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World's First enterprise laptop Hardware Partnership diagnosed for using Disruptive applied sciences to achieve end-to-end give Chain safety
CHICAGO, April 17, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- NextGen provide Chain convention -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) these days announced, that its international supply chain transformation has won a 2019 NextGen give Chain management Award for the imaginitive use of blockchain and IoT. The distinction acknowledges the realm's first enterprise computer hardware partnership the use of these disruptive applied sciences to achieve end-to-conclusion give chain protection. using IBM Blockchain and IoT, IBM's deliver chain more suitable traceability and single supply-of-certainty to each network companion to enrich product authentication and reduce assurance prices.
IBM service provider brand. (PRNewsfoto/IBM)extra
IBM's deliver chain company manages the important give chain operations of engineering, logistics, manufacturing, and income transaction aid. It digitized actual belongings equivalent to complicated disk drives, whereas registering asset transactions all the way through the product existence cycle into an immutable shared ledger the usage of blockchain and IoT as part of this award-profitable initiative. One key mission began as a Proof-of-conception in 2018 between IBM and Seagate know-how, which came to a successful conclusion in March 2019. both organizations are now working towards a potential pilot deployment that can be elevated to include extra suppliers.
"industry four.0 is an end-to-conclusion industrial transformation, through which getting to know the 21st century digital deliver chain – enabled by means of blockchain, IoT, and AI applied sciences – is a critical success factor for companies to gain a aggressive enterprise capabilities," observed Ron Castro, VP of supply Chain, IBM. "With these resourceful applied sciences revolutionizing the entire provide chain by way of lowering transactional prices and accelerating approaches, harnessing their transformative power is indispensable for executives to build clear, intelligent and predictive give chains at scale.
IBM's give chain transformation initiative contained three separate, yet complimentary task use cases to make a favorable business have an effect on as blockchain became infused into IBM's give chain. The three software cases consist of:
"The success of IBM's initiative can enable extraordinarily advantageous affirmation of provenance and authenticity of assets, whereas optimizing safety and efficiencies through simplifying and accelerating documentation exchanges between supply chain partners, " stated John Morris, vice president and Chief technology Officer, Seagate know-how. "moreover, it doubtlessly increases productivity via removing redundant processes, whereas assisting to improve regulatory compliance and build believe among all key stakeholders."
IBM's vice president of supply Chain, Ron Castro, offered his 2019 NextGen give Chain convention keynote titled, making use of Augmented Intelligence (A.I.), Blockchain and Predictive Analytics to expand end-to-end Visibility and enrich Operational effectivity on Tuesday, April 16 from 10:15 – 11:15 a.m. CT.
About IBM Watson deliver ChainA world leader in AI software, features and know-how for company, IBM has deployed Watson solutions in thousands of engagements with valued clientele throughout 20 industries and 80 nations. IBM Watson give Chain allows for forward considering give chain business specialists to increase enterprise consequences with the aid of offering AI-powered insights, B2B collaboration and orchestration that mitigates operational have an impact on and enterprise possibility. For greater assistance consult with: https://www.ibm.com/provide-chain
IBM (NYSE: IBM) beat Wall road estimates on profits again, however got here briefly of expectations on revenue as it continues to shift its center of attention far from hardware and toward cloud computing.
First-quarter adjusted income got here in at $2.25, beating street estimates of $2.22 per share. income got here in at $18.2 billion, short of the street estimate of $18.5 billion.
The earnings and earnings represented a 12 months-over-year decline from $2.forty five a share and $19.1 billion in the same quarter a year ago.
The company issued 2019 adjusted EPS assistance of as a minimum $13.ninety, simply beneath analysts' $13.ninety one estimate.
"within the first quarter, their cloud salary boom accelerated, and they once more grew in key, excessive-cost areas in Cloud and Cognitive software and in consulting," mentioned IBM Chairman, President and CEO Ginni Rometty. "IBM's investments in ingenious applied sciences coupled with their industry knowledge and their dedication to trust and safety place us neatly to help purchasers circulate to chapter two of their digital reinvention."Q1 Highlights
IBM’s shares are up simply a little over 25 % year to date. Most analysts accept as true with IBM can are expecting more boom subsequent year because it starts off to recognize the fruits of its acquisition of open supply cloud application enterprise red Hat.expense motion
IBM shares closed up 0.85 percent at $a hundred forty five.14 on Tuesday and were down a little bit in after-hours buying and selling.
