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In trendy ever more linked world patrons have a lot greater expectations of the groups they deal with.
They need groups to take note their preferences and bring a personalised, moneymaking experience. What's greater they predict this all of the time now not just at the aspect of sale.
To help businesses deliver for his or her clients IBM is the usage of its Smarter Commerce international Summit in Florida to unveil ExperienceOne, an built-in portfolio of cloud-based and on premise choices to assemble marketing, income and service practices and help create deeper, more helpful consumer engagements.
IBM ExperienceOne draws on innovation from IBM analysis as well as greater than $three billion invested in biological construction and acquisitions. it's also developed on ultimate practices drawn from IBM's event of working with over 8,000 companies throughout the globe.
"Smarter Commerce is about assisting shoppers constantly reinvent themselves around the customer journey," says Craig Hayman, well-known supervisor, business Cloud options at IBM. "IBM ExperienceOne provides a relaxed and simplified portfolio -- together with innovation from more than 1,200 partners -- to aid valued clientele design and convey more effective client engagements. With cloud, on premise and hybrid alternate options, IBM ExperienceOne quickly scales to interact every customer in the moment whereas preserving their privacy".
New capabilities aid to improve figuring out of client relationships, maximize income through directing the right present to the appropriate customer, and make use of cell and social media to deliver superior consumer journey. Combining ExperienceOne with SoftLayer cloud infrastructure IBM is additionally in a position to offer consumer statistics, customer analytics and digital commerce as a service.
The enterprise is aiming to convey identical levels of customer perception to the B2B sector as neatly with the launch of new companion and employer engagement application via its Smarter Commerce initiative. This includes a Multi-enterprise Relationship management (MRM) platform for enhanced collaboration. IBM Sterling B2B functions Reporting and Analytics to video display transactions and help company spot traits and make advised selections. Plus other equipment present superior adherence to compliance requirements and quicker and greater efficient sharing of statistics.
"Now more than ever, the fate of any company is deeply intertwined with the success of its network of companions and suppliers everywhere," says John Mesberg, vp, B2B & Commerce solutions at IBM. "via orchestrating these complex engagements with brilliant precision and perception, businesses can create new gateways to change that allow corporations to deliver extremely good client experiences. With these days’s information, IBM basically transforms these dynamics with partners and clients to pressure quicker time to earnings throughout the prolonged price chain".
you could locate more about IBM ExperienceOne on the company's web site. there's also an infographic on how Smarter Commerce can deliver improved customer engagement below.
graphic credit: Sergey Nivens / Shutterstock
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In recent years, the adoption of Linux in the data center has progressed beyond infrastructure services such as e-mail and file, print, and Web serving. Today, Linux is widely used as a business application server and is moving deeper into the data center as a database and content server. Given a vibrant development community and innovative solution providers, Linux continues its advance toward becoming the enterprise-computing platform of choice.
The benefits of Linux to data center customers are well known: superior economics, no vendor lock-in, reliability, and increasing independent software vendor (ISV) and system vendor acceptance and support.
However, with success comes higher expectations. User requirements for Linux in the data center continue to escalate. IT professionals are always looking for more performance, manageability, and other features that they've come to expect from an enterprise operating system. However, the user requirements list is as varied as it is long. Lacking a "center of gravity" where developers, users, and vendors can all look at Linux capabilities and requirements together, the necessary advances will come more slowly.
Enter OSDL Data Center Linux Working Group (DCL). The DCL is a virtual center-of-gravity where interested parties can come together to accelerate the development and adoption of Linux in the enterprise. Made up of a number of OSDL member companies and other interested individuals, the DCL focuses on services, databases, applications, and mid-tier and high-end multiprocessor servers used for a variety of mission-critical applications.Accelerating Linux Adoption Overall, the OSDL DCL focuses on all the things you'd expect from an organization trying to accelerate the deployment of any enterprise software, namely:
Periodically, the DCL working group also publishes capabilities requirements documents for public review. The 1.0 version of the OSDL DCL Capabilities Document can be found on OSDL's Web site under DCL Documents. The intent of this and future DCL documents is to stimulate discussion and review, then drive toward future, specific technical requirements from the list of capabilities. Thus, the capabilities document is neither a list of requirements nor a specification, but is an analysis of the enterprise usage needs of Linux, thus providing a starting place for driving efforts that facilitate building solutions to satisfy those needs.
The DCL identifies two levels of technical priorities for Linux in the data center: Priority One Capabilities are considered the most important for data center readiness for Linux, while Priority Two Capabilities are those intended to stimulate thought and discussion.
Beyond general priorities of importance, the DCL working group examines Linux enterprise capabilities in the traditional functional areas:
At this stage, the OSDL DCL investigation is focused on enterprise-level usage models. The technical discussions center around data center issues such as security, storage networking, and file system performance. Because the objective of the DCL is to accelerate the maturation of Linux as an enterprise operating system, investigation of the other features on this list concentrates on server functionality and data center administration needs. Clearly, most of the features on this list are equally important to all who develop, use, or administer the system. But these nonserver-related issues are addressed in other OSDL initiatives such as the Desktop Linux working group.
In the latter half of 2004 the DCL Working Group will move on to its second objective: documenting the requirements necessary to advance Linux further in the data center, and recommending technical approaches to meet those requirements.Call for Participation The mission of the Data Center Linux (DCL) Working Group is to provide a forum for industry leaders to accelerate adoption and deployment of Linux in data centers.
The working group has completed its first pass at identifying Linux capabilities in the data center, and has developed a prioritized list of capabilities needed. The Data Center Linux Technical Capabilities v1.0 document is available for public review on the OSDL Web site. They encourage any interested person to review it and provide input. Together they can all help Linux become the enterprise operating system of choice.
For more information on how you can participate in the DCL, please visit www.osdl.org/lab_activities/data_center_linux.
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By Tyler Titherington
I am a restaurateur. I’m behind schedule. Again. Not because I am disorganized or have too much to do, more so because I have a hierarchy of tasks that are addressed based on priority. Guest needs are my first priority, staff needs are a close second and everything else last. There is a tertiary hierarchy in the last basket as well. Some tasks with a lower priority fall through the cracks. Not because they are unimportant, but rather there just was not enough time. The truth is that I am obsessively organized. I love “To Do” lists, calendars, flow charts and the accomplishment of tasks. I eat projects for breakfast, while living on the edge of chaos and complete catastrophe. Short staffed? Yawn. Drains flooding? Been there, done that. POS system crash during service on a weekend? Bring it. I am the duck – calm above water and feet moving nonstop below. However, how do I manage all the curveballs and still manage to gain time without compromising any of my other priorities? It is very simple – adapt and embrace technology wherever possible, specifically, cloud-based computing solutions that allow one to be in many places at one time. These applications simplify daily tasks for management teams and staff, which will ultimately leverage senior management down to focus on the bigger picture. Maybe even get a day off…
Over the last 10 years or so, the increased availability of cloud-based computing solutions (using network computers over the internet rather than property-based hard drives) has been a major paradigm shift for many industries. However, as with most technological advances, the restaurant industry has been very slow to adapt. Tight margins, resistance to change, and fear of unknown outcomes have long driven the restaurateur’s decision-making process. However, with increased options, cheaper costs, and ease of use, that mindset is quickly becoming a thing of the past. Restaurant operators are beginning to embrace cloud-based solutions for everything from Point of Sale and Tableside Payment to Menu Design and Scheduling.
Our foray into cloud computing began with an unfortunate set of circumstances that the entire industry was facing. The year was 2010 and the impending doom of PCI Compliance was upon us. At best, their network infrastructure was dated and they needed to act quickly to get it into compliance. Like most operators, their hand was forced and they had no choice. What is PCI Compliance? The answer depends on who you ask.
Your guests have never heard of it and have no idea what it is. Most restaurant operators will tell you that PCI Compliance is an almost unachievable set of network security standards designed to protect the credit card giants, who already charge them way too much for credit card processing and continually squeeze them with a plethora of monthly fees. The definition of PCI Compliance is below, according to PCI ComplianceGuide.org
“The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a set of security standards designed to ensure that ALL companies that accept, process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment. The PCI Security Council Card focuses on improving payment account security throughout the transaction process. It is an independent body that was created by the major payment card brands (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover and JCB.).”[i]
PCI DSS is mandatory for any and all businesses that accept credit cards. It involves a process of assessment, remediation and reporting. Operators must identify network vulnerabilities, physical vulnerabilities, and operational vulnerabilities that could result in a credit card breach and fix them. In summary, it is a painfully tedious, extremely time consuming, and potentially expensive process.
It is extremely important for the security of their guest’s payment information, both for ensuring trust with their customers and limiting legal liabilities. In 2017-8, major retail stores including Home Depot, Macy’s, Sears, Kmart, Best Buy and Lord & Taylor made headlines across the country for data breaches possibly compromising customer’s credit card personal information. The restaurant industry is also plagued with security breaches, including large chains such as Darden (Cheddar’s), Panera Bread, Sonic and Arby’s. The number of customers whose credit card information may be compromised totals into the millions.[ii]
At Grafton Group, the process of obtaining Credit card security involved working directly with their IT vendor and POS vendor to achieve PCI compliance. The first order of business was to get their network infrastructure in order. Some of the major network upgrades that they undertook were upgrading wiring, locking down patch panels, securitizing external ports, adding wireless access points (WAPs), and replacing firewalls. The WAPs and new firewalls were the heart of the upgrades and would ultimately allow us to operate unencumbered in the cloud. The new access points give their guests their own network and prevent them from accessing ours. The security firewalls prevent intrusions and also allow their IT vendor remote access so they can make changes without actually being in the restaurant. What used to be a scheduled visit from their IT vendor that may have taken weeks, is now a simple email and can often be addressed online in minutes. In a nutshell, PCI DSS forced us to upgrade their network, which ultimately allowed us to operate in the cloud. This unintended outcome to a painful requirement was truly a blessing in disguise and it pushed us into new territory – the cloud! Being in the cloud has allowed us access to exciting applications and services that would otherwise be unavailable to us.
IBM defines cloud computing as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources — everything from applications to data centers — over the internet on a pay-for-use basis.”[iii] For their purposes, these on demand computing resources primarily consist of “SaaS” or Software as a Service. Here are some of the areas where cloud computing can streamline their operation.Point of Sale
POS systems are the most interesting area of cloud-based solutions for restaurant operators. Legacy systems such as Positouch, Micros, and Aloha are bulkier, more expensive, and much harder to program and implement. There are quite a few cloud-based POS options, most notably Boston-based Toast. Toast has done a great job streamlining and simplifying the interface for both front and back end users. Management can access the system remotely for screen programming, troubleshooting or reviewing sales. It is extremely intuitive, like using a smartphone, thus needing very little training. As wireless POS solutions evolve, legacy systems will eventually be phased out. It is only a matter of time.Tableside Payment
EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa) is another set of regulations that are coming to the restaurant industry. “EMV is a global standard for cards equipped with computer chips and the technology used to authenticate chip-card transactions.”[iv] Used in Europe for years, the credit card never leaves the customer and all transactions are processed tableside with a handheld device. One example of an EMV compliant, cloud-based device for tableside payments that they at Grafton Group are currently analyzing and plan on implementing is Pay My Tab. Pay My Tab will fully integrate with their POS system and eliminates many bulky PCI DSS requirements. Many similar systems are already in use at quick service operations, where guests and staff have easily adapted to them. In addition to tougher security, the implementation should decrease payment time, eliminate paper receipts (emailed instead) and simplify the process for management to search for specific receipts.
Reservations and Floor Management
There are a variety of solutions for reservations and floor management systems. Their firm has been using OpenTable for over 15 years, so when they rolled out their cloud-based system, GuestCenter, they were early adopters. This has been one of the single best applications in terms of roll out, ease of use, and seamless integration. It is iPad-based and eliminates all the wiring and host stand real estate. It is compatible to smart phones that allows for remote access, allowing management to check flow of service, identify unique reservations, and make sure that waitlists are being managed appropriately. Soon to come is an interface with POS systems that automatically applies any “guest notes” from GuestCenter to the server’s check, such as special occasions, etc. Most importantly, due to its intuitive design, their millennial hosts use the system seamlessly.Private Event Management
Private events are the foundation of most full service restaurant operations. They are the difference between a good week and a great week. However, it can be a very confusing process with all of the moving parts. In order to stay organized, they use TripleSeat to manage leads, create BEOs and track their events calendar. The cloud-based event management system allows their Private Event Coordinators to respond at any given time from anywhere, giving them a leg up on the competition, giving them the opportunity to earn fees for each event. Since their coordinators receive an administrative fee for each event, they enjoy responding when available off-site; good communication is key for making sure work-life balance is maintained.Bar at the Russell House Tavern in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Inventory
An area which the cloud has really saved their restaurants time is with food & beverage inventories. No more paper and no more transposing paper to spreadsheet. Inventories can be uploaded in real time using a tablet, laptop or even a smart phone. BevSpot is used for both their food and beverage inventories. They have also given access to their accounting firm, in order to reduce bulky invoice scans and uploads. All information can be entered into the cloud and accessed by all of their approved users. It also allows for multiple people to take inventory simultaneously. One person can be on the bar, another in the walk in fridge, and another in the liquor room, all at the same time. In addition to being a major time saver, it has helped Grafton Group to reduce sitting inventory by a significant amount across all properties.Scheduling
Staff scheduling is a weekly administrative headache for managers, but there are cloud-based scheduling applications that lessen the pain. They have found HotSchedules to fit their needs as it interfaces with their POS system and allows their firm to do some creative reporting in regards to budgeting and forecasting, as well as taking employees requests and requirements into consideration.Email and File Sharing
Grafton Group has come a long way from sharing access to a desktop version of Outlook and toggling between accounts. They were able to eliminate their main server entirely and now they use Office 365 for their email and file sharing needs. Not only is this highly securitized, it has redundancy so their information is always backed up. They access both their email and files from anywhere in the world. This has greatly improved productivity and allowed their management teams to communicate in real time.Grafton Street in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Computer Hardware
Our office hardware now consists of much less expensive “Network Computers”, which do not require expanded memory for giant programs, CD drives for downloading drivers, or expansion slots for extraneous drives. They can purchase more computers at a reduced cost and their managers no longer have to share computer access in the office.Menu Design
For their menu design need, they have found InDesign to be the most efficient program, which is part of the Adobe Creative Cloud. This program can now be selected a la carte from Adobe’s menu of programs and paid for on a month to month basis for under $20. This is much more palatable than paying $600 for the entire Adobe suite.
These are just a handful examples of how cloud computing has impacted their operations and ultimately saved time for their management team and staff. Ten seconds here, 5 minutes there, an hour tomorrow – it adds up to impactful chunks of time that can be better spent elsewhere. They have only scratched the surface as an industry – they will see more and more options for cloud-based solutions to real world restaurant problems. Although the solutions highlighted above create efficiency and save time, they do not serve guests and they don’t understand the art of hospitality. It is imperative that as restaurateurs they continue to create a positive environment, embrace innovation, and engage and train their employees in the art and skill of hospitality.
There are some things you will never have time for in the restaurant industry, regardless of cloud-based advancements. “Lunch”, for example, I have heard is a meal that takes place in the middle of the day. For me, “lunch” is the sandwich that I eat in 30 seconds somewhere between 2pm and 6pm standing over a trash can in the back of the kitchen. There is no technology for that…
PDF Version Available HereReferences [i] “PCI Compliance Guide FAQ.” PCIComplianceGuide.Org. September, 2018. https://www.pcicomplianceguide.org/faq/#1. [ii] Green, D. and Hanbury, M. (Aug. 22, 2018). “If you shopped at these 16 stores in the last year, your data might have been stolen.” https://www.businessinsider.com/data-breaches-2018-4 [iii] “What Is Cloud Computing?” IBM.com. September, 2018. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-cloud-computing. [iv] Kossman, Sienna. ” 8 FAQs about EMV credit cards.” CreditCards.com. August 29, 2017. https://www.creditcards.com/credit-card-news/emv-faq-chip-cards-answers-1264.php. Tyler was born and raised in Portland, Maine and has lived in the Boston area since attending Boston University. After graduating from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, Mr. Titherington operated a handful of bars and restaurants in Boston. He has been with Grafton Group since October 2007.
By Christopher Muller
In Part 1 of this analysis of the restaurant delivery system they looked at the owner/operator models which still offer some measure of control over price and quality. This is fast becoming an issue with the rise of the Ghost Kitchen where the ODP is an integral part of the equation. Here they present the larger challenges from the dominant ODP control of the marketplace. It is good to remember that most of the ODPs themselves are still looking to find profits in what they do, a suggestion that those profits will need to come at the expense of the restaurant providers in one way or another.5. The Aggregator or On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) – No Driver Fleet
If someone were to say, “Let me take care of all of your delivery problems for a small cut of your revenues” many restaurant operators, especially those eager to get into the market with the least amount of upfront investment, would jump at the chance. Enter the On-Line Delivery Provider with a business model built upon a brand name customer-facing APP, website or phone number and an enormous amount of back office computing power to drive order volume.
At its core, to be successful the Aggregator needs to be a world-class matchmaker for food orders, with both a large customer database of users and a broad assortment of restaurant menus offered in major cities. Like many of what MIT’s Bill Aulet calls an Innovation Driven Enterprise (IDE) the cost of customer acquisition is the key hurdle in entering this distribution channel. What it doesn’t need is its own fleet of employee delivery drivers. Capitalizing on the DIY gig economy, drivers are hired on a contractual basis, working as independent delivery agents with their own vehicles.
The barrier to lowering this high cost of entry has favored early market entrants and large well-funded digital innovators. Worldwide, the fastest growing ODP is Uber Eats, the natural extension of car service provider, Uber, with its existing enormous data base of users, an ever expanding fleet of drivers, and the understanding for a driver that delivering food with an APP-based pre-payment system is considerably faster and easier than dealing with human passengers.
The upside for restaurant companies using an ODP such as Uber Eats, from those as dominant as McDonalds or as small as the local pizzeria, is that there is no need to hire and train non-core employees. As touted by Uber Eats delivery service can begin almost immediately upon signing up. The downside, that has a potential for long term impact, is two-fold. The fee structure for traditionally low margin restaurants can be between 20-30% of a menu item price, leaving little to cover remaining expenses. Worse though is that the restaurant gives away its brand and trade dress image to the company making the delivery to the front door. McDonalds hamburgers may be in the bag, but the name on the ordering APP and the uniform on the person handing it to the customer says Uber Eats.
