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000-M63 exam Dumps Source : IBM Lotus Forms Technical Sales Mastery(R) Test v2
Test Code : 000-M63
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Many IT departments have implemented software solutions that go past fundamental transaction and analytical processing. These packages contain models that describe certain records behaviors, and these fashions devour existing information to peer if these patterns of statistics habits exist. in that case, operational programs can use this tips to make selections. a superb example of here is fraud detection. IT facts engineers use analytics on historical information to verify when fraud befell, code this right into a mannequin, and installation the model as a carrier. Then, any operational equipment can invoke the model, flow it present facts and acquire a model “ranking” that represents the likelihood that a transaction could be fraudulent.
The universal term for these new applications is synthetic intelligence (AI). They consist of a mixture of search, optimization and analytics algorithms, statistical analysis concepts and template methods for ingesting statistics, executing these ideas and making the results available as features called models. The subset of AI that deals with mannequin introduction and implementation is from time to time known as computing device researching (ML).computer discovering and synthetic Intelligence
IT departments put into effect ML and AI options within the broader context of their information and processing footprint. this is constantly depicted as the following four-layer hierarchy.
Layer 1: The information.
this accretion incorporates the information allotted throughout the business. It contains mainframe and allotted information akin to product and income databases, transactional statistics and analytical information in the data warehouse and any massive information applications. It also may additionally encompass consumer, vendor and organisation statistics, perhaps at far off sites, and even extends to public facts such as twitter, information feeds and survey outcomes. one other possible source of information is server efficiency logs that include resource usage background.
notice that these statistics exist across different hardware systems together with on-premises and cloud-primarily based. As such, quite a few facts points can exist in distinctive types and codecs (e.g. text, ASCII, EBCDIC, UTF-eight, XML, images, audio clips, and so on.). in addition, at this level will exist hardware and application that manage the information, together with excessive-pace records loaders, records purge and archive procedures, put up-and-subscribe processes for information replication, in addition to these for average backup and recuperation and catastrophe healing planning.
Layer 2: The Analytics Engines.
during this layer exist a mixture of hardware and utility that executes business analytics against the data layer. There are several normal gamers during this area. They consist of:
just as the statistics layer happens throughout numerous hardware systems and distributed sites, so will the analytics engines layer. The predominant function of this accretion is to deliver an optimized facts access layer towards the underlying facts as a carrier for AI and operational applications.
Layer three: The laptop studying Platform.
IT implements laptop discovering software during this layer. It accesses the information through one or greater of the analytics engines. it is in this layer that IBM gives you its newest offering, Watson laptop gaining knowledge of for z/OS (WMLz). WMLz provides a simple computing device getting to know workflow including right here steps:
statistics scientists recognize that one of the vital superior advantages of machine learning is to make use of the outcomes in operational methods; for example, having an ML mannequin analyze fiscal statistics to assess the probability of fraud. This capability that you're going to achieve ideal efficiency in the event you set up ML within the hardware ambiance the place transaction processing occurs. for a lot of big businesses this capacity the IBM zServer environment.
Layer four: machine discovering options.
Now that they have the computer learning platform purchasable as ML capabilities, they can create mixed AI/ML options that invoke these functions. IBM has several competent-made solutions for this accretion, including here:
Let’s take a deeper dive into how Watson computer getting to know on Z (WMLz) works and what capabilities it could actually provide.
Key performance warning signs (KPIs). WMLz doesn't inherently comprehend what performance factors are important to you. although, as soon as these KPIs are defined (either by a consumer or through imposing one of the most laptop gaining knowledge of options stated above), WMLz can analyze KPI records to seek correlations. for instance, when one KPI (say, I/O towards a important database) goes up, one other KPI (say CPU utilization) might also go up as smartly. As an additional instance, a few KPIs could be behaviorally identical, so WMLz can cluster them as a gaggle and perform additional analysis across organizations. WMLz can also check KPI baseline behaviors in line with time-of-day, time zone of transactions or seasonal endeavor.
Anomaly Detection. as soon as correlations are found out, WMLz can appear opposite effects and record them as anomalies. In their I/O illustration above, an anomaly would be reported if I/O in opposition t a critical database accelerated however CPU usage lowered.
pattern consciousness. As with many desktop getting to know engines, WMLz will look for patterns among KPIs and statistics identifiers. as an instance, CPU may additionally boost when processing definite classes of transactions.
KPI prediction. An extension of simple KPI processing, WMLz can use the past behaviors of companies of KPIs to predict the long run. believe their I/O illustration once once again. The product may additionally detect that definite transactions turn into extra numerous all the way through a specific time period, and these transactions consume greatly extra CPU cycles. The product might also then predict future CPU spikes.
Batch workload evaluation. Many IT stores have a huge contingent of batch processing it is tightly scheduled and contains job and resource dependencies. Some jobs ought to wait for their predecessors to complete, some use big shared substances (akin to tape drives or strong point hardware) and a few are so useful resource-intensive that then can't be performed on the equal time. WMLz can analyze the workload statistics, including aid usage, and supply suggestions for balancing resources or tuning elapsed times.