IBM Rises After this fall profits Beat, Cloud income Up 12%
Analysts Applaud IBM's stream To Make Watson purchasable cross-Cloud
image credit: Mark Ahsmann (personal work), by way of Wikimedia Commons
© 2019 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment tips. All rights reserved.
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Lockheed Martin team announced as winner of JSF competition 26 October. Receives $18.9 million contract for 126-month system development and demonstration phase. Company says its own firms in central Florida can anticipate work of up to $1 billion on JSF.
Pentagon begins studies into potential speeding up of JSF service entry to 2008.
UK announces it will make a decision in 2002 on which JSF variant it will acquire.
Australia writes to US Department of Defense seeking briefings on JSF participation.November 2001
Boeing acknowledges a direct-lift short take-off and landing system (STOVL) was its core bid weakness. Steps up lobbying for workshare split on JSF programme. Also seeks acceleration of F/A-18E/F procurement by the US Navy.
JSF programme office confirms it is seeking international investment worth $4 billion.
Australia issues restricted request for technical data and open market survey for the Royal Australian Air Force's Air 6000 replacement fighter programmes.December 2001
Kaiser Aerospace selected to provide main projection display for F-35 cockpit and, in partnership with Elbit, helmet-mounted display.
P&W announces plans to widen participation in F135 engine programme, targeting Italy and the Netherlands.January 2002
Lockheed tells Boeing it will not be offered substantial workshare on JSF.
Lockheed Missiles and Fire Control receives subcontract from BAE Systems to develop JSF electro-optic targeting system.
Dutch government meets to consider membership of JSF and replacement fighter options for Royal Netherlands Air Force.
Senior Australian military officials visit JSF programme office in the USA to be briefed on JSF membership options.February 2002
Dutch prime minister Wim Kok says his cabinet has approved JSF partner membership, but parliamentary approval still required. Also says JSF is front runner for RNLAF's next fighter.
Canada signs as Level 3 partner, with investment totalling $160 million.
The Australian government says it will decide on JSF membership in April. Restricted request for technical data and open market survey for RAAF's Air 6000 requirement close.
Northrop Grumman confirms talks are under way with Raytheon on workshare for the JSF AESA radar.
EDS announces sales of Teamcentre software to Lockheed and Northrop to support establishment of global JSF virtual enterprise architecture.
SM&A selected to provide engineering, logistics and programme development services to JSF consortium.
JSF programme manager Tom Burbage wins Flight International's Aerospace Industry Personality of the Year award.March 2002
US Navy confirms review of total numbers of JSFs to be acquired by Navy and Marine Corps under way. The Pentagon says impact on total orders will be minimal before 2012.
Israel announces it will join programme as Level 3 partner.
Turkey announces intention to join as Level 3 partner rather than Level 2 as originally planned.
Stork Aerospace contracted by Lockheed Martin to carry out initial development of JSF external doors and wiring harness.
Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research contracted by Pratt & Whitney to drill holes for the F135 engine.
Dassault and IBM selected by Lockheed to supply computer-aided design and manufacturing software for JSF virtual development environment.
GKN Aerospace and BAE Systems announce partnership for design and production of JSF airframe components.
Lockheed Martin appoints Mike Cosentino as director of JSF international programmes.April 2002
Electronic-attack JSF variant offered by Lockheed Martin as a potential Northrop Grumman EA-6 replacement.
H M Dunn, Progressive and Thayer Aerospace selected by Lockheed Martin to machine aluminium airframe componentsfor JSF.
Avionics Specialities selected by Lockheed Martin to provide JSF air data system.
BAE Systems Avionics selected by Lockheed Martin to provide active Inceptor subsystem (pilot side stick and throttle controls) for JSF.
Lockheed Martin-led industrial team visits Australia to promote programme membership. Australian government defers decision on JSF membership until June, amid cost concerns.
Dutch government delays formalising JSF programme membership until June to allow for new ratification vote in Dutch parliament after initial vote is tied.May 2002
Denmark signs as Level 3 system development and demonstration (SDD) member, with investment worth $125 million.
Italian government announces it will join as Level 2 SDD member. Parliamentary approvals are in place by end of month.
Lockheed-led JSF industrial team visits Australia to brief on programme opportunities. Senior RAAF programme officials tell UK air power conference that no source selection will be made on a replacement fighter until 2006. Senior Australian military officials visit JSF programme office to receive classified brief on programme participation and JSF capabilities.
USN announces it intends to reduce its JSF order by 400 aircraft from an original base of 1,089. US Air Force says it would reconsider size of its orders if the USN reduction leads to programme cost increases.