6. The Consolidator – Bulk “Bus Stop”
As noted, the most expensive single piece of the delivery puzzle is getting food from the restaurant to the front door, what is called “the last mile.” One proven way to minimize that expense is to have the customer meet the food delivery at a central drop-off spot (see: Amazon ). A start-up, Yun Ban Bao, in New York City is taking advantage of ethnic Chinese food deserts through direct targeted marketing using the dominant Chinese online service provider, WeChat. By doing so it is creating a captive delivery market with the advantage of pre-ordering and payment.
Taking online requests for delivery on the next business day, then consolidating orders using a bulk delivery model, Yun Ban Bao is lowering the cost of delivery while maintaining control with its own fleet of drivers. It advertises a data analytics service for smaller restaurants as well as being a revenue growth accelerator for restaurants in suburban locations which otherwise could not find new or broader market opportunities.
Using a pre-arranged group delivery network, often outside parks, office towers or apartment buildings, the system mirrors a bus route, not the more traditional taxi route model of one-on-one delivery. This also affords the network of restaurants a way to lower operating costs by controlling the production process in advance.7. The Aggregator ODP – Owned Fleet
Some of the largest ODP players started in the delivery business by controlling their own fleets of employee managed delivery drivers. The global leader, Just Eat, has used this model throughout the UK, Europe and worldwide. But it also has worked directly with restaurants who have their own in-house deliver fleets to create a broad partnership. Just Eat acts as the online ordering platform, but then allows the local branded company to be the face at the door.
The ability to present a standardized customer facing brand identity means that trust may be established with the customer directly. While this can come at the risk of the restaurant losing its direct brand relationship, what Just Eat has been able to master is the collection of a vast customer database of its users. It has created a relationship with many of its restaurant partners to assist them in finding ideal store locations, menu item design and creative targeted pricing and promotions programs which would not otherwise be affordable or even available to smaller companies.
For these ODP companies, the costs for maintaining their own fleets or working as a hybrid with a local restaurant creates a higher operating expense, but these are often offset with a higher fee share from both the restaurant and the consumer. It also creates a competitive advantage by building a broader network of restaurants to choose from for the customer, which builds long term loyalty and habitual purchase behaviors.
8. The ODP Aggregator – Dark Kitchens
One of the greatest threats to the bricks and mortar restaurant delivery partners is the emerging concept of a Dark Kitchen. This is a space created by an OPD to facilitate the lowest cost per delivery mile from restaurant kitchen to the highest density of users. While this is similar to the Cloud Kitchen model, in this case the OPD establishes a cluster of small dedicated but competitive restaurant kitchens in a single site. A Dark Kitchen is also similar to the trending food hall concept, but comes with no direct customer interaction—no walk-in guest visits these production facilities. In the UK this was pioneered by Deliveroo with its urban RooBox or Editions concepts. Partner restaurants rent portable kitchen space from the delivery service and pay a larger percentage fee to cover the build-out costs for their space. Restaurants staff the kitchens at their own expense, as well.
Earlier this year, Grubhub invested $1 million in Green Summit Group (see Ghost Kitchen in Part I), a startup with nine virtual restaurants operating from a single kitchen. DoorDash is renting extra space from the Santa Clara Fairgrounds in San Jose, Calif., and making it available to foodservice operators who want to create delivery-only options. In Los Angeles, Postmates leased a commissary kitchen space so its restaurants can reach new customers. And UberEATS is exploring the concept with Poke Café in Chicago — a virtual restaurant serving Hawaiian poke bowls.
“We can work with existing restaurant partners to create delivery-only menus. (They would) appear as entirely new restaurants on the UberEats app,” Ambika Krishnamachar, UberEats product manager, said in an article on Mashable.
And again, while on its face this appears to be a positive opportunity for independent or chain restaurants to lower costs or disaggregate the dine-in from the delivery production process, it is not cost free. In fact, as a logical progression would suggest, the OPD Deliveroo service has realized that the actual local restaurant in this mix is not a necessity for success. Instead by using its own “innovation fund” it will to go directly into the restaurant business itself, creating “from scratch” concepts by working with celebrity chefs and data mining information from its enormous customer data base. 
As more of the OPDs look to find profits to pass along to the aggressive investors who have funded rapid growth, they will inevitably look to cut out the middleman and provide meals themselves to increase margins. The kitchen that may actually go “dark” is the local one on the corner down the street in an independent restaurant.
This is undoubtedly both an interesting and a challenging time for the restaurant industry and the Online Delivery Providers who are feeding from it. Neither side seems to have figured out how to make the new consumer demand for off-site delivery work to their complete advantage.
It is impossible to believe that any restaurant can survive if it gives away up to 30% of its top line revenues when the average net profit is less than 10%. No amount of increased volume in sales will make up for that. As Cameron Keng wrote in his column “Why Uber Eats Will Eat You Into Bankruptcy” in March, 2018:
Based on the average profit margins above, every restaurant that engages Uber Eats will lose money on every order they take. The more orders coming from Uber Eats, the more money a restaurant would lose.
At the same time, while it is hard to get exact information, it appears that almost none of the largest On-Line Delivery Providers, in any of the described segments is actually showing a profit. Uber Eats is only profitable in 27 of its more than 100 urban markets, and while Deliveroo’s sales rose in 2017 to £277 million ($356 million), the company lost an astounding £185 million ($237 million). Yet Uber Eats is offering over $2 billion to purchase/merge with Deliveroo.
Finally, as Jonathan Maze wrote in his Bottom Line column in early October the restaurant industry is simply unprepared for what appears to be a tectonic shift in traditional restaurant segments, consumer behavior, labor utilization, Real Estate valuation and investor interest.
If delivery is the future of the restaurant business, the restaurant business as it is currently constructed is in trouble.
The service is growing rapidly. But it’s increasingly replacing existing restaurant business rather than taking business away from grocers or other food retailers. 
As they noted in the beginning, it took the lodging industry almost 20 years to begin to make this kind of tectonic change and it is nowhere near complete. A few very large hotel companies, through merger and acquisition, have consolidated enough power to start the move away from handing over all of their pricing to the OTA’s. In economic terms, hotel companies are trying to go from being Price Takers to Price Setters.
At this early stage of the restaurant OPD’s domination of the delivery cycle, it is not clear that any restaurant organization is large enough to break the fever, especially now that McDonald’s is partnering with Uber Eats. While it may appear that the On-line Delivery Provider is a restaurant’s partner, friend or even savior, it is none of those. In fact, in order to become profitable the OPD is looking to become a direct competitor.
What is certain is that few restaurant companies, and certainly no independent operations, can survive the next two decades letting third parties dictate what convenience and price mean. In fact, this might be a good time to get out of the house and go visit your favorite local restaurant. Sacrificing some convenience for a great experience is a good value and that restaurant may not be around the next time you want to show up.
PDF Version Available HereReferences  See Bill Aulet, Disciplined Entrepreneurship,  The Financial, October 25, 2018, https://www.finchannel.com/~finchannel/business/76317-amazon-expands-grocery-delivery-and-pickup  Menqi Sun, WSJ, September 9, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-to-get-food-delivered-from-your-favorite-faraway-restaurant-1536516000  See https://www.just-eat.com/  James Cook, Business Insider, April 5, 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/deliveroo-editions-pop-up-restaurants-roobox-2017-4  Tim York, The Packer, March 23, 2018, https://www.thepacker.com/article/rise-virtual-restaurant Sophie Witts, Big Hospitality, May 21, 2018, https://www.bighospitality.co.uk/Article/2018/05/21/Deliveroo-to-create-own-restaurant-brands-using-5m-fund#  Cameron Keng, Forbes, March 26, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/cameronkeng/2018/03/26/why-uber-eats-will-eat-you-into-bankruptcy/#778a3b0621f6  Ibid., DealBook, September 21, 2018  BBC News, October 1, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45707700  Jonathan Maze, Restaurant Business Online, October 17, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/delivery-could-force-changes-restaurant-business-model Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the Practice of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: email@example.com
By Christopher Muller
The entire restaurant industry, from the simplest quick service joint to the most complex fine dining jewel, is caught in a veritable frenzy of delivery. It may be, unfortunately, a very risky path to travel for the uninitiated restaurant operation, but delivery is driving the investment community to a fever pitch.  They have entered into the time of the restaurant On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) which mirrors in many ways the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) which has so disrupted the lodging industry.
In two complimentary BHR articles here, they present a look at the 8 different models of restaurant delivery and how they are affecting both senior management and customer choices.
A Quick Lesson From Pricing History
For observers of the global Hospitality Industry this should send up warning flags. In a galaxy far, far away, the Lodging industry managed revenues by using simple seasonal or attribute pricing models (On-, Shoulder- and Off-Peak rates, or premiums for “A Room With A View”) and sold some limited excess inventory through a network of independent Travel Agents (at an onerous 10% commission!).
Then, as the Internet expanded, and the travel market imploded after the 9-11 tragedy, a new and exciting model emerged – the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) acting as a third party aggregator appeared. Hotel companies willingly gave open access to all of their unsold room inventory to the OTAs (Expedia, Travelocity, Priceline, Booking.com, Kayak, Trivago, etc.) to sell directly at deep discounts, often between 25 and 30% off posted Rack Rates. Occupancies rose, but Average Daily Rates plummeted, and profits quickly diminished. Hotels, relying on the old pricing models were caught competing “with themselves” and watched as formerly loyal customers switched their buying habits and loyalties to the OTA that gave them the best rate. Customers could scroll through pages of prices, often for the exact same room in the same hotel, searching for the cheapest rate. Hotel rooms, instead of being unique destinations became interchangeable commodities.
It has taken almost twenty years, but through brand consolidation and a total system-wide transformation into a Revenue Management based pricing model, the hotel business has been transformed and the OTAs are being aggressively challenged for dominance. This should be a lesson for the restaurant owner/operator, the OTAs drove nothing but price as a decision attribute, the ODPs are poised to do the same thing with both price and convenience, unfortunately restaurants probably won’t have decades to recover.
Today’s Restaurant Delivery Frenzy –The Rise of the ODP
Whether it’s the savvy but shape-shifting Millennial, the rapidly aging Baby Boomer, or the rising young digital native from the i-Generation, it seems that customers in all shapes and sizes just want to have their meals brought to them at home, the office, or somewhere in between. Breaking the code of the delivery model—becoming the customer’s choice of who serves up breakfast, lunch or dinner at home, work or play—has emerged as the Holy Grail of the foodservice business. But it may be more like the other mythic Dark Ages metaphor, the Plague, potentially killing upwards of 30% of existing restaurant units.
So, what exactly is “delivery” today, how did it evolve into such a big, expanding component of the restaurant offering and what are the implications going forward for the industry? Just how do the On-Line Delivery Providers, the ODP, dominate the market?
We can begin by agreeing that delivery is a distinct and rapidly growing distribution channel, although it has been around in one form or another for a very long time. And while not exactly a new technology, nor necessarily a profitable one, the exploding market for the delivery of food is poised for an inevitable shake out as it quickly approaches a mature phase consolidation.
In late 2018 delivery is all about instant gratification, not just for the diner but some would suggest for the restaurant as well. At first glance, it all feels so simple and easy. But like so much in restaurant management, there is more than one way to get something done, even the simplest of things.
Emerging Key Success Factors
Like so many emerging business models in the on-line digital age, food delivery is developing its own metrics and factors to be considered and mastered. While still evolving, among these now are:
Delivery of food, especially from a restaurant to a consumer, has become a multi-billion dollar segment of the industry. Some are predicting that it will overtake the traditional dine-in segment completely within a decade, although the complexity of getting it right and turning a profit while doing so, can still be elusive even for the largest players. And of course, no one should forget that Amazon is over in the corner waiting to see how things evolve in an online delivery world they basically invented.
Traditional and Controlled
As noted, the delivery of food from a restaurant directly to a local customer is not a new idea although traditionally the customer came to the restaurant and picked up or carried out their food order. Both delivery and carry-out were best suited to a restaurant with a simple, easily transported menu. Where a significant amount of the value of the meal was the dining experience and table service, meals to go were often comprised of a package of leftovers or the long gone term “doggie bags.”
Here is a look at four models with some measure of control for restaurant owners and operators over the quality and profitability of their offerings.
1. The Independent – One Shot
As a service provider a restaurant may decide that in order to meet the needs of its local customer base it should provide a delivery option. At one time, only a few restaurants in an urban core would have delivery offers and these might typically be delicatessens or Chinese restaurants with few seats and a very strong focus on offering takeout options. The food can be cooked, boxed, wrapped and brought quickly to an office or apartment within a few blocks on foot or by bicycle.
This model is the most basic – a caller, the kitchen, and an employee bringing hot food directly to the customer. The restaurant controls the quality, manages the relationship with the diner and absorbs the full cost and all the revenues. It typically comes with higher operating costs for labor (primarily from an in-house paid delivery driver fleet) and with premium rent from the need for an attractive customer-facing retail space. On the plus side, all local customer information may be controlled by the restaurant and there are no fees to share with an outside third-party service.
But as the independent operator reaches for the brass ring on the delivery merry-go-round, they also need to be careful not to lose their grip on their existing ride. A new distribution channel can be much more challenging that just taking a customer order. As noted by Jennifer Marston:
…restaurants are under pressure to adapt…More and more, that means altering the physical restaurant space so it can better accommodate this influx of new orders. Extra meals require extra bodies to cook and package the food, after all, not to mention extra space for third-party devices, and somewhere to put completed orders waiting to be picked up by a delivery driver.
An interesting twist on this single restaurant model of trying to find a way to both control and expand the delivery system while maintaining some measure of profitability is one recently proposed in the restaurant trade magazine Restaurant Business Online:
He (CMO Nabeel Alamgir) explained that Bareburger is already striving to convert customers ordering through third parties’ apps into users of the chain’s own channels. Patrons of an Uber Eats or Postmates might be offered a 10% discount on their next order if it’s placed through Bareburger’s website. The chain can afford a discount that deep because the financial impact is still less than the 20% or 30% discount an outside service typically charges.
Alamgir noted at the start of the panel’s presentation that a service started by restaurants for restaurants would have been an attractive alternative to some of the third-party giants. “Let’s make their own platform. Let’s make their own Grubhub,” he said.
2. The Cloud Kitchen – A Hub & Spoke System
It can be argued that today’s focused delivery channel began in earnest when Domino’s offered up a “30 Minute or Free” guarantee in 1973. In order to make this guarantee effective, the company created a hub and spoke system, in effect building a series of franchised units in low cost locations. They were characterized by being geographically market-centered but with no need for a “High Street” customer facing address. This was directly in contrast to the overwhelming market advantage owned by Pizza Hut and its network of “Red Roof” full service pizzerias with their focus on dine-in and takeout service. But the competitive advantage that came from having units with no dine-in, limited customer carry-out, and which were serviced by a central commissary set in motion the shift away from the traditional eat-in model.
“The reality is, when the red roof restaurant was created, the idea of delivery wasn’t part of the concept,” said Pizza Hut chief executive David Gibbs, a 26-year veteran at parent company Yum Brands…”so in many cases, their business has outgrown the capabilities of those restaurants…”
Now, four decades later Domino’s is the world leader in delivery, pizza or otherwise. It has done this by controlling the entire process or what is called the “full stack” in the delivery cycle. Now describing itself as an IT and logistics company that sells pizza, the backbone of the system is that they control the customer ordering process, the production quality process, and through a vast franchise network the delivery process.
Next to come, using new GPS and AI technologies, Domino’s predicts that it will be able to make deliveries not just to a formal building address, but to anywhere a customer can be located by tracking their cellphone, even if that is a park bench or a blanket on the beach.
But Domino’s is not the only leader to be expanding its Cloud Kitchen delivery system. Already designed on a commissary production system model, giant fast casual leader, Panera Bread, tested delivery in Boston and then announced an expansion across the United States in early May, 2018 with a system based upon using its own delivery drivers.  Following the trend in October the largest chicken sandwich chain, Chick-fil-A, announced it was beginning to test the hub and spoke model of delivery in Nashville, TN and Louisville, KY.
Chick-fil-A is opening two new restaurants that don’t have something you commonly associate with the chain: seats.
Chick-fil-A, the Atlanta-based chicken sandwich chain, is testing catering and delivery locations in Nashville and Louisville, Ky., that will open this month.
The locations, according to an announcement on the chain’s website, have no dining rooms or drive thru’s and are designed to be hubs for catering and delivery orders. The restaurants will not accept cash, either.
The Cloud Kitchen model can be very effective for restaurant companies with large enough scale, whether in a single city or across a region, to take advantage of a single production kitchen site with remote staging kitchens. Ultimately the “full stack” control from order to front door can come from as few as three restaurants or as many as 3000. This also means that the foundation is laid for vast proprietary customer data collection and eventually data mining by the most forward-looking operators.
It can be argued that the Food Truck movement of the past decade is a subset of the Cloud Kitchen model. By most local health code laws, food trucks must have a “home kitchen” or commissary for their bulk production that meets all health and sanitation code requirements. In many urban centers, to be successful a food truck company needs to have multiple trucks on the road acting as a distribution network. While this is also a classic Hub & Spoke model, it comes with similarities to a model in the next article, #6 The Consolidator, with distribution on a bus stop route and not a one-to-one last mile taxi route.
3. The Ghost Kitchen
One further refinement of the Cloud Kitchen is the Ghost Kitchen. As delivery becomes more of a threat to the traditional dine-in restaurant option, some suggest that this model, in fact, is the future of restaurants—basically a highly efficient hybrid of menu concepts, specialized production and logistics, and low labor cost with no eat-in customers.
In that way, this model is identified by three key components.
First, it removes the dining room or takeout from the restaurant completely, working out of a kitchen whose location is based on nearness to its core customer market yet in a typically low rent out-of-the-way space.
Second, it does not hire any paid employees to deliver, instead making use (through partnership or agreement) of the many third-party delivery companies like GrubHub, Postmates or Doordash.
Third, and possibly the most important, because of the flexibility of only needing an APP, website or traditional telephone ordering system, more than one cuisine can be produced in the same kitchen space. Easy to prepare, cook and deliver foods such as salads, sandwiches, Asian and other ethnic dishes, or gourmet pizza can all be offered while cross-utilizing similar ingredients in creative menu offerings.
This can best be described as an “order only” restaurant. The most prominent or well-known of these Ghost Kitchens would be Green Summit (see transition to #8 Dark Kitchen in Part 2). While garnering a good amount of press, the celebrity chef David Chang’s Maple, closed its operation in 2017 with some assets moving to London and the delivery company Deliveroo. Chef Chang sold the physical kitchen space, Ando, to Uber Eats after ceasing operations in January, 2018. 
