater part of other's sham report objection customers come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effortlessly. They never bargain on their review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certainty is imperative to us. Extraordinarily they deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. On the off chance that you see any false report posted by their rivals with the name killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com protestation or something like this, simply remember there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of good administrations because of their advantages. There are a great many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their example questions and test brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.
COG-105 exam prep | MA0-100 free pdf download | A2040-410 braindumps | HP2-H17 braindumps | 00M-241 practice test | A2180-188 questions answers | 000-257 dumps questions | BH0-011 cram | CAT-440 brain dumps | HP0-S39 free pdf | 000-503 Practice test | 156-915-71 dump | 250-250 Practice Test | 1Z0-804 practice exam | 1Z0-533 sample test | 000-751 exam prep | 000-M06 free pdf | 000-850 practice test | HP5-H07D VCE | HP2-N26 examcollection |
People used these IBM dumps to get 100% marks
At killexams.com, they give completely tested IBM 000-N02 actual Questions and Answers that are recently required for Passing 000-N02 test. They truly enable individuals to enhance their knowledge to remember the and guarantee. It is a best decision to speed up your position as an expert in the Industry.
If you are searching for Pass4sure IBM 000-N02 Dumps containing real exams questions and answers for the IBM Managed File Transfer Technical Mastery Test v1 Exam preparation, they give most updated and quality wellspring of 000-N02 Dumps that is http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/000-N02. They have aggregated a database of 000-N02 Dumps questions from real exams with a specific end goal to give you a chance to get ready and pass 000-N02 exam on the first attempt.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
killexams.com helps a colossal scope of competitors pass the tests and get their accreditation. They have a major wide assortment of productive surveys. Their dumps are strong, slight, updated and of genuinely attractive Great to defeat the requesting circumstances of any IT certifications. killexams.com exam dumps are latest updated in prominently clobber way on well known start and material is released from time to time. Latest killexams.com dumps are open in testing centers with whom we're holding up their relationship to get latest material.
killexams.com IBM Certification study aides are setup through IT masters. A great many people objection that an unnecessary scope of questions in this kind of sizable wide assortment of tutoring evaluations and exam asset, and they might be as of late wiped out to deal with the cost of any additional. Seeing killexams.com specialists practice session this far achieving version in the meantime as still certification that every one the becoming acquainted with is anchored after significant examinations and exam. Everything is to make reassurance for hopefuls on their street to certification.
We have Tested and Approved 000-N02 Exams. killexams.com offers the most particular and latest IT exam materials which relatively fuse all exam subjects. With the guide of their 000-N02 consider materials, you don't need to misuse your hazard on examining significant piece of reference books and genuinely need to consume 10-20 hours to pro their 000-N02 real questions and answers. Whats more noteworthy, they furnish you with PDF Version and Software Version exam questions and answers. For Software Version materials, Its exhibited to display the applicants reenact the IBM 000-N02 exam in an actual environment.
We give free updates. Inside authenticity length, if 000-N02 brain dumps which you have gotten exceptional, they will tell you with the guide of email to down load most extreme latest variety of . On the off peril that you don't pass your IBM IBM Managed File Transfer Technical Mastery Test v1 exam, They will give you full refund. You should send the verified propagation of your 000-N02 exam archive card to us. Ensuing to declaring, they will startlingly furnish you with FULL REFUND.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
In the occasion which you prepare for the IBM 000-N02 exam using their exam simulator engine. It is something anyway hard to prevail for all certifications inside the main endeavor. You don't need to control all dumps or any free deluge/rapidshare all stuff. They offer free demo of each IT Certification Dumps. You can watch the interface, question Great and usability of their tutoring exams sooner than you select to purchase.
000-N02 | 000-N02 | 000-N02 | 000-N02 | 000-N02 | 000-N02
Killexams 000-674 cheat sheets | Killexams 9L0-622 free pdf download | Killexams ST0-093 study guide | Killexams HP2-B101 practice test | Killexams HP0-276 practice exam | Killexams FN0-125 practice questions | Killexams ICTS Practice test | Killexams FM0-306 practice test | Killexams C2010-579 braindumps | Killexams 70-496 practice questions | Killexams 000-223 test questions | Killexams 70-121 free pdf | Killexams ACE test prep | Killexams 000-741 bootcamp | Killexams 000-550 questions answers | Killexams 1Z0-456 VCE | Killexams 1Z0-451 questions and answers | Killexams 9L0-607 test prep | Killexams BI0-132 dumps | Killexams 000-377 dumps questions |
Killexams M2140-649 test prep | Killexams COG-700 cheat sheets | Killexams NS0-121 study guide | Killexams LOT-841 questions and answers | Killexams C2040-407 braindumps | Killexams 1D0-541 bootcamp | Killexams C2090-620 test questions | Killexams 050-639 braindumps | Killexams ST0-151 sample test | Killexams JK0-019 test prep | Killexams 000-539 real questions | Killexams 500-301 pdf download | Killexams S10-200 real questions | Killexams EE0-425 cram | Killexams C2140-135 brain dumps | Killexams 156-315 exam prep | Killexams HP0-J54 real questions | Killexams 000-677 dumps questions | Killexams HP0-M33 practice exam | Killexams 000-N27 practice test |
If premium pay serves as a legitimate measure of employment opportunities, then the IT industry entered 2018 in just about the same spot as last year -- a continued position of strength for many workers with in-demand technical CRM skills.