USMC says it wants the JSF STOVL version to enter service earlier than scheduled.
Telelogic confirms its Doors requirements management software is being used by Pentagon JSF programme office.
Dynamics Research contracted by Pentagon JSF programme office to supply modelling and simulation services.
Merant selected by Lockheed Martin to configuration manage JSF software development.
Precision Castparts selected by Lockheed Martin to supply titanium aircraft forgings for JSF.
Goodrich receives subcontract from Rolls- Royce to supply lift-fan anti-icing system for JSF STOVL variant.
Tyco Electronics receives subcontract from Smiths Aerospace to supply JSF high-power electronic distribution units.June 2002
Dutch parliament approves JSF membership. The Netherlands signs as a Level 2 SDD member, with total investment worth $800 million. Flags expectation of work to value of $250 million. Dutch government and industry representatives visit Lockheed Martin JSF programme headquarters at Fort Worth, Texas.
Italy joins as Level 2 partner, with investment of $1 billion
Lockheed Martin announces Alenia Aeronautica will be secondary source for JSF wingbox assembly, with Italian production line for full aircraft also possible.
FiatAvio joins F136 engine development team.
MBDA announces completion of pre-feasibility integration studies for AIM-139 ASRAAM on to JSF.
JSF external design frozen on 27 June. Forward fuselage extended by 127mm (5in). Position of vertical tails modified. Bomb-bay size reduced on STOVL version, and lift-fan bay doors redesigned. STOVL F135 engine to have reduced-length aft nozzle, and hollow lift-fan blades to be introduced.
JSF programme office says it wants F136 engine available from 2009.
US assistant defence secretary Peter Aldridge announces discussions are under way with Israel and Singapore on alternative forms of programme membership.
Centric Software receives order from Lockheed Martin for software design toolsets for JSF avionics display development.
Silicon Graphics receives contract from Lockheed Martin to provide visualisation computers and software for JSF flight simulation laboratory at Fort Worth.
Norway signs for SDD phase as Level 3 partner, contributing $125 million.
Australian Defence Industry Council warns the Australian Department of Defence that early downselect of any new fighter type would have adverse impact on the national defence industry.
Eurofighter offers Australia participation in Typhoon enhancement programme.
Australia announces plans to join SDD phase. It simultaneously announces downselect of JSF as replacement for its Boeing F/A-18 and General Dynamics F-111 fighter fleets.July 2002
Eurofighter consortium announces plans for restructuring of programme to improve its ability to market Typhoon internationally.
Lockheed Skunk Works reveals studies are under way for JSF microwave weapons.
Lockheed Martin says numbers of JSF bought by the USA are likely to fluctuate further, but will not affect overall programme outcomes.
General Electric and R-R reveal plans for an international F136 joint venture company.
Northrop Grumman announces JSF centre fuselage will be assembled at Palmdale, California.
JSF programme head Gen John Hudson says project is "truly a marriage between governments and industry". Confirms plans for creation of a security co-operation participation level to enable Israeli and Singaporean access to the programme.
Turkey formally joins programme as Level 3 partner, with investment of $175 million.
BAE Systems announces plans for £40 million investment in new JSF facilities in the UK.
The UK Ministry of Defence's investment approvals board meets to select a JSF version for future aircraft carrier, but is unable to make a decision.
Australian defence minister Robert Hill confirms interim fighter may be required by RAAF before JSF introduction.August 2002
Lockheed Martin JSF team stages a series of technical briefings in Australia to support Australia's decision to join the programme.
TRW Aeronautical Systems (now Goodrich) selected by Northrop Grumman to supply weapons bay door drive system.
Astronics selected by Lockheed Martin to supply JSF exterior lighting.
Vought Aircraft Industries selected to supply JSF lower wing skins.
BAE Systems Controls delivers vehicle management computer development processors. This marks the programme's first avionics system sub-component delivery.
The UK MoD investment approvals board meets again to select a JSF version for future aircraft carrier.September 2002
Lockheed Martin reveals RAAF is considering requesting development of surveillance and reconnaissance variant.
The Australian defence minister defends JSF selection as the "most practical solution".
Israel's defence ministry accuses European JSF partner nations of blocking its attempt to join the programme with partner status.
General Dynamics selected to supply and integrate 27mm cannon for JSF.
The UK government announces plans to buy up to 150 JSF STOVL variants for the UK Royal Navy rather than the CV variant. Deal to be worth £10 billion.October 2002
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics honours eight Lockheed Martin engineers for their contribution to JSF design.