Because no customer ever sets foot through the front door the owners can put all of their investment in kitchen equipment and the technology of ordering. A Ghost Kitchen offers customers large menu choices, and just as its cousin the Cloud Kitchen, has the option to keep track of its own proprietary customer data set through the direct ordering process. The tradeoff is that ownership sacrifices the customer interface at delivery of the Cloud Kitchen model. Operating and start-up costs are low and efficiency can be very high. The risk is that a large portion of the margin (sometimes up to 30%) from market-driven menu prices is taken by the delivery partnership, who also control the brand image when customers receive their orders off-site.4. Virtual Restaurants
Along with disrupting the taxi business, Uber Eats is about to globally disrupt the restaurant delivery business. As of October, 2018, Uber Eats had over 1600 “virtual restaurants” around the globe, with almost 1000 in its US partnership portfolio. The majority of these are not the Cloud or Dark Kitchen models mentioned above, but are existing restaurants with new brands that only exist through Uber Eats. This model, while charging very high fees to the restaurant, allows them to technically not compete with themselves in the home delivery marketplace. Uber Eats gains more menus to offer, and limits any need for an investment in a commissary space.
For SushiYaa, Kim says the virtual restaurant concept has been transformative. “Because this concept worked so well for us, they actually changed one of their restaurants from a sushi buffet concept to a regular restaurant with 8 different virtual restaurant brands inside it. The buffet sales weren’t doing so well and the delivery side was doing better, so they thought — let’s change it completely so we’re focused more on delivery.” From a sales standpoint, he says it’s “almost as if they have another restaurant without paying additional rent and labor, even though [Uber Eats] takes about 30 percent.”
One other type of Virtual Kitchen involves the licensing of existing restaurant recipes and menu items in a curated virtual model. The start-up concept Good Uncle is using this to compete in the university meal plan segment, offering a range of pricing options for higher quality prepared meals, delivered by their own delivery fleet using the bus stop common drop off method. This is a limited menu, limited target market, which benefits from a direct marketing approach, lower operating costs, and uses both a subscription and premium fee based pricing system. It is a Virtual Kitchen because there is no restaurant or other customer facing facility, it exists only online.
Part One – Conclusions
Delivery models, some traditional, some evolving, offer many opportunities for restaurant operators, especially those in the QSR and Fast Casual segments, where speed and price and convenience are the drivers of consumer choice.
The challenge in today’s delivery market is how owners and operators can maintain both high quality and long-term profitability in the products/services they offer. For many meals, the time and distance from kitchen to table can be more than 30 minutes or multiple miles. Quality of presentation and flavor may quickly diminish. More importantly, where the medium annual profitability for restaurants across all segments in the USA is considerably less than 10%, losing up to 30% of top line revenues is not a path to a successful future, (even if total sales increase by 20%).
PDF Version Available HereReferences  Heather Haddon and Julie Jargon, The Wall Street Journal online, October 24, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/investors-are-craving-food-delivery-companies-1540375578?mod=cx_picks&cx_navSource=cx_picks&cx_tag=contextual&cx_artPos=4#cxrecs_s  Liam Proud, DealBook, NYTimes, September 21, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/21/business/dealbook/uber-eats-deliveroo.html  Jennifer Marston, The Spoon, July 31, 2018, https://thespoon.tech/delivery-is-making-these-restaurants-literally-redesign-the-way-they-do-business/  Peter Romeo, Restaurant Business Online, Oct. 19, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/operations/3-big-changes-looming-restaurants  Karen Robinson-Jabos, Dallas News, Jan 6, 2016. https://www.dallasnews.com/business/business/2016/01/06/pizza-hut-is-ditching-the-iconic-red-roof-for-a-more-modern-look  Janelle Nanos, Boston Globe, May 7, 2018, https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2018/05/07/panera-expanding-its-delivery-service-cities/sZg4pO0yTw9cEdYpv514tL/story.html?event=event12  Jonathan Maze, Restaurant Business Online, Oct. 09, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/chick-fil-opening-new-delivery-focused-prototype  Neal Ungerleider, 01.20.17 Fast Company https://www.fastcompany.com/3064075/hold-the-storefront-how-delivery-only-ghost-restaurants-are-changing-take-out  Closing announcement from Maple, May 8, 2017 https://maple.com/letter/  Whitney Filloon, Eater, October 24, 2018, www.eater.com/2018/10/24/18018334/uber-eats-virtual-restaurants  See the online Audiopedia site https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKO5JFbqKTA  Ibid, Eater, October 24, 2018  See https://www.gooduncle.com/ Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the Practice of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
By Makarand Mody and Monica Gomez
For a long time, the hotel industry did not consider Airbnb a threat. Both the industry and Airbnb claimed they were serving different markets and had different underlying business models. Over the years, as Airbnb become more successful and grown to being larger than the companies in the hotel industry, the rhetoric has changed. The hotel industry began to realize they had something to worry about.
A stage of denial was followed by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) attacking Airbnb by sponsoring research to demonstrate its negative impacts on the economy and lobbying governments to impose taxes and regulations on homesharing. The association is arguing for a level playing field between homesharing and hotels (and rightly so). The next stage of this battle involves competition and integration. Not only are hotels looking to add homesharing-like attributes and experiences to their properties, to more effectively compete with Airbnb, but are also looking to tap into the platform-based business model that underlies Airbnb’s success.
The Past: How does Airbnb impact the hotel industry?
Airbnb’s disruption of the hotel industry is significant, both existentially and economically. A recent study by Dogru, Mody, and Suess (2018) found that a 1% growth in Airbnb supply across 10 key hotel markets in the U.S. between 2008 and 2017 caused hotel RevPAR to decease 0.02% across all segments. While these numbers may not appear substantial at first, given that Airbnb supply grew by over 100% year-on-year over this ten year period means that the “real” decrease in RevPAR was 2%, across hotel segments. Surprisingly, it was not just the economy but also the luxury hotel segment that was hard hit by Airbnb supply increases, experiencing a 4% real decline in RevPAR. The impact of Airbnb on ADR and occupancy was less severe. In Boston, RevPAR has decreased 2.5%, on average, over the last ten years due to Airbnb supply increases. In 2016 alone, this 2.5% decrease in RevPAR amounted to $5.8 million in revenue lost by hotels to Airbnb. Brands that felt the impact the most were those in the midscale and luxury segments, with a decrease in RevPAR of 4.3% and 2.3% respectively. These supply increases are also fueling Airbnb taking an increasing share of the accommodation market pie. For example, in New York City, Airbnb comprised 9.7% of accommodation demand, equaling approximately 8,000 rooms per night in Q1 2016 (Lane & Woodworth, 2016). As a whole, Airbnb’s accommodated demand made up nearly 3% of all traditional hotel demand in Q12016.
Buoyed by a growth rate of over 100% year on year, Airbnb now has over 4 million listings, with the U.S. being its largest market. The company also has significant room to grow in other countries, particularly emerging markets in Africa and India. The company has run into some competition in China, with local rivals Tujia and Xiaozhu. Also, within the U.S., the good news is that Airbnb will not grow at 100% indefinitely and will eventually plateau as it reaches a saturation point (Ting, 2017a). In view of this, the company has turned to alternative strategies to continue to increase supply. It is now targeting property developers to turn entire buildings into potential Airbnb units, through its newest hotel-like brand, Niido. Currently, there are two Airbnb branded Niido buildings in Nashville, TN and Orlando, FL with over 300 units each and Airbnb plans to have as many as 14 home-sharing properties by 2020 (Zaleski, 2018). Niido works by encouraging tenants to list their units on Airbnb, with Airbnb and Niido taking 25% of the revenue generated. Airbnb has also clearly evolved from its original premise of “targeting a different market” to attracting segments traditionally targeted by hotels, such as the leisure family market, business travelers, and the upscale traveler, as evidenced through its latest offering, Airbnb Plus. These homes have been verified for quality, comfort, design, maintenance, and the amenities they offer. They also have easy check in, premium internet access, and fully equipped kitchens. Their hosts are typically rated 4.8+, and go above and beyond for their guests. Through Airbnb Experiences, travelers can partake in everything from the great outdoors—hiking and surfing—to “hidden” concerts and food and wine tours. In addition to these products, Airbnb has also “created” its own segments of travelers: novelty and experience seekers who are looking for unique and unconventional accommodation like yurts, treehouses, and boats, all things that a traditional hotel company cannot provide.
The Present: Understanding what consumers want lies at the heart of the battle between hotels and Airbnb
There are larger societal trends that are impacting what consumers seek travel, and they think this has implications for the Airbnb and hotel dynamic. These trends include:
What do these trends mean? They require marketers and experience designers to re-think what the travel experience means to the customer. The notion of the experience economy was created by Pine and Gilmore in 1998, and included four dimensions: escapism, education, entertainment, and esthetic. Leveraging one, or ideally, more of these dimensions creates memorable experiences for customers, which in turn results in brand loyalty. This dynamic has been fairly well-established in the academic literature. However, Airbnb has changed the game for the experience economy by emphasizing the sharing lifestyle and a sense of community, cleverly incorporating the above highlighted trends into its communications with customers. Because of Airbnb popularity and success, six new dimensions have been incorporated into the experience economy, in the context of the travel experience: personalization, communitas, localness, hospitableness, serendipity, and ethical consumerism, as was presented by Mody in 2016.
Interestingly, in a recent study by Mody and colleagues (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, 2017), the researchers found that Airbnb outperformed hotels on all the dimensions of this new, expanded, accommodation experiencescape. Airbnb outperforms hotels in the personalization dimension because of its wide array of homes and locations, enabling genuine micro-segmentation and the “perfect match” between guest and host (Dolnicar, 2018). Moreover, no one home is similar to another, giving customers a unique experience every time, enhancing the serendipity associated with an Airbnb stay. Airbnb elevates the sense of community that consumers seek, particularly when sharing space with other travelers and/or with the host, and allows consumers unparalleled access to “the local”—that café or cute little store that only locals know about. However, there are areas where hotels hold their own. For example, the pathways between these dimensions and memorability were just as strong for hotels as for Airbnb, emphasizing the need for hotels to engage customers by leveraging the “right” dimensions for the brand—dimensions that align with the brand’s mission, story, and personality.
One such dimension where hotels perform just as well as Airbnb is hospitableness, as confirmed in a study by Mody, Suess, and Lehto (2018). More “investor units” on the Airbnb platform means that the host is often not present when guests arrive to the home; moreover, all communication is done electronically and with someone who “manages” the Airbnb unit and doesn’t necessarily own or live in it. In turn, hotels that leverage the human factor—the welcome of a friendly check-in agent, the helpfulness of the concierge, the warm greeting and genuine interaction between guest and food and beverage staff—create more positive emotions, which subsequently lead to higher brand loyalty. It is imperative that hotel brands really think about the high-tech, high touch experience they are looking to provide, particularly in the golden age of brand proliferation that they live in.
From a non-experience standpoint, regulation is another bone of contention that merits close inspection. After years of denying that Airbnb was a competitor, in 2016, the American Hotel & Lodging Association first began an extensive lobbying effort for the imposition of taxes and regulations on Airbnb that level the playing field. Over the last couple of years, the voices of the hotel lobby and other community groups have translated into governments taking some action, in the U.S. and abroad. However, in a study of regulation across 12 European and American cities, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) found that governments have been fairly lenient towards short-term rentals with little to no (meaningful) regulations thus far. Moreover, regulations have been designed to alleviate the negative externalities of Airbnb on neighborhoods and communities rather than to level the playing field between Airbnb and hotels. Another challenge with regulating the peer to peer economy has been enforcement. In New York City, under the Multiple Dwelling law, it is illegal for a unit to be rented out for less than 30 days unless the owner is present in the unit at the time the guest is renting. However, it is still possible to find “entire homes” on Airbnb in New York City, even though, in principle, these typically include homes where the host is not present during the guest’s stay. Moreover, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) and Hajibaba and Dolnicar (2017) have found that regulations tend to be very similar across cities, without accounting for the specificities of a particular location, which makes the process perfunctory and superficial. There also remains the danger of over-regulating Airbnb, given that there is still very little knowledge about effective ways of regulating these innovations in the sharing economy, thus stifling their potential. Avoid over-regulation is critical, since Airbnb has significant welfare effects in the economy. In addition to stimulating travel to previously inaccessible markets, Airbnb also creates customer surplus (Farronato & Fradkin, 2018), an important economic value measure. Moreover, other research has suggested that the average resident is not as negative towards the Airbnb as media rhetoric might suggest (Mody, Suess, & Dogru, 2018). The need for a data-driven approach to Airbnb regulation remains paramount.
The Future: Competing with the sharing economy requires re-thinking the brand and the experience
While regulation is outside the control of the hotel industry, the brand and the customer experience are not. They contend that these are the areas where hotel companies’ efforts need to be focused. Hotels need to re-think the brand promise, both for the parent brand as well as individual brands in the portfolio, and how it defines and shapes the guest experience. Recent research by Mody and Hanks (2018) indicates that while Airbnb leverages the authenticity of the travel experience—by enabling local experiences that provide a sense of self and sense of place, hotel brands that are perceived as being authentic—original, genuine, and sincere—can generate higher brand loyalty. Thus, while it’s hard to compete with homesharing in terms of experiential authenticity, brand authenticity is a pillar on which hotels can build a strong foundation for loyal brand relationships. This is particularly important because while Airbnb promotes experiential authenticity as a key reason to use the brand, most travelers tend to stay with the brand for much more functional requirements, such as space and price (Chen & Xie, 2017; Dogru & Pekin, 2017)
There is no one definition for or manifestation of an “authentic” brand. It’s a perception, a feeling that consumers have about what you stand for. An authentic brand has at its core the brand promise, an authentic value proposition that gives consumers a raison d’etre for associating with the brand. However, what an authentic brand does require is effective storytelling. A brand is perceived to be authentic, if it has an authentic story that feeds it. Brand stories can come from many sources: a brand’s values, personality, heritage, uniqueness, or its quest and purpose. What is important is telling compelling and coherent stories across the brand’s various touchpoints to engage consumers at a visceral, emotional level. Taking off industry blinders, and looking for inspiration outside the hotel industry, is critical. Tom’s Shoes is an excellent example of leveraging its quest—One for One—in creating a compelling brand story. As another example, in an industry typically focused on the in-store, “physical” experience, Burberry has set the gold standard for authentic, digitally-led and emotive storytelling, by looking within and leveraging over 150 years of history (Watch the YouTube Video here). In this vein, they think that Fairfield Inn and Suites’ return to “where it all began”—the Marriott family’s Fairfield Farm in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia— to craft the brand experience of the future, from a design and communications standpoint, is an excellent example of leveraging authenticity and crafting a compelling brand promise (Ting, 2017b).
Another idea that lies at the heat of the brand promise is what they call the experiential value proposition, or EVP. For the longest time, hotel marketers have relied on the guest room as the primary source of value for the guest. But think about the last time you traveled. Was it the prospect of the hotel room that got you excited about your trip? Or was it everything that the hotel enables you to do – the experience outside the guestroom? From experiencing art and music in the lobby to its proximity to the must-do craft beer garden, hotel marketers must realize that it’s the complete package—what’s inside and outside the room—that customers use as cues for making their decision to choose an accommodation. They call this proposition offered by the hotel—what’s inside and outside the guest room, enclosed within an experience of hospitableness and a connection to humanity—its EVP. They present the EVP in Figure 1. The EVP mirrors the value paradigm of the modern traveler, something that must be reflected in the hotel brand’s sales, marketing and pricing and revenue management efforts. Thinking about a brand through the lens of the EVP paradigm has the power to re-orient the customer’s mindset from one of price-shopping to experience-shopping.
Figure 1. The Experiential Value Proposition Framework
How does a hotel marketer apply the EVP paradigm? Its application can open up many avenues. Hotels can start by rethinking the design of their primary digital channels, led by the website by adding more rich, vivid content that goes beyond the guestroom, in order to better integrate aspects of the wider hotel and local experience. The Standard Hotels serves as an excellent example (http://www.standardhotels.com/) Its website feels more like a local lifestyle and culture magazine than a digital media property “selling” a hotel room. The website’s rich images and stories draw the visitor into wanting to learn more about what the brand has to offer. While not every hotel can or would want to go the Standard way, since the brand has its own distinct voice and personality, there is a case to be made for going beyond static images of beds in guestrooms, which tend to blend into one indistinguishable whole after a point, particularly on OTA websites. When was the last time the image of a hotel bed excited you to want to stay there? Yet, when you look at the imagery put out by most hotels, this is what marketers still focus on.
Placing an emphasis on humanity and providing a sense of hospitableness can also enhance a brand’s EVP. Instead of technology replacing the human connection, the industry needs to look for ways in which technology can actually free up employees so that they can spend their time crafting more personal and unique experiences, delighting guests instead of performing routine transactions. Moreover, if the human connection is what people seek out when traveling with Airbnb, why is it that hotel confirmation emails still get sent out by automated systems that highlight the “facelessness” of the hotel entity. Why not use that as an opportunity to truly welcome the guest; a simple touch such as a welcome letter from the GM with his/her photo, or that of an employee who is “assigned” as “your personal host” during your stay can go a long way in emulating the human connection that the sharing economy enables.
The design of the hotel’s public spaces can be used to enhance the guest’s experience of “communitas”. Ian Schrager would agree (Schaal, 2017). After all, with much of Airbnb’s supply being dominated by investor units that provide little or no host contact, what better an opportunity for hotel brands to show that they are the original connectors of human beings? Sheraton has been wise in incorporating some of these communal elements into its brand makeover by introducing productivity tables and studio spaces and a day-time coffee bar that transforms into a bar at night. In terms of another design element, Airbnb’s attractiveness to family and group travelers can be offset by offering connecting and/or multiple rooms for one price, with other experience value-adds thrown in (as with the Marriott family room connecting rooms package.
Finally, the role of the loyalty program cannot be emphasized enough. Loyalty programs must move beyond programmatic levels to being able to leverage data from guest history, social media, and other marketing data sources, powered by predictive analytics, to personalize and individualize the guest experience of the brand. In an age of instant gratification, the loyalty program has to be gamified to unlock value-adds and offer creative bundling.
At the level of the hotel company, beyond the individual brand, the hotel industry has started participating in the home sharing business and is increasingly looking to integrate these platform business models. For example, while Accor purchased Onefinestay, Marriott has teamed up with Hostmaker to create Tribute Portfolio Homes, a partnership that was recently expanded to four European cities (Fox, 2018). From an organic brand development standpoint, Accor’s newest Jo & Joe brand mimics the sharing economy within the confines of a traditional hotel space. Other, more innovative and bold ways of integrating the sharing economy ethos into a hotel could include offering an “Airbnb floor”, an antithesis to the club floor, one that would not offer housekeeping and other hotel services and thus be offered at a lower price. With hotel brands becoming “branded marketplaces” for accommodation and not just hotel rooms, perhaps there is merit in listing hotel rooms on alternative accommodation platforms. HomeAway is already adding hotels to its platform through the Expedia Affiliate Network, while Airbnb is making a push for bed-and-breakfasts and boutique hotels. Homesharing providers hope that by adding these options to their listings, they will fulfill their goal of being “for everyone”, while allowing independent and boutique hotels to reap the benefits of branded distribution at a lower cost than traditional OTA brands.
