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000-M79 exam Dumps Source : IBM Initiate Master Data Service Support Mastery v1
Test Code : 000-M79
Test Name : IBM Initiate Master Data Service Support Mastery v1
Vendor Name : IBM
: 30 Real Questions
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IBM announced Wednesday that it plans to buy MDM (grasp records management) dealer initiate programs. terms of the deal, which is scheduled to shut within the first quarter, had been now not disclosed.
master facts refers to courses of counsel similar to items or suppliers that are average to a couple of programs and purposes inside a corporation. MDM application is used to be certain master information entities are stored constant and accurate.
carriers were relocating so as to add MDM capabilities to their lineups. just ultimate week, IBM rival Informatica announced the acquisition of Siperian. IBM's movement became no longer sudden. Altimeter community analyst Ray Wang lately anticipated large Blue would buy provoke as a response.
One MDM competitor replied at once to IBM's announcement Wednesday.
"with the aid of acquiring a gap dealer like provoke, they bolster their portfolio of industry-particular equipment that assist combine information, but do little to give a stronger counsel administration platform for their consumers," Kalido CEO invoice Hewitt mentioned in a statement. "This acquisition can be delivered like so many others; with dozens of IBM world features consultants to 'knit' the patchwork of equipment together."
IBM executives are expected to discuss the deal additional all over a convention name Wednesday.
(more to observe)To touch upon this text and different PCWorld content, seek advice from their fb page or their Twitter feed.
IBM currently introduced the closing of its acquisition of provoke systems, a privately held application business with a spotlight on statistics integrity and master records administration applied sciences. provoke's utility helps purchasers in lots of industries -- chiefly in healthcare and executive -- share counsel across multiple methods to enhance the features they deliver to patients, citizens and consumers.
The closing comes lower than a month after IBM's announcement on February three that it had entered into a definitive agreement to purchase initiate.
corporations in both healthcare and executive have invested closely in business application purposes as they searching for more desirable operational effectivity and productiveness. The proliferation of those functions has yielded huge volumes of assistance about people, places and things. This counsel is fragmented throughout working environments and sometimes represented inconsistently. initiate's expertise helps gather this information no remember where it resides to set up a single a single, multi-goal view of important company assistance, which is also known as grasp facts.
initiate's utility helps healthcare customers work more intelligently and correctly with timely entry to affected person and medical records. with the aid of including provoke's utility to its application portfolio, IBM should be greater equipped to aid consumers draw on statistics from hospitals, doctors' offices and payers to create a single, relied on shareable view of hundreds of thousands individual patient statistics. The acquisition will also boost IBM's capacity to allow governments to access suggestions from diverse systems and companies to provide more desirable capabilities to residents.
"IBM's acquisition of provoke underscores their dedication to the use of advanced know-how to assist clear up complications faced with the aid of each healthcare companies and governments all over," stated Arvind Krishna, general supervisor, assistance management, IBM. "through better access to relied on guidance, these valued clientele can serve americans greater and greater successfully."
provoke's healthcare consumers consist of payers and providers in addition to retailers promoting prescription medication. among these consumers are Alberta Ministry of fitness and wellness, BMI Healthcare (UK), Calgary health area, CVS/Caremark, Humana, Ochsner health device, the State of North Dakota's branch of fitness and Human features and the university of Pittsburgh clinical core.
in step with the company's application approach, initiate's applied sciences and operations will be built-in into IBM's counsel management enterprise, increasing its capabilities for establishing, providing and analyzing trusted advice for valued clientele across all industries and geographic areas. provoke personnel will join IBM.
through its acquisition of provoke IBM is additionally extending its capabilities in company analytics -- considered one of its basic funding areas -- by bettering its skill to carry a basis of depended on tips. in addition to provoke, IBM has invested $10 billion in 14 strategic acquisitions to construct its enterprise analytics portfolio on the grounds that 2005. These acquisitions delivered strong effects in 2009, generating 9 % earnings increase at regular currency. among the many company's offerings in this area is a brand new enterprise Analytics and Optimization Consulting organization which is supported by using group of four,000 consultants and a community of analytics answer centers.
IBM noted today that it plans to acquire initiate methods, one of the most few grasp records management (MDM) companies that hadn't yet been wolfed down by using a software megafirm.
Chicago-based mostly initiate focuses on MDM software for healthcare and executive businesses. huge Blue's buy arrives on the heels of MDM rival Informatica excellent a deal to purchase provoke's competitor, Siperian final week.
Smaller players have lately been jostling for place as smartly. Late last month, records integration expert Talend started promoting subscriptions for open-source MDM in hopes of undercutting the likes of IBM, Oracle, SAP and Informatica.
IBM intends to use provoke's utility and knowledge to greater pitch MDM to healthcare and executive sectors. provoke's fitness shoppers include Alberta Ministry of fitness and wellbeing, BMI Healthcare, CVS/Caremark, and the State of North Dakota's department of health, and Human services.
big Blue stated its latest MDM clients will improvement from more information management capabilities including clinical analytics, suggestions discovery and transformation; and facts warehousing.
The company observed it intends to continue to help and upgrade initiate software, whereas rolling the applications into Infosphere and Cognos traces. initiate might be positioned into IBM's counsel administration unit.
terms of the deal were not disclosed, which is expected to shut a while within the first quarter of 2010. ®
backed: fitting a realistic security leader
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GDPS(TM) is IBM's premier continuous availability and disaster recovery solution. IBM is proud to announce the general availability of GDPS V3.3. Available on January 25, 2006, GDPS V3.3 offers:
Enhanced availability with autonomic detection of "Soft Failures" on disk control units to trigger a HyperSwap(TM)Exploitation of XRC enhancements for increased scalability in large I/O configurations and configurations with intensive I/O characteristicsEase of use to support z/OS® V7 XRC+ staging data setsExpanded functionality to provide data consistency between disk and duplexed Coupling Facility (CF) structures
In addition, IBM is reannouncing the general availability of GDPS/Global Mirror (GDPS/GM). Based upon IBM TotalStorage® Global Mirror technology, IBM GDPS/Global Mirror automation can help simplify data replication across any number of IBM System z(TM) and/or open system servers to a remote site that can be at virtually any distance from the primary site. This can help ensure rapid recovery and restart capability for your IBM System z9(TM), zSeries®, and open systems data for testing purposes as well as both planned and unplanned outages. GDPS/GM also provides automation facilities to reconfigure your System z9 and zSeries servers and to restart the systems that run on these servers for testing and for actual disaster recovery.
GDPS/Global Mirror automation technology is designed to manage the IBM TotalStorage Global Mirror copy technology, monitor the mirroring configuration, and automate management and recovery tasks.
GDPS is also providing a new "three-site" solution combining the benefits of GDPS/PPRC using Metro Mirror with GDPS/Global Mirror using Global Mirror technology. This solution, GDPS Metro/Global Mirror, is designed to provide the near-continuous availability aspects of HyperSwap and help prevent data loss within the Metro Mirror environment, along with providing a long-distance disaster recovery solution with no response-time impact. Metro/Global Mirror has been available via an RPQ since October 31, 2005.
More detailed information on the GDPS service offerings is available on the Internet at
Available now (as of January 25, 2006):RCMF/PPRC V3.3GDPS/PPRC V3.3GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager V3.3RCMF/XRC V3.3GDPS/XRC V3.3GDPS/Global Mirror V3.3GDPS Metro/Global Mirror V3.3
IBM Global Services continues to enhance GDPS with:
Extended HyperSwap functionality with IOS timing triggerImproved availability with enhanced recovery support in a CF structure duplexing environmentPerformance improvements for System Logger in a z/OS Global Mirror (previously known as XRC) environmentScalability improvements for XRCUnlimited distance solution for z/OS and open data with the new GDPS/Global Mirror offering
Unplanned HyperSwap IOS timing trigger
If a disk subsystem experiences a "hard failure" such as a boxed device, rank array failure, or disk subsystem failure, current versions of GDPS/PPRC and GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager (GDPS/PPRC HM) are designed to detect this and automatically invoke HyperSwap to transparently switch all primary PPRC disks with the secondary disks within seconds.
Occasionally, no signal comes back after an I/O operation has started. The I/O starts, but it is as if it doesn't end. There are no errors returned. The only indication that something is wrong is that the z/OS I/O Missing Interrupt Handler (MIH) detects this and generates a message. It is then up to the operator to see the message and figure out what to do. By that time, it is possible that the transactions waiting for I/O and holding on to resources can in turn cause other transactions to wait, and can bring the entire system to a stop.
The HyperSwap IOS timing trigger is designed to allow HyperSwap to be invoked automatically when user-defined I/O timing thresholds are exceeded. In a matter of seconds, transactions can now resume processing on the secondary disk, providing availability benefits and avoiding operator intervention.