JSF programme completes first year of SDD phase. Tom Burbage says the programme is on schedule and slightly under budget.
Israel makes last-ditch bid to join the programme with full partner status.
Norwegian-based Volvo Aero Norge awarded subcontract by P&W to provide low-pressure turbine shafts for F135 engine.
Lockheed Martin says business model for logistics support between partners will be completed within 12 months. It unveils planning for "follow- the-sun" design and software engineering.
Lockheed Martin acknowledges likely requirement for integration of IRIS-T missile into JSF for Canadian, Italian and Norwegian partners.
GE approved by JSF programme office to begin F136 development, but a plan for a joint venture between GE and R-R rejected.
Three-Five Systems awarded subcontract by Kaiser Electronics to provide micro display systems for JSF panoramic display.
Moog-Parker Hannifin partnership is awarded contract by Lockheed Martin to supply primary electro-hydrostatic actuator systems for wing and tail control surfaces.
Qinetiq software selected for JSF STOVL variant flight control system.
Australia formally signs up as Level 3 programme member, with an investment of $150 million. Nineteen Australia firms receive letters of intent (LoI), enabling them to bid for work packages on programme.November 2002
JSF preliminary design review begins at component system level, targeting completion of full review by March 2003.
Number of LoIs released by Lockheed Martin to companies in partner nations reaches 120 (Australia - 19, Canada - 10, Italy - 27, the Netherlands - 16, Norway - 21, Turkey - 7 and the UK - 20).December 2002
US assistant defence secretary for acquisition Pete Aldridge says JSF exports are likely to be 1,000-3,000 up to 2020, and have an impact on the market for the Eurofighter Typhoon.
Silicon Graphics receives a further contract from Lockheed Martin to provide visualisation computers and software for JSF flight simulation laboratory at Fort Worth, Texas.
Dutch Prognostic Health Management Consortium contracted by Lockheed Martin to supply JSF PHM suite.
BAE Systems announces production is under way on aluminium components for JSF horizontal tail test article.January 2003
Philips Aerospace awarded subcontract from R-R to supply fan cases for F136 engine.
GE Aircraft Engines president David Calhoun says JSF role critical to company's long-term outlook.
Lockheed Martin Information Systems releases V1 of autonomic logistics systems software.
LM-STAR avionics test equipment installed at QM in the UK and Raytheon in the USA to support avionics systems development.
Magellan Aerospace selected by R-R to develop liftfan sub-assemblies for JSF STOVL variant.
Norwegian government expresses official concern about workshare opportunities in the JSF international programme, and rejoins Eurofighter industrial consortium.February 2003
USN and USMC JSF acquisition numbers cut from 1,089 to 680 by presidential budget request for fiscal year 2004.
P&W complete Phase 1 risk-reduction tests on F135 engine.
Eaton awarded subcontract by Goodrich to provide nose landing-gear steering motor assembly.
Lockheed Martin says it will support Italy's bid for a second JSF production line if that nation can develop a sustainable business case.
UK government commissions Rand to assess viability of JSF production line in the UK.
The Australian defence minister says no decision on any interim fighter before JSF will be made for two years.
Israel signs an LoI to join the JSF security co-operation participant programme. It commits to investment of around $150 million.
Singapore also signs an LoI to join the JSF security co-operation participant programme. Invests around $50 million.March 2003
Concerns emerge that Singapore's A-4SU replacement competition will be undermined by that nation joining JSF.
Norway defence minister Kristin Krohn Devold criticises Kongsberg for pricing itself out of work on the JSF programme. He says Norwegian firms cannot expect offset-based work.
Denmark, the Netherlands and Norway reveal plans to co-ordinate a campaign to win more JSF workshare.
Flightstat Datalink becomes first foreign company to gain fast-track bid approvals under the global project authorisation.
A draft Australian government aerospace sector blueprint calls for JSF programme to become model for future national exports drive.
JSF preliminary design review held 24-27 March. Lockheed Martin acknowledges airframe is 30% above target weight and the need for modifications to weapons-bay size to meet ordnance requirements.
F136 engine targeted by JSF project office for budget cuts.
Lockheed Martin unveils revised liftfan door configuration for STOVL variant.
Indigo Systems awarded subcontract by Northrop Grumman to supply infrared integrated detection assemblies for distributed aperture system.
Lockheed Martin receives subcontract from Harris, itself a subcontractor to Lockheed Martin, to supply fibre-optic transceivers for JSF mission system.