In sum, hotels must adopt a sales, marketing, and revenue management approach that is both strategic and tactical.
At a strategic level, hotel brands need to re-think their story, and how they portray and fulfill their authenticity and brand promises. At a tactical level, it’s the experience and value beyond the guestroom that must be factored into what is presented to current and potential guests, what they are charged for it, and how it is leverage to create “memorable memories” that lead to higher net promotor scores and brand loyalty. They present a graphical summary of the past, present, and future of Airbnb vs. hotels in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Summarizing the past, present and future of Airbnb vs. hotels
PDF Version Available HereReferences Chen, Y., & Xie, K. (2017). Consumer valuation of Airbnb listings: a hedonic pricing approach. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2405–2424. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2016-0606 Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2018). Adding evidence to the debate: Quantifying Airbnb’s disruptive impact on ten key hotel markets. Dogru, T., & Pekin, O. (2017). What do guests value most in Airbnb accommodations? An application of the hedonic pricing approach. Boston Hospitality Review. Dolnicar, S. (2018). Unique Features of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Farronato, C., & Fradkin, A. (2018). The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb. Fox, J. (2018). Marriott expands homesharing program in Europe. Hotel Management. Retrieved from https://www.hotelmanagement.net/own/marriott-expands-homesharing-program-to-3-european-cities Hajibaba, H., & Dolnicar, S. (2017). Regulatory Reactions Around the World. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 120–136). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cbrehotels.com/EN/Research/Pages/An-Analysis-of-Airbnb-in-the-United-States.aspx Mody, M. A., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2017). The accommodation experiencescape: a comparative assessment of hotels and Airbnb. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2377–2404. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0501 Mody, M., & Hanks, L. (2018). Parallel pathways to brand loyalty: Mapping the consequences of authentic consumption experiences for hotels and Airbnb. Mody, M., Suess, C., & Dogru, T. (2018). Not in my backyard? Is the anti-Airbnb discourse truly warranted? Annals of Tourism Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.05.004 Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2018). Going back to its roots : Can hospitableness provide hotels competitive advantage over the sharing economy ? International Journal of Hospitality Management. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.05.017 Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2018). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899 Schaal, D. (2017). Ian Schrager Calls Out Hotel Industry’s Airbnb Strategy as Misguided. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/12/08/ian-schrager-calls-out-hotel-industrys-airbnb-strategy-as-misguided/ Ting, D. (2017a). Airbnb Growth Story Has a Plot Twist — A Saturation Point. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/11/15/airbnb-growth-story-has-a-plot-twist-a-saturation-point/ Ting, D. (2017b). Marriott and Choice Take Varied Approaches to Reviving Classic Midscale Brands. Skift. Zaleski, O. (2018). Airbnb and Niido to Open as Many as 14 Home-Sharing Apartment Complexes by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-14/airbnb-and-niido-to-open-as-many-as-14-home-sharing-apartment-complexes-by-2020 Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a Quality Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His work involves the extensive use of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand also serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In fall 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and also holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. Monica Gomez is a graduate student in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management from the University of Florida and has held previous internship positions in hotel operations and event management. She is a member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing International Association and is interested in hotel revenue management.
By Mike Oshins
Over the past 15-20 years, changes in hotel ownership and management, the growth and development of online reservation systems and the proliferation of lodging alternatives have altered the hospitality landscape, bringing new complexity to the industry. Two decades ago, a Marriott hotel was commonly owned and managed by Marriott; now, many are owned by one company, franchised with the Marriott name, and managed by a third company. While customers used to be able to pick up the phone and call a hotel’s reservations center or use their local travel agency to book a room, today online distribution systems like Expedia, Travelocity, and Kayak are powerful intermediaries that have all but replaced traditional consumer travel agencies. Travelers may choose among many alternatives to hotels for lodging, including AirBnB, HomeAway, Flipkey, and VBRO. Mergers and acquisitions continue to multiply, exemplified most notably by Marriott’s purchase of Starwood to create the world’s largest hotel company with 30 brands. Millennials’ preferences have pushed the development of new brands with new thinking about hotel design, as demonstrated with Hilton’s Tru, Best Western’s Vib and Glo chains, and Intercontinental’s EVEN.
Travel patterns have also changed. China has become the largest exporter of tourists in the world, totaling almost 100 million outbound travelers and representing almost one in ten tourists in the world. Chinese travelers also spent the most money, roughly $250 billion in 2015. For reference, the second highest spenders were Americans at $110 billion. In the U.S., national discussion about travel bans, new barriers to hiring non-domestic seasonal workers (a key element in New England’s summer tourist season), possible elimination of the national Brand USA marketing effort, and tenuous Cuba travel policies are all creating uncertainty in the tourism market. These changes and ambiguities present new challenges, both large and small, for the hospitality industry, requiring those at the forefront of the field to anticipate and respond to the subsequent fallout.
Prolific business author John Kotter states that the main role of leadership is dealing with change. Depending on how it’s viewed, with the appropriate perspective and pliancy, change can present an organization with new opportunities—the possibility of taking advantage of changing demographics, new technologies, or the emergence of new markets. Change can also raise dilemmas, such as the need to address new competitors, contend with a crisis or cope with a lack of available employees. Even before developing and implementing successful change management processes, organizational leaders must have the ability to recognize the opportunities and dilemmas presented by change and know how to think about them. To see the need for change, to identify new realities, either current or future, one must be able to view the big picture and the current climate in new ways. This ability to see the present and near future from a new vantage point is one of the main reasons General Electric (GE) CEO, Jeff Immelt, moved GE world headquarters to Boston’s expanding Seaport District. GE’s new home will “place his leadership team in a vibrant city with a world-renowned innovation scene, instead of in a wooded Connecticut suburb” (Boston Globe), thus giving his senior team a new perspective, and the opportunity to make closer connections with institutions able to stimulate new ideas and create a new pipeline for employees. Other than moving a $240 billion company’s world headquarters—something that’s not always feasible to achieve—how else can one enhance a leadership kit with tools for responding effectively to change? The ability to think more creatively, form new habits, change paradigms, reframe one’s perspective, and think differently by learning new ideas are all tools that can aid in addressing the first element of leading change, that is identifying that change is needed. The following examples highlight some of the ways one can learn to be more successful in thinking about and capitalizing on the opportunities presented by change.Creative Thinking
IBM interviewed 1500 CEOs around the world in 2010 and found Creativity is now the single most important leadership competency and is needed in all aspects of leadership. If one thinks in the same way as everyone else, the opportunity for new ideas (and new solutions) is limited. The irreverent and offbeat humor of Monty Python is captured in their tagline, “And now for something completely different!” Think Different! is the mantra for Steve Jobs and Apple, as eloquently explained in Simon Sinek’s Start with Why. Sir Ken Robinson, author and the holder of the top TED Talk Do Schools Kill Creativity, defines creativity as, “the process of having original ideas that have value.” There are many ways to increase creativity, including:
Creating a new habit or set of habits is another way to change how they see things. In his iconic 1989 book, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Stephen Covey illustrates how powerful an influence habits can be in their lives. Covey describes a habit as the intersection of knowledge, skill, and desire: “Knowledge is the what they do and why they do it [principles], desire is the motivation, the want to do, and skill is the how to do.” His seven habits—Be Proactive, Begin with the end in mind, Put first things first, Think win/win, Seek first to understand…then be understood, Synergize, and Sharpen the saw—provide a way of thinking and acting in business and life. By embracing these habits, one can maintain a better balance and create the opportunity to find new ways of looking at situations.
Charles Duhigg’s more recent bestseller, The Power of Habit, addresses the idea of habits as “why they do what they do in business and life.” Taking a psychological approach, Duhigg explores the theory of cues (something that triggers a habit), routines (actions taken in response to cues), and rewards (the positive experiences resulting from routines), which together comprise the habit loop. For example, Starbucks develops habits of willpower to help their staff deal with stressful times. Through role-playing, discussion, and feedback, they train employees how to react to a cue (e.g., an angry customer or a busy period) by choosing a certain routine ahead of time (e.g., remaining calm, looking for solutions, etc.). When an inflection point arrives (cue), employees are able to handle the situation smoothly, resulting in the reward of a satisfied customer and successful chaos management. In this scenario, Starbucks helps their staff create habits by helping them change how they approach and address dilemmas. One employee now thinks of his green Starbucks apron as a shield – when he puts it on, angry customers can no longer affect him!Reframing
“The power of reframing things can unlock a vast array of solutions to problems big and small,” states author Tina Seelig. She illustrates reframing using a classic scene from the Pink Panther movie (a hospitality example, no less).
Inspector Clouseau: Does your dog bite?
Hotel Clerk: No.
Clouseau [bowing down to pet the dog] Nice doggie.
[The dog bites Clouseau’s hand.]
Clouseau: I thought you said your dog did not bite!
Hotel clerk: That is not my dog.
We might be tempted to blame the clerk when the dog bites Clouseau, but the clerk’s final statement surprises us and causes us to consider the situation differently.
One of the key elements of reframing is to view a circumstance with a fresh perspective. In Tom Stoppard’s play, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, they see Shakespeare’s classic story of Hamlet through the lens of two minor characters, and in the Broadway hit Wicked, the Wizard of Oz story is interpreted from the witches’ perspectives, revealing a more complex and altered understanding of the Wicked Witch of the West and Glinda, the Good Witch. Reframing a situation allows the possibility of new lessons and solutions which otherwise may go unnoticed.
In their approach to reframing, authors Bolman and Deal use frames as a useful tool to make sense of organizations. The four frames, structural (emphasizing roles & policies), human resource (highlighting human needs, skills and relationships), political (focuses on power, conflict and competition) and symbolic (emphasizing culture, meaning, ceremonies and stories) offer different perspective on how to think about organizations. Each frame provides a different language and model in managing, evaluating, diagnosing and understanding and leading an organization. Altering the way in which they typically frame an organization can help us better communicate with those who interpret the organization differently. Viewing an organization from different frames may also unleash a variety of new ideas to address current or emerging dilemmas or raise up new opportunities to respond to change in their world.
Another example of reframing is illustrated, quite literally, in how they view the world. This spring, 600 classrooms in the Boston Public School system switched from teaching the traditional European-centric Mercator map, developed in the 1500s, to the Peters Projection map (1974), in which land masses are more accurately represented in relation (size and proximity) to one another. For example, using the Mercator map, Greenland and Africa appear the same size; in the Peters map, however, Africa, which is 14 times larger than Greenland, is more proportionally displayed. This idea was brought to mainstream US in a 2001 West Wing clip by the ‘cartographers for social equality’. At one point, when confronted with these new perspectives, a West wing official asked, “You mean Germany is not where they think it is?”— to which a cartographer responded, “Nothing is where you think it is.” The issue of perspective and change about their world, met with incredulity in a fictional drama, became reality this spring in Boston Public Schools.Paradigms Shifts
The Oxford Dictionary defines a paradigm as “a typical example or pattern of something; a pattern or model.” Scientist Thomas Kuhn introduced the concept of the paradigm shift in his influential 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Groundbreaking paradigm shifts include examples in areas as diverse as physics, health, and astronomy—think of what Galileo had to go though to convince royalty that the earth rotated around the sun (Copernicus theory) when most astronomers believed the reverse to be true. A paradigm shift changes how they look at things. Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling books focus on rethinking preconceived ideas, starting with his breakthrough 2006 book The Tipping Point and continuing with his more recent book David and Goliath, which offers several real life examples of when a perceived strength can be a weakness and a weakness… a strength. For example, an extraordinary high number of successful entrepreneurs are dyslexic, including Jet Blue founder David Neeleman. The challenge of dyslexia as a child may provide coping skills later in life – billionaire Sir Richard Branson of Virgin Air considers his dyslexia his greatest business advantage.
In business, paradigm shift examples include disruptive innovations (e.g., the Internet, mobile technology, and big data analytics), shifting global economies, climate change, employee and societal demands, and changing consumer preferences. Futurist Joel Barker explains that when a paradigm shift occurs, everything resets to zero, past successes guarantee nothing, and shifting business models shift to create new realities. For example, once-successful big box stores and corporations that could not adapt to the digital age, such as Borders Books, Blockbuster, and Kodak, went bankrupt. Compare these examples to Netflix, which was able to successfully navigate from their business model of renting DVDs through the mail to streaming movies and television shows over the internet to increase their market share. Flexibility to adapt to paradigm shifts is a powerful tool. As Charles Darwin explains in describing his iconic research: “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”Self-Reflection and Understanding
Shifting paradigms and changing one’s perspective starts with self-reflection: the better they understand ourselves, the better they can approach change. Daniel Goleman provides the multi-faceted framework of emotional intelligence, including two personal competencies (self awareness and self management) and two social competencies (relationship management and social awareness) that should be examined to help better understand moods and how they affect those around them. Peter Drucker asserts in order to be productive over a 50-year work-life it is important to cultivate a deep understanding of one’s self. He offers several penetrating questions in his Harvard Business Review article Managing Oneself, including “How do I work?” “Where do I belong?” and “What can I contribute?”
There are also many tools available to help provide insight into the ways in which they each view and navigate the world around us. With over two million Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessments being administered every year in more than 70 countries, this personality profile tool, based on the work of noted psychologist Carl Jung, continues to be wildly popular in helping people better understand themselves. Key MBTI elements include how they focus their energy (introversion vs. extroversion), the way they take in information (sensing vs. intuitive), make decisions (thinking vs. feeling) and their attitudes toward the external world and how they orient ourselves to it (view the world to be organized and orderly vs. flexible and be experienced). The Big Five personality traits, Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO), Thomas-Kilmann conflict mode instrument (TKI), and the Strong Interest inventory are all additional tools that can help analyze one’s preferences.
Identifying one’s personal values is also a strong trend in business today, with a plethora of instruments available for self-discovery. For example, after a two-day, internal values-clarification exercise, each member of the senior leadership team of the Vail Centre posts his/her top five values on the company’s website for everyone to see. Determining and focusing on one’s strengths rather than one’s weaknesses is the cornerstone approach to Gallop Poll and Don Clifton’s Strengthfinder 2.0. This self-assessment tool enables one to identify their top 5 of 34 different talent themes, from Achiever to WOO (winning others over). By better understanding one’s natural instincts, strengths, weaknesses and personal preferences, one can increase the likelihood to learn how other colleagues or customers from different backgrounds, cultures, generations or perspectives see things differently, enabling new approaches or frames to address change.
In his book, The Spirit to Serve, Marriott International founder J.W. Marriott, Jr. adopted 19th century philosophy Alfred North Whitehead’s perspective when developing the Marriott Way, “The art of progress is to preserve order amid change and to preserve change amid order.” The ability to think differently as the hospitality industry moves into uncharted territories—both nationally and internationally, within organizations and in local markets, online and in person—is becoming more important as change continues to evolve at a faster pace than ever before. Being nimble and open-minded enough to adapt, addressing challenges and/or seizing opportunities, will determine which companies wither away and which ones thrive. At the heart of these circumstances is the ability to recognize trends, realize the need for change and act on these situations in ways that navigate the needs of an organization, and its staff and customers. Mental flexibility, adaptability, creativity and personal awareness are key tools in this process that can help hospitality leaders see things from different perspectives, gain new insights, develop and pilot new ideas and better respond to an ever-changing world.
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Michael Oshins is Associate Professor of the Practice of Leadership in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. He is former Vice President of Integer Dynamics, a hospitality consulting firm focused on operational productivity and technology. He holds a doctorate in human resource education from Boston University and a master’s degree in hotel administration from Cornell University. Email: email@example.com References
By Tarik Dogru, Makarand Mody, and Courtney Suess
If you are in the hotel industry, chances are that Airbnb has come up in conversation at some point or another. The sharing economy phenomenon and the economic, social, and technological changes fueling its growth have challenged the hotel industry to rethink its experiential value proposition to the customer (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, in press). Airbnb founder and CEO Brian Chesky tweeted that “Airbnb hosted more than 2 million guests in the past New Year’s Eve,” and that with the last round of financing, which was $1 billion, Airbnb is now valued at $31 billion (Yurieff, 2017). As a result, Airbnb has been at the core of discussions in the world of hospitality and beyond, mainly due to its potential and uncalculated impacts. On one hand, Airbnb might have positive economic impacts on hospitality and tourism institutions, such as restaurants, bars, and other area attractions, through increases in income and job creations. On the other hand, potential adverse economic impacts of Airbnb cannot be overlooked: Airbnb might negatively affect the hotel industry, if visitors were to shift their demand from hotels to Airbnb accommodations. However, it is not yet clear whether Airbnb is taking a share of the existing hotel industry pie or increasing the size of the overall accommodations industry.
The results from the most comprehensive study analyzing the effects of Airbnb on the hotel industry showed that a 1% increase in Airbnb listings decreases hotel revenue by 0.05% (Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2016). Thus, although negative effects on hotel revenues by way of Airbnb were reported in this study, the magnitude of these effects was small in the given location of Texas. On the other hand, a study conducted in Korea showed that Airbnb does not affect hotel revenues at all (Choi, Jung, Ryu, Do Kim, & Yoon, 2015). A recent study conducted by Smith Travel Research (STR) in 13 global markets reported that Airbnb listings did not affect hotel demand and revenues (Haywood, Mayock, Freitag, Owoo, & Fiorilla, 2017).
While there are limited studies from which to draw definitive conclusions on the effects of Airbnb on the hotel industry, according to Mr. Chesky, Airbnb does not directly compete with the hotel industry. He claims that Airbnb guests are not typical hotel customers, but rather those who would have stayed with friends and family (Intelligence, 2017). Although Airbnb argues that it brings new visitors to destinations and that 70% of its listings are outside of hotel districts, a report by Morgan Stanley indicates that about 42% and 36% of Airbnb guests switched from hotels and bed and breakfasts respectively, whereas only 31% of Airbnb guests represent those who would have stayed with friends and family (Intelligence, 2017). Furthermore, a recent study conducted in Los Angeles showed that more than 60% of the properties listed on Airbnb are solely used for commercial purposes and thus are excluded from the residential real estate market (Lee, 2016). According to a recent report by CBRE, revenue generated by hosts renting out two or more units was about $1.8 billion, and hosts renting out ten or more units generated $175 million in 13 major US markets in 2016 (CBRE, 2017). Despite this massive amount of generated revenue, the hosts are generally not paying taxes on their properties.