MLC can charge pattern analysis and value discount. Some IBM software license fees are billed monthly, and the license amount may additionally depend upon optimum CPU utilization right through height intervals. WMLz can analyze CPU usage throughout time, seek patterns and make predictions and recommendations for application license charge reduction.Watson laptop discovering for z/OS — points
IBM’s Watson desktop getting to know for z/OS allows IT its choice of building environments to boost fashions including IBM SPSS Modeler. These environments help statistics scientists by using notebooks, facts visualization tools and wizards to speed the construction manner. several short-delivery application templates are also included within the toolset for common company necessities akin to fraud detection, load approval and IT operational analytics. The latest version of WMLz (version 2.1.0) contains support for Ubuntu Linux on Z, java APIs, simplified Python equipment management and several different facets.
fascinated readers should still reference the links below for greater certain technical assistance.
# # #
See all articles by means of Lockwood LyonREFERENCES
laptop researching and synthetic Intelligencehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_learning
records and AI on IBM Zhttps://www.ibm.com/analytics/z-analytics
the use of Anaconda with Spark — Anaconda 2.0 documentationhttps://doctors.anaconda.com/anaconda-scale/spark/
Watson computer studying - Overviewhttps://www.ibm.com/cloud/computer-learning
Watson laptop gaining knowledge of - Resourceshttps://www.ibm.com/cloud/laptop-researching/substances
IBM closing week launched a new version of net content supervisor, an IBM i-supported server answer designed to permit non-technical clients to create, publish, and replace content for websites and portals, with out the help of IT specialists. IBM says the edition 7 release of the application (which formerly went by the name Lotus web content material supervisor) is simpler to use and creates extra compelling websites than before.
net content manager is designed to aid with all facets of website introduction and management, including each static and dynamic websites. For authors, it offers templates for getting basic web sites, together with wikis and blogs, up and operating within minutes. clients access these tools from an internet browser, simplifying working towards. No HTML abilities is required to create net pages when they use the EditLive! prosperous-textual content editor that IBM partnered with Ephox to carry to the product with version 6.1, which became launched two years in the past.
The application offers clients the ability to create and centrally manipulate assorted connected websites through the use of website libraries. here's an competencies for global groups that should have versions of internet sites in distinct languages. The utility also comprises a customizable workflow mannequin for managing the content material lifecycle; supports net-primarily based allotted Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) and WebDAV-supported construction equipment like Dreamweaver; and uses cascading trend sheets (CSS). further features, like help for web site personalization, search capabilities, and integration with current business content management (ECM) repositories comparable to IBM’s FileNet, make the utility significant in an commercial enterprise environment.
With version 7, IBM has made several alterations designed to foster easier and faster web site introduction, together with user interface improvements, new website templates, and authoring kinds. IBM has brought support for tagging and rankings, in order to provide web sites extra of an interactive facebook-like aptitude. The application for creating blogs and wikis has also been stronger, IBM says.
IBM additionally more desirable net content management’s website analytics, which are used for inspecting the conduct of site company. IBM says the enhancements will assist clients optimize their websites, and get probably the most out of their sales campaigns with the aid of enhancing conversion fees.
version 7 (the application was as soon as referred to as place of work net content management) additionally comprises assist for virtualization, so they can enable valued clientele to run net content material supervisor by itself dedicated server instance.
web content material supervisor runs alongside WebSphere application Server. IBM supports the application on more than a few servers, together with IBM i, Unix, home windows, and Linux. The application comes with the Cloudscape database, however optionally can aid a relational database, together with DB2/four hundred, DB2 LUW, DB2 for z/OS, SQL Server, and the Oracle database.
For more suggestions, see IBM united states application Announcement 211-094.
Lotus internet content material tool gets easy-to-Use HTML Editor
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WebSphere Portal, Lotus Connections consist of new net 2.0-trend web page builder and portal web page template advent capabilities
IBM has unveiled new models of its portal and net content management utility apps designed to provide government corporations the potential to bring more efficient services to residents.
IBM WebSphere Portal version 6.1.5 software, contains new net 2.0-style page builder and portal page template introduction capabilities that make it less demanding for non-technical individuals to control the net portal, IBM officers referred to.
IBM additionally announced a few municipalities and executive companies which have deployed the WebSphere Portal and Lotus web content material administration software to securely present essential suggestions and talk both internally and externally using a number of web 2.0 equipment.
IBM Lotus Connections social capabilities for WebSphere Portal has been superior to permit builders to bring standard social networking elements into the portal internet event. IBM has improved custom web site analytics that will also be used with third party software. designated charts, graphs and facts can show a lot of granular facts, similar to how regularly a page or selected characteristic is accessed. This category of suggestions can aid net web page developers at all times optimize their clients’ portal experiences.
IBM Lotus net content administration, edition 6.1.5 utility will also be used to create, hold and deliver business content across intranet, extranet, information superhighway, and portal websites. The new edition contains templates that permit users greater without delay embed capabilities, such as blogs and wikis, into a portal. better integration with IBM FileNet, IBM content manager, and IBM Lotus Quickr utility gives clients less demanding and greater relaxed access to a wider diversity of content material sources. the brand new internet content material Integrator feature enables for content material consumption from any content material repository and third-birthday party sites capable of producing feeds, officers talked about.