The HyperSwap IOS Timing trigger requires APAR OA11750 available on z/OS V1.4.
HyperSwap is available with the GDPS/PPRC and GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager offerings.
GDPS enhanced recovery support
In the event of a primary site failure, the current GDPS/PPRC cannot ensure that the CF structure data may be time-consistent with the "frozen" copy of data on disk, so GDPS must discard all CF structures at the secondary site when restarting workloads. This results in loss of "changed" data in CF structures. Users must execute potentially long-running and highly variable data recovery procedures to restore the lost CF data.
GDPS enhanced recovery is designed to ensure that the secondary PPRC volumes and the CF structures are time consistent, thereby helping to provide consistent application restart times without any special recovery procedures.
If you specify the FREEZE=STOP policy with GDPS/PPRC and duplex the appropriate CF structures, when CF structure duplexing drops into simplex, GDPS is designed to direct z/OS to always keep the CF structures in the site where the secondary disks reside. This helps to insure the PPRC volumes and recovery-site CF structures are time consistent thereby providing consistent application restart times without any special recovery procedures. This is especially significant for customers using DB2® data sharing, IMS(TM) with shared DEDB/VSO, or WebSphere® MQ shared queues.
GDPS enhanced recovery support requires z/OS APAR OA11719, available back to z/OS V1.5.
System logger provides new support for XRC+ by allowing you to choose asynchronous writes to staging data sets for logstreams. Previously, all writes had to be synchronous. This limited the throughput for high-volume logging applications such as WebSphere, CICS®, and IMS. The ability to do asynchronous writes can allow the use of z/OS Global Mirror (XRC) for some applications for which it was not previously practical. XRC+ is available on z/OS and z/OS.e V1.7.
Refer to Preview: IBM z/OS V1.7 and z/OS.e V1.7: World-class computing for On Demand Business, Software Announcement 205-034 dated February 15, 2005.
GDPS/XRC has extended its automation to support XRC+. It is designed to provide the ability to configure and manage the staging data set remote copy pairs.
GDPS/XRC support is being extended to help improve XRC scalability for large systems by:
Write PacingAPAR OA09239 provides for the new XRC Write Pacing support. By automatically inserting delays into the I/O response for high-intensity update applications, XRC can then prevent the secondary disk in the remote site from falling behind, delaying the RPO for all applications.
Exploitation of the Write Pacing function on GDPS/XRC systems requires APAR 65 (AG31D65), which is fully compatible with all existing supported GDPS/XRC software levels.
Parallel executionPreviously, GDPS typically processed all XRC System Data Movers (SDMs) in sequence within an LPAR. With GDPS V3.3, many XRC commands can now be done in parallel across all the SDMs. A parallel execution of XRC commands across all SDMs allows for improved responsiveness, improved usability, and reduced recovery time.
Support for more than 14 SDMsPreviously, XRC supported up to 14 coupled SDMs, split across up to five SDM address spaces per z/OS LPAR. New support expands this to allow up to 14 Coupled eXtended Remote Copy (CXRC) sessions. Each CXRC can consist of one or more XRC logical sessions. Additionally, Multiple eXtended Remote Copy (MXRC) currently allows the user to run up to five XRC logical sessions within a single LPAR. This enhancement will allow significantly more SDMs, thereby increasing the number of parallel paths to transfer data. This allows GDPS/XRC to handle larger configurations and higher throughputs while maintaining the client's service level agreements. More information on CXRC can be found in z/OS DFSMS Advanced Copy Services (SC35-0428-09).
The planned availability of GDPS support for more than 14 coupled SDMs is second quarter 2006.
XRC Performance Monitor (XPM) updates
In addition to the above enhancements, XPM is being modified to support the new larger master sessions. XPM will have the ability to display (via the Interactive Interface) and process (via the Exception Batch Monitor) cluster-level data. The Interactive Interface will be modified to recognize and display consolidated cluster data and larger values for data-movement-related statistics. The planned availability of the XPM updates is March 31, 2006.
GDPS V3.3 is available as of January 25, 2006. GDPS is designed to work in conjunction with the z9-109, z990, z890, z900, and z800 servers. For a complete list of other supported hardware platforms and software prerequisites, refer to the GDPS Web site
http://www.ibm.com/server/eserver/zseries/gdpsGDPS/Global Mirror has been available as of October 2005. Contact your IBM representative or send an e-mail to GDPS@us.ibm.com for information regarding ordering GDPS.
GDPS/Global Mirror was previewed in IBM zSeries 990 and 890 FICON(TM) enhancements Hardware Announcement 105-012 , dated January 25, 2005.
Accessibility by people with disabilities
A U.S. Section 508 Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) containing details on the product's accessibility compliance can be requested via IBM's Web site
The GDPS solution suite includes six different service offerings to meet different customer requirements:
RCMF/PPRCRemote Copy Management Facility (RCMF) provides management of the remote copy environment and disk configuration from a central point of control. The RCMF/PPRC offering can be used to manage a PPRC (Metro Mirror) remote copy environment.
RCMF/XRCRCMF/XRC is a disaster recovery offering which can be used to manage an XRC (z/OS Global Mirror) remote copy environment.
GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap ManagerGDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager provides either a single-site near-continuous availability solution or a multi-site disaster recovery solution. It is an entry-level solution available at a cost-effective price. GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager is designed to allow customers to increase availability and provide applications with continuous access to data. Today, GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager appeals to zSeries customers who require continuous availability and extremely fast recovery.
Within a single site, or multiple sites, GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager extends Parallel Sysplex® availability to disk subsystems by masking planned and unplanned disk outages caused by disk maintenance and disk failures. It also provides management of the data replication environment and automates switching between the two copies of the data without causing an application outage, therefore providing near-continuous access to data.
The GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager solution is a subset of the full GDPS/PPRC solution, designed to provide a very affordable entry point to the full family of GDPS/PPRC offerings. It features specially priced limited-function Tivoli® System Automation and NetView® software products, thus satisfying the GDPS software automation prerequisites with a lower price and a cost-effective entry point to the GDPS family of offerings. Users who already have the full-function Tivoli System Automation and NetView software products may continue to use them as the prerequisites for GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager.
A customer can migrate from a GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager implementation to the full-function GDPS/PPRC capability as business requirements demand shorter recovery time objectives. The initial investment in GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager is protected when you choose to move to full-function GDPS/PPRC by leveraging the existing GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager implementation and skills.
GDPS/PPRCGDPS/PPRC complements a multisite Parallel Sysplex implementation by providing a single, automated solution to dynamically manage storage subsystem mirroring, disk and tape, processors, and network resources. It is designed to help a business attain continuous availability and near-transparent business continuity (disaster recovery) with data consistency and no or minimal data loss. GDPS/PPRC is designed to minimize and potentially eliminate the impact of any failure, including disasters, or a planned outage.
GDPS/PPRC is a full-function offering that includes the capabilities of GDPS/PPRC HM. It is designed to provide an automated end-to-end solution to dynamically manage storage system mirroring, processors, and network resources for planned and unplanned events that could interrupt continued IT business operations.
The GDPS/PPRC offering is a world-class solution built on the z/OS platform and yet can manage a heterogeneous environment.
GDPS/PPRC is designed to provide the ability to perform a controlled site switch for both planned and unplanned site outages, with no or minimal data loss, maintaining full data integrity across multiple volumes and storage subsystems and the ability to perform a normal Data Base Management System (DBMS) restart - not DBMS recovery - in the second site. GDPS/PPRC is application-independent and therefore can cover your complete application environment.
GDPS/XRCBased upon IBM TotalStorage z/OS Global Mirror (Extended Remote Copy, or XRC), GDPS/XRC is a combined hardware and z/OS software asynchronous remote-copy solution. Consistency of the data is maintained via the Consistency Group function within the System Data Mover. GDPS/XRC includes automation to manage remote copy pairs and automates the process of recovering the production environment with limited manual intervention, including invocation of CBU, thus providing significant value in reducing the duration of the recovery window and requiring less operator interaction. GDPS/XRC is capable of the following attributes:
Disaster recovery solutionRTO between an hour to two hoursRPO less than one minuteProtects against localized or regional disasters, depending on the distance between the application site and the disaster recovery site (distance between sites is unlimited)Minimal remote copy performance impactGDPS/XRC is well suited for large System z workloads and can be used for business continuance solutions, workload movement, and data migration.
Because of the asynchronous nature of XRC, it is possible to have the secondary disk at greater distances than would be acceptable for Metro Mirror (synchronous PPRC). Channel extender technology can be used to place the secondary disk thousands of kilometers away.