While there seems to be free-riders on the market that take advantage of the sharing economy platforms like Airbnb by listing multiple properties, based on the current knowledge, it is still not clear whether Airbnb has an adverse effect on the hotel industry. The present study compares the hotel industry and Airbnb in terms of key performance metrics, including occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR, to determine whether and how Airbnb affects the hotel industry in Boston. Boston is a strong hotel market, but italso has a considerable and growing Airbnb supply, so it provides an excellent context for their analysis.
In their analyses, they treated Airbnb as an accommodation firm to analyze whether it is directly competing with hotels in Boston. Accordingly, the number of Airbnb units listed and the number of units rented (including entire homes and private and shared rooms) multiplied by the number of days in a specified time period constitute Airbnb supply and demand figures, respectively. Occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR were calculated following the same methodology used to calculate these statistics in hotel industry. The Airbnb and hotel data were provided by Airdna and STR, respectively. They analyzed data for the period between January 2015 and September 2016.ANALYSIS Comparing changes in supply and demand
Tables 1 and 2 present the supply, demand, and revenue statistics for Airbnb and hotels in the city of Boston during the analysis period.Table 1. Airbnb Supply and Demand Period Airbnb Supply % Change in Supply Airbnb Demand % Change in Demand Jan-15 79,110 N/A 575 N/A Feb-15 85,890 8.6 4,506 683.7 Mar-15 91,710 6.8 7,811 73.3 Apr-15 106,380 16.0 18,733 139.8 May-15 114,330 7.5 30,547 63.1 Jun-15 123,180 7.7 38,545 26.2 Jul-15 122,670 -0.4 51,378 33.3 Aug-15 119,580 -2.5 37,555 -26.9 Sep-15 128,730 7.7 51,757 37.8 Oct-15 142,470 10.7 41,011 -20.8 Nov-15 363,660 155.3 76,451 86.4 Dec-15 383,880 5.6 65,064 -14.9 Jan-16 380,910 -0.8 73,300 12.7 Feb-16 375,480 -1.4 101,409 38.3 Mar-16 372,540 -0.8 112,501 10.9 Apr-16 373,050 0.1 134,951 20.0 May-16 374,970 0.5 137,347 1.8 Jun-16 378,870 1.0 147,947 7.7 Jul-16 385,260 1.7 148,473 0.4 Aug-16 385,620 0.1 123,588 -16.8 Sep-16 390,270 1.2 107,690 -12.9 Table 2. Hotel Supply and Demand Period Hotel Supply % Change in Supply Hotel Demand % Change in Demand Jan-15 1,588,843 N/A 896,065 N/A Feb-15 1,436,512 -9.6 901,459 0.6 Mar-15 1,598,701 11.3 1,200,426 33.2 Apr-15 1,550,910 -3.0 1,216,283 1.3 May-15 1,605,304 3.5 1,328,932 9.3 Jun-15 1,558,800 -2.9 1,357,872 2.2 Jul-15 1,610,760 3.3 1,413,521 4.1 Aug-15 1,616,278 0.3 1,393,622 -1.4 Sep-15 1,564,170 -3.2 1,335,976 -4.1 Oct-15 1,616,340 3.3 1,394,364 4.4 Nov-15 1,564,170 -3.2 1,105,292 -20.7 Dec-15 1,616,309 3.3 906,619 -18.0 Jan-16 1,632,367 1.0 909,132 0.3 Feb-16 1,482,796 -9.2 895,546 -1.5 Mar-16 1,646,410 11.0 1,150,937 28.5 Apr-16 1,593,300 -3.2 1,273,368 10.6 May-16 1,650,409 3.6 1,303,974 2.4 Jun-16 1,603,050 -2.9 1,366,553 4.8 Jul-16 1,656,392 3.3 1,406,893 3.0 Aug-16 1,667,955 0.7 1,403,774 -0.2 Sep-16 1,622,130 -2.7 1,347,565 -4.0
The number of Airbnb listings has increased dramatically from 79,110 in January 2015 to 390,270 in September 2016. While the highest growth in hotel room supply was about 11% month-over-month (in March 2016), Airbnb supply experienced a phenomenal growth rate of 155% (in November 2015). Extraordinary changes in hotel room supply might be due to renovations and the completions of ongoing projects in the pipeline. However, the extreme supply shocks in the case of Airbnb are due to the greater flexibility of adding or removing existing residential properties in the market.
Changes in demand were greater than the changes in supply for both Airbnb and the hotel industry. Yet overall trends indicate that Airbnb experienced greater increases in demand as compared to the increases in the demand for hotel rooms. For example, Airbnb demand increased by 684%, 140%, and 33% in February, April, and July 2015 respectively, whereas hotel demand only increased by 0.6%, 1.3%, and 4.1% during these months. Although the changes in demand for Airbnb and the hotel industry during the analysis period were, for most part, in the same direction (albeit to varying degrees), there were some anomalies where the changes occurred in the opposite direction. For example, in September and November 2015, while hotel demand decreased by around 4% and 21% respectively, the demand for Airbnb accommodations increased by about 38% and 86% respectively. Also, demand for Airbnb accommodations decreased by 21% in October 2015, whereas hotel demand increased by 4% during the same period.Comparing Occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR
Tables 3 and 4 shows occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR statistics for Airbnb and hotels in the city of Boston during the analysis period.Table 3. Airbnb OCC-ADR-RevPAR Period Airbnb Occupancy Airbnb
ADRAirbnb RevPAR Jan-15 0.70 $158.86 $1.15 Feb-15 5.20 $133.05 $6.98 Mar-15 8.50 $153.44 $13.07 Apr-15 17.6 $161.00 $28.35 May-15 26.7 $134.61 $35.97 Jun-15 31.3 $186.51 $58.36 Jul-15 41.9 $180.12 $75.44 Aug-15 31.4 $142.24 $44.67 Sep-15 40.2 $183.34 $73.71 Oct-15 28.8 $171.78 $49.45 Nov-15 21.0 $151.97 $31.95 Dec-15 16.9 $149.88 $25.40 Jan-16 19.2 $142.60 $27.44 Feb-16 27.0 $160.89 $43.45 Mar-16 30.2 $156.35 $47.22 Apr-16 36.2 $158.33 $57.27 May-16 36.6 $160.96 $58.96 Jun-16 39.0 $187.26 $73.13 Jul-16 38.5 $176.45 $68.00 Aug-16 32.0 $145.23 $46.55 Sep-16 27.6 $159.41 $43.99 Table 4. Hotel OCC-ADR-RevPAR Period Hotel Occupancy Hotel
ADRHotel RevPAR Jan-15 56.4 $142.74 $80.50 Feb-15 62.8 $144.29 $90.55 Mar-15 75.1 $170.58 $128.08 Apr-15 78.4 $188.01 $147.44 May-15 82.8 $205.62 $170.22 Jun-15 87.1 $206.68 $180.04 Jul-15 87.8 $200.44 $175.90 Aug-15 86.2 $193.64 $166.96 Sep-15 85.4 $209.00 $178.51 Oct-15 86.3 $220.10 $189.87 Nov-15 70.7 $183.17 $129.43 Dec-15 56.1 $147.97 $83.00 Jan-16 55.7 $146.43 $81.55 Feb-16 60.4 $146.65 $88.57 Mar-16 69.9 $171.94 $120.20 Apr-16 79.9 $201.51 $161.04 May-16 79.0 $207.29 $163.78 Jun-16 85.2 $212.35 $181.02 Jul-16 84.9 $199.52 $169.47 Aug-16 84.2 $198.45 $167.02 Sep-16 83.1 $219.26 $182.15
Hotel occupancy rates decreased to 83% in September 2016 from 85% in the same period of the previous year, whereas Airbnb’s occupancy has seen a greater decrease from 40% to 28% in the same period. In February 2015, Airbnb’s occupancy was around 5% and reached about 28% in September 2016. While Airbnb experienced a dramatic increase in occupancy growth throughout the analysis period, these gains did not seem to affect the hotel industry’s occupancy rates.
Although hotel ADR was generally greater than that of Airbnb, Airbnb’s ADR figures were greater than hotel ADR in three months (January 2015, December 2015, and February 2016). Hotel ADR was $209 in September 2015 and increased to about $219 in September 2016. Despite the lower occupancy in hotels in September 2016 as compared to the same time in the previous year (September 2015), the RevPAR was comparatively higher even after correcting for inflation. (Note: The RevPAR increased from $75.17 to $75.58 based on 1982=100 prices.) A clear trend can be observed in hotel ADR and RevPAR figures through 2015, and this trend seemed to persist in 2016 in terms of the month-over-month growth rates. However, Airbnb ADR and RevPAR seemed to fluctuate throughout 2015 and do not seem to follow a seasonal movement. Indeed, supply and demand dynamics may have caused the changes in Airbnb ADR and RevPAR, where the equilibrium price is set within the Airbnb market. However, the lack of revenue management practices by Airbnb hosts might also have contributed to these fluctuations in ADR and RevPAR.
Hotel performance before and after the arrival of Airbnb
We further analyzed the hotel industry trends for Boston during last 12 years (presented in Table 5), both before and after Airbnb’s entry into the market, to determine whether Airbnb has an effect on hotel supply, demand, and revenue dynamics. The hotel room supply has continued to grow, which suggests that hotel industry seem to continue to grow despite the rise of the Airbnb. The hotel industry’s occupancy saw its lowest point in 2009 and reached over 85% in 2015. Although hotel occupancy experienced a few declines year over year, these decreases appear to be due to supply shocks. For example, in 2016, occupancy decreased by about 2.7%; however, supply growth was around 3.7%. That is, the decline cannot be entirely attributed to the growth in Airbnb. Despite the declines in occupancy, both ADR and RevPAR have continued to increase without a decline after the crisis period and around the arrival of Airbnb onto the scene (2008-2009), and reached their peak in September 2016.Table 5. Historical Hotel Dynamics Period Supply Demand Occupancy ADR RevPAR Sep-05 1418370 1092599 77.0 $143.85 $110.81 Sep-06 1460070 1095808 75.1 $152.20 $114.23 Sep-07 1472790 1164487 79.1 $165.97 $131.23 Sep-08 1492830 1105819 74.1 $171.52 $127.06 Sep-09 1504560 1091371 72.5 $143.20 $103.88 Sep-10 1512540 1176147 77.8 $155.26 $120.73 Sep-11 1512810 1225707 81.0 $162.31 $131.51 Sep-12 1528290 1208011 79.0 $170.08 $134.43 Sep-13 1538100 1251193 81.3 $180.20 $146.58 Sep-14 1537860 1306622 85.0 $202.38 $171.95 Sep-15 1564170 1335976 85.4 $209.00 $178.51 Sep-16 1622130 1347565 83.1 $219.26 $182.15 So, has Airbnb impacted hotel performance in Boston? The data suggests “no”!
Hotels were able to sell more rooms over the last 12 years—that is, more people stayed in hotels in 2016 compared to previous years, despite the demand that was captured by Airbnb. Although it is not clear whether the excess demand in the overall accommodations market was created solely because of Airbnb, the additional demand, at least to some extent, could have been accommodated by hotels in Boston. Hotels in the city have, on average, around 83% occupancy. Thus, for example, if the Airbnb guests were to be captured by the hotels in Boston, the average hotel occupancy would have been around 90% in September 2016. However, considering the fact that Airbnb’s ADR was lower than that of hotels ($159 vs. $219), hotels would probably have captured the Airbnb demand within this lower Airbnb price range. It should also be noted that, historically, the hotel occupancy in the Boston market has fluctuated between 74 and 85%. With this in mind, Airbnb does not seem to whip from the hotel industry’s market share, but rather seems to have created new demand. Although correlation does not indicate causation, the correlation coefficients between hotel and Airbnb supply, demand, revenue, occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR (presented in Table 6) also suggest that Airbnb does not seem to adversely affect the hotel industry in Boston.Table 6. Correlations Hotel Supply Hotel Demand Hotel Occupancy Hotel ADR Hotel RevPAR Airbnb Supply 0.386 Airbnb Demand 0.289 Airbnb Occupancy 0.716 Airbnb ADR 0.494 Airbnb RevPAR 0.358
Nevertheless, as Table 7 indicates, Airbnb has been able to increase its market share quite remarkably. In particular, Airbnb’s market share in terms of supply has increased from about 5% in January 2015 to about 19% of the overall accommodation market (i.e., available room nights) in September 2016. Theoretically, the Airbnb supply can be as large as the residential real estate market in a location. However, it takes a few years to develop a hotel and thus boost the hotel room supply in the market, so comparing the market share in terms of supply is less than ideal. Airbnb’s market share in terms of demand also shows significant growth, from less than 0.1% in January 2015 to more than 7% in September 2016. Despite Airbnb’s penetration into the market in terms of supply and demand, Airbnb’s market share in terms of revenues was only around 5.5% in September 2016. The lower market share in revenues is likely due to lower prices compared to those of hotels and the lack of revenue management practices by the Airbnb hosts. While a 5.5% market share in terms of revenue is considerable for a start-up like Airbnb, it should be highlighted that Airbnb seems to have created new demand by increasing the market size. They estimated approximately $15 million in tax obligations based on the revenues generated by Airbnb during 2015-2016, which is similar to the figures found in the recent CBRE report.Table 7. Airbnb Market Share Period Airbnb Market Share (Supply) Airbnb Market Share (Demand) Airbnb Market Share (Revenue) Jan-15 4.74% 0.06% 0.07% Feb-15 5.64% 0.50% 0.46% Mar-15 5.43% 0.65% 0.58% Apr-15 6.42% 1.52% 1.30% May-15 6.65% 2.25% 1.48% Jun-15 7.32% 2.76% 2.50% Jul-15 7.08% 3.51% 3.16% Aug-15 6.89% 2.62% 1.94% Sep-15 7.60% 3.73% 3.29% Oct-15 8.10% 2.86% 2.24% Nov-15 18.86% 6.47% 5.43% Dec-15 19.19% 6.70% 6.78% Jan-16 18.92% 7.46% 7.28% Feb-16 20.21% 10.17% 11.05% Mar-16 18.45% 8.90% 8.16% Apr-16 18.97% 9.58% 7.69% May-16 18.51% 9.53% 7.56% Jun-16 19.12% 9.77% 8.72% Jul-16 18.87% 9.55% 8.54% Aug-16 18.78% 8.09% 6.05% Sep-16 19.39% 7.40% 5.49%
While it is still not clear from their analysis whether the increase in overall demand was caused by Airbnb or other economic factors, the descriptive analyses presented in this study suggest that Airbnb does not seem to be competing directly with the hotel industry. However, this was an investigation of the overall hotel market with limited Airbnb data; further analysis is required to determine within-hotel industry effects (e.g. midscale, economy, luxury) and whether Airbnb has a greater impact on asset heavy hotel-REITs or asset-light hotel management and franchising companies (Dogru, 2017a).
Airbnb accommodations may provide substantial financial, economic, and social benefits to the city of Boston if the listings drive additional tourists to the city, which seems to be the case as suggested by their analyses. These benefits include but are not limited to generating additional tax revenues for cities and local governments, especially to neighborhoods not traditionally visited by guests staying within the hotel-dominated areas (Tussyadiah & Pesonen, 2016), and additional income for hosts, which would cause a surge in per capita income. Furthermore, during peak seasons or in the cases of mega-events like the Olympics, the availability of supplementary Airbnb rentals may be more beneficial than building hotels that will later not be utilized at optimal levels (Dogru, 2016, 2017b).
However, the positive economic impacts may not sufficiently compensate for the potential decline in residents’ quality of life. Airbnb could have an adverse impact on the quality of life of local residents in neighborhoods that contain Airbnb offerings because of nuisances and disruptions caused by visitors. Also, the increasing number of Airbnb listings might have undesirable effects on the residential housing market. Homeowners might simply turn their properties into Airbnbs if they believe they can make more money, which may exacerbate preexisting housing problems in metropolitan cities (Lee, 2016). There is little empirical evidence on the economic or social impacts of Airbnb to support either the proponents or the critics of Airbnb. Thus, the course and the magnitude of these impacts do not go beyond speculation for the time being. Moreover, the economic impacts of Airbnb might be better observed once the sharing economy market is regulated. Therefore, further investigations are necessary to measure the economic and social impacts of Airbnb.Summary of key findings
PDF Version Available HereTarik Dogru earned his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from University of South Carolina, and holds Master’s degree in Business Administration from Zonguldak Karaelmas University in Turkey.Prior to joining the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration faculty, he was an adjunct faculty at University of South Carolina (2013-2016) and research assistant at Ahi Evran University (2009-2012) in Turkey. He has taught a variety of courses, including Economics, Finance, Accounting, Hospitality, and Tourism in business and hospitality schools. He is a Certified Hospitality Educator (CHE) and holds Certification in Hotel Industry Analytics (CHIA) from American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute. Tarik’s research interests span a wide range of topics in hospitality finance, corporate finance, behavioral finance, real estate investment trusts (REITs), hotel investments, tourism economics, and climate change. Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a Quality Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His work involves the extensive use of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand also serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In fall 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and also holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland.
Courtney Raeisinafchi, Ph.D spent 6 years designing and developing hotels and restaurants with Jordan Mozer and Associates, Ltd., an architecture firm based in Chicago, IL, after completing a bachelors degree at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago where she studied architecture. Some notable projects she was involved in includes Marriott’s Renaissance Hotel, Times Square and Hotel 57 in Manhattan, NY; both hotels have received the International Hotel , Motel and Restaurant Society’s Golden Key Awards for Best hotel design. While drafting new proposals for hospitality projects for Jordan Mozer and Associates in Southeast Asia, she began a masters degree, studying hospitality administration, at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) in Singapore. After graduating, she continued to complete her doctoral degree in Hospitality Administration at UNLV in Las Vegas and studied towards a second masters degree in architecture at UNLV’s School of Architecture. Courtney joined the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration in 2013. She teaches the Design and Development Class as well as Lodging Operations and Technology. She is an active quantitative researcher on the topics of hospitality development and built environments, as well as design and atmospherics impacts on consumer behavior. References
By Tarik Dogru and Osman Pekin
The sharing economy has become a major phenomenon; Airbnb, Uber, ZipCar, Kickstarter and many more comprise the rapidly expanding list of pioneers in the world of the sharing economy. This new concept has introduced an alternative platform for consumers, widely known as peer-to-peer marketplace, in which participants are motivated by the idea of “what’s mine is yours” (Botsman, 2010). Unlike traditional businesses, the concept of the sharing economy is a two-way street wherein users at both ends can benefit either as consumers, suppliers, or both. Sharing economy platforms allow people to share their underutilized properties through user-friendly websites or mobile applications with relatively lower transaction costs and usually at a lower rate compared to those of traditional businesses. Thus, many people have started to participate in sharing economy platforms because of the economic and financial benefits it provides both for consumers and suppliers. In particular, these platforms provide cost-saving benefits and convenience to the consumers, while allowing suppliers to generate extra income (Mohlmann, 2015).