According to Foote Partners LLC, a research firm that each fiscal quarter compiles compensation and other data from more than 3,000 employers in North America, the final quarter of 2017 essentially saw little movement on pay premiums awarded above and beyond base pay to certified and noncertified IT professionals who have one of 968 types of skills. An objective, granular view of IT pay helps tech companies ascertain how much they should compensate their workers with and without certification, as well as new hires. Foote Partners studies pay premiums, so IT leaders can compare salary benchmark levels to better assemble their workforces.Disconnect between pay and product demand
In its review of the pay for 274,660 IT employees at 3,105 public and private employers, Foote Partners put a microscope to a wide array of jobs, including those focused on CRM skills. One of those findings revealed workers with Oracle CRM skills are experiencing a downturn in premium pay. The extra pay value of that job has decreased 22% since the end of 2016, including a 12.5% drop in the fourth quarter of 2017, reported David Foote, the research firm's co-founder and president.
The cause of the downturn is not yet clear, because there's still a demand for Oracle CRM software, Foote said. "[Demand is] not going down because people care about [the software]," he added. Oracle CRM technical knowledge is still considered a hot skill.
Even though there's now less of a gap between certified skilled workers and targeted IT needs at companies, certified training in CRM skills is still a plus, Foote noted. "For something like CRM, especially for SAP, it makes sense to go specialized," he explained, adding that SAP CRM is among the skilled jobs commanding the highest-paying premiums. Yet, overall, premium pay for many other SAP skills continues to be volatile, Foote said.
Average premium pay for SAP skills increased 1.4% last quarter, but over the past two years, it has dropped 6%. "Premium pay for SAP has been going down," Foote acknowledged. "And that usually means they are not such hot jobs. SAP has been around for a long time and has been going through many growth spurts. They went down [when] marketing to small to midsize customers about five years ago and started creating a new tier of products. Still, what kind of midsize company can afford SAP?"
Workers who are proficient with Microsoft technology, on the other hand, are apparently in high demand, because the average premium pay for those skills, which include expertise in Microsoft Dynamics CRM, are 7% to 11% higher than the market value for regular pay, Foote said.It pays to be certified
Certification won't always open the door to premium pay for every IT job, but it usually does for CRM-specific positions. David Footeco-founder and president, Foote Partners LLC
Employers typically place greater value on workers who hold certifications that represent mastery of a certain skill. Foote said certification won't always open the door to premium pay for every IT job, but it usually does for CRM-specific positions. Certification for SAP CRM skills, for example, would be a worthwhile investment, considering the premium pay for those jobs is currently high, he said.
Still, an employer's wants and needs can change quickly, Foote warned. He pointed to chief security officers (CSOs) suddenly wanting "technical people who think strategically."
"They're starting to hire people in cybersecurity who have an ability to see patterns and behavior and don't have a deep technical background, whereas some engineer trained in that [discipline] will tend to put up guardrails. Some CSOs don't want to go too deep in a tech background."
Foote Partners' quarter-by-quarter surveys and research showed after a decade of "high volatility," IT premium pay is stabilizing. "Companies have been chasing certain skill sets, and once they were able to plug in one, they would have another need," Foote said. "But now the volatility is starting to ebb, and companies are catching their breath and getting control."
So, now is a good time for companies to prepare for the next generation of technologies, including AI, blockchain and internet of things, by ensuring they have the skilled workers needed to capitalize on those advancements, Foote reasoned. For the past few years, he added, employers have been relying on short-term fixes to hire the right people. But for the next wave of jobs, companies need to adopt agile compensation methods to prepare for the inevitable volatility -- a proliferation of technology-related jobs and the lack of consistency in job definition and pay programs.