In some cases an asynchronous disaster recovery solution is more desirable than one that uses synchronous technology. Sometimes applications are too sensitive to accept the additional latency incurred when using synchronous copy technology.
The latest member of the GDPS suite of offerings, GDPS/Global Mirror offers a multisite, end-to-end disaster recovery solution for your IBM z/OS systems and open systems data.
IBM GDPS/Global Mirror automation technology can help simplify data replication across any number of System z(TM) systems and/or open system servers to a remote site that can be at virtually any distance from the primary site. This can help ensure rapid recovery and restart capability of your environment for both testing and disaster recovery, and restart capability for your open systems environment for testing and disaster recovery. Being able to test and practice recovery allows you to build skills in order to be ready when a disaster occurs.
GDPS/Global Mirror automation technology is designed to manage the IBM TotalStorage Global Mirror copy services and the disk configuration, monitor the mirroring environment, and automate management and recovery tasks. It can perform failure recovery from a central point of control. This can provide the ability to synchronize System z and open systems data at virtually any distance from your primary site.
The point-in-time copy functionality offered by the IBM TotalStorage Global Mirror technology allows you to initiate a restart of your database managers on any supported platform, to help reduce complexity and avoid having to create and maintain different recovery procedures for each of your database managers.
All this helps provide a comprehensive disaster recovery solution.
The six offerings listed above can be combined as follows:
GDPS/PPRC used with GDPS/XRC (GDPS PPRC/XRC)GDPS PPRC/XRC provides the ability to combine the advantages of metropolitan-distance Business Continuity and regional or long-distance Disaster Recovery. This can provide a near-continuous availability solution with no data loss and minimum application impact across two sites located at metropolitan distances, and a disaster recovery solution with recovery at an out-of-region site with minimal data loss.
A typical GDPS PPRC/XRC configuration has the primary disk copying data synchronously to a location within the metropolitan area using Metro Mirror (PPRC), as well as asynchronously to a remote disk subsystem a long distance away via z/OS Global Mirror (XRC). This enables a z/OS three-site high availability and disaster recovery solution for even greater protection from planned and unplanned outages.
Combining the benefits of PPRC and XRC, GDPS PPRC/XRC enables:
HyperSwap capability for near-continuous availability for a disk control unit failureOption for no data lossData consistency to allow restart, not recoveryLong-distance disaster recovery site for protection against a regional disasterMinimal application impactGDPS automation to manage remote copy pairs, manage a Parallel Sysplex configuration, and perform planned as well as unplanned reconfigurationsThe same primary volume is used for both PPRC and XRC data replication and can support two different GDPSs: GDPS/PPRC for metropolitan distance and business continuity, and GDPS/XRC for regional distance and disaster recovery.
The two mirroring technologies and GDPS implementations work independently of each other, yet provide the synergy of a common management scheme and common skills.
Since GDPS/XRC supports zSeries data only (z/OS, Linux on zSeries), GDPS XRC is a zSeries solution only.
GDPS/PPRC used with GDPS/Global Mirror (GDPS Metro/Global Mirror)
GDPS Metro/Global Mirror has the benefit of being able to manage across the configuration all formats of data, as Global Mirror is not limited to zSeries formatted data.
GDPS Metro/Global Mirror combines the benefits of GDPS/PPRC using Metro Mirror, with GDPS/Global Mirror using IBM TotalStorage Global Mirror. A typical configuration has the secondary disk from a Metro Mirror remote copy configuration in turn becoming the primary disk for a Global Mirror remote copy pair. Data is replicated in a "cascading" fashion.
Combining the benefits of PPRC and Global Mirror, GDPS Metro/Global Mirror enables:
HyperSwap capability for near-continuous availability for a disk control unit failureOption for no data lossMaintain disaster recovery capability after a HyperSwapData consistency to allow restart, not recovery, at either site 2 or site 3Long-distance disaster recovery site for protection against a regional disasterMinimal application impactGDPS automation to manage remote copy pairs, manage a Parallel Sysplex configuration, and perform planned as well as unplanned reconfigurations
In addition, GDPS Metro/Global Mirror can do this for both zSeries as well as open data, and provide consistency between them.
GDPS Metro/Global Mirror is only available via RPQ.
Enhancements to the IBM zSeries 900 Family of Servers, Hardware Announcement 101-308 , dated October 4, 2001New Functions for IBM zSeries Servers Enhance Connectivity, Hardware Announcement 102-209 , dated August 13, 2002IBM Introduces the IBM zSeries 990 Family of Servers, Hardware Announcement 103-142 , dated May 13, 2003IBM enhances the IBM zSeries 990 family of servers, Hardware Announcement 103-280 , dated October 7, 2003IBM Implementation Services, Installation Services, and Operational Support Services Now Available for Selected IBM Products, Services Announcement 603-015 , dated June 17, 2003IBM TotalStorage PtP VTS includes FICON connectivity for increased performance and distance, Hardware Announcement 103-204 , dated July 15, 2004IBM enhances the IBM zSeries 990 family of servers, Hardware Announcement 104-118 , dated April 7, 2004Significant IBM zSeries mainframe security, SAN, and LAN innovations, Hardware Announcement 104-346 , dated October 7, 2004IBM zSeries 990 and 890 FICON enhancements, Hardware Announcement 105-012 , dated January 25, 2005Preview: IBM z/OS V1.7 and z/OS.e V1.7: World-class computing for On Demand Business, Software Announcement 205-034 , dated February 15, 2005GDPS/PPRC HyperSwap Manager: Providing continuous availability of consistent data, Marketing Announcement 305-015 , dated February 15, 2005IBM System z9 109 - The server built to protect and grow with your on demand enterprise, Hardware Announcement 105-241 , dated July 27, 2005IBM Implementation Services for Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex(TM) for managing disk mirroring using IBM Global Mirroring, Services Announcement 605-035 , dated October 18, 2005
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In the recent years, the amount of custom software development companies reached a critical number. Thus, the question of selecting the needed option among the best custom software development companies stands as sharp as never before.
Honestly, the choice of one and only top custom software development company is really hard. Almost each custom software development company on market meets the highest standards of service delivery and has the diversified set of specializations and advantages. Therefore, the presented list of top custom software development companies required comprehensive research in the ratings prepared by various analysts.
And here is the result.Best Custom Software Development Companies 2019 | Top Software Developers in USA, UK, and Canada
In order to create the most trustworthy result, this rating of top custom software development companies used the information arranged by Hackernoon, Extract, Clutch, Upcity, ITfirms and other many other observers. In fact, most of them agree with the statement that the best custom software development company should cooperate with top clients and provide the diversified set of products and services. Otherwise, the company’s ability to completely satisfy the needs of its customers raises doubt.
Within the range of identified criteria, the presented review of best custom software development companies chose the most reliable and popular developers on the market. Besides, the results are ordered based on the degree of detalization custom software development companies gained among the observers used for reference in this rating.The candidates shortlisted as top custom software development companies in 2019 for this review:
Let’s look at each representative in the list of best custom software development companies closer.INTELLECTSOFT, TOP CUSTOM SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT COMPANY FROM PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA Intellectsoft custom software development company, Palo Alto, California | Top Software Development Companies List 2019
Top clients: Guinness, EY, Jaguar, Audi, Harley-Davidson, Universal, Nestle
Intellectsoft is a multi-awarded custom software development company that specializes in various solutions and services. Being the top choice among the numerous reviews, this provider also gained the reputation of the most reliable custom software development company. Precisely, it has collected numerous case studies on assisting top clients with automated solutions, investment decisions, iPad apps, sales data optimization, and others.
Concerning the specific delivery Intellectsoft offers on market, the provider mainly works on blockchain and financial technologies, cloud computing, B2B and B2C Web portals, documentation management, online billing, and payment solutions. At the same time, it deserved the top custom software development company title thanks to the wide range of services in its package. Among its main elements, there are UI and UX, DevOps, and mobile apps development. On each of the above-mentioned offerings, the exemplary dedication of a qualified team and the usage of innovative technologies make the difference too. Finally, the best custom software development company possess sufficient resources to offer full-cycle expertise, meaning the recently launched blockchain lab and the unification of four companies under one mobile platform. In combination, these factors make it relevant to state that Intellectsoft is the company delivering services and solutions of the top quality on market.
Besides, this top custom software development company can proudly guarantee its clients the highest standard of each service and solution designed. In particular, Intellectsoft managed to turn almost two-thirds of its customers into loyal clients and satisfy almost each of them to the extent of asking for the software assistance again. In this context, the custom software development company is not afraid of working with the complicated tasks in software engineering, intelligent consulting, hi-tech solutions, and IoT and AI development. Together, these factors significantly contribute to multiplying the success stories with clients like Google, Eurostar, Cirruspath and many other Fortune 500 representatives. And this helps Intellectsoft reach the stars in the industry and head the list of top custom software development companies this year.