Participants of sharing economy platforms, however, have indicated that social benefits are more important than the economic and financial benefits that sharing economy platforms provide (Tapio & Airi, 2015). Indeed, consumers may perceive differently the value of services offered through sharing economy platforms than they do the value of traditional businesses. For example, consumers may value the sociability, trustworthiness, and friendliness of their Airbnb hosts and the experience they enjoy during their stay (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, in press). However, the value placement might be more closely tied to the dollars consumers spend. That is, the way consumers perceive the benefits from goods and services is likely to be different in sharing economy platforms. While traditional businesses are slow to keep up with these changes, the mutually beneficial characteristics of sharing economy platforms seem to be one of the main reasons behind the significant growth of the sharing economy marketplace, which is now considered a major threat by traditional businesses.
Airbnb, the largest accommodation firm in the sharing economy marketplace, has about 3 million listings, including entire homes, shared rooms, and private rooms, which is more than world’s largest three hotel chains combined (IHG, Marriott, Hilton, 2.58 M listings). Over five years, it hosted about 50 million guests, 30 millions of whom were hosted in 2015 alone (Airbnb Summer Travel Report, 2015). In a recent report, STR showed that Airbnb currently has around 9% of the market share in terms of supply. Although Airbnb supply dynamics are much more flexible than those of traditional accommodations, such a large supply capacity might create a substantial threat to the lodging industry (Haywood et al., 2017).The remarkable volume of listings and record-breaking growth in number of guests has caused Airbnb to be recognized as a “disruptor” for the lodging industry (Guttentag, 2015). Critics of the sharing economy argue that if Airbnb did not exist or if it were to operate by the same rules that traditional lodging firms do, then most, if not all, of the room nights would be booked in traditional hotels. In a recent study, researchers found that a one percent increase in the number of Airbnb listings decreased hotel room revenue by 0.5% in Texas (Zervas, Byers, & Proserpio, 2017). These results provided support for the concerns expressed by stakeholders in the lodging industry that the growth of sharing economy platforms is likely to adversely affect the lodging industry’s revenue stream. Furthermore, if the hotel demand were to be shifted to Airbnb, hotel developments in the pipeline might create an overinvestment problem in the market (Dogru, 2017a).
The impact of Airbnb on large lodging corporations’ revenue streams does not necessarily suggest that Airbnb will disrupt the overall economy or local economies. In other words, despite the potential adverse effects of the sharing economy on traditional business platforms, the sharing economy could instead provide positive economic benefits for local communities and the tourism industry by generating new jobs and new sources of income (Fang, Ye & Law 2015). According to an economic impact study conducted by Airbnb, guests spent $352 on average in the neighborhood where they stayed, supporting 490 jobs with an overall economic impact of $51 million from July 2013 to June 2014. The company also suggests that this sharing economy platform helped conserve energy equivalent to 220 homes in Boston during this period. Similar findings were also reported in other major cities in the US and around the world. Although these reports might be biased and independent studies should be conducted to determine the economic impact of Airbnb, these findings point out the flip-side of the coin and provide insight about potential positive impacts of the sharing economy on local economies.
Regardless of the potential economic, social, and environmental impacts, whether they be positive or negative, Airbnb should be considered one of the major competitors in the lodging industry, considering its market share and value (Dogru, 2017b). Recent efforts of the lodging industry to “ensure [regulatory] legislation in key markets” suggest that the industry indeed considers Airbnb to be such a major competitor (Benner, 2017). Therefore, understanding what drives consumers to book Airbnb accommodations becomes necessary for the hotel industry in developing strategies to compete with Airbnb. The physical (i.e., space, location, amenities, etc.) and non-physical (i.e., sociability, trustworthiness, friendliness, etc.) attributes, which are reflected on the price of the Airbnb accommodations, may play a crucial role on Airbnb guests’ decision making. In other words, the price of Airbnb properties is determined based on the value consumers place on the attributes of Airbnb accommodations. Therefore, examining the price determinants of Airbnb properties may play a crucial role in understanding the factors that drive the growth of the sharing economy based accommodation services. This study examines the price determinants of Airbnb properties listed in the city of Boston using the hedonic pricing approach.
Studies that have investigated the pricing determinants of sharing economy-based services are limited. A number of studies have examined the effects of reviews, ratings, and host photos on the prices of Airbnb accommodations. Hosts awarded a “Superhost” badge, a status given to hosts with a good standing and excellent service standards, post their properties at higher prices, especially when they receive more reviews and higher ratings (Liang, Schuckert, Law & Chen 2017). Furthermore, studies have shown that guests determine the trustworthiness of hosts from their photos and are willing to book more expensive Airbnb properties if the hosts seem to be trustworthy. However, online reviews and ratings did not appear to have an effect on the listing price (Ert, Fleischer, & Magen, 2015). These results can be attributed to the fact that, on average, Airbnb hosts have a rating of 4.5 out of 5, which is very extreme compared to hotel firms’ ratings (Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2015). Analyzing the price determinants of Airbnb accommodations in 33 cities, where demand and supply dynamics for accommodation services are likely to be different, Wang and Nicolau (2017) found results similar to those of the hotel industry (see e.g., Chen & Rothschild, 2010).
In general, factors related to the site and property characteristics, amenities, services, rental rules, and customer reviews significantly affect the prices of sharing economy-based accommodations. In particular, Airbnb listings that offer amenities such as real beds, wireless Internet, and free parking had higher prices compared to those that lacked these amenities. Although the city of Boston was included in this study, the time period studied was limited to October 2015, and Boston was defined as the greater Boston area. In their study, they analyzed the price determinants of Airbnb accommodations in the city of Boston, and they included properties listed during the period of January, 2015 to September, 2016. Although the price determinants might vary greatly from one city to another, the former study analyzed these determinants using aggregate data from 33 cities around the globe. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a city-level analysis to identify the price determinants more accurately.Analysis
The data was obtained from Airdna, which is a company that provides data and analytics to entrepreneurs, investors, and academic researchers (Airdna, 2017). Airbnb listings with no reviews were removed from their analysis in order to provide more accurate estimates, as Airbnb listings with at least one review will be closer to the market equilibrium price. The final sample consisted of 2,699 Airbnb properties listed between 2015 and 2017. Table 1 presents the summary statistics of the dependent and independent variables used in this study, along with minimum and maximum values of these variables where applicable.Table 1. Summary Statistics Variables Mean Std. Dev. Minimum Maximum Dependent Variable Published Rate 215.12 214.17 10 10,000 Space Attributes Entire Home 0.70 0.45 Private Room 0.27 0.44 Shared Room 0.03 0.17 Quality Attributes Cleaning Fee 0.70 0.45 Overall Rating 92 9.40 20 100 Number of Reviews 18 32.31 1 374 Number of Photos 12 9.19 0 105 Superhost Badge 0.09 0.28 Friendliness Pets allowed 0.12 0.33 Handicap Accessible 0.06 0.24 Family Friendly 0.46 0.49 Freebies Kitchen 0.94 0.23 Washer 0.69 0.46 Dryer 0.69 0.46 Free Parking 0.05 0.22 Breakfast Included 0.06 0.23 Commerciality Attributes Suitable for Events 0.04 0.19 Business Ready 0.17 0.38 Hosts with Multiple units 18.34 45.65 1 242 Location Distance from City Center 3.25 1.39 0.19 7.24
The dependent variable, the published nightly room rate, averages $215 in the city of Boston and ranges anywhere between $10 and $10,000. They classified the attributes of Airbnb accommodations, which are the independent variables of this study, into six categories. Exhibit 1 shows the attributes of a luxury Airbnb accommodation in Boston.
Space attributes include entire homes, private rooms, and shared rooms. According to these results, 70% and 27% of the Airbnb listings are entire homes and private rooms, respectively, whereas only 3% of Airbnb listings are shared rooms. Exhibits 2, 3, and 4 illustrate examples of Airbnb listings in Boston.
Quality attributes consist of the cleaning fee, overall ratings, number of reviews, number of photos, and the Superhost Badge status. A major percentage (70%) of Airbnb hosts require a cleaning fee. While overall ratings vary greatly between 20 and 100, on average hosts receive an overall rating of 92. Further analysis showed that there were only 242 hosts with an overall rating below 80. The data for the number of reviews indicates the number of times an Airbnb property was booked, since only people who have stayed in a property are allowed to provide a review. On average, Airbnb hosts had 18 reviews or stays during the study period. Airbnb hosts on average posted 12 photos of their properties, and only 9% of the hosts had the Superhost status.
Friendliness attributes define whether the property listed is pet-friendly, handicap accessible, and family-friendly. Only 12% of the properties studied allow pets. While 46% of the Airbnb properties listed in Boston are family-friendly, only 6% are handicap accessible.
In general, a kitchen and laundry services are the amenities most commonly offered in an Airbnb property. In Boston, 94% and 69% of the hosts offered access to a kitchen and the use of washer and dryer, respectively. Furthermore, the percentage of Airbnb hosts who offered free parking and free breakfast were about 5 and 6%, respectively.
As they define it, the commerciality category includes attributes like suitability for events, business-readiness, and hosts with multiple units. Only 4% of the Airbnb properties are suitable for events and about 17% are business-ready. On average, a host has 18 units listed on Airbnb. More strikingly, some hosts in Boston have 242 properties, whether they be entire homes, private rooms, or shared rooms, listed for rent.
The last attribute category is the location, which represents the geographic distance of an Airbnb property from the city center. Distance from the city center seems to be low—3.25 miles on average—suggesting that most of the properties are in close proximity to the city center, which may create a convenience to the guests.
We examined the price determinants of Airbnb properties utilizing the ordinary least squares regression technique. In particular, they analyzed the effects of space, quality, commerciality, friendliness, freebies, and location factors on the nightly published rate of Airbnb listings. Table 2 presents these results.Table 2. Price Determinants of Airbnb Accommodations (1) (2) (3) (4) Space Attributes Coefficient t-statistics Significance Relative Entire Home 0.88 15.60 *** 141% Private Room 0.25 4.33 *** 28% Quality Attributes Cleaning Fee 0.16 8.14 *** 17% Overall Rating 0.005 5.38 *** 0.5% Number of Reviews -0.001 -8.00 *** -0.4% Number of Photos 0.01 10.11 *** 1% Superhost Badge 0.05 1.80 * 5% Friendliness Pet friendly -0.02 -0.72 -2% Handicap Accessible 0.11 3.26 *** 11% Family Friendly 0.10 5.43 *** 10% Freebies Kitchen -0.15 -3.73 *** -14% Washer 0.06 1.04 6% Dryer 0.10 1.71 * 10% Free Parking -0.002 -0.06 -0.2% Free Breakfast 0.11 2.88 *** 11% Commerciality Attributes Suitable for Events 0.06 1.52 6% Business Ready -0.04 -1.88 * -4% Hosts with Multiple units 0.001 6.25 *** 0.1% Location Distance from City Center -0.01 -1.84 * -1% Notes: The dependent variable is published nightly rate. ***, **, and * denotes 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1% statistical significance level respectively.
Key findings can be summarized as follows.
The motives driving people to stay in Airbnb accommodations are yet to be determined for certain. Although Airbnb guests might place more value on the sociability, trustworthiness, and friendliness of their Airbnb hosts and the experience, Airbnb guests are, to some extent, economically motivated. That is, Airbnb guests might be specifically comparing Airbnb and traditional hotels for cost-saving purposes. The results of their study showed that Airbnb guests place more value on space, cleanliness, number of photos, handicap accessibility, family friendliness, free breakfast, location, and unique experiences. Based on this information, hotel firms might focus on these factors to attract guests from Airbnb’s consumer base.
Airbnb guests pay more for space and privacy, despite the conception that the sharing economy is a social platform wherein participants are motivated by potential social interactions. While such social interactions may still occur when guests rent entire homes, they either value privacy and hence do not want to live with the host, or they value the space because they are traveling in big groups and they require more area in which to spread out. Despite the potential economic gains, Airbnb guests seem to pay extra for cleanliness. Specifically, Airbnb guests pay an additional cleaning fee that may range between $5 and $700 and also pay 17% higher rates compared to properties that do not require cleaning fees. Airbnb guests pay less for properties that allow access to the kitchen, suggesting that these properties are regular apartments, condos, and houses and that Airbnb guests are not likely to pay extreme prices for staying in such properties. The price difference might rather be due to the rate deviation within Airbnb listings, where unique properties, such as treehouses, villas, and yachts, are posted and guests pay more for the experience. However, further research is required to analyze this issue. Airbnb guests also appreciate and pay more for more photos of the Airbnb properties; however, they pay lower rates for Airbnb properties that seem to have commercial purposes. Previous studies have shown that Airbnb hosts do not seem to utilize revenue management practices, which serve to maximize hosts’ profits, but rather list their properties around the median market price (Tapio Ikkala & Airi Lampinen, 2015). Their results may guide Airbnb hosts in determining their properties’ rates. For example, Airbnb hosts may offer free breakfast and hence increase their rates by about 10%.
In conclusion, Airbnb guests pay higher rates for space, quality, friendliness, and unique experiences. To compete with Airbnb properties, traditional hotels should create more opportunities for unique experiences, post more photos of the hotel and guest rooms and provide a family-friendly environment. In particular, hotel firms might offer alternative packages to attract Airbnb guests, especially when operating at lower occupancies. Hence, it may be the time for hotels to include Airbnb in their competitive sets or regularly track Airbnb demand and supply dynamics, especially in the markets with a large Airbnb presence.
PDF Version Available HereTarik Dogru earned his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from University of South Carolina, and holds Master’s degree in Business Administration from Zonguldak Karaelmas University in Turkey.Prior to joining the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration faculty, he was an adjunct faculty at University of South Carolina (2013-2016) and research assistant at Ahi Evran University (2009-2012) in Turkey. He has taught a variety of courses, including Economics, Finance, Accounting, Hospitality, and Tourism in business and hospitality schools. He is a Certified Hospitality Educator (CHE) and holds Certification in Hotel Industry Analytics (CHIA) from American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute. Tarik’s research interests span a wide range of topics in hospitality finance, corporate finance, behavioral finance, real estate investment trusts (REITs), hotel investments, tourism economics, and climate change.
Osman Pekin is a recent graduate from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration. As a student he served as a research assistant and accounting tutor while working as a Food and Beverage Supervisor at the Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel. References
By Christopher Muller
What is a restaurant?
In today’s omni-channel foodservice system what exactly does it mean to say something is a restaurant meal? Does it mean a full formal dining experience with a chef-prepared customized meal, presented by a waiter to a guest at a table with a white tablecloth or can it be a hand-made burrito delivered by a kid on a bicycle working for a third party service directly to your front door?
Ultimately the question comes down to determining the two main components of a restaurant, food and service. For the food the questions are: how fresh is it; what form is it in; and how close to immediately edible is the preparation of each meal? For the service the main question is: how much supplier labor intensity is required versus how much consumer labor intensity is necessary?The Evolution of Form and Function
Just a few decades ago the restaurant experience was divided into only two categories, Full Service (or “white table cloth”) and Limited Service (or “counter service’) restaurants. Both were built on the requirement that food was personally served by someone to the consumer, typically in a very structured menu format, inside a simple square meter of physical space. The diner was expected to have a working knowledge of this system: being informed of the hand crafted preparation in the kitchen by the trained chef or a skilled short-order cook; the nature of the logical flow of the courses as they were presented; and how to order and pay (including how to properly leave a tip). For the vast majority of customers this was something done only on special occasions or when dining away from home, and could be too intimidating to master.
Then in the mid-1950’s came a new upstart, the Fast-Food or Quick Service Restaurant, which by being systems based and not chef driven created a new approach to how consumers viewed the dining experience. In a disruption of tradition, both the composition and order of the meal (“…if I want to eat my fries before my burger, who cares?”) and the concept of self service (“…no waiter, no tipping, I’ll gladly clear my own table”) were controlled by the consumer, not the supplier. Much of the food was prepared in an off-site facility and assembled to order or batch cooked by semi-skilled kitchen workers. Once the drive-thru window came into play, the need to even get out of the car for a meal disappeared (“…is my front seat a restaurant?”). Anyone could use this system at any time during the day. While the QSRs were not originally considered “real” restaurants, dining out became an easy and every day option.
During the 1990’s the market saw the explosion of the Casual Theme restaurant which took all of the formality out of Fine Dining, including the white table cloth, and significantly sped up the dining process. Table service was still an integral part of the experience but with less personal connection to the waiter as food was often delivered by a runner directly from the kitchen. Standardized meal choices were assembled on-site by slightly more skilled journeymen led by a kitchen manager instead of a chef, who used a mass customization process to match the individual desires of the consumer.
In the last decade the Fast Casual restaurant came to the attention of the consumer public. This new hybrid is a mix of the self-service from fast food with the consumer selection options presented by a traditional cafeteria system. Table service is replaced by a modified multi-phase counter service with customers being given more customizable options, whether by a barista or a burrito-maker. This customization is made possible with the return of an on-site short-order cook who assembles to order food which has the appearance of being hand-crafted, but is prepared in a batch style and often brought in from an off-site commissary.
This brings us up to date where they are witnessing an explosion of segments and dining choice. Today they see a marketplace of narrow segments (Casual Elegance, Food Trucks, Grab & Go, Build Your Own, GastroPub, Convenience Store, Market Hall, Delivery) and other fine grained niches that defy simple categorization. For example, Panera Bread is a leader in the fast casual segment while filling the role of the top retail bakery/café offer. But it also leads in the technology of smartphone based customized take-out. The top of the food chain for fine dining is at one and the same time a celebrity chef-driven stratospheric offering such as Keller’s French Laundry or a standardized, national prime aged steakhouse chain like Del Frisco. For the dining public, what exactly does Casual Elegance mean except that there are no tablecloths, there is a wine list and expensive cocktails, no chef and the wait staff wear logos on their shirts? What really is the difference if I buy a packaged turkey sandwich at a Pret a Manger, at a 7 Eleven, or at a Whole Foods?Where Are They Heading?