Not long ago, Google produced a video that’s making the rounds on the Internet. In it, a Google employee asks people in Times Square in New York City a series of questions, such as “What is a browser?”, “What browser do you use?”, and “Have you heard of Google Chrome?” (Chrome is Google’s new Web browser; it’s available for Windows and in pre-release test versions for the Mac.)
Among the geek set, the video has gotten a lot of play because most of the people in the video – who appear to be functional adults and who use the Internet regularly – come off as highly clueless. According to the video, only 8 percent of people queried that day knew what a browser is.
The video is clearly not a scientific study, and suffers from horrible methodology. It’s likely, for instance, that simply asking “What is a Web browser?” would have produced better results, and the middle of Times Square is undoubtedly not where most people are thinking about the names of programs on their computers. But let’s leave aside such criticisms for the moment.
What’s Your Browser? Instead, let’s take the results on face value and consider their implications. What does it say about the technological world in which they live that 92 percent of the people asked could not identify the name of the program they use to access the Web? If other statistics are to be believed, browsing the Web is the primary use of computers today, so that’s saying these people couldn’t name the program they use more than any other.
Worse, some of the answers on the video reveal that they don’t even know what a program is. A number of them identified their browser as “a search engine” and “Google.” When asked which browser he used, one guy said “the big E,” undoubtedly meaning Microsoft Internet Explorer, which has a stylized lowercase letter E as its icon.
When the best someone can come up with is a vague recollection of a program’s icon, it says to me that we’ve entered a “post-literate” technological society, one in which people have lost not just the ability to read and write about a topic, but also the ability to speak about it, all while retaining the ability to use it.
As someone who earns a living crafting text to help people learn how to use technology, I found myself profoundly troubled by Google’s video. After all, if someone doesn’t know what browser they use, or even that a browser is a program on their computer, how could I possibly expect them to be interested in buying my company’s “Take Control of Safari 4” book (written, with infinite care, by the estimable Sharon Zardetto)? How could they even learn of its existence, if they had no idea that Safari is a Web browser or that they were using Safari?
(One concern that I don’t explore further in this article are the implications of a post-literate technological society for marketing technology itself – will even technology marketing be forced to rely solely on pretty pictures and emotional appeals? In fact, are they already there? Apple’s “I’m a Mac” ads help customers identify with the actor playing the Mac but give little solid information, and Apple conceals many technical specifications about the iPhone.)
But perhaps I’m barking up the wrong tree, and Google’s video in fact shows that we’ve taken great technological strides. TidBITS editor Glenn Fleishman, when they were discussing the video, suggested that it’s a good thing that the Web browser has become so ubiquitous that people need not know what it’s called to use it effectively.
(Linguistically, this same devolution has happened with the Web itself. Although it’s TidBITS house style to capitalize “Web” – a proper noun that’s a shortening of “World Wide Web” – it’s commonplace to see even professionally edited publications lowercase the word, thus de-emphasizing the fact that it’s a unique thing. I think they’re wrong: “Web” should always be capitalized, as should “Internet.”)
From a usability stance, I think I agree with Glenn – it’s a good thing that using the Web has become so easy that a myriad of people can do so without even knowing the name of the tool they use to access it. Most people just use the browser that comes bundled with their computer, and despite the issues with Microsoft Internet Explorer over the years, Firefox has garnered only a bit over 20 percent of the browser market since 2004 – largely from the small subset of people who know what a browser is.
On a platform like the iPhone, it’s even easier to see this trend toward obscuring the identity of the browser. Although Safari is the iPhone’s Web browser, and its icon is clearly named, applications like Twitterrific can display Web content internally, and others, like Mail, can open a Web link in Safari without ever informing you that Safari is displaying your page. It would be difficult to quibble with someone who didn’t realize that their iPhone browser was Safari, when in fact, much of the time they would be viewing the Web via some other app that piggybacks on top of OS X’s WebKit core.
Tied up in all of this is the fact that if what’s bundled with your computer or phone just works, you don’t need to learn much more. Dissatisfaction is the mother of exploration – only if Safari or Internet Explorer isn’t meeting your needs do you have much impetus to learn about and switch to Firefox. So the better technology works, the less we’ll learn about how it works. I can’t say that’s entirely a bad thing.
When the Thing Breaks — But I remain troubled by this post-literate inability to talk about everyday activities and the tools used to perform them, using the proper nouns that are not only generally agreed-upon by those in the know, but with which the graphical representations of those tools are clearly labeled. What happens when something goes wrong, and such a person can’t connect to the Internet at all? Can you imagine the tech support call?
"Hi, this is tech support. How may I help you?"