Headquarters: United States, UK, Norway
Founded: 2007 | Employees: 50–499Software Development Services:
Top clients: Google, Vodafone, Discovery, Cardiff University, Stockmusic.net
Oxagile deserves its title of a top custom software development company due to the integrity of the services provided. In other words, this custom software development company presents end-to-end solutions on market and makes this successfully enough to satisfy the customer needs completely. Awarded numerous times (IAOP The Global Outsourcing 100 in 2017, Deloitte Technology Fast 500 and 2016 Software Companies 500, among its recent prizes), Oxagile guides its work in accordance with the values of craftsmanship, trust, flexibility, and teamwork.
Among the diversified custom software development services, Oxagile pays the significant attention to online video management, AdTech, eCommerce, and business intelligence. At the same time, the presented list of Oxagile competences is incomplete. In addition, the best custom software development company smoothly assists clients in mobile and web app development, automated testing, big data, and computer vision. While working on each of the presented services and solutions, Oxagile positions itself as a custom software development company that overcomes any challenges of the dynamic market and aims at continuous innovation.
In this context, the level of customer satisfaction with Oxagile justifies its achievements. It is truly impressive: 97% of clients left positive reviews about the services that this company has delivered through them to a billion of end users. In addition, the wide range of loud names among Oxagile’s top clients supports the corporate ambitions for expansion and success. Specifically, the top custom software development company guided almost 500 projects with corporate giants like Google and Vodafone: working on coaching analytics systems, platform optimization, the launch of innovations, and digital advertising adjustments. In the end, Oxagile established the reliable portfolio, full of excited testimonials from clients on the experiences crafted by the passionate workers in its development team.
Headquarters: USA, UK, Belarus
Founded: 2005 | Employees: 250–499Software Development Services:
Top clients: Microsoft, Dunkin Donuts, Best Buy, US Bank, Epsy, Wrigley, Dell
The valid place among top custom software development companies is deserved by FrogSlayer due to its willingness to craft the greatest and the most needed solutions — and successfully putting this ambition into action. With the emphasis on uniting the workers into a close-knit passionate team, this custom software development company manages to offer game-changing services of any difficulty and urgency. And its work is awesome.
Concerning the very specifics of the delivery process designed by FrogSlayer, clients can experience three stages: planning, building, and management. At the preliminary stage, the company offers the sophisticated package of pre-project consulting, code or architecture review, and research, design & planning. Then, FrogSlayer assists the companies on the building stage. Here, a client can wait up to 90 days to receive MVP after the product design and, in the same timeframe, get V1 from MVP. Moreover, this package includes a dedicated team option. Finally, the stage of service management emerges, when the custom software development company works hard on the smooth running of the result designed. Precisely, cloud hosting and end-user bug support are the major elements of the corporate package, offered long after the service is actually delivered.
In the end, this representative in the list of custom software development companies works on the creation of the best solutions for clients and of the favorable space for employees. On the one hand, FrogSlayer is aimed at working on software engineering solutions that are centered on the customers’ needs (including the particular budget limitations) and the overall risk mitigation. On another hand, it highly values the integrity of its software development team, consciously avoiding offshoring and outsourcing that are so popular these days, along with separating the project team and limiting its creative potential. In the end, FrogSlayer can confidently title itself as a top custom software development company that delivers light, adjustable, and convenient solutions on market.
Founded: 2005 | Employees: 50–249Software Development Services:
Top clients: McDonald’s, KPMG, Sanofi, Bosch, Invesco, Sandwik, Toronto Public Health
Konverge is a Canadian leader in the software development niche with over 20 years of experience. Being a relatively small firm, this custom software development company delivers diversified and top-quality solutions on the local market. To achieve this aim, Konverge possesses numerous technological competencies, including Microsoft technologies, content management systems, and multimedia tools.
Among the precise custom software development services of Konverge, the provider offers web & mobile development, SharePoint, and business intelligence. On this matter, custom software is delivered with the tools supported by Microsoft golden partnership, while business intelligence is designed to achieve the best KPIs. Considering the service delivery, Konverge is able to concentrate on the specific element needed for the client or provide the combination of services on request. In addition, this custom software development company is proud of its Field Eagle (tablet-based mobile field inspection), MenuSano (online nutrition calculator), and Aptunity (SaaS-modeled web application for HR departments) products.
Like other top custom software development companies, Konverge is awarded multiple times by the observers — including the victory in Innovation & Excellence Awards 2019 and featuring in Global Awards 2016 and CDN Channel Elite Awards in 2016 (small-business solution, gold winner) and 2015 (mid-market solution, silver winner). And numerous satisfied clients (CSA Group, Cogeco, and SDMSHN, to name a few) support the vision of Konverge’s exemplary excellence. Therefore, the appearance of this Canadian firm in the list of top custom software development companies is justified by the level of customer satisfaction, the success on the local market, and the comprehensive range of software development services provided.
Founded: 1994 | Employees: 10–49Software Development Services:
Top clients: eBay, Walmart, Nestle, NASA JPL, T-Mobile, M&T bank
ScienceSoft, the U.S. custom software development company, specializes in IT consulting and development and meets the customer demands for almost 30 years globally. Concerning the range of industries where the corporate workers demonstrate their talents and creativity, it includes healthcare, banking sector, retail, and communications. And within the selected area of influence, ScienceSoft proudly states that its main income comes from the clients who are with the provider for more than a year.
In particular, ScienceSoft deserves its place among the best custom software development companies due to its professional skills demonstrated while crafting various types of solutions. In this context, the industry leader is accustomed to the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, machine learning, computer vision, and big data. Besides, ScienceSoft specializes in applications; it creates them for Web, mobile, real-time, big data, and desktop. Also, the custom software development company pays significant attention to its connection models and has achieved excellence in technology consulting, development from scratch or on the basis of the set requirements, and legacy software modernization.
In the presented rating of top custom software development companies, ScienceSoft appeared because of its prominent achievements in the chosen industries. In healthcare, the provider is proud of CRM systems and business intelligence solutions. As for the retail, the loudest accomplishment is PLM platform, used by the industry leaders like Coca-Cola, Carrefour Group, and Procter & Gamble. Viber, the widely used messenger in the world, is also the result of ScienceSoft’s development team efforts. In short, it is a truly successful and inspiring company that was bound to appear in the rating of best custom software development companies.
Headquarters: USA, Finland
Founded: 1989| Employees: 250–999Software Development Services:
Top clients: Adidas, Philips, Toyota, Xerox, PayPal, KMPG
Itransition is the best custom software development company in terms of the global scale, the list of its core competencies, and the outstanding teamwork results. By maintaining the staff of 1520 engineers worldwide, the provider significantly contributes to its mission of the digitalization of their future. And 100% of customer satisfaction rate justifies the success of this ambition.
In fact, this custom software development company manages to deliver the diversified set of services and solutions. Within the list of available options, the willingness to facilitate decision-making, modernize operations, and master integration between main processes guides the work of the Itransition team. As for the solutions, the digital enterprise and digital engagement clusters satisfy the urge for data and infrastructure management, social media engagement, omnichannel commerce and many other needs. Finally, the list of technologies includes the wide set of available tools, from the basic PHP and Python languages to more sophisticated Atlassian and Salesforce platforms.
Moreover, Itransition has collected numerous acknowledgments on the way of its development, including IAOP The Global Outsourcing 100 and partnerships with Microsoft and HP. In this context, the custom software development company demonstrates its brilliant results in various industries, meaning automotive, retail & wholesale, software vendors, healthcare, media and entertainment, finance, telecommunications, and education. By taking all these achievements into account, the list of the best custom software development companies simply will not be complete without mentioning Itransition.
Headquarters: USA, UK, Belarus
Founded: 1998 | Employees: 1000+Software Development Services:
Top clients: Navistar, Oracle, HP, Clarks, Emerson
Trigent is a custom software development company that is aimed at accelerating innovation. To achieve this ambitious goal, the provider works on transforming products, effectively adopting SharePoint, automating testing and QA, and optimizing various enterprise operations. And with the developed global delivery model, Trigent manages not only to meet these objectives but also to lead the industry.
Among the particular custom software development services, Trigent is focused on cloud technology. In fact, it offers various solutions to optimize the operation of this innovation, from the installation process to fixing various maintenance issues. Furthermore, the general list of corporate technologies mostly impresses clients. In particular, Trigent can assist in product engineering, business intelligence, and mobile application development. Among the available tools for service delivery, this custom software development company uses both business and industry knowledge and chooses the necessary tool among technology slack, emerging technologies, Microsoft, Java Enterprise Edition, PHP/Open Source development, IBM iSeries, or SaaS.