So, the answer to the question “what is a restaurant?” can really only be answered with “it depends.” What does it depend on- mainly how the dining public continues to redefine how, when, why, where and what a meal actually is? Is a smart phone a modern day vending machine? Is a communal table in a market hall a dining room? Is a “sous vide” pouch heated by a chef in a two-star restaurant a freshly prepared dinner? Is Chef Chang’s Ando really a restaurant or just a conceptual kitchen? Are Just Eat, Grub Hub, Deliveroo, Uber Eats and Amazon Prime just waiters expanding the last square meter of personal restaurant service? The answers are probably all yes.
When someone wants to eat, it might be better to ask “what isn’t a restaurant?”A Restaurant Taxonomy for 2017 If I Bring It Home To Reheat For Dinner Tomorrow, Is It A Restaurant Meal?
Photo Source: Olive GardenIs Eataly a restaurant or a market?
Source: Creative Commons / Mary CrosseWhat Does It Mean If My Pizza Restaurant Is On My iPhone?
Photo Source: Pizza Hut Mobile App ScreenshotIf I Pick Lunch Up In 10 Minutes And Eat In My Office Is It A Restaurant Meal?
Photo Source: Panera Bread Mobile App ScreenshotHow About Dinner Arriving Via UberEats in 3 Minutes To My Front Door?
Photo Source: UberIs It Really A Restaurant, Chef Chang? Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the Practice of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email firstname.lastname@example.org
PDF Version Available Here.Airbnb’s offer an at-home atmosphere and depending on the host, includes a variety of unique amenities at an affordable price. (Photo by Getty Images, Britta Pedersen)
By Makarand Mody
No one can deny that the hotel industry has a fight on its hands when it comes to the peer-to-peer accommodation market. A recent PWC report showed that while 6% of the US population has participated in the sharing economy for the hospitality industry as a consumer; 1.4% has served as a provider. Following a series of acquisitions, Airbnb is the undoubtedly the hotel industry’s biggest competitor. While much of the discussion that follows uses Airbnb as an example, the underlying logic applies to the broader concept of the sharing economy and its implications for the hotel industry.
Some veterans in the hotel industry have tried to shrug off the emerging threat by highlighting that the sharing economy is a “fundamentally different business” model, serving a whole new set of consumers, and thus not a direct competitor. A recent analysis by Smith Travel Research of Airbnb’s impact on New York City’s five boroughs seems to support this claim by highlighting that “Airbnb might be filling a void in the New York City market by providing a different lodging option at a much lower price point”. Concurrently, the analysis points to the fact that “it is difficult to deny that some demand might be moving from hotels to Airbnb”. An American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) report about Airbnb host activity found that the most successful and valuable hosts on the site are a rapidly growing class of micro-entrepreneurs – full time hosts and multiple-unit operators, accounting for around 65% of Airbnb’s $1.3 billion revenue in its top 12 markets. There seems to be increasing evidence that the greater room supply created by Airbnb has helped restrain prices that traditional hotels can charge in some markets. Such statistics have resulted in the hotel industry crying foul about not having a level playing field on various accounts, from occupancy taxes to sharing economy providers skirting health and safety standards. Cities and other jurisdictions across the country are engaged in their own efforts to regulate the sharing economy.Consumers are getting more comfortable with the idea of becoming Airbnb hosts with their own properties. In Cuba, Airbnb has found booming success as locals become private entrepreneurs. (Photo by Getty Images/Yamil Lage0)
Meanwhile, sharing economy operators continue along their way to intensify their fight for the hotel industry’s customers. Now that more consumers themselves comfortable hosting, the supply of operators like Airbnb seems to be growing exponentially, offering renters an unprecedented range of accommodation choices, from a US$15 per night spot on the couch to an $8,000 per night mansion on a sprawling 100-acre property (and everything in between). Consistent with the theory of the Travel Career Ladder (suggested by Philip Pearce and his colleagues), while younger leisure consumers often travel on a tight budget using the sharing economy, tastes and preferences become more expensive as these consumers become older and more settled. Just like hotel companies have their loyalty programs that capture travelers as they progress through their life-cycles by offering a variety of different brands, operators such as Airbnb seem to be performing well at the differentiation game.What About the Business Traveler?
The business traveler market is expanding for sharing economy providers. While travelers working for themselves or small companies were the most likely professionals to use the sharing economy, more business travelers are using these platforms when big trade shows have filled city hotel rooms; in fact, that’s how Airbnb was originally birthed Recognizing these patterns, Airbnb recently launched its Business Travel Ready initiative that identifies specific listings with a Business Travel badge, indicating that the hosts are providing additional amenities suitable for business travelers. These amenities range from ironing boards to fire alarms and CO2 detectors. The company also formed a partnership with a leading meeting planning management company, Experient, for adding Airbnb room blocks to official MICE event room inventory (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and Events), and providing metrics about booking patterns. There also seems to be an increasing “official” acceptance of the company: the San Francisco Tourism Board recently partnered with the company to provide neighborhood tourism materials for local businesses to help attract Airbnb guests. Such official recognition by Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO) is likely to further intensify the hotel industry’s efforts to impose regulations on the sharing economy.Airbnb is finding both opposition and support in cities all over the world. In October 2015, New York City residents showed support for Airbnb while the city council debated on how to regulate the company. The San Francisco Tourism Board recently partnered with the company to provide neighborhood tourism materials for local businesses to help attract Airbnb guests. (Photo by Getty Images/Andrew Burton) Hotels Advantages vs. Airbnb’s Sense of Community
There are factors that remain in favor of hotels: for reasons of security, hygiene, and uncertain and fluctuating quality, consumers familiar with the sharing economy are 34% more likely to trust a leading hotel brand than Airbnb. A spate of safety-related incidents is likely to keep this statistic in favor of hotels: from the horror story of Jacob Lopez, who was allegedly sexually assaulted and locked in his room in a Madrid Airbnb, to the company being sued by a woman over an alleged hidden camera in a rented apartment, there is likely to be a population of skeptics who are unlikely to rent from strangers. However, the immense popularity of the concept is supported by a host of economic, social, and technological changes in society. A Skift report found these changes to encompass issues pertaining to amenities, diversity and local experiences, a “personal concierge”, a “home away from home” experience, and the ability to develop personal connections/a sense of community. These varied experiential value propositions are evidenced in Airbnb’s strategic platform of “Belong Anywhere”, and, more recently, “Don’t Go There. Live There”; propositions that are changing the way tourists travel within the United States and outside. Thus, while regulation of the sharing economy is likely to level the playing field to a certain extent, the hotel industry must also look to contend with the underlying experiential drivers of consumption that are fueling the popularity and growth of the sharing economy.Airbnb Research and Training
According to Chip Conley, the inventor of the boutique hotel aesthetic and Airbnb’s Head of Global Hospitality and Strategy, the company’s focus on enhancing the guest experience lies at the very heart of its strategic plans for the future. Airbnb has created a hospitality lab in Dublin to provide training to hosts on standards, and to study hosts and guests together in a physical space in an effort to enhance its experiential offerings. The company has also experimented with providing add-on services such as full-service cleaning and stocking facility for hosts in cities such as New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. Recently, Airbnb has been testing hotel-style packaging and amenities – such as local treats, wines, and upgraded bath products – in a select number of highly rated listings in Sonoma, California, to broaden its appeal to travelers who prefer more of a blend of a traditional hotel stay and that of an Airbnb: the comforts of a hotel stay like special amenities and treats as well as instant booking, combined with the more personalized, peer-to-peer, local experience that the Airbnb platform facilitates. Such efforts indicate Airbnb’s intention to turn itself into a full-blown hospitality brand, one that delivers a seamless end-to-end experience when its customers travel. While the company initially disrupted the hospitality business by serving as a provider of alternative accommodation, it is now trying to take this disruption to the next level by competing along the lines of the guest experience.Applying Extended Framework of the Experience Economy
At such a time, the Pine and Gilmore’s seminal concept of the experience economy can be immensely useful to hotel companies looking to fight back against its sharing economy competitors. When high level product and service quality can no longer be used to differentiate choices for consumers, hotel companies must focus on creating unique, memorable experiences in order to develop a distinct value-added provision for products and services that have already achieved a consistent, high level of functional quality. To demonstrate how this can be done, I not only refer to Pine and Gilmore’s framework but rather extend the four realms of experience to eight realms. Examples are highlighted of what sharing economy providers, especially Airbnb, and hotel companies are doing right in each of these realms that the industry as a whole can learn from and incorporate into their own experience creation efforts. These eight realms are represented in the extended framework of the experience economy.Extended Framework of the Experience Economy (adapted from Pine and Gilmore, 1999)
Pine and Gilmore’s four original dimensions include education, escapism, esthetics, and entertainment. While education and escapism are classified as active dimensions in which participants personally affect the performance or event that becomes part of his or her experience i.e. there is an interactive engagement of the mind and/or the body, esthetics and entertainment are passive dimensions in which participants do not directly affect or alter the nature of the environment presented to them. To these, I add four additional dimensions (highlighted in blue) that capture the essence of the type of experience that the sharing economy aims and claims to facilitate: two active dimensions of localness and “communitas”, and two passive dimensions of hospitableness and personalization. While these dimensions are not exclusive to the sharing economy, providers such as Airbnb attempt to make them their own by providing for and emphasizing these dimensions in how they develop products and communicate their experiences.
Getaway, a startup concept of the Millenial Housing Lab, builds tiny houses, currently outside the Boston and New York City areas, places them on beautiful rural land and rents them by the night to city dwellers looking to escape the digital grind and test-drive tiny house living. The sense of adventure is maintained by the fact that the exact location is only provided to travelers after the booking is completed, serving as a perfect example of Escapism for couples, writing weekends, or those looking to “put a dent in a stack of unread books”. onefinestay is an example of the sharing economy at work from an Esthetics perspective. It offers over 2,500 luxury vacation apartments in London, New York, Paris, Los Angeles, and Rome, each one handpicked for space, character, comfort, and a distinctive design aesthetic. It differs from other sharing economy concepts like Airbnb in that each home is selected for inclusion into the brand’s curated portfolio based on exacting standards of architecture and design. The Liberty Hotel in Boston, part of Starwood’s Luxury Hotel Collection, leverages the Entertainment dimension of the hotel experience by engaging guests into the creative flow of high fashion in Boston. Fashionably Late Thursdays is a weekly event that showcases the collection of a fashion designer or seasonal fashions from a major retailer in a live fashion show format. The show begins at 10 pm, followed by music, mingling, and signature mixes from the bar. Airbnb’s new positioning, “Live There”, focuses on moving the brand beyond stays to creating experiences, which include Education(al) activities in neighborhoods and communities. For example, Ranida, a Thai native and hospitality management grad, working and living in San Francisco, offers 3 hour long group-based authentic Thai food cooking classes, allowing guests and locals alike to learn a new cuisine from someone with a passion for cooking and teaching.
Airbnb’s previous positioning of “Belong Anywhere”, which the company is using to supplement “Live There”, is centered around creating the sense of community and belonging that its travelers seek. Living in someone’s home naturally involves individuals putting themselves out there to meet new people. Airbnb has cleverly used this simple but powerful idea to position itself as a platform that helps people break barriers and truly leverage the socially transformative power of travel. Its sharing economy competitor, HomeAway, on the other hand, claims to offer the most comprehensive selection of rentals for families and groups, allowing them to recreate “home away from home”, a sense of Communitas with those close to you. Guest Personalization is an increasing focus for travel brands, with many hotel companies using their loyalty programs to gather information about their guests in order to enhance the overall guest experience. Moreover, technology such as tracking Beacons and Augmented Reality is likely to play an increasingly important role in the future in terms of personalizing the guest experience. For example, The James Hotels, which has locations in Chicago, Miami, and New York City, offers the James Pocket Assistant, which uses Beacon technology to allow guests to access special offers, view maps, contact the hotel, and request services. The app also lets users take a self-guided tour of the hotel’s art collect and notifies users of special offers and perks based on their location on the property. The Clarion Collection Hotel Tapto in Stockholm offers a walk-in closet where guests are given a selection of their favorite clothing brands to try on. If they find something they really like, they can add it to the bill. Airbnb is jumping onto the personalization bandwagon with a new “matching system” that takes travelers’ preferences into account, matching them with homes, neighborhoods, and experiences that meet their needs.
Standard Hotels provides a masterclass in the use of Localness. Its new website, with a mobile-first mission, leads wholly with lifestyle content about music, food, arts, and other cultural programming, both on-property and offsite. The website reads more like an online travel magazine, with the hotels positioned to serve as base-camp from which to explore “the local” in the cities in which they are located. Airbnb’s Guidebooks and Neighborhoods features do something similar, with stunning photography, local editorial perspective, insider tips from Airbnb hosts, and practical information about neighborhoods worldwide. The eight and final dimension of Hospitableness, which lies at the very core of the hotel industry, is something that sharing economy competitors seem to be leveraging more so than the hotels. These companies claim to offer an alternative to bland, cookie-cutter, inhospitable hotel experiences, with local hosts at the very center of delivering hospitality in its most primal form – creating memorable experiences through good-old fashioned interpersonal contact. For example, an Airbnb host and his wife in San Francisco rent out the second floor of their two-storied house to families, and cook a delicious barbecue in the evening to welcome their weary travelers. My own recent experience in the town of San Luis Obispo in California attests to this dimension. The hosts, a retired couple who seemed truly delighted to have us in their home, did everything from talking all about their family and getting to know more about mine, to providing hotel-like toiletries in the bathroom, leaving croissants and fresh strawberries in the refrigerator, and, most memorably, placing a small welcome sign on a chalkboard on the dresser – a neat little touch. Interestingly, it appears that while the hotel industry, to a great extent, is placing technology-enabled convenience and entertainment at the center of its experience (digital keys, selecting your exact room prior to arrival via app, a robot that stores your luggage, Netflix on your guestroom TV, among others), the sharing economy is using technology to facilitate a simpler, more authentic, down-to-its-roots hospitality experience.A simple welcome sign that makes all the difference in creating an authentic, memorable, hospitality experience.
Two other elements of the extended experience economy framework – Serendipity and Ethical Consumerism – can help hoteliers think about the design and delivery of memorable experiences. These elements straddle multiple dimensions, and, as such, can serve as experiential “deltas” that can set one experience apart from another.
The very local, customizable, peer-to-peer nature of the sharing economy experience allows guests to be surprised by their hosts, be it with a bottle of local wine upon arrival, or a stocked refrigerator that satiates the need for that midnight snack (of course, the safety-related incidents mentioned earlier can also lead to unpleasant surprises). Canopy by Hilton, one of the latest additions to the company’s portfolio adds this element of surprise with a property-specific gift to welcome guests on arrival. But hoteliers need to think beyond gifts to add that element of Serendipity to an otherwise predictable guest experience. Last, but certainly not the least, they live in the age of activist Millennial. There is enough evidence to show that this new generation of travelers is more likely to support a company that does it bit for society, beyond the adhoc corporate social responsibility initiatives that make for good PR but are subsequently forgotten. An element of Ethical Consumerism can and should be weaved into the consumer’s experience wherever possible. There is some evidence to suggest that consumers believe that the sharing economy provides opportunities for a responsible form of consumption (and travel). The Airbnb machinery has been awake to this marketing opportunity. A recent NPR article talks about how Airbnb is changing the way global tourists get to know Africa, by connecting them directly to the local economy. The story of Ndosi, a 23 year old from Arusha, Tanzania, is used to demonstrate the company’s “vision” to “create a new generation of micro-entrepreneurs from local hosts to local businesses”. Not only does the article talk about how some tourists staying with Ndosi and his parents “found their family” (Communitas), but also the money allowed him to fund his graduate school education. Many hotels have been doing their bit for the environment for some time now; with towel re-use policies and LEED certified buildings, among other initiatives. Perhaps it is time for hoteliers to think about how the “social” dimension of Ethical Consumerism can be weaved into the guest experience.A Fundamental Rethink for Hotels
The extended experience economy framework provides hoteliers with a mechanism to create experiential value. By no means does this suggest that hotels do not or are not innovating. The examples provided above are by no means exhaustive; there are many hotels around the world executing unique, innovative features along these dimensions of experience. However, the sharing economy providers have the advantage of a clean slate and seem to be making several of these dimensions their own. The emergence of these competitors means that the hotel industry may need a fundamental experiential rethink to proactively stay ahead of the game. Don’t believe me? Maybe Marriott floating the idea of Element being “an interesting alternative to sharing economy platforms” may convince you otherwise. While one can only wonder how such a transformation of the Element may take place, the framework presented here can serve as a starting point for such a rethink.
Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a Quality Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His work involves the extensive use of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand also serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In fall 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and also holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland.
PDF Version: Creating Memorable Experiences How hotels can fight back against Airbnb and other sharing economy providers
By Christopher Muller
On the first day of my HF 100 Introduction to Hospitality Management class I present a lecture that raises the question, “How Do You Teach Hospitality?” It’s my first Power Point slide and is then repeated as my last slide for the day. I suspect (maybe hope) that this question is at the front of the minds of the thousands of people who daily think about hospitality education, training, management and leadership.
In his book, Setting the Table, restaurant icon Danny Meyer (2006) notes that his company, Union Square Hospitality Group, looks to hire individuals he calls the “51-percenters.” These are people who show a positive balance of 51 to 49 percent between emotional skills and technical excellence. The five core emotional skills which USHG looks for are: Optimistic Warmth; Intelligence (defined as insatiable curiosity); Work Ethic; Empathy; and Self-Awareness/Integrity. He notes that:
Emotional skills are harder to assess, and it’s usually necessary to spend meaningful time with people—often in the work environment—to determine whether or not they are a good fit. But it’s critical to begin by being explicit about which emotional skills you are seeking.
It should come as no surprise that emotional skills are not easily imbedded in a modern university business curriculum, which is the academic realm where Hospitality Management programs most often reside. Yet many hospitality management students appear to bring with them a tacit knowledge of these emotional skills when they begin their studies. After more than three decades of watching hospitality students mature I would say that they certainly exhibit strong emotional skills when they head out for a new career. Where then does this knowledge, or alternately, way of knowing, come from?
Is there something distinct about the traditional Hospitality Management curriculum? First offered in 1893 at the Ecole Hoteliere Lausanne in Switzerland and launched in the United States at The School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University in 1922, has this course of study evolved over time to focus on both of Meyer’s skills – originally based on technical skills but now transforming to emotional skills?
A good place to start their inquiry may be to determine this: is Hospitality Management an academic discipline, suggesting it is something which can be codified, written down, and learned by explicit means? Or as some educators note, is it better described as a field of study which dwells in the realm of tacit learning and requires extensive personal contact, experience and observation but may not be adequately articulated by verbal means? How is knowledge managed by teachers, practitioners and students of the industry?