"I can't get on the Google."
"OK, what browser are you using?"
"I told you - Google."
"Let's step back for a second. What program are you running on your computer to access the Web?"
"I don't know - I just Google when I want to find something."
"Perhaps they should go a bit further back. What icon do you click on when you want to use Google?"
"The picture? It's blue and kind of round, I think."
"OK, that's probably Internet Explorer. Can you load any Web sites other than Google?"
"If I can't get on Google, how can I load any other Web sites?!"
I could draw this out further, but it’s not far-fetched (TidBITS staffer Doug McLean confirmed that my contrived dialog was painfully reminiscent of tech support calls he took in a previous job). In essence, the caller and the support rep don’t share a common language. They may both be speaking English, but that’s as far as it goes, and as soon as domain-specific words like “browser” come into play, communication breaks down. A good support rep would undoubtedly adjust his questions upon realizing that there’s a terminology barrier, and like Captain Kirk meeting an alien, would attempt to build up some shared terminology based on visual appearance before attempting to solve the problem.
Generational Problem Solving — If I asked you to tell me something about the caller in my fabricated script above, you might fall back on stereotypes and describe the caller as being elderly, or at least as someone who didn’t grow up with technology and therefore has come to it, perhaps grudgingly, later in life. But what if I told you it could be a college student?
My neighbor Peter Rothbart teaches music at Ithaca College, and he’s been noticing a disturbing trend among his students. Although they’re capable of using the digital music software necessary for his courses, he says that many of them have trouble with the most basic of computer tasks, like saving files in a particular location on the hard disk. Worse, if something does go wrong, he finds, they have absolutely no idea how to solve the problem.
These aren’t the sort of kids who are befuddled by high school – they’re students at a well-respected institution of higher education. (It’s the alma mater of Disney CEO Robert Iger, for instance.) No, they’re not computer science majors, but they’re not being asked to program, just to use off-the-shelf music software and perform commonplace tasks. And now those commonplace tasks are not only something that they apparently have never had to do, but lack the skills to figure out on their own.
Could this inability to solve a problem with a device with which they are otherwise familiar be a result of losing some ability to talk about it? I wouldn’t go so far as to say it’s impossible to troubleshoot without terminology, but it’s less radical to suggest that troubleshooting will become more difficult without being able to communicate effectively with people who are experts in the field.
Not all that long ago, when adults had trouble getting something working on a computer, they would sarcastically say that they needed a teenager to explain it to them. That was largely true of those of us who were teenagers in the 1980s and 1990s, but if Peter Rothbart’s experience is at all representative, today you’d be better off finding a 30- or 40-year-old geek to help.
Don’t get me wrong – I’m not saying that all young people are incapable of solving technical problems or going beyond the basics. My friend Dave Burbank, whose full-time job is as a fireman in the City of Ithaca, is also a serious geek known for taking hundreds of photos on his kids’ class trips, posting constant updates via Twitter, and updating a photo Web site for the trip before turning in each night. His 15-year-old son Istvan is currently a 3D animator at Moving Box Studios in Ithaca and is perfectly capable of maintaining a technical discussion on the evolution of backup media and other such geeky topics.
In other words, there will always be geeks, and in my mind, that’s a darn good thing. The technological sophistication of those people of my generation (I’m 41 now) who were interested in technology created the meme that young people were fluid with technology. But what they all missed was that being fluid with technology doesn’t mean you understand how it works or can fix it when it breaks. Being able to dash off text messages on a mobile phone demonstrates fluidity; being able to troubleshoot a dead Internet connection down to a corrupted preference file or flaky cable demonstrates understanding.
So what will most members of society do when something on their computers or smartphones fails to work? Let’s not pretend that problems won’t happen – technology may have become more reliable over time, but the rate at which things go wrong even for undemanding users is still shamefully high.
Just recently, my father called because his iPod wouldn’t show up in iTunes. After some back and forth, I suggested that he reset the iPod, and when he went to use it, he realized it was indeed entirely frozen. A hard reset brought it back to life and resolved his problem, but had he been on his own, it’s possible that he – or at least someone less experienced than he is – would have concluded it was broken and bought another one.
This isn’t a new concern. In 1909, E.M. Forster wrote a piece of early science fiction, “The Machine Stops,” in which he imagined a future in which face-to-face contact was considered bizarre, humanity lived underground, and the “Machine” fed all their needs. Of course, one day…the machine stopped. More recently and amusingly, consider the Pixar movie “Wall-E.”