IBM has also created different new industry toolboxes that assist organizations tailor their portals to serve consumers in other industries, together with banking, assurance, and health care.
a number of government businesses are the use of IBM’s portal and internet content material administration software together with the metropolis of Helsinki (Finland), l. a. County, the USANuclear Regulatory commission, and Finnish Defence Forces, officers stated.
l. a. County has standardized the WebSphere Portal and Lotus web content administration application for its external citizen web page, and for the branch of health citizen and company portal. The county's solution was recently diagnosed through the country wide affiliation of Counties for reinforcing access to and birth of county assistance and capabilities to its parts.
Helsinki uses WebSphere Portal and Lotus web content material management to give citizens with a portal that allows them to speak and trade counsel, entry the city’s fitness carrier, and reserve appointments.
The portal journey is enhanced via IBM method Server and business carrier Bus, which provides advanced e-services for the residents of Helsinki and surrounding cities, IBM officers said.
Rutrell Yasin is is a contract know-how author for GCN.
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This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine and is brought to you by InfoQ & IEEE Computer Society.
Embedded analytics and statistics for big data have emerged as an important topic across industries. As the volumes of data have increased, software engineers are called to support data analysis and applying some kind of statistics to them. This article provides an overview of tools and libraries for embedded data analytics and statistics, both stand-alone software packages and programming languages with statistical capabilities. I look forward to hearing from both readers and prospective column authors about this column and the technologies you want to know more about. —Christof Ebert
Big data has emerged as a key concept both in the information technology and the embedded technology worlds.1 Such software systems are characterized by a multitude of heterogeneous connected software applications, middleware, and components such as sensors. The growing usage of cloud infrastructure makes available a wealth of data resources; smart grids, intelligent vehicle technology, and medicine are recent examples of such interconnected data sources. We’re producing approximately 1,200 exabytes of data annually, and that figure is only growing.2,3 Such a massive amount of unstructured data presents enormous and mounting challenges for business and IT executives.
Big data is defined by four dimensions: volume, source complexity, production rate, and potential number of users. The data needs to be organized to transform the countless bits and bytes into actionable information—the sheer abundance of data won’t be helpful unless they have ways to make sense out of it. Traditionally, programmers wrote code and statisticians did statistics. Programmers typically used a general-purpose programming language, whereas statisticians plied their trade using specialized programs such as IBM’s SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Statisticians pored over national statistics or market research usually only available to select groups of people, whereas programmers handled large amounts of data in databases or log files. Big data’s availability from the cloud to virtually everybody changed all that.
(Click on the image to enlarge it)
As the volumes and types of data have increased, software engineers are called more and more often to perform different statistical analyses with them. Software engineers are active in gathering and analyzing data on an unprecedented scale to make it useful and grow new business models.1 As an example, consider proactive maintenance. They can continuously monitor machines, networks, and processes to immediately detect irregularities and failures, allowing us to correct them before damage occurs or the system comes to a standstill. This reduces maintenance costs in both material cost as well as human intervention. Often, processing and making sense of data is just part of a bigger project or is embedded in some software, configuration, or hardware optimization problem. Luckily, the community has responded to this need by creating a set of tools that bring some of statisticians’ magic to programmers—in fact, these are often more powerful than traditional statistics tools because they can handle volumes that are scales of magnitudes larger than old statistical samples.Technologies for Embedded Analytics and Statistics
There’s a wealth of software available for performing statistical analysis; Table 1 shows the most popular ones. They differ in the statistical sophistication required from their users, ease of use, and whether they’re primarily stand-alone software packages or programming languages with statistical capabilities.
With the exception of D3, all entries in the table provide facilities for carrying out advanced statistics, such as multivariate and time-series analysis, either by themselves or via libraries. Each one, though, has a particular focus that will better suit working on a given target problem. Python’s Pandas package, for instance, has good support for time-series analysis because part of it was written to cater to such analysis regarding financial data.The Python Statistics Ecosystem
The most popular general-purpose programming language for doing statistics today is Python. It’s always been a favorite for scientific computation, and several excellent Python tools are available for doing even complex statistical tasks. The fundamental scientific library in Python is NumPy. Its main addition to Python is a homogeneous, multidimensional array that offers a host of methods for manipulating data. It can integrate with C/C++ and Fortran and comes with several functions for performing advanced mathematics and statistics. Internally, it primarily uses its own data structures, implemented in native code, so that matrix calculations in NumPy are much faster than equivalent calculations in Python. SciPy, which builds on top of NumPy, offers a number of higher-level mathematical and statistical functions. SciPy deals again with NumPy’s arrays; these are fine for doing mathematics but a bit cumbersome for handling heterogeneous data with possibly missing values. Pandas solves that problem by offering a flexible data structure that allows easy indexing, slicing, and even merging and joining (similar to joins between SQL tables). One attractive setup involves using iPython, an interactive Python shell with commandline completion, nice history facilities, and many other features that are particularly useful when manipulating data. Matplotlib can then visualize the results.
The World Bank is a trove of information, and it makes a lot of its data available over the Web. For more sophisticated analysis, the public can download data from the World Bank’s Data Catalog or access it through an API. The most popular dataset is the World Development Indicators (WDI). WDI contains, according to the World Bank, “the most current and accurate global development data available, and includes national, regional and global estimates.” WDI comes in two downloadable forms: Microsoft Excel and commaseparated values (CSV) files. (Because Microsoft Excel files aren’t suitable for programmatic analysis, they deal with the CSV files here.)
Figure 1. A program for calculating World Development Indicators correlations using Python. The program collects the top 30 most measured indicators, calculates the Spearman pairwise correlations, and shows the results graphically.