Next they should consider how innovation is applied in the practice and study of hospitality. Is the industry built on the sustaining innovation of measured small improvements in quality and process or on the disruptive innovative introduction of completely new products and services unlike any others which have come before?
On another dimension, they must add a component on the process of thinking and decision-making in hospitality management. Which parts of the business are more intuitive, heuristic and built on gut-feeling and which are more iterative, objective and built on quantitative data analysis?
And a fourth area may be included, how students and practitioners learn. For example, at which point in the education process is it more desirable to have a convergent, fact-based and systematic perspective leading to a single solution, and which point is more likely to reward a divergent, multiple-option perspective where there may be more than one creative or “correct” answer?
This paper presents a model using each of these well-regarded theoretical constructs in an attempt to advance the discussion and answer the question, “How do you teach hospitality?”Tacit and Explicit Knowledge
Michael Polanyi (1958, 1966) suggested that knowledge could be segmented into two different realms, tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. His seminal work focused on tacit knowledge and “tacit knowing” which he suggested requires a personal involvement at the individual level of learning. Tacit knowledge is acquired in a non-verbal, observant or experience-based way. It is the knowledge where “we know more than they can tell” to others, or possibly even to ourselves. Harry Collins (2010) expanded the definition of tacit knowledge to include three areas, one involving the relational nature of human social life, one including the autonomic nature of the body and one in the collective nature of society.
Common examples used by both men to explain tacit knowledge include learning to ride a bicycle or to play piano – thinking about the details of the process often leads to not being able to perform at all. Reading a book about riding a bicycle will not lead to winning the Tour de France nor will a manual about finger placements in C# scales turn one into Vladimir Horowitz, no matter how long the study. But months riding a bike through the French Alps with a professional coach or taking a Master Class with a professional musician may in fact lead to personal success. Observing the “embodied knowledge” of experts in a manner which involves personal contact, regular interaction and trust may create tacit knowledge in the observer.
While tacit knowledge is non-verbal, practical and experience based, explicit knowledge is articulated, codified, and language based. It is more deductive and logical. Another characteristic of explicit knowledge is that it can be collected in a single place to be accessed by both individuals and groups (a library, Wikipedia, or a smartphone app should come to mind).
Tacit knowledge is the accumulation of individual “know-how” while explicit knowledge is the fact-based aggregation of shared “know-that.” Collins points out that tacit knowledge is a prerequisite for explicit knowledge, you need to know something before you can explain what it is that you know. Yet the powerful human tendency to share their knowledge, to write things down, to articulate the non-verbal lesson is at the heart of all education, and is also the driver for automation, digitalization and emerging artificial intelligence technology.Les Roches Food and Beverage Course (Photo via Les Roches International School of Hotel Management)
Students who are enrolled in an introductory Culinary Arts program preparing menus of standard recipes from the Professional Chef textbook can be said to be using the explicit knowledge of cooks. Students who are engaged in a rotational Stage with the chef at a 3-star Michelin restaurant who exhibits grace and timing under pressure are mostly experiencing tacit knowledge. Both types of knowledge are necessary in learning to be a cook, one articulated and one individually experienced.Sustaining and Disruptive Innovation
Dr. Clayton Christianson originally proposed the popular management theory of “Disruptive Innovation” in a 1995 Harvard Business School article. He clearly owes a large debt to Joseph Schumpeter (1942) and the concept of capitalism being built on “creative destruction.” The current model presents a framework for the creative process in business formation and innovation. Christianson lays out the differences between the iterative improvement he terms sustaining innovation and the discontinuous offering of the next new thing he terms disruptive innovation.
Sustainers are the well established and typically market dominating major players in an industry. They maintain their leadership position by keying on the needs of their best and most profitable customers. They accomplish this by seeking continuous improvement of products and services they already have on offer. There are many observers who rightly point out that this form of innovation has a significant track record of success, the “standing on the shoulders of giants model” of accretive progress.
The disruptors in business thrive most often when they are technically simpler, cheaper, faster or easier than the established previous generation of products and services they aim to replace. The risk is that these same attributes are often also of inferior quality and therefore have a short, volatile, and vain-glorious impact on the industry they seek to change. But it is the disruptors, like a thunderstorm providing both the destructive potential of a lightning strike and the torrential rain that leads to new growth, who give us the energy to renew and revitalize an industry.
The incumbents maintain their market positions when customers are seeking incremental innovations to existing products or services that are already perceived as being of higher quality. These sustaining innovations are often associated with the phrase “new and improved” although by definition nothing can truly be both new and improved. In many cases step-wise improvements are more likely to find market acceptance than the disruptive newcomers, though the “blue ocean” mindset does keep the capital markets constantly looking for the next new thing just over the horizon.
In business education and practice much has been made of the process of Total Quality Management or the principles of Six Sigma. The step-wise improvement known as the Deming Cycle is another example of the application of sustaining innovation in the classroom. The disruptive innovation of Strategic Management, Principles of Social Media Marketing, or the study of charismatic Leadership styles, all where the new is a positive addition to the topics, also fit well in the Hospitality Management curriculum.Heuristic and Iterative Thinking
The Nobel laureate economist, Daniel Kahneman, wrote Thinking Fast and Slow (2011) to detail the different modes of thinking used by humans, modes that he termed System 1 or “Fast Thinking” and System 2 or “Slow Thinking.”
Fast thinking is automatic, intuitive and associative. The process comes to the surface in the human tendency to create heuristic mental programs based on previous experiences, rubrics or tested frameworks. An Affect Heuristic decision is made quickly using judgments based on little more than feelings of liking or disliking the object or situation. An Availability Heuristic is quickly made on the desire to find meaning and patterns using information fit into the immediate present situation. In both cases the mind finds a best decision by rapidly relying on relevant past experiences or situations that seem familiar and similar to other successful past decisions.
Slow thinking is controlled, iterative, systematic, or what Kahneman termed “statistical.” This is the decision-making style where thinking about a topic requires attention to detail, focus, and a narrow field of vision. Each new decision, and the thoughts associated with it, is built on the structures of previous decisions in an arduous step-wise process. Slow thinking can be easily disrupted when attention spans are cut short, but it is the balancing counterweight which keeps humans from acting impetuously or in an antisocial manner.
Students in a course learning about Entrepreneurship may be called upon to work in small groups “brain-storming” new concepts for their final project. In another course they may be using business case studies where they will come to trust their gut feelings for identifying the best possible alternative from a broad selection of outcomes. First year students who take Accounting 101 which then leads in year two to Accounting 201 and so on are engaged in an iterative learning process. A doctoral dissertation is the ultimate example of a controlled, systematic and step-wise model of new knowledge creation.Convergent and Divergent Learning Perspectives
The theorist J.P. Guilford (1967) offered a general theory of human intelligence he named the Structure of Intellect. While this complex theory incorporates up to 150 dimensions, part of it describes the learning processes for reasoning and problem-solving, which he termed Convergent and Divergent production. People who solve problems via a convergent strategy are focused on finding a single correct answer (consider a question on a multiple choice test). In many situations, the convergent learner feels most comfortable in a traditional student/teacher role, with data and facts presented to finding one outcome, for example a single mathematical calculation. Convergent learners collect facts, often from a variety of sources, analyze the situation and seek to test for the best feasible or optimal solution.
In opposition to this pattern would be the divergent learner, one able to identify multiple possible options or solutions. Guilford was very interested in the creative process, which he saw as in the realm of divergent production. A divergent perspective might draw an individual to the arts and humanities, creative writing, or history (where multiple perspective need to work together to find broad solutions) as opposed to science, technology or math as a course of study.After an internship or work experience, students benefit from reflection assignments.
For the Hospitality Management major, convergent production might be seen in fact-based introductory or survey courses, the proscriptive side of Hospitality Law, or in the financial skills associated with an MBA curriculum. The divergent production side might best be embedded in courses with a fluid or “what if” set of answers, including Communications, the self-reflective analysis after an internship or work study program, and the group process.The Amalgamated Model
In order to use these theories in a comprehensive way, an Amalgamated Model (Figure 1) can be formed into a rubric using each of the four key competencies on alternating sides of a two-by-two matrix. Knowledge is either Explicit or Tacit, Learning is Convergent or Divergent, Innovation is Sustaining or Disruptive, and Thinking is Heuristic or Iterative. The corresponding quadrants each then suggest a different means for evaluating a Hospitality Management curriculum.Figure 1. A Suggested Learning Rubric (Click image to enlarge)
The Quadrant Profile
Expanding on the basic model (Figure 2), each quadrant suggests a teaching/learning viewpoint with specific weight placed on different emotional and technical skills. The ECSI quadrant would reward a codified, focused, incrementally improved and statistical (slow) set of learning objectives. Quadrant two encompassing the EDSH attributes would look for codified, expansive/creative, incremental and intuitive (fast) offerings. The third Quadrant with a TDDH mix encourages learning in an experiential, expansive/creative, discontinuous new and intuitively fast manner. The final TCDI quadrant would involve an experiential, focused, discontinuous new and statistical (slow) combination.Application to the Hospitality Management Curriculum
If they consider the traditional Hospitality Management curriculum (Figure 3), both required and elective courses, and look at the entire range of educational levels, from undergraduate to doctoral studies, the Amalgamated Model can thus be helpful in creating a typology of course offerings.
Quadrant One (ECSI) concerns itself with student competence and technical skills, with courses that build on a core knowledge structure or discipline. Such classes as the Accounting sequence (Financial Accounting, Management Accounting, and Finance), or a Marketing sequence (Introduction to Marketing, Services Marketing, Advertising Communication, Consumer Behavior) fit well here. A case can be made that the core Master of Business Administration curriculum is also focused, stepwise, explicit and data based and is best located here.
Quadrant Two (EDSH) is more the domain associated with concept mastery, still using the accumulated articulated knowledge of specific topical information. The various work done in a kitchen or culinary class, based on the multitude of recipes and cookbooks can be exhibited here. But so can the explicit knowledge written down in the form of industry case studies, where students learn by creating their own system of decision-making heuristics.
In the third Quadrant (TDDH) the practical life experience which students bring with them to class gives them an opportunity to learn by doing. Experiential learning in the form of internships and work study, group projects and brain-storming new business concepts allows them to be creative in a business setting.
The final Quadrant (TCDI) is where students gain the focused perspective that enables a measure of expertise to develop. Whether at the elective/concentration level for undergraduates or the process of undertaking the years long process involved in doctoral studies, this is the time when data and hypotheses are tested, and preconceived notions are challenged.Getting to 51%
Let’s use the information shared by Danny Meyer in the quote from above but parse individual phrases to help reveal how the theories just discussed are informing the discussion:
Emotional skills are harder to assess, and it’s usually necessary to spend meaningful time with people—often in the work environment—to determine whether or not they are a good fit. But it’s critical to begin by being explicit about which emotional skills you are seeking.
Emotional skills, what Meyer uses to determine the attractiveness of the “51%-ers” to a restaurant unit of USHG, are as he suggests hard to assess. These “soft skills” do not come with easily tested variables. But there is also the 49% applied to the technical skills of the work of hospitality to consider. The explicit knowledge learned in first the ECSI and then the EDSH afford the student a way to build up a base shared knowledge of facts, protocols and historical constructs (Figure 4). These courses also establish the foundation of a shared vocabulary, and mastery of skills which will allow them to become part of a broader social environment.
Meyer also suggests that it is important to invest time in each individual in order to highlight the emotional skills his company desires. The slow, iterative process of steady improvement and quality control also appears in the ECSI and EDSH quadrants.
…necessary to spend meaningful time with people…
Also embedded in the Meyer observation is the tacit learning only afforded by an individual, experience based and hands-on set of lessons in the actual work environment. This is the internship model used extensively in hospitality management education.
…often in the work environment…
To make his search uniform and standardized, he acknowledges the need for moving from the highly personalized, but inconsistent system of tacit learning. He suggests, as did Collins, the need to share their learning and expertise by making it explicit, articulated, and language based.
…it’s critical to begin by being explicit about which emotional skills you are seeking…
Finally, although it is unstated in his admonition for all business enterprises to include hospitality in their development, he still requires employees to have the technical skills and clear focus to become experts in their endeavors. Whether it is in the expertise of the Sommelier, the Executive Chef, or the Chief Financial Officer, no great hospitality company can survive without highly skilled and knowledgeable practitioners.A Return To Their Question
So, as I ask my students, and indirectly myself, “How do you teach Hospitality?” the Amalgamated Model may yield a better chance of finding an answer. Not too long ago hospitality management fit comfortably in the experiential apprentice/journeyman/master craftsman system of observational study. While relevant for the passing along of both tacit and technical skills, this system continues to fall short of the explicit knowledge and fact based needs of a modern business enterprise. Likewise the current effort focused only on financial numeracy and a statistical path to knowledge also falls short in the emotional intelligence necessary to achieve Meyer’s 51% status.
Instead of a curriculum being centered in just one or two quadrants, a more holistic approach, one looking to satisfy the requirements of being competent, conceptual, pragmatic and a content expert may yield a more robust and therefore more rigorous choice for hospitality curriculum design in the 21st Century.Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the Practice of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email email@example.com
LAS VEGAS, Jan. 7 /PRNewswire/ -- Pepcom, CES -- OQO, Inc., creator of the world's smallest fully-functional Windows Vista(R) PC, today announced the new model 2+ with Intel(R) Atom(TM) processor, the world's first PC OLED display, and worldwide 3G capability. Based on the 1.86GHz Intel Atom processor and 2GB RAM, the OQO model 2+ offers performance up to twice as fast as its predecessor and includes an embedded touchscreen for easier input. For mobile professionals who need to work on the go, the model 2+ features Qualcomm's Gobi(TM) global mobile Internet solution, which supports both of the world's leading 3G cellular standards. These new features enable users to access their enterprise networks, business productivity applications, and the full Internet around the world. The OQO model 2+ will be available in the first half of 2009 with pricing starting at $999.
"OQO is excited to work with Intel to deliver the highest performing Mobile Internet Device (MID) on the market today," said Bob Rosin, senior vice president of sales and marketing at OQO. "The OQO model 2+ provides enterprise users and prosumers with everything needed to get all their work done as they move through their day -- full Windows, complete mobility, and immediate access to information and applications from wherever they are."
"The Intel Atom processor is rapidly becoming the foundation for Mobile Internet Devices that require high performance and full Internet to run the broad set of enterprise and consumer applications," said Gary Willihnganz, director of marketing for the Ultra Mobility Group at Intel Corporation. "The OQO model 2+ is an excellent example in the Productivity MID category which combines the high performance, low power characteristics of Intel Atom with OQO's proven system-level innovation in delivering small, pocketable devices."
The new OQO model 2+ is the world's first PC with an embedded Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) display. Users will immediately notice the screen's dramatically increased brightness and contrast with better outdoor readability, greater range of colors, extremely wide viewing angles, faster response time, and improved battery life. The integrated touchscreen is more robust and accurate than conventional touchscreen technology and supports stylus as well as finger-based input.Key new features of the OQO model 2+ include: -- Twice as Fast(1) -- Available with 1.86GHz Intel Atom Z540 CPU offering up to 2x improvement in processor-intensive tasks, and up to 5x improvement in multimedia performance -- Intel(R) System Controller Hub US15W with integrated 3D graphics -- DirectX 9 and H.264 video decode support in hardware -- 2GB RAM with 2.7x improvement in memory performance -- Up to 20% increase in battery life (3.5 hours with standard battery, and 7 hours with double capacity battery) -- Vivid and intuitive interface -- World's first PC with integrated Active Matrix OLED display; 1,000,000 to 1 contrast ratio, color gamut up to 110% of NTSC, 0.01ms response time, and viewing-angle free -- Embedded high-grade touchscreen for stylus and finger-based input -- Native resolution of highly-readable 800x480 with 1024x768 and 1000x600 interpolated modes -- World-capable -- Featuring Qualcomm's Gobi solution, the industry's only embedded multi-mode module with support for CDMA2000 EV-DO and HSPA -- Designed to operate on Verizon Wireless and Sprint networks using Qualcomm's hybrid mode alternative solution as well as SIM-based networks including GPRS/EDGE, UMTS, and HSPA with speeds up to 7.2Mbps -- Penta-band antenna for world coverage -- Verizon Wireless customers can roam internationally on the Vodafone network -- World keyboard and global power supply -- Eco-friendly -- RoHS compliant (reduced mercury, lead, cadmium, and other hazardous materials) -- Ultra low power consumption -- Secure -- Computrace(R) support in BIOS for asset tracking and recovery and remote data delete -- LoJack(R) for Laptops(TM) support -- TPM v1.2 embedded security -- Affordable for every professional segment -- Pricing starts at $999
Like its predecessor, the OQO model 2+ weighs less than one pound and is truly pocketable with dimensions of 5.6"(W) x 3.3"(H) x 1.0"(D) and the best-in-class integrated backlit thumb keyboard. The model 2+ supports large external displays up to 1920x1200 with HDMI/DVI and VGA interfaces, offers Wi-Fi(R) 802.11a/b/g and Bluetooth 2.0 with EDR, and is compatible with the full range of OQO model 02/e2 accessories. These include the OQO docking station with embedded dual layer DVD+/-RW/RAM drive, as well as a wide range of cases, GPS and vehicle mounts, and power solutions including standard and extended batteries and the OQO air/auto power adapter.
Full specifications of the OQO model 2+ are available at: http://www.oqo.com/products/model2+/specifications.html
OQO pioneered the ultra mobile PC category and has led the market with each innovation. With today's announcement, OQO has further established its commitment to leading this growing category and providing mobility solutions for worldwide markets.
With pricing starting at $999, the OQO model 2+ is available to order immediately from OQO and through OQO enterprise, government, and retail sales channels listed at http://www.oqo.com. First deliveries are expected to take place during the first half of 2009.
Based in San Francisco, California, OQO, Inc. has redefined mobile computing with its groundbreaking products, including the new ultra-small, powerful, ergonomic, and connected OQO model 2+. With an award-winning design, the OQO model 2+ is a full-featured computer running standard Windows XP or Windows Vista and a pocketable, dockable form-factor that gives the mobile professional true Anytime/Anywhere Productivity(TM).
"OQO", the OQO logo, and "Anytime/Anywhere Productivity" are trademarks of OQO, Inc. Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. (C) 2009 OQO, Inc. All rights reserved.(1) Benchmarking data based on tests using MobileMark(R) 2007 version 1.05 and SiSoftware Sandra 2008. Comparisons are to the OQO model 02 computer.
SOURCE OQO, Inc.
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Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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