Lockheed Martin UK Integrated Systems selected to develop JSF programme intranet for European partners.April 2003
Dassault president Charles Edelstenne describes the JSF partnership programme as "a stroke of genius".
JSF programme office cuts $440 million from F136 engine programme.
JSF programme office announces AIM-120A/B, AGM-65, AGM-84C/D and AGM-84H missiles will not be integrated into JSF.
Lockheed announces outstanding weight issues still to be resolved after preliminary design review (PDR). JSF programme office says first flight in late 2005 is achievable if weight problems are solved.
In response to questions from parliament about whether it can withdraw from the JSF programme, the Dutch government confirms it is seeking to have a European regional support centre established at Woensdrecht air base in the Netherlands to offset lack of SDD phase workshare. It reveals that external consultants have been appointed to study options.May 2003
Ake Svensson, head of Saab Aerospace, says JSF partnering is mainly about subcontracting, and will not sustain Europe's aerospace industry.
Sweeping "Buy American" legislation introduced into US Congress by Representative Duncan Hunter.
Canadian firms Applied Courseware Technology and BNH Expert Software selected to provide software tools for development of the JSF training system.
Canada's Magellan Aerospace selected to provide 24 wing structural components.
BAE Systems Platform Solutions delivers first production vehicle management computer.
Marconi Selenia Communications selected by Northrop Grumman to provide back-up radio system.June 2003
GE, R-R and five of the eight JSF partner nations call for $442 million to be restored to F136 engine development.
Congressional House Armed Services committee votes to restore $56 million to begin system design and development of F136 engine.
JSF programme office reveals plans for new strategic best-value sourcing to ensure partner nations secure programme work. US DoD internal study finds some JSF partner nations, including Italy and the Netherlands, have been passive in seeking workshare.
Lockheed Martin says the JSF programme is "extending technical frontiers and establishing new levels of international participation".
Speaking at the Paris air show, Alenia Aeronautica chairman Giorgio Zappa says his firm is not happy with the rate of JSF workshare being awarded to Italian firms.
Norway is offered additional JSF work under the strategic best-value initiative in response to a Eurofighter consortium offer of increased workshare.
JSF airframe PDR segment is closed out three months late. Weight estimates reined in from 35% to 10% over target.
Honeywell selected to provide ring laser-gyro inertial navigation system.
Australian DoD partially releases JSF industrial engagement strategy. Value of Australian participation queried by opposition parliamentarians.
GKN Aerospace Australia selected to design and manufacture centre fuselage components.
TNO-FEL of the Netherlands is selected to develop signal conditioning algorithms for the JSF electro-optical distributed aperture system.July 2003
The Australian defence minister voices concern that the JSF programme is not a level playing field.
Hawker de Havilland of Australia selected to provide design engineering support services to Lockheed Martin Palmdale
Italian undersecretary for industry Mario Valducci visits the USA, and requests establishment of a JSF offset package for Italian industry.
A US General Accounting Office (GAO) report reveals Lockheed Martin has guaranteed work to an unnamed partner nation to ensure it remains in the programme. The GAO also warns that sensitive technology contracts should only be given to US firms.
Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems hands over the first integrated core processors for JSF mission system.
Quantum3D selected to supply image generators for use in JSF advanced concepts simulator system.
Denmark's Terma teams up with General Dynamics to support design, test and production of the F-35 gun system pod.August 2003
GE and R-R continue lobbying for F136 engine funding to be restored. Phase III critical design review of F136 engine is completed.
Finmeccanica chief Roberto Testore says JSF is the key to future co-operation with the USA.
Australian defence minister Hill announces BAE Systems Australia is to spearhead a national bid for regional JSF support centre. Head of Australian JSF project office says Australia hopes for more work through the strategic best-value programme.
Ferra Engineering of Australia selected by US-based Marvin Engineering to make alternative mission equipment weapon adaptors.
Calytrix of Australia selected by Lockheed Martin to head Australian industry capability team study of JSF training system simulation technologies
Production Parts of Australia selected by GE to supply metal subcomponents for F136 engine.
Marand Precision Engineering of Australia selected by Lockheed to design and build JSF engine removal cradles.September 2003
GKN Aerospace selected to make carbonfibre engine vanes and air inlets for F135.
Raytheon selected to make digital anti-jam GPS receiver.
Vision Systems International awarded contract to develop advanced helmet-mounted display for JSF.
BAE Systems Avionics selected to supply laser system for electro-optical targeting system.