The WDI CSV bundle is a 42.5-Mbyte zipped archive. After downloading and unzipping it, you’ll see that the main file is called WDI_Data.csv. A good way to get an overview of the file contents is to examine it interactively. Because we’ll be using Python, the best way to interact with the tools that we’ll use is by launching a session of iPython, and then loading the data:
In : import pandas as pd
In : data = pd.read_csv(“WDI_Data.csv”)
The result, in data, is a DataFrame containing the data. Think of a DataFrame as a two-dimensional array with some extra features that allow for easy manipulation. In a DataFrame, data is organized in columns and an index (corresponding to the rows). If they enter
In : data.columns
we’ll get an output that shows the names of the columns: the country name, the code for that country, an indicator name, and an indicator code. These are followed by columns for each year from 1960 to 2012. Similarly, if they enter
In : data.index
we’ll see that the data contains 317,094 rows. Each row corresponds to the values of one particular indicator for one country for the years 1960 to 2012; years without values in a row indicate no measurement in that year for that indicator in that country. Let’s see first, how many indicators there are
In : len(data[‘Indicator Name’].unique())Out: 1289
and second, how many countries there are
In : len(data[‘Country Name’].unique())Out: 246
Now they have a problem to solve: Are the indicators independent among themselves, or are some of them related to others?
Because they measure indicators by year and by country, they must more precisely define the problem by de-ciding which parameters to retain as constant. In general, they get the best statistical results as their samples increase. It makes sense then to rephrase the problem: For the year in which they have most measurements, are the most measured indicators independent among themselves, or as some of them related to others? By “most measured indicators,” they mean those that have been measured in more countries. It turns out that they can find the answer to the question in about 50 LOC. Figure 1 contains the full program.
Lines 1–10 are imports of the libraries that we’ll be using. Line 11 reads the data. In line 13, they give the number of most measured indicators that they would like to examine. In line 15, they find the zero-based position of the first column with yearly measurements. After that, we’re able in line 17 to find the column with the most measurements (the year 2005). They then remove all data for which measurements aren’t available. In lines 20–26, they get the most measured indicators.
The actual statistical calculations start from line 28, where they prepare a table of ones to hold the result of the correlation values between each pair of indicators. In the loop that follows, they calculate each pairwise correlation and store it in the table they prepared. Finally, in lines 41–52, they display the results on screen and save them to a PDF file (see Figure 2). They take care to reverse the vertical order of the correlation matrix so that the most important indicator comes on the top of the matrix (lines 41 and 49).
The diagonal has perfect correlation—as it should, because we’re examining the same indicators. In addition to that, they do see that there are indicators that correlate with each other—some positively, even strongly so, and some negatively or very negatively.
Figure 2. World Development Indicators correlations matrix with Python created from the program in Figure 1.More Advanced Components in the Python Ecosystem
As Python has attracted interest from the research community, several specialized tools have emerged. Among them, Scikit-learn builds on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib and offers a comprehensive machine-learning toolkit. For very big datasets that follow a hierarchical schema, Python offers PyTables, which are built on top of the HDF5 library. This is a hot topic, and DARPA awarded US$3 million in 2013 to Continuum Analytics as part of the XDATA program to develop further Python data analytics tools. You can expect the ecosystem to keep evolving steadily over the next few years.The R Project for Statistical Computing
R is a language for doing statistics. You can think of Python bringing statistics to programmers and R bringing statisticians to programming. It’s a language centered on the efficient manipulation of objects representing statistical datasets. These objects are typically vectors, lists, and data frames that represent datasets organized in rows and columns. R has the usual control flow constructs and even uses ideas from object-oriented programming (although its implementation of object orientation differs considerably from the concepts they find in more traditional object-oriented languages). R excels in the variety of statistical libraries it offers. It’s unlikely that a statistical test or method isn’t already implemented in an R library (whereas in Python, you might find that you have to roll out your own implementation). To get an idea of what it looks like, Figure 3 shows the same program as Figure 1 and adopts the same logic, but using R instead of Python. Figure 4 shows the results.
Figure 3. A program similar to that in Figure 1 that calculates World Development Indicators correlations using R.Combining, Federating, and Integrating Embedded Analytics Technologies
The examples they give in this article are typical of the way different applications can be merged to handle big data. Data flows from the source (in some raw format) to a format acceptable to their statistical package. The package must have some means of manipulating and querying data so that they can get the data subsets that they want to examine. These are subject to statistical analysis. The results of the statistical analysis can be rendered in textual form or as a figure. They can perform this process on a local computer or via the Web (in which case data crunching and processing is performed by a server, and parameters, results, and figures go through a Web browser). This is a powerful concept, because a host of different settings, from an ERP framework to car diagnostic software, can export their data in simple formats like CSV—in fact, they would see a warning sign whenever they encounter a piece of software that doesn’t allow exporting to anything but closed and proprietary data formats.
To analyze your data in any way you will, you must first have access to it. So you should by all means select technologies that facilitate the exchange of data, either by simple export mechanisms or via suitable calls, for instance through a REST (representational state transfer) API.
Data is getting bigger all the time, so you must investigate whether the tool you’re considering will be able to handle your data. It’s not necessary for you to be able to process all the data in main memory. For instance, R has the big memory library, which lets us handle huge datasets by using shared memory and memory-mapped files. Also, make sure that the software package can handle not only big input but also big data structures: if table sizes are limited to 32-bit integers, for instance, you won’t be able to handle tables with 5 million entries.