As for the other competencies that diversify Trigent from numerous custom software development companies, the list of industries where it can effectively assist the clients is among the widest and most diversified ones, comparing to the key competitors. Specifically, the provider demonstrates great results in manufacturing, transportation and logistics, insurance, eCommerce, high-tech, education, healthcare, and financial services. In the end, Trigent deserves recognition among the other custom software development companies due to its proficiency in creating complex solutions that satisfy numerous clients from different industries — along with its ability to maintain consistency of the corporate brand in each of them.
Headquarters: USA, India
Founded: 1995| Employees: 1000+Software Development Services:
Top clients: Google, Motorola, Unilever, Conagra, Pedigree
Openxcell, the custom software development company of CMMI Level 3 with ValueShore outsourcing model, is enthusiastically delivering software products all over the world. With its extensive experience, friendly corporate culture, cost efficiency, and circumspect infrastructure, the provider managed to satisfy over 500 clients globally and establish the reliable reputation. And doesn’t seem to stop on this.
As for the key areas of interest (in addition to software development), the company works on mobile app development, real-time systems, bots and IOT. Moreover, Openxcell demonstrates mastery in crafting SAAS-based products, meaning Orderhive and Workhive projects. In terms of industry range, the custom software development company value itself in assisting eCommerce portals, digital marketplaces, social media, and real-time business analytics and integration. And so, the appearance of this organization among top custom software development companies is justified by the ability to craft diversified services along with high-quality products for users with different needs.
As many other best custom software development companies, Openxcell has numerous reasons to feel proud of its achievements. Among its awards, the provider won the title of Best Software Development Company in 2012, according to GESIA. In this context, it also gained ISO 9001:2008 certification to operationalize its QA and management system. Besides, Openxcell is open to partnerships with other products, software specialists, and sales and marketing companies, which significantly strengthens its positions in the competitive software development market. By taking into account all the information mentioned above, Openxcell is surely the company that deserves its place among top custom software development providers.
Headquarters: USA, India
Founded: 2008| Employees: 50–249Software Development Services:
Top clients: Bayer Healthcare, Evernote, Ford, Lionbridge, Worthworm
Kandasoft, the prominent representative of custom software development companies on the global market, for over 15 years reaches diversified clients, from Fortune 500 members to prospective startups, and delivers them complex software solutions. The carefully collected technological equipment in and an unstoppable urge to reach maximum customer satisfaction can be determined as the main factors of the corporate success.
Specifically, this best custom software development company specializes in mobile application development, software development services for startups, QA, ePublishing, healthcare solutions, and data and application security. Within this range of competences, the provider constantly improves the quality of its services in order to deliver the best result for the customer. Besides, Kandasoft is working on different technology platforms, including Java, .Net, SharePoint, PHP, SaaS, and clouds. This makes it relevant to state that the company offers diversified and up-to-date software solutions on market.
In addition, this custom software development company works with mobile apps. The list of corporate accomplishments in this sphere includes an ability to work with iOS, Android, BlackBerry and Windows 7, along with guaranteeing a smooth integration of business processes with major online platforms, meaning Facebook, Twitter, Evernote, Skype, and Dropbox. Besides, knowledge management solutions deserve the special place in corporate working culture, considering their direct impact on business performance for the potential clients. Thus, by addressing all the key criteria, Kandasoft totally deserves the title of the best custom software development company and the place in the presented list.
Founded: 1993 | Employees: 249–500Software Development Services:
Top clients: Atlassian, Cisco, Deutsche Bank, IBM, Panasonic, Coupa
SoftServe is the provider that crowns this list of best custom software development companies. Being a long-term specialist in this competitive market, this specific custom software development company aims at popularizing innovation among the businesses. And so, it established the team of dedicated workers and the set of software services with the passion to archive this aim.
Considering the main solutions SoftServe offers, its achievements in establishing innovation platforms deserve the special attention. In this dimension, the custom software development company manages to unite novelty with crowdsources ideation, market-verified concept engineering, and commercialization. As a result, its customers receive sophisticated products that address the main requirements of the competitive market. In addition, SoftServe works with raw data by turning it into intelligence information, crafts digital experiences and connections between machines, accelerates and optimizes business processes, and ensures business efficiency.
Similar to other custom software development companies, SoftServe is working in various industries; specifically, they are healthcare, financial services, retail, media, and software. On this aspect, the focus is on creating ecosystems within the whole sphere, and these efforts are praised by the customers the most. For instance, the fruitful transformation from traditional models to innovative approaches is adopted through life sciences, biotech, digital banking, insurance, customer package goods, broadcasting, and multinational lines of business. And the company surely won’t stop on these achievements. Which means that it has high chances to appear much higher in this rating the next year.
Headquarters: USA, Ukraine
Founded: 1993 | Employees: 1000+Software Development Services:
Top clients: VFX, ISI Emerging Markets Group
Generally,XB Softwaresets creativity as the top priority in all its activities. Under the motto “Turning great ideas into successful solutions,” this custom software development company assists businesses in introducing web solutions for the overall enterprise and eLearning purposes. This provider works with numerous technologies (React.js, Marionette.js, Webix, Node.js, and PHP, among others) to satisfy the clients’ needs both from frontend and backend sides.
In detail, the exact package of services and solutions XB Softwareoffers is impressive. This full-cycle custom software development companypossesses expertise in crafting enterprise application software and cross-platform frameworks, developing eLearning initiatives, employing testing at all the stages of software development, and rapid augmenting of the working environment. When it comes to concrete solutions, the organization presents fleet management systems (and establishes real-time vehicle control from scratch), enterprise resource planning systems (for integrating all the operations under a unified solution), business intelligence solutions (with a simple visualization of complex data massive), and eLearning applications (which address the education and evaluation issues). With these diversified superpowers, XB Software is at high demand on a software development market for almost a decade.
And even though the client base of XB Software custom software development companylacks loud titles, its portfolio reveals an outstanding ability to solve problems in any industry and any part of the world. Among the case studies successfully completed, the provider collected auxiliary solution for a software company in the UK, chat web application for a digital content company from the movie industry, and a custom schedule for a religious institution in California. Thus, the creative approach is a real competitive advantage of XB Software on market. Moreover, the core values of reliability, dedication, deep research, and responsiveness justify the highest quality and customer satisfaction with the company’s software development services.
Founded: 2008 | Employees: 50–249Software Development Services:
Top clients: JTI, Sport.com, Meetville, Paragon Software Group, Hubba Bubba, Mail.ru
The particular sphere of interest for VironITis mobile app development. In this area, the company delivers applications under the ideals of the highest responsibility, professionalism, efficiency, and communication. In other words, the provider cares about meeting its obligations, ensuring the deepest understanding of the project aims, dividing the resources in the wisest manner possible, and delivering instant feedback.
In its activity, VironITadopts various domains, technologies, and platforms. Among the key industries assisted, the success cases of this custom software development company include B2B sector, education, communications, hospitality, and logistics. Technically, the provider is well-equipped with the knowledge of Java, Objective-C, .Net/C#, C++/C, and HTML5 and working on iOS, Android, Windows Phone, and React.Native. With this toolkit, VironIT is able to build a mobile app within 2–4 weeks, move a business from desktop to mobile, enhance cost-effectiveness (with revolutionary React.Native apps), introduce analytics, and support the result long after the delivery.
As the main advantages of this software development company, fast delivery, the highest ranking in digital platforms, full support, and cost-effectiveness are the guarantees worth taking into consideration. And these components are presented in all the services of VironIT– including the development of blockchain, enterprise software, mobile app, web, game, VR/AR, dedicated developers and IT consulting. And the project examples reveal an exact ability to fulfill all these promises — like the success stories of building a blockchain wallet app, integrating of a pharmacy app into M-Pesa payment system, and developing VR situation tests for Belarusian Ministry of Emergency Situations.
Headquarters: USA, UK, Belarus
Founded: 2004 | Employees: 10–49Software Development Services:
Top clients: ShutterStock, ServiceMesh, ProActive, Nowvel, Just Pharma
ThinkSyspositions itself as a boutique, e-Commerce web, and mobile software development company. Moreover, it has professional experience in outsourcing its main projects with end-to-end delivery to customers. Furthermore, applying up-to-date technologies and methodologies allows ThinkSys to meet its key intention: deliver highly customized solutions to international clients. This combination left us no choice but to include this company in the list of leading custom software development providers!