Cars and Computers — The obvious analogy in today’s world, and one that several people have suggested in response to their discussions, is the car. At one time, knowledge of keeping a car running was a kind of patriarchal rite of passage. Failure to monitor oil levels, radiator fluids, and other factors could lead to a dead horseless carriage.
Few people know how cars work these days, and even those of us who do have a basic understanding of them can’t really work on a modern car. If the car stutters when accelerating, or sometimes won’t start, most of us simply take it in to the repair shop and get it fixed. Problem solved with the application of money, and of course, since cars work relatively well these days, much less monitoring is needed. When was the last time you checked your car’s fluids?
Like so many automotive analogies, this one sounds good, but suffers under scrutiny. In part, repairing cars has become a specialty not so much because intelligent people couldn’t understand what’s wrong or figure out how to troubleshoot it, but because the training and equipment necessary to diagnose problems and effect repairs have themselves become highly specialized. Gone are the days when you could fix a car with a few screwdrivers and a set of wrenches. The shops all download data from the car computer for diagnosis.
But the more serious problem with the analogy is that cars are single-purpose machines – they do one thing, and they do it moderately well. Thus, the type of problems they can suffer, while troubling, frustrating, and sometimes seemingly inexplicable, are still relatively limited in scope, more like a household appliance. How often do you have to check the inner workings of your washing machine or refrigerator?
In contrast, computers are general purpose machines that can perform a vast number of wildly different tasks, such as browsing the Web, reading email, writing a book, developing a company budget, tracking a database of customers, composing music, editing video, and so on.
We have up-and-coming geeks like Istvan Burbank, but even bright young men like Istvan have their limits. While I’d happily ask him to fix a Mac that’s not booting, I’m not sure he’d have any idea how to help if I showed him a PDF where the text on some pages appeared darker and bitmapped when viewed in certain PDF readers (even Adobe hasn’t been able to fix that problem reliably for me). There’s a limit to how much any one of us can learn, but there’s no limit to what a computer can do.
In a way, this is an odd situation for those of us who grew up with the personal computer. Before Apple, before the IBM PC, they had mainframes and minicomputers that they interacted with via dumb terminals. You couldn’t do all that much, and you were sharing resources with many other people, but you also didn’t have to worry about things going wrong as much, because when they did, the computer operators would fix them.
They were the gatekeepers, the wizards who controlled access and could say who was allowed to do what. Personal computers were supposed to democratize computing so anyone and everyone could do their own work. While that’s come to pass in some ways, it seems to me that we’ve returned to the days when you need a wizard to solve problems or do anything beyond the norm. It’s a somewhat uncomfortable situation, since those of us who grew up with personal computers are finding that we’re the new wizards.
Technological Illiteracy — So how did they get here? I’d argue that Apple – and they Macintosh users – are perhaps more to blame for this state of affairs than any other group. After all, no one has championed usability like Apple, with the Mac’s vaunted ease-of-use. For years, many Mac users scoffed at manuals. “Why would anyone need a manual when the program is so easy to use?” they’d ask. It was a fair point, for the users of the time, who were highly interested in the technology, well versed in how it actually worked under the hood, and amenable to poking and prodding when things didn’t go right.
But then they got their wish, and ever more companies started writing software that was easy enough for most people to use without reading a manual, at least at some level. That was the death of documentation, a phrase I first coined more than 10 years ago (see “The Death of Documentation,” 1998-05-04). Of course, it was really the death of the manual, and technical books have remained popular, in part because of the lack of the manual (how else could David Pogue have made a mint on his Missing Manual series?).
Even still, back when I started writing technical books in the early-to-mid 1990s, the average computer book would sell about 12,000 copies. Today, despite a vastly larger audience (though with much more competition), 5,000 copies is considered acceptable.
I’d argue there was a more insidious effect from the loss of manuals – it caused an entire class of users to become technologically functional while remaining technologically illiterate. When I asked my mother-in-law, Linda Byard, what browser she used, she became somewhat flustered and guessed at Outlook. This is a woman who uses the Web fluidly and for all sorts of tasks far more sophisticated than simply browsing static Web pages. And yet, the fact that she used Internet Explorer to do so escaped her.
As the conversation proceeded (and keep in mind that my father-in-law, Cory Byard, helped design personal computers for NCR back in the 1980s and now consults on massive database projects for Teradata – Tonya didn’t grow up in a technologically backward household), it came out that Linda had stopped reading about how to use technology when manuals gave way to inferior online help.
She didn’t stop learning how to use various programs, but without any sort of formalized instruction or written reference, she lost the terminology necessary to talk about the technology she was using. Of course, she had Cory around to fix anything that went wrong, and she said that the same was true of all her peers too – there was always someone technologically adept in the family to deal with troubles.