In the examples above, the alert reader will have noticed that we’ve spent more code manipulating the data to bring it to the appropriate format for statistical analysis than on the statistical analysis per se, which was provided anyway by functions already written for us. Their examples were somewhat trite, so these ratios of preprocessing to actual processing might have been especially top-heavy, but the examples highlight the fact that data manipulation is usually as important (and demanding) as the analysis. In effect, real proficiency in R and NumPy/SciPy doesn’t come from mastery of statistics but from knowing how to work efficiently with the data structures they offer. And this is essentially work for programmers, not statisticians. Further reading is available elsewhere.4-7
Figure 4. World Development Indicators correlations matrix with R.References
1C. Ebert and R. Dumke, Software Measurement, Springer, 2007.2K. Michael and K.W. Miller, eds., Computer, vol. 46, no. 6, 2013.3T. Menzies and T. Zimmermann, eds., IEEE Software, vol. 30, no. 4, 2013.About the Authors
Panos Louridas is a consultant with the Greek Research and Technology Network and a researcher at the Athens University of Economics and Business. Contact him at email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Christof Ebert is managing director at Vector Consulting Services. He’s a senior member of IEEE and is the editor of the Software Technology department of IEEE Software. Contact him at email@example.com.
This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine. IEEE Software's mission is to build the community of leading and future software practitioners. The magazine delivers reliable, useful, leading-edge software development information to keep engineers and managers abreast of rapid technology change.
In theory, software version numbers should be about as scintillating as as serial numbers, house numbers, channel numbers, or Vehicle Identification Numbers. You don’t get much more mundane than the practice of keeping track of a software package’s major and minor editions by assigning decimal numbers to them.
Except…version numbers long ago stopped being version numbers. Software companies started using them as marketing weapons. They tried varying methods of assigning identities to applications, such as naming them after years. They decided that numbers were too dry and substituted letters and words that were meant to be more evocative. I’m not embarrassed to admit I find ’em interesting enough to write this article.
I cheerfully admit to using the broadest possible definition of version number in this story–hey, I’m going to discuss names that don’t involve numbers at all. I know that developers still use more formal, traditional software versioning naming conventions behind the scenes. (Windows Vista, for instance, is officially version 6.0 of Windows; Technologizer is on version 20593, but don’t ask me to explain why.)
For no particular reason, I’m going to write this as a FAQ. Even though there’s an awful lot about this topic which I just don’t know…When did version numbers come into use?
I wish I could tell you–actually, I’m hoping that someone reading this will be able to. I do know that the FORTRAN II programming language came along in 1958, so software developers having been using numbers to keep track of software versions for more than half a century. By the early 1970s, Unix’s developers were keeping track of its evolution using “edition” numbers–second edition, third edition, and so on–which referred to the revisions to the Unix manual.
I’m not sure if there was a period when version numbers weren’t widely used for personal computer software, but if so, it wasn’t long. When I got into computers in 1978, standard version numbers and point releases (such as Radio Shack’s famously unusable TRS-DOS 2.1) were already part of the culture.What’s the highest version number ever?
I’m sure that someone will top this within moments of the time I click “Publish” to push this story onto the site, but the highest version number I know of belongs to Broderbund’s The Print Shop 23, a product which (A) has been around for 27 years; (B) has received almost-yearly updates; and (C) uses a traditional version number instead of a year or other identifier.
The modern version of the Broderbund company seems to specialize in elder-statesman software: It also publishes PrintMaster Platinum 18, Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing 20, and Calendar Creator 12. It also offers something called ClickArt 1.2 Million, but in that case I’m pretty sure that the number doesn’t refer to the version.
Honorable runner-up to The Print Shop for highest version number: the legendary text editor Emacs, which has reached version 22.3.What’s the greatest version number ever?
That’s easy–at least if you ask me. It’s 5.1. Which is, of course, the version number of WordPerfect 5.1–a DOS word processor so famous, respected, and durable that it’s identifiable by its version number alone two decades after it first appeared…and people still want to use it. I don’t know of a single person who remembers it who considers it to have anything but extremely positive connotations. (WordPerfect acknowledged it was a magical number by releasing a Windows version of WordPerfect 5.1, too–even though it doesn’t make a whole lot of sense to apply a point-release version number from a product for one platform to a version for another.)
Runner up for best version number: 3.11. As in 1993’s Windows for Workgroups 3,11, one of the best versions of any operating system ever released. (I’m convinced that it’s the supposedly minor versions of Windows that are the most significant–any edition with anything after the decimal point shows that it benefited from bug fixes.) The 3.11 in WfW 3.11 must be the most famous two-decimal-place version number ever–and yes, I miss the era when Microsoft (or any software company) would put mighty marketing muscle behind version 3.11 of anything .Did Windows 95 start the idea of using years instead of version numbers?
Nope–it’s a far older conceit than that. The earliest example I’m aware of is Fortran 66–no relation that I know of to Sergio Mendes and Brasil 66–an update to what was even then a venerable programming language. One of the first operating systems I ever used was an alternative TRS-80 OS called NewDOS/80. Adobe released Illustrator 88. (There was a WordStar 2000, but it probably doesn’t count–it was released in 1985, and presumably intended to sound futuristic.)