Among the specific components, power, functionality, reliability, flexibility, agility, and usability are always in the core of all ThinkSys’ products. Because of this, the company guarantees an outstanding result in all the key dimensions it works in — meaning software development, web & mobile app development, support, and analytics. Besides, the strengths of this representative among software testing & software development service providersinclude an ability to work with multiple industries, the possession of an expert team aware of various tools, languages, platforms, and frameworks, and the guarantee of meeting the needs of various business sizes.
With all these achievements, ThinkSyssuccessfully completes its mission of delivering innovative and collaborative technology solutions to diversified customers. And numerous prizes and recognitions justify that this company does its job truly great — including an award of Inc.5000 & Red Herring, customers’ praising of an outstanding ability to work with multifarious languages and constantly guarantee the mix of experience, expertise and value. As a special product of the developer, Krypto QA Automation FrameWork is an illustrative case of an efficient mobile, browser tested, Krypto architected, and collaborative design for various customer needs.
Founded: 2012 | Employees: 150–249Software Development Services:
Top clients: King Saud University, Kuwait University, Medtronic, AstraZeneca, Bahrain Defense Force Royal Medical Services
Peerbits, a mobile app development company operating for seven years on the software market, takes customer trust and satisfaction as its key duties. To meet this ambition, it gathered a dedicated team of professional workers with cloud technology. Within it, the provider is able to incorporate Agile methodology, technical know-how, application maintenance, transparency, on-time delivery, and scalability into the unified package of a business solution.
In practice, the company adopts an industry-oriented approach to delivering its main services. For example, in healthcare, Peetbits works on modernizing traditional processes through digitalization. When it comes to education, the provider aims at achieving higher interactivity and eliminating the common learning boundaries. Financial initiatives mean ensuring the most enhanced level of technological development and working on data integrity. Oil and gas industry frequently call for fast-tracking solutions. In its turn, mobility in logistics addresses the need for greater visibility and advanced decision-making. Cooperation of Peetbits with retail industry results in establishing the unified customer experience. Wellness and fitness activities benefit in terms of accurate tracking in mobile apps. Finally, the transportation sector becomes more mobile with better navigation and location tracking.
Thus, it’s evident that Peetbits works on digitalizing all the traditional industries and keeps the higher aim of transforming societies — be that greater access to schools or introducing eco-friendly solutions to enterprises. Moreover, each project is crafted by taking into account the criteria of expertise, process orientation, predictability, responsibility, committed support and customer satisfaction. And actually, this awareness ensures the highest quality of the service delivered.
Headquarters: India, UAE, Colombia, Saudi Arabia
Founded: 2011 | Employees: 150–249Software Development Services:
Top clients: Afterlight, QuizUp, Warby Parker, Sunnycomb, KeyMe
Fueledis a well-known provider of software development services that dedicates significant effort in establishing product excellence, design mastery, and development expertise. With the experience in building top-ranking apps, the company gained its current reputation of a leading custom development company on market these days.
While delivering its services, Fueledstarts from conception and strategy stage. In the beginning, the company evaluates the potential of a client’s idea and offers possible adjustments. Then, the developer confidently takes in its hands the whole process of furnishing the project’s details. By creating the feature set as a written description of everything that will be put into software structure, this mobile app design and development companyestablishes a solid background for cooperation with the client. Consequently, on-time delivery and the low proximity of customer dissatisfaction have become the main guarantees of Fueled.
In practice, this custom development company works both with startups and big brands. On the one hand, newcomers receive passionate support from Fueled in terms of dedicated design, partnership, and growth acceleration. On another hand, the leading enterprises can expect from the provider a compelling product crafted for customer satisfaction. And numerous prizes received by the company — including The Webby Awards, Communication Arts, Hive Awards, OMMA Awards, and FWA — justify its success in both chosen dimensions.
Headquarters: USA, UK
Founded: 2007 | Employees: 150–249Software Development Services:
Recipes for food dishes are usually traceable to a culture of origin.
You do not go to a banquet anywhere in the world and expect to be given 'world food'. Even the foods that are sold worldwide, such as McDonald's or the Chinese takeaway, remain essentially American and Chinese. Although there are some fusion cuisines, they are consciously hybridised to reflect their separate origins. But in most cases you would expect a dish to reflect the society from which it came. A boeuf bourguignon is French, a vindaloo is Indian, a steak and kidney pudding British and pho very Vietnamese.
And if you enquire as to the origins of these products of national craftsmanship, they reveal a pattern in which the same basic ingredients - beef, spices, starch, vegetables - end up in a remarkably varied final form. The difference lies in the way core ingredients are combined.
Not only do the recipes 'work' to please people. They have other features: they become stable, can be found described in books, become respected for their ability to give people satisfaction, they endure through generations; and yet they remain difficult to replicate without the surrounding supports that make them genuine. Systems of business are also national recipes.
They put together ingredients into patterns, which - if they work - then stabilise and replicate themselves. And they are equally products of their cultures. They use the same basic ingredients all over the world - capital, human talent, ways of achieving enough trust to do business - and they play with the combinations until a mixture works to grow wealth.
Sometimes societies do this by debate about how it should be done, as happened when Adam Smith defined how the early industrial revolution might be designed. Sometimes they do it by state planning, as in the days of Japan Inc in the 1960s. Sometimes a society allows creative experimentation - which is now, arguably, happening in China. No matter what the process, there is a historical trajectory in each society that takes it in a direction largely pre-determined by the society's more fundamental nature.
If you were to track the economic evolutions of countries that are at roughly the same stage of emergence (Korea and Poland, Brazil and Indonesia, India and China, Singapore and Hong Kong), you would find major contrasts in both what they do and how they do it. In many such contrasts, you would also find contrasts in how well they do it - how many peoples' lives are made easier and richer. That is why 'capitalism' is not one thing. That is why the six business systems currently dominating the world economy are all different in their natures (see p36). That is why globalisation is not at all easy - and across some combinations almost impossible.
If there were no cultural differences, business could spread easily throughout the world. But this does not happen. Despite all the hype about globalisation, despite centuries of world trade and investment, and the communication miracles of the past 20 years, invisible barriers still exist to prevent transnational companies from going transnational wherever they please.
And the barriers are not legal; they are expressed in such phrases as 'We could never get the hang of how business is done there', 'We don't understand the environment', 'They play by different rules'.
What this says is that the business system in the country under discussion is foreign in ways that seem unfathomable. A recent study by Alan Rugman and Alain Verbeke of the world's 500 largest companies (380 of which gave data about where they operated geographically) assessed how many of these companies were truly global in the sense that no more than 50% of their volume came from their home region (Americas, Europe, Asia) and at least 20% came from each of the other two - in other words, they would be fairly spread around. They discovered that decades of globalisation have produced just nine companies with a global reach (see p38).
Research by Subramanian Rangan at INSEAD shows similar patterns, this time of 'no go' areas for huge corporations. Some find Asia difficult, others might find Latin America comfortable but North America not. It is as if there were hidden obstacles that are easy for some to surmount and impossible for others. Their hidden nature is why research on business systems, and 'the societal effect', is crucial. Not only might it unlock the understanding necessary to do business in, say, China or Russia, it might also explain why the leading companies in any major industry come from just one or two cultures: why are consultancy and accounting essentially American games? Why is it that to make money in quality cars a company has to be German or Japanese? Why do the French and Italians dominate clothing and perfume branding? Why is China now the workshop of the world?
Understanding a business system starts with four assumptions. First, it is most useful to define it as belonging to one society, because it is a product of a society's history. It normally overlaps with a nation-state, so that, for instance, one can distinguish the French system from the German, that of the US from that of Mexico. Occasionally, a society might overlap several states - that of the overseas Chinese is a case in point - but normally a state has its own distinct culture, and also the legal and educational, and language traditions of a state are normally distinct.
Second, no business system is static. Societies evolve continually, so they are considering here a moving object, and moving sometimes quite fast in historical terms, as did South Korea after 1960 and China after 1980.
Third, this object is not isolated from the rest of the world and will receive constant influences from outside. Even North Korea gets penetrated by clandestine DVDs (from China) about life in South Korea. Fourth, a business system in a society is a complex object, and that complexity has to be accepted as an aspect of understanding it. To take bits out of context for comparison or special analysis makes it much harder to understand fully.
A societal business system is like a cake with three layers, each of which contributes to the final effect. That effect comes from the combination of the recipe's layers. At the top is the business system - the way business is done in a society; in other words, how organisations take on distinct forms, how they relate to each other across the economy, what happens inside them. These are all aspects of the general challenge of stitching together stable combinations of people, capital, technology and markets.
Then they start looking at why. This starts with the middle layer, which is the systems used in the society to make things orderly, stable, predictable and fair. So for finance to work, there needs to be a banking system, a stock-market, commercial law, professions. For people to exercise talent in the economy, there needs to be an education system, the encouragement of science, a labour market, perhaps unions, and so on.