Although it’s harder to pin this loss of technological literacy on the lack of manuals when looking at schoolkids, the problem isn’t necessarily being addressed there either. When my son Tristan was in second and third grade in the public schools in Ithaca, NY, the closest he was taught to computer skills were typing (not a terrible idea, but tricky for kids whose hands aren’t large enough to touch-type properly) and PowerPoint.
Although some level of presentation skills are certainly worthwhile, why would you have second graders focus on something that’s guaranteed to be different (if not entirely obsolete) by the time they’re in college?
I’d argue that some of the basics of technology – the concept of a program as a set of instructions and the essentials of networking – would be both more compelling for kids and more useful for understanding the way the world works later in life.
When TidBITS contributing editor Matt Neuburg tried to teach a group of his friends’ kids REALbasic one summer, he found himself frustrated at almost every turn – they lacked the conceptual underpinning that they could make the computer do something. And more important, they didn’t care, since they were accustomed to technology just working. It wasn’t until he got them to draw a stick figure and, by changing the location of its parts repeatedly, make it walk across the screen, that one of them said, “Hey, this must be how my video games are made.”
And networking? No, you don’t need to know it works to use the Internet, but isn’t it wondrous that an email message sent to a friend on the other side of the globe in Australia is broken up into many small pieces, shuttled from computer to computer at nearly the speed of light, and reassembled at its destination, no more than seconds later? Wouldn’t it be fun to act out a packet-switched network with an entire class of second graders and the pieces of a floor puzzle? Or at least more fun than PowerPoint?
Luckily, this lack in the public education system isn’t uniform. Glenn Fleishman’s son Ben is about to enter a public elementary school in Seattle, where the beginning curriculum teaches kids about opening, saving, and printing files; later, it moves to task-based – not program-oriented – computer projects. That’s much better.
But I digress.
Illiteracy Stifling Innovation? My more serious concern with their society’s odd fluency with a technology that they cannot easily communicate about is that it might slowly stifle innovation. Already we’re in a situation where browser innovation is almost the sole province of Apple and Microsoft, with contributions from Mozilla, Google, and maybe Opera.
Iterative changes from the incumbents can be worked in, since everyone will be forced to accept them, but does it become harder to convince most people to try a ground-breaking new technology because it’s different, because it’s talked about using strange new terminology, and perhaps because no paradigm-shifting new technology can by definition be so easy to use that it doesn’t require some level of training? I fear that might be the case.
In the dawn of the computer age, the stakes weren’t as high and the market wasn’t as large, so I’d suggest that companies were more likely to take risks on innovative technologies that might appeal to only a small subset of the population. Today, with everyone using technology, I suspect that business plans and funding proposals all assume a large potential audience, which in turn causes the ideas to be vetted more on their business chances than their technological innovation.
Put another way, there have always been technological haves and have nots, but since there was no chance of selling technology to the have nots, technology of the past was less limited by the literacy of the audience. Since the technologically illiterate are not just buying technology now, but are the primary market for it, that has to be affecting the kind of ideas that get funding and are being developed in a real way.
Plus, think back to the point about dissatisfaction being the mother of exploration. They geeks may be willing to belly up to the new technology feeding trough since we’re never satisfied. But once technology reaches a certain plateau of working well enough, if this lack of technological literacy is indeed a more general concern, spreading technological successes into the population as a whole may become all the more difficult.
I’m fully aware that my musings here are largely hypothetical and based on anecdotal evidence. But I think there’s a new technology on the horizon that could serve as a test of my theory that anything sufficiently innovative will face an uphill battle due to the technological illiteracy of the user base: Google Wave.
For those who didn’t see Google’s announcement of Google Wave (we didn’t cover it in TidBITS at the time because it was a technology announcement, not a service that people could use), it’s a personal communication and collaboration tool that’s designed to merge the strengths of email, instant messaging, wikis, and social networking services. (You can read more about it at Wikipedia.)
On the plus side, Google Wave has the power of Google behind it, and Google could potentially merge it into Gmail, thus introducing it to 146 million users nearly instantaneously. But Google Wave will undoubtedly be quite different from Gmail, and will require a learning curve. Will that hamper its adoption, since email and instant messaging and other services work well enough that people aren’t sufficiently dissatisfied to learn about and try Google Wave? Only time will tell.