Still, Windows 95 remains the most famous product with a year in its name, and it started a trend which continues to this day, But it fell victim to multiple delays that left it being released on August 24th, 1995, well over halfway through the year. With the exception of tax packages–whose version names refer to the tax year in question–I can’t imagine anyone releasing a product today named after a year that’s already winding down. In fact, I’m surprised that Microsoft didn’t rename the OS as Windows 96 before shipping it.
For obvious reasons, the industry seems to have settled on using years only for products that are updated annually or nearly so. I acknowledge that year-based names helpfully tell you roughly when a product was released–but they still make me think of Airport 1975.
(Illustrator 88 box borrowed from Publicious.)What was with the name Windows XP?
Back in 2001, Microsoft said the XP stood for “Experience,” and that it symbolized “the rich and extended user experiences Windows and Office can offer by embracing Web services that span a broad range of devices.” Pretty awe-inspiring! I’m not privy to the discussions that led to the moniker, but I suspect that the company thought that both traditional version numbers and years felt dry and stale. Maybe it was motivated by some of the same thinking that led Intel to replace a processor called the 80486 with one known as the Pentium.
The XP name proved only moderately influential. In 2002, Macromedia released a product called Studio MX, which was replaced by a product with the belt-and-suspenders name Studio MX 2004. AMD released the Athlon XP CPU, which struck me as a naming faux pas at the time, since it suggested a link with Windows XP that didn’t exist sounded like AMD was saying the chip wasn’t a good fit for other OSes. And today, Adobe offers [a product which many people, including me, mistakenly believe is called] Creative Suite CS4 (the “CS” stands for “Creative Suite” and is therefore wholly unneccessary).
My only objection to names like Windows XP is that they don’t give you a clue about a product’s relation to its predecessors and descendants. In the last eleven years, Microsoft has released Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows XP, and Windows Vista, and is about to ship Windows 7. Thousands of years from now, technology historians are going to have trouble figuring out what was released when, and may even believe that Windows 98 was the ninety-first release following Windows 7.Speaking of Vista, what was up with that name?
As with Windows XP, Microsoft went for a version identifier that was meant to evoke an emotional response rather than keep track of its relationship to previous versions. The “Vista” in “Windows Vista” meant to convey that the OS was “Clear, Confident, Connected,” Microsoft explained.
Setting aside the question of whether Vista was clear, confident, and connected, the name is as far as Microsoft or anyone else has gotten from old-style version identifiers. It’s more Pepsi Jazz than Coke Zero, and I’m not so sure that its expansive-but-elusive quality wasn’t a minor contributing factor to Vista’s poor reputation.And Windows 7?
Well, in principle, giving a software product a version number that really is a version number isn’t a big decision–it’s just a statement of fact. But considering that Windows 7 is the first version of Windows with a straightforward version number since Windows NT 4.0 back in 1996, the moniker is a meaningful statement of some sort. I’m not sure if Microsoft has articulated publicly why it chose to drop the non-number naming convention it used for Windows XP and Vista, but the obvious explanation would be that it’s trying to position Win 7 as a low-key, high-value OS that delivers more than it promises–a sort of anti-Vista. The lucky connotations of the number 7 probably don’t hurt either.
Also, “Windows Vista II” wouldn’t have made anybody happy.Remind me again how Microsoft determined that Windows 7 is the seventh version of Windows? I can’t get the math to work.
According to Microsoft’s accounting, these have been the major versions of Windows:
Windows 1.0Windows 2.0Windows 3.0Windows 95, 98, SE, and Me–all of which count as Windows 4.0Windows 2000–which was Windows 5.0Windows Vista–which was Windows 6.0Windows 7.0That sounds pretty darn arbitrary–I mean, it doesn’t consider Windows XP to have been a major version of Windows.
Tell me about it. Did I mention that the official version number of Windows 7 is…Windows 6.1?
Enough about Windows already. Any thoughts about Apple’s OS X?
Its numbering is remarkably conservative, and I’m not sure why. OS X 10.0 (the successor to System 9, but based on NeXTStep) came out in 2001, and in the eight years since, the OS has only wriggled its way up to OS X 10.5. (Version 10.6 is due in September.) It’s true that Apple releases fairly frequent upgrades with healthy-but-not-overwhelming quantities of new features, but just about any other software company on the planet would have gotten to version 14 or so by now. It leaves me wondering what, if anything, would get Apple to roll over the version number to 11–and, if it did, whether it would call the product OS X 11.0 or OS XI 11.0.
Of course, most Mac fans refer to OS X iterations not by version numbers but by their cat-themed codenames–OS X 10.5 is Leopard, and OS X 10.6 will be Snow Leopard. Apple started making the codenames into official monikers for the shipping versions in 2002 with OS X 10.2, also known as Jaguar. It’s an interesting approach, but the company is running out of wild cats to name versions after. I’m not sure if it’ll ever release a Cougar (it may not like the alternative definition) or Lion (which may sound too much like Lyin’). But OS X Lynx still seems like a good possibility, and I’m personally rooting for OS X Ocelot.
OS X is also noteworthy for turning the version number into the very name of the product. I’m not sure if anyone’s done that before.Are there other examples of conservatism in version numbering?