For people to exchange with each other widely, and in large volume, there needs to be a basis for trust to be extended beyond a small circle of people into the much wider realm of strangers. Information here is crucial. If you can believe what you read or hear, and if you can read or hear it easily, you can make business decisions more quickly, with greater certainty.
This middle layer is the realm of order and the things inside it are called institutions by theorists.
If the business system rests on the institutions, what do the institutions rest on? The answer is that they rest on the culture, and its job is to provide meaning for the system of order. In other words, the society has certain ideals, values, principles, beliefs. These are expressed as a set of axioms, buried in peoples' minds and guiding action. Do you trust authority? Is religion a priority? Can you influence your own fate? Are you on your own or connected? Put all together, they answer the question: why?
Why do Western societies have democratic institutions? Because they believe in individualism and self-responsibility. Why do they have elaborate legal systems? Because they believe in rights, fairness, evidence-based judgement and predictable sanctions for the control of behaviour. Why do Chinese people rely so much on guanxi in business dealings? Because it is an old principle that mutual obligation is a moral issue, that survival depends on its exercise and that status comes from its mastery. Why do the Japanese depend so heavily on group identity in work situations? Because for hundreds of years, they were bound into social units called ie, whose capacity to survive depended on co-operation and shared hard work.
What they have then is a complex system of interwoven influences, in a permanent state of evolution and adjustment, in which culture provides meaning, and underpins institutions that provide order, which in turn underpins the business system that provides coordination of economic behaviour.
The vast majority of countries are open to the entry of outside practices and ideas - even if sometimes reluctantly. But some simply assume the right to impose their practices and ideas on others; in many cases, the argument is appealing, such as the movement for standard international accounting practices, or technical compatibility, or shared environmental laws. Much in the way of managerial behaviour is influenced by attempts at standardisation, but this universalism can be naive.
In many of these transfers, there is a hidden agenda, and its interpretation is not always consistent. The arrival of heavy organisations and their attached institutions might be seen in the originating country as bringing best practice to a place in need of them. But it is equally possible to interpret the behaviour as 'exporting their rules for you to follow, so that they can expand the area in which their game is played'. The EU pours new standardising regulations into the boardrooms of companies already drowning in last year's flood. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, in all its Presbyterian austerity, is treated as a world constraint for US companies.
And in technology the production line for the Lexus in Nagoya looks remarkably similar, at first glance, to that for the S-class Mercedes in Stuttgart.
The hot-rolling mill in Shanghai's Baosteel plant looks much the same as other sheds elsewhere.
In many ways, the systems of business interpenetrate and people have always been inclined to be deceived by this appearance into thinking that one day there will be a single world system. In its first definition in the 1960s, this idea was termed the 'convergence hypothesis', and it originated from a study by four distinguished scholars. As time went on, however, it became apparent that the converging slowed down as societal systems came closer.
The leader of that team of scholars, Clark Kerr, wrote another book 23 years later, observing that although there was convergence in technology and superficialities, such as systems of administration and control, the 'realms of the mind' remained distinct. Thus the 'meaning' of what was happening remained distinct. Cultures themselves do not converge. EuroDisney could not replicate the American Dream; it had to Europeanise it, as it found when its French staff refused to follow its American rules.
Because culture provides meaning it is very deep, and because it defines reality it is very significant to a people. Because it represents an accumulation of messages received over the whole of a person's upbringing, it is often invisible. But it is always there and always strong. An outsider trying to come to terms with its effects may often suffer from the challenges it brings. Its depth may not be seen. Its shaping of local meaning may not be accessible through the unacknowledged thought patterns of outside meaning. And, in the absence of understanding, its strength may be misjudged.
This is what makes business combinations across cultures matters of such delicacy, and often failure. Looked at from another perspective, this is also why some countries can assemble competitive modern economies and others cannot - so far. It is also why the economies so far assembled are not of one type, but of six distinct systems (see left). Each of these systems has inbuilt strengths and weaknesses, and their strengths in competition come from their societal legacy. The laws of economics are heavily conditioned by culture (in ways that many economists struggle with reluctantly). So too are there compatibilities and non-compatibilities between systems.
A way of probing for such understanding is to take one of the systems and consider what it is especially good at, and then ask where that advantage comes from inside the society and its history. And is it transportable?
Let us look at the liberal market capitalism of the US and UK, and try to understand its distinct nature. The Anglo-Saxon version of the multinational, currently so dominant in many markets, performs well on the basis of three features.
It is driven by a powerful discipline stemming from the voracious and impatient appetite of highly critical investors wanting a high return on their capital, and paying senior professional executives very well for living under the pressure of delivering that performance. This dominance of shareholder value dates only from the 1970s, when investment theorists began to behave as if they were scientists and grew hugely as a body with claims to professionalism. It is not a universal phenomenon, despite its pretensions, as few societies have the same structure of financial institutions giving power to these intermediators.
The system is capable of very fast change and adaptation to shifts in technology and demand. This stems from a reliance on professionalised managerial skills in depth, on organisations designed for flexibility and speed of response, and on labour markets able to cope with radical restructuring.
It is noteworthy that change in such organisations is handled primarily by the managerial ranks, and that the workforce carries out a strategy but does not normally initiate it - for instance, product evolution. It is capable of using bureaucracy to integrate activities across complex differences of geography and sector. It knows about performance control, and keeps it at its core.
Such a system could not have been built without certain societal conditions.
The calculated rationality visible in the organisational order and structures rests on beliefs in the value of such impersonal 'scientific' ways of proceeding.
The professionalising of the managerial role via the MBA and other formal qualifications is a distinct feature of this system. The individual nature of the performance and reward built into so many control systems needs people who think of themselves as separate equals. Hands-off government is an outcome of centuries of political debate and industrial experience, as is also the philosophy of market discipline as the driver. In the US, the experience of huge organisational scale came from society's massive expansion across an almost empty continent packed with resources: the British equivalent was its period of empire. The Protestant ethic lay below the attitudes to self-responsibility, freedom, hard work and social co-operation, which fed into the creation of particular forms of law, of access to capital, and the use of labour in a certain way.
But the system's distinguishing features are not guarantees of success in every form of industry, and as competition intensifies, the weaker industries die away, flourishing instead in other systems of capitalism. It is no accident that the US can no longer make money in the car industry, that it no longer makes radios or TVs, and that its clothing industry relies on manufacturing elsewhere. It never learned to use labour skills strategically in the way that the Japanese and Germans do. It is no accident that manufacturing in the US accounts for only 16% of GDP compared with 77% for services.
So, what is the US/UK system of capitalism good at, and why? Three forms of industry are handled particularly well in terms of success in global competition, and are best understood in terms of the way certain features combine. The first combination occurs in consultancy, investment banking, financial services, architecture and project engineering services. Here the firm employs specialists in, for example, restructuring in the airline industry, new financial instruments, lending to the oil industry, risk assessment in shipping insurance, and sends them where they are needed, for varying periods. The firm's success depends mainly on its ability to obtain, keep and market these potentially valuable skills.
This second group has scale as its principal feature, but also operating efficiency. The form can dominate in a number of fields: in resources, as with oil giants such as Exxon Mobil; in services of a machine-like nature - for example, fast food, hotel chains, retail banking; applied technology - and applied creativity, as in media and entertainment.
The key to the last group is technology at the cutting edge - information, engineering, biochemistry, medicine - and the search for its fruitful application. The individual firms here are unlikely to be widely known, but together they make up a crucial catalyst in the wider societal system of capitalism, in that they supply the innovation needed to keep it competitive.
In comparison, Germany was once described as 'the graveyard of venture capitalism'. It cannot sustain a Silicon Valley and its major pharmaceutical companies depend heavily for innovation on their satellite laboratories in the US system. The reason is that its system has much more rigid markets in both capital and labour, and far more parties to deal with when making decisions.
Large German organisations are strong in a different kind of innovation - more incremental and less radical. They can produce cars with great market appeal due to constant technical innovation, but in their case the new ideas are generated inside their factories by the workers themselves.
The German worker, unlike the American, is trained to a very high level of technical skill. They expect to be with a firm for many years and are strongly represented in its board discussions. Innovation to meet market demand is part of the job, and authority to do so is encouraged. The US car firm is not structured to meet this challenge, and for goods of this nature - mechanical, responsive to consumer taste, heavily branded, within a family budget - it is failing.
Japan, in so many ways like Germany, is good at constant incremental improvement of mechanical products, sensitive to consumer demand, and that is why it has come to dominate the higher end of consumer markets.