Hardware and software are certainly different beasts. Software is really just information, and the storing, modification, duplication, and transmission of information is essentially free. Hardware is expensive, or so they think, because it’s made out of physical stuff which is costly to ship or copy. So when they talk about open-source software (OSS) or open-source hardware (OSHW), we’re talking about different things — OSS is itself the end product, while OSHW is just the information to fabricate the end product, or have it fabricated.
The fabrication step makes OSHW essentially different from OSS, at least for now, but I think there’s something even more fundamentally different between the current state of OSHW and OSS: the pull request and the community. The success or failure of an OSS project depends on the community of people developing it, and for smaller projects that can hinge on the ease of a motivated individual digging in and contributing. This is the main virtue of OSS in my opinion: open-source software is most interesting when people are reading and writing that source.
With pure information, it’s essentially free to copy, modify, and push your changes upstream so that others can benefit. The open hardware world is just finding its feet in this respect, but that’s changing as they speak, and I have great hopes. Costs of fabrication are falling all around, open and useful tools are being actively developed to facilitate interchange of the design information. I think there are lessons that OSHW can learn from the OSS community’s pull-request culture, and that will help push the hardware hacker’s art forward.
What would it take to get you to build someone else’s OSHW project, improve on it, and contribute back? That’s a question worth a thoughtful deep dive.The Patch and the Pull Request
Back in the early days of what they now think of as open-source software, there was the patch. Indeed, the UNIX utilities diff and patch are probably the unsung heroes of the OSS movement. They enabled a programmer to easily figure out the difference between two (source code) files and pass those changes on to someone else.
Then along came Linux, which started off as a pet project of Linus Torvalds’, but grew to include so many contributors that handling the patch requests became a full-time job for Linus, and then for his “lieutenants” as he subdivided the responsibilities. When Linus needed a version control system for the Linux codebase, he wrote his own: git. No surprise, it was based on the idea of recording and handling incremental patches, but in a distributed manner that gave his lieutenants (but also anyone in the community) the autonomy they wanted to work on the code and then ask Linus to pull their changes in when ready.
It’s easy enough to set up your own web-facing git repository to share your code with the world, but just as more people use e-mail or web-hosting services rather than rolling their own, it’s a lot easier to use a service for small projects. Add in a social-networking overlay to a public git repository, and you’ve got GitHub, the de facto means of sharing and working on OSS information. With a Wiki for community documentation helping you along the way, it’s all downright comfortable to tweak OSS these days.
TL;DR: the heart and soul of OSS these days is pointing your browser at a website, copying the code, using it and improving it, and asking to get your improvements pulled back into the project the same way you got it in the first place. Easy-peasy.Costly Fabrication
What would the pull-request cycle look like in the OSHW world? I download your design, look over the bill of materials (BOM), and decide to get a PCB manufactured and parts ordered. It arrives, and I play with it. Maybe I make modifications on the board itself or maybe, assuming that I can open up your design files, I make some modifications and order yet another version with my changes. If my changes work, I’ll submit a pull request back to you. Do you verify my changes by producing another one of your things? You can see where the friction introduced to the system by the need for fabrication raises its ugly head, two or three times: at least once for the changed version and once to verify that the change doesn’t break the original project. That’s something they need to work on.
On one hand, small-scale manufacturing has never been easier or cheaper. Gone are the days of spending hundreds on prototype PCBs; there are sources everywhere that will get the job done so inexpensively that many otherwise respectable hackers don’t even consider producing a one-off board at home. Of course the home PCB fab has also never been cheaper, with CNC mills capable of routing a board coming in around $200, or the relative ease of getting good results at home even with toner transfer. Add to this the secret weapon of a well specified BOM, maybe even one that can be ordered with one click or CSV upload, and the frictions here can be minimized. So far, so good. At least it’s plausible that I could replicate your masterwork.
If the fabrication costs are around $20 and a half-hour of time, I could maybe expect you, the diligent project maintainer, to approve one pull request per week, or maybe only if the patch improves the project enough to warrant a rebuild. But what if you ran three or five such successful projects? And it gets worse as a project scales up, of course. I wouldn’t expect a project owner to spin up a board with a $150 BOM cost just to verify my tweaks to the audio output section.
For yourself and any potential contributors to the project, it’s probably worth thinking about making the design as inexpensive and non-time-consuming to fabricate as possible. If you want pull requests, you’ll be looping through fabrication more than once, so extra time here pays off. But with the capabilities of DIY and small-scale fabrication ever increasing, and the price of professional work dropping, the fabrication step is becoming less and less of a barrier, at least for small projects.Design for Modification
What about big projects that are simply too intricate to replicate more than once or twice per user? Is there any hope for the pull request in ambitious OSHW projects?Adrian Bowyer’s Mendel
If you look at the RepRap project as a whole, it certainly has resulted in the very rapid, distributed development of open-source 3D printers, but you might not expect downstream changes to percolate upwards very rapidly. After all, building any printer from scratch costs $300 to $600 or more, takes hours of time, and isn’t a task that someone’s going to undertake just to check out your pull request.