Open-source projects, more often than not, are admirably restrained–maybe because they’re not under the same marketing pressures as commercial software. The Linux kernel has been around for nineteen years and has only reached version 220.127.116.11; the HandBrake video transcoder is at version 0.9.3 after more than six years.
On the other hand, I’m still confused by the way the same basic office suite is marketed both as StarOffice 9.0 and OpenOffice.org 3.1. And Google’s Chrome browser is an open-source project, but a mere five months after version 1.0 left beta, the company released a version 2.0 that other developers might have called a 1.1 or 1.5.Is there a funniest version number of all time?
Yes. Or at least a funniest numbering system. The one used by Donald Knuth’s TeX typesetting language. To quote Wikipedia:
Since version 3, TeX has used an idiosyncratic version numbering system, where updates have been indicated by adding an extra digit at the end of the decimal, so that the version number asymptotically approaches π. This is a reflection of the fact that TeX is now very stable, and only minor updates are anticipated. The current version of TeX is 3.1415926; it was last updated in March 2008. The design was frozen after version 3.0, and no new feature or fundamental change will be added, so all newer versions will contain only bug fixes. Even though Donald Knuth himself has suggested a few areas in which TeX could have been improved, he indicated that he firmly believes that having an unchanged system that will produce the same output now and in the future is more important than introducing new features. For this reason, he has stated that the “absolutely final change (to be made after my death)” will be to change the version number to π, at which point all remaining bugs will become features.
That’s nerd humor, I know, but version numbers are inherently nerdy, so it’s only appropriate.Is it bad luck for a product to reach release number 13?
I’m not sure if they know–has anyone ever been brave enough to sell a version 13 of anything? Relatively few applications have reached version 12 and therefore been faced with the question of what to call the next upgrade. Microsoft’s code-name for what became Office 2007 was Office 12; it didn’t startle anyone in the least when the code-name for the next version was Office 14.
Corel has come closer to honesty here than any other company I know–it called the thirteenth editions of CorelDraw and WordPerfect “X3,” for 10+3, then continued the approach with CorelDraw X4 and WordPerfect X4. May both products flourish long enough that Corel has to figure out what to call the 666th versions.Are any other version numbers bad luck?
Yes. The sluggish and buggy Windows Millennium Edition (aka Windows Me) turned out to be the least-loved version of Microsoft’s OS. (At least until Vista came along–although Vista has defenders and WinMe, as far as I know, doesn’t.) And Lotus SmartSuite Millennium Edition turned out to be the last real upgrade to a venerable product. (IBM still sells it as SmartSuite 9.8, but is too embarrassed to call it Millennium Edition.) On the other hand, Windows 2000 and Microsoft Office 2000 didn’t seem to be jinxed. Lesson: The whole idea of the millennium being exciting got old quick–and the cuter the version number, the more dangerous.Do version numbers lie?
Sure–or they’ve been known to stretch the truth, at least. For instance, back in 1993, Microsoft Word for Windows made a great leap forward from version 2.0 to 6.0–which conveniently put it at numeric parity with archrival WordPerfect 6.0. In 2002, Netscape went directly from 4.8 from 6.0–coincidentally matching archrival Internet Explorer 6.0. Digital Reaearch’s DOS clone DR-DOS premiered with version 3.41 (making it sound more advanced than MS-DOS 3.3) and skipped 4.0 because MS-DOS 4.0 was a flop.
In the hardware arena, Psion followed up its popular Series 3 PDA with the Series 5 palmtop–Psion was worried that Asian cultures consider the number 4 to be unlucky.Will version numbers ever go away?
Not in terms of their use by software developers; it’s simply mandatory that programmers keep track of each version of an application, and there’s no rational way to do it except to assign each one a number. But as traditional software gives way to Web-based services that roll out new features continuously rather than in occasional outbursts, version numbers just aren’t what they used to be. I have no idea what to call the current version of Gmail, for instance.
So I’m guessing that version numbers will eventually go the way of dot-matrix printers–they’re too useful to face true extinction, but most of us will sort of forget they still exist. I’d love to be proven wrong, though. I may not be around in 2086, but I’d like to think that Broderbund will be–and that it’ll be releasing The Print Shop 100…126 Comments Read more: Nostalgia
But Jobs' keynote, which was peppered with callouts to smartphone heavyweights BlackBerry, Nokia and Palm, may have been a touch premature.
Venturing into the mobile phone market is new ground for Jobs and Co., and though mobile experts and device users alike agree that the iPhone is one hot-looking phone, it is not yet equipped with the guts to get it through the enterprise door. Nevertheless, some experts admit that a few may sneak their way into the corporate office.
At the same time, iPhone may be too much for the typical consumer. In order to be successful, experts say, the iPhone has to shake its identity crisis and aim at either consumers or mobile professionals. It's not going to survive trying to reign in both markets.
There's no arguing that last year was the year for slick new devices to break through enterprise walls. BlackBerry had its Pearl, Motorola had the Q, Nokia had the E60, Samsung came through late in the year with the BlackJack, and Cingular hit the ground running with the 8525. But the iPhone, with its touch-screen and music player, isn't quite at that level -- yet. Especially with a price tag that reaches up to $600.
iPhone uses Cingular's EDGE network and Wi-Fi for Internet connectivity, and supports POP and IMAP email services. It can display rich HTML email and receive Yahoo! Email with full push functionality. According to the Radicati Group, a technology research firm, that may not be enough connectivity to captivate corporate users.