In Japan the assigning of patent rights to firms rather than individuals has an effect on the structure of innovation, and inhibits the growth of the Silicon Valley formula. China's rise as the workshop of the world is due to its unique combination of newly legitimised entrepreneurship, capacity to network, access to market and technical know-how through intermediaries, and capital sourced largely from friends. There is much more to the China formula than the low labour cost, although that is clearly a crucial ingredient.
But China also has weaknesses. Its history has left it with a dependence on personal trust and a suspicion of more formal institutions, such as legal contracts, formal qualifications and bureaucracy. As a result, most large Chinese organisations, as they grow, will remain dependent on a key individual lao ban, or big boss. He will take up so much of the decision power that he will find it hard to keep ambitious talent; as a result, there is a size beyond which Chinese firms become less efficient. This is why there are so few globally recognised brands of Chinese origin. Their field of strength is OEM and they do it better than anyone else, and that is no accident. Like all societal economic systems, it is a product of historical evolution and it reflects the culture. And like all such systems, it is likely to go on doing so.
THE SIX FORMS OF CAPITALISM
At the beginning of the 21st century, six distinct forms of capitalism have emerged to dominate global markets. They do not have the field entirely to themselves, as there are new pretenders trying to enter the premier division of world business. But in terms of track record, these are ahead of the pack. They are identified here in terms of the main kind of organisation they support to represent them, but there is more to it than that. The organisational type is the product of the forms of order in which it is embedded, and the culture they in turn rest on. These are the present-day outcomes of long and complex processes of history.
1. US/UK LARGE MULTI-DIVISIONAL MULTINATIONAL FIRM. This is the flagship firm of the liberal market economy with its beliefs in competition, in individual accountability, in bureaucratic and rational organisations run by professional managers with formal qualifications or proven track records. It rests on a capital market that is both highly responsive and demands high performance, and which also works best in conditions of easy access by all. Ownership of firms is widespread throughout the society, and goes with a mobile labour market in which people can and do move around. Collaboration between firms, to affect the market, is usually illegal. The role of government is to make sure the rules work to maintain the intensity of the competition, but otherwise to stand back from the action. The key to the system is the drive provided by the search for shareholder value.
Examples: Wal-Mart, Citigroup, P&G.
2. EUROPEAN LARGE-SCALE FIRM. This formula occurs in much of mainland Europe, particularly in Germany, and is an expression of what is called the coordinated market economy. The market is not free; it is shaped and moulded by a coalition of significant stakeholders - government, banks, managers, employees, unions, local communities. Industry is owned much less by the public and more by banks and other industrial firms, often networked in alliances. This is a much 'slower' system than the liberal one, relying on 'patient' capital for long-term investment, on stable labour forces with high skills accumulated within the firm, and on a great deal of collaboration in industrial and political networks. There is a strong sense of duty to community and of social ideals.
Examples: Siemens, Volkswagen, Nestle
3. EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS. The typical firm here is small or medium, and may well be a family business or a closely held partnership. It is likely to be in a geographical district surrounded by other similar firms, which cooperate by linking their specialisms into networks, such as the textile firms of Emilia Romagna or the design-based consumer goods firms of West Jutland. Their secret lies in the reduction of costs and the flexibility of market response possible when high levels of trust are achieved. This form preserves the virtues of craftsmanship and design by cooperating in access to market channels.
Examples: Grundfos A/S, Denmark (pumps), Filatura di Pollone SPA, Italy (textiles)
4. JAPANESE KEIRETSU. The large industrial groups of Japan may no longer command the headlines, but Japan's economy is still four times larger than that of China, and the second largest in the world; its leading organisations are formidable industrial machines. The keiretsu are combinations of firms linked horizontally and vertically across sectors and into supply chains, and bonded together by elaborate cooperation, especially with technology, capital, and information. They live by the distinct belief that they exist primarily to keep their people employed, and through the agonies of their long recession, it is a belief they have largely kept to. They have a formidable capacity for organising complex and large-scale operations in global markets, and have deep reserves of managerial talent.
Examples: Toyota, Hitachi, Mitsubishi
5. KOREAN CHAEBOL. This is a child of the Korean formula for economic development, in which an alliance of government and key entrepreneurial families drove the Korean economy from nothing to one of the world's best in the 30 years from 1960. These grew as enormous family businesses, but in doing so also built strength in professional management. Their recent reshaping has seen many of the families move to one side and the professionals take over. The clarity of vision and the size of risk, possible with strong leadership, makes them capable of world leadership in some industries. They are, however, more 'vertical' and less 'horizontal' than Japanese firms in their structuring. They are described as having disciplined and militaristic corporate cultures.
Examples: Samsung, LG, Posco
6. CHINESE PRIVATE COMPANY. In 1980, private business was illegal in China: 25 years later it accounts for about two-thirds of the economy. This sector is the organisational base for the 'workshop of the world'. Inevitably, various types of firm are in this category: local entrepreneurial firms; overseas Chinese investments and alliances; and components of state-owned enterprises forced into the competitive marketplace. In most cases, there is a single dominant individual setting strategy and controlling operations. The normal organisational scale is small or medium, but the disadvantages of small scale are balanced by the advantages of networking. This 'clan' or 'network' capitalism puts together small firms into chains of component supply and assembly, and encourages the specialisation that yields their efficiency and price competitiveness.
Examples: D'Long Strategic Investments (financing), Shanghai Xingaochao Group (woodboard)
THE NINE GLOBAL COMPANIES IBM Sony Royal Philips Electronics Nokia Intel Canon Coca-Cola Flextronics Intl LVMH
Most people would regard Wal-Mart and Nike as global companies, but according to research by Alan Rugman and Alain Verbeke (see below), they are not. In fact, only nine companies out of 500 proved to be truly global when measured against the extent to which they had penetrated all three of the major markets in the world: North America, the EU and Asia. A company needs to have at least 20% of its sales in each of the three markets: Coca-Cola, for instance, qualified eminently with 38.4% in North America, 22.4% in Europe and 24.9% in Asia.
Of the 380 multinational enterprises (MNEs) for which geographic sales data was available, Rugman and Verbeke discovered that in 320 an average of 80.3% of their total sales was in their home region of the triad. They concluded from this that the great majority of the world's MNEs are regionally based in terms of breadth and depth of market coverage.
They also made an interesting observation with regard to 'back-end' globalisation: "Where globalisation does occur, it is only at the back-end of the value chain. Some of the world's largest MNEs master the art of connecting globally dispersed inputs. These can be in the form of financial capital, human capital, R&D knowledge or components, and can be integrated to better serve home region clients. Hence, it appears possible to be global at the back-end of the value chain, and much can undoubtedly be learned from observing and imitating the routines of global leaders in this portion of the value chain."
The nine truly global companies are in different sectors, but a strong common theme runs through the strategies of seven of them: that is, the application of scientific technical knowledge in the marketplace. The other two (Coca-Cola and LVMH) are masters of the use of branding in consumer markets. In addition, they have all been successful at offering products whose appeal reaches across cultural and national boundaries, either by products people do not want to be without, or by sheer availability, or by status-based allure.
But what has made them truly world players as organisations? There are four demands made on any organisation facing severe competition:
1. It needs to be managed and controlled in such a way as to carry no slack, and to extract the absolute maximum out of its resources. One measure of this is profit per employee, but there are many others. This is a test of managerial quality to control and inspire.
2. It needs to be at the cutting edge of innovation in its field; for instance, Nokia or Flextronics.
3. It needs to be able to reshape itself as an organisation - and sometimes quite radically - to keep up with its environment. The arrival of a British CEO at Sony is an example of this ability.
4. It needs to have a solid relationship with its customer base and nothing represents that more clearly than the strength of the brand.
THE ONES THAT DIDN'T MAKE IT McDonald's Nike Wal-Mart Carrefour Volkswagen Toyota Honda
Perhaps the companies that did not make it are the most interesting cases, as many would generally be regarded as global. Nike, for instance, regarded by Krugman and Verbeke as one of the 'special cases', has more than half its sales in the US (52.1%). The bi-regional MNEs include giants such as Unilever and McDonald's (in both cases they have less than 20% of their sales in Asia). There are 11 host region MNEs (which have a majority of their sales in a host market), including DaimlerChrysler, Honda and Manpower. The first two have their biggest markets in the US, and the third's biggest market is in Europe.
Sources: Regional and Global Strategies of Multinational Enterprises, by Alan M Rugman and Alain Verbeke, Journal of International Business Studies 35:1, 2004: 3-18
The Regional Multinationals: MNEs and Global Strategic Management by Alan M Rugman, Cambridge University Press, 2005
For information on Alan Rugman's research, go to: www.kelley.indiana.edu/rugman/
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SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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