But still, some of the most successful printers have a good degree of visible community contribution: the old Prusa Mendel has 30 pull requests, and the current Prusa 3 design scores 44. [Nophead], the designer of Mendel90, the other early square cartesian bot, was initially very reluctant to take community help. Interestingly, since he opened his project up on GitHub, he’s received 38 pull requests, and incorporated 35 of them. Success!
How can this be? First, these printer designs are entirely open, written in the parametric, and very easy to tweak OpenSCAD language. OpenSCAD is itself free, as well. So anyone with a 3D printer who wants to try out a modification has a very low barrier to entry. And a 3D printer is also eminently modifiable and tweakable. Many of the sub-assemblies are entirely modular and can be swapped out at minimal cost. You don’t have to build a whole new printer to test out various new hot-end mount designs, and neither do [Jo Prusa] or [Nophead] when they accept your patch.
Incremental changes are easiest to make when you only need to change one section, and not the global design. Modular design, with well-defined sub-units whenever possible, encourages improvement. (Am I talking about object-oriented coding or parts placement that locates the power supply off in a corner on its own on the PCB?) Can you use off-the-shelf breakout modules that are sourceable on the cheap that can be unplugged and reused in the next revision? Maybe you should.Open-Source Tools
Releasing your design files to the world doesn’t mean anything if others can’t dig in and help you improve them, and that means that they have the tools to do the job. With code, all that’s really required is a text editor and maybe a compiler. With hardware, the “code” — the design files — are often wrapped up in proprietary tools, which instantly limits the audience of potential contributors.
The obvious choice here is KiCad, which is open source and runs on everything. Of course, there’s still the learning curve that accompanies any package that’s not the one you’re used to, but until the entire industry settles on a compatible file format for schematic capture and PCB layout, you might as well choose the most open, widely available, and least encumbered tool.
Eagle, which has had an XML export format since Version 6 in 2012, is another contender. The tool is free to use for small boards, and it has a large number of users. They know how to get files out of Eagle’s format very well these days, including exporting entire part libraries, which means that KiCad users can hack on your files. I don’t know if it’s possible to make the round trip, though; can one import KiCad files back into Eagle?
There are many other tools, ranging in price from free to professional-use-only. For this article, I don’t care at all about their relative ease of use — if a large chunk of your target audience can’t use it, or if the file format doesn’t lend itself well to differences and revision tracking, you’re shutting out potential pull requests.The Fine Art of the README
If there’s something else they can learn from the OSS world, it’s how important good and inviting documentation is to the success of a project, both for the end-user and for the potential hacker. And perhaps the first lesson here is that the distinction between end-user and hacker isn’t that great.
The potential hacker will also be more likely to try your project out in the first place if it’s easy and appealing to make, just like the end-user. 77.23% of all statistics are made-up, but I’d bet that the overwhelming majority of folks contributing to OSS projects are satisfied, or maybe even slightly disgruntled, users of the software in question. So show potential builders how to build and use your project, but don’t forget to show potential hackers how it works and how they can get inside it. And if you want to accept pull requests, don’t forget to say so, out loud.Feedback?
Can they build a pull-request culture in OSHW? I hope so, because that’s the best part of OSS, but I’m also realistic. The raw physicality of the real world will always get in the way to some extent, but the pure cost barrier of replication is shrinking year on year. After that, it’s a simple matter of software, and getting everyone to use interoperable design tools. Yeah, that’s hard.
So in the mean time, what can you do to make your OSHW project more appealing for other hackers to contribute to? If the costs, both in labor and money, of replication are as low as possible, someone might make it. If they make it, how likely are they to improve it? That depends on how modifiable and modular the design is.
If you’re using non-free software for the design, can the data at least be exported? Or can the user work around your inflexibility by simply exporting the design to the tool of their choice? Finally, how well documented and inviting is your project for potential contributors, not just in use, but also in modification? Do you say you encourage pull requests?
Anyway, there’s some brainstorming about how they could make large-scale community OSHW work. Naturally, I’d love to hear your take, and examples of any successful projects with contributions from the public, in the comments. What else?
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12868923
Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12961840
Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2018/01/pass4sure-000-n02-ibm-managed-file.html
Wordpress : https://wp.me/p7SJ6L-2Wn