"The messaging and Internet connectivity features of the iPhone, along with its price tag, seem to position the device more appropriately in the enterprise market," according to Radicati. "However, they believe that in its current form, the iPhone will fail to meet the needs of most enterprises."
In its present form, iPhone lacks wireless push email support for Microsoft Exchange and IMB Lotus Domino, which is a key requirement for companies accustomed to real-time email, contact and calendar synchronization.
"Seems to me that the price tag and lack of 3G are a problem when you compare it with the low-cost smartphones like BlackJack, 8525, etc.," said Kathryn Weldon, analyst with Current Analysis.
Weldon is quick to note, however, that BlackBerry maker Research In Motion Ltd.'s stock dropped once the iPhone was announced, indicating that a good portion of the world sees Apple as a worthy foe in the smartphone market.
"In the short term, I wouldn't expect all the executive types who buy BlackBerrys to go out and buy the iPhone in droves," Weldon said. "Considering it's still not clear what level of email synchronization, support for third-party mobile business process applications, or centralized configuration and management are available, it's still too early."
Avi Greengart, senior analyst with Current Analysis, put it more bluntly."At this time, there is absolutely no case for enterprise use of the iPhone," he said. "It won't view or edit Office docs. It doesn't support secure corporate email. It doesn't have a hard keyboard -- the error correction software it uses is neat and rather spectacular for casual messaging, but that's not the same as physical keys that provide tactile feedback when you press them. You can't add software to it to manage inventory, enter orders, or provide your physicians with drug information."
Still, Greengart admits the iPhone is pretty sweet when it comes to devices.
"The iPhone is an innovative, addictive, expensive closed system that does what it does extraordinarily well," he said. "But that's it."
Ultimately, it will be the folks using the iPhone who determine whether or not it will aid them in their day-to-day work lives. Jack Gold, president and founder of research and analysis firm J.Gold Associates, said there are a number of Apple and Mac faithful out there who could take iPhone to great heights.
"There's going to be a fringe factor," Gold said. "There's diehard 'I love Apple, I hate Microsoft' folks out there."
Apple's lack of establishment in the mobile phone market could, however, keep it on the outskirts until iPhone proves itself a viable competitor to the other sleek smartphones, Gold said.
"If they're going to bring something like this into the marketplace, they have to meet the expectations of the users," he said. "Apple is not a formed entity here, so they have to show me they can do it."In a recent Technology Flash, Gold wrote: "In the past, most high-end phones have been sold to business users who were willing to pay for a fancy phone with capabilities they wanted. But these users almost universally demand connectivity to corporate systems, especially push email and Outlook integration. How well the iPhone does at integrating to these systems remains to be tested. And although the iPhone will likely integrate and sync well with the MAC, very few businesses run on MACs; so if it doesn't do a good job with PCs, Apple has a big problem."
Tony Arroyo, senior distributed technology engineer at MetLife and a self-proclaimed device junkie, said the iPhone is "intriguing and downright gorgeous," adding that "it sounds like it's everything people wanted the Newton to be."
Arroyo said the iPhone could be seen as a viable business tool if Apple succeeds in a few key areas:
Arroyo said it is a "great thing" that the iPhone has an Intel CPU and runs MacOS X, but he noted that both price and the limited list of carriers -- at first, iPhone will use Cingular's network exclusively -- could be hindrances. Running GSM was a good decision because of its worldwide coverage, he said.
"I think Apple has a ways to go to break into the corporate side," Arroyo said. "They need to work on the services side piece." He later said that, with the expansive iPod-like music player in the iPhone, "liability could be an issue with users who have music – corporations don't want to be sued by the RIAA."
Greengart said that, over time, the iPhone could evolve and eventually some enterprise-class features might emerge.
"However, even then you may have a tough time convincing IT managers and corporate accounting to buy widescreen iPods for employee use," Greengart said, "so the more likely scenario is that employees purchase the devices on their own and then ask IT to enable mobile email on them, once that is possible. Of course, if Apple opens up the iPhone for corporate application development, then anything is possible."
Weldon also said that the iPhone may be able to fill a void in the market for converged consumer and business devices. She noted that most corporate device users still use a BlackBerry for mobile email, a separate phone, and an iPod for music. Merging all three into one device may hit a sweet spot for some.
"I'm not sure how many business execs or mobile professionals need this level of convergence, though, especially at a $600 price point," she said. "On the other hand, if they are shelling out corporate bucks for device and data plans for all three applications -- data, voice and music -- it would certainly cost them a lot more cumulatively."
In a recent report, the Radicati Group suggested that the iPhone, as a consumer device, is far too advanced and pricey, and enterprise users will lament its lack of basic wireless messaging and collaboration features.
"We expect the iPhone to experience initial strong demand among Apple aficionados and tech-savvy prosumers, but only moderate demand from the general public," Radicati said. "Sales growth will not mirror the success of the iPod but instead proceed at a more measured pace that reflects the device's cost and practicality."
Still, Radicati indicated that it doesn't believe iPhone will be Apple's last stab at the phone market. It expects that Apple will correct some of iPhone's shortcomings in future releases.
"There is no question that the iPhone is an impressive device," Radicati said. "However, Apple's constant innovation will force us to take a wait-and-see approach for new products in the iPhone family."
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ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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