UK government releases Rand study that says JSF production line in the UK is feasible. The document also reveals quickmate jointing system for JSF major component assembly has been abandoned.
BAE Systems opens major assembly production facility for JSF components at Samlesbury, UK.
Lockheed Martin establishes JSF basic and ship suitability integration centre at Fort Worth, Texas.
US Congress adds $52.8 million to F136 engine programme, but cuts the overall JSF budget by $56 million to $4.4 billion for FY2004.
Dodd provision in Congressional approvals for US FY2004 defence budget mandates study by Pentagon into the impact of foreign offset requirements on the US defence industrial base. The White House confirms it is negotiating with Congressman Duncan Hunter on an acceptable form of Buy American legislation.
The US Aerospace Industries Association and the US National Defence Industrial Association write to US Senate Armed Services Committee warn that Buy American provisions will drive up costs of US military hardware and increase time taken to deliver.
Dutch firms ATS Kleizen and Stork Fokker secure contracts totalling $58 million. Thales Netherlands is nominated as preferred supplier for cryogenic coolers for JSF EOS systems. Burbage says further growth expected in Dutch workshare.
Magellan Aerospace of Canada selected by GE and R-R to produce outer combustor case diffuser assembly for F136 engine.
P&W announce completion of first development F135 engine for JSF.
US president George Bush signs FY2004 defence appropriations. He provides $4.3 billion to continue JSF development.October 2003
Ayesas of Turkey awarded subcontract by Smiths Aerospace to develop mechanical and circuit-card subassemblies for the JSF missile remote interface unit.
Smiths Aerospace awarded contract by Lockheed Martin to supply JSF high-speed data cable assemblies.
GE chief executive Jeff Immelt says Buy American law would cost jobs in the US aerospace industry. Congressional negotiators reach agreement to renew US Defence Production Act for one year to enable more debate on the impact of offsets on US industrial base.
BEI Technologies receives subcontract from Northrop Grumman to build electro-optic components.
The introduction of advanced electronics into automotive design is causing massive disruption in a supply chain that, until very recently, hummed along like a finely tuned sports car.
The rapid push toward autonomous driving has changed everything. This year, Level 3 autonomy will begin hitting the streets, and behind the scenes, work is underway to design SoCs for Level 4. But how these chips get built, by whom, and using what IP isn’t always so obvious.
In the past, the automotive supply chain was simple to explain. OEMs purchased systems and modules from Tier 1 suppliers. From there, Tier 1 suppliers procured semiconductors from chip companies. And for decades, very little changed.
“Everyone in the food chain knew exactly what the design requirements were and the limitations of the available technology,” said Tom Wong, director of marketing, design IP at Cadence. “Automotive quality and reliability are well-known amongst the incumbents. Nowadays, it’s a different situation due to the rapid change in requirements to support applications like in-vehicle-infotainment, wireless connectivity, various forms of ADAS and ML/AI SoCs that provide the computational needs of image processing, object detection and recognition, sensor fusion, etc. We are witnessing OEMs building out SoC design teams, or outsourcing to ASIC design services, or procuring semiconductor IP directly from IP vendors including CPUs, GPUs and DSP cores as well as security solutions.”
Along with those changes, new players have emerged. And all of them are struggling to gain their footing in a century-old industry that is undergoing some radical changes.
“There’s everything from startups to century-old OEMs thinking about doing their own IP and/or their own SoCs to go with that,” said David Fritz, senior autonomous vehicle SoC leader at Mentor, a Siemens Business. “We see the whole gamut. They see companies that are extremely naive about the complexity, all the way to OEMs who are still thinking that the technology as it was last time they tried this back in 1982.”
Add to that a wide range of approaches to technology, and a spectrum of sophistication. Some startups come from the chip world and are using Agile methodologies to develop IP and UVM to verify it. Others are struggling to add electronics expertise, but have a deep understanding of automotive manufacturing.
For the traditional automotive supply chain, decomposing vehicles into little problems that are easy to solve used to be standard operating procedure. But that approach is rapidly running out of gas. “When you take an automobile and decompose it down in the brake controllers and engine controllers, and that sort of thing—that methodology works,” Fritz said. “But when you start throwing in ADAS functionality, autonomous vehicle functionality, AI inferencing after machine learning, that whole paradigm breaks down.”
OEMs have made significant strides to build their own internal system development teams, but significant roadblocks still exist. And on the tech industry side, the situation is equally challenging.
“The OEMs have to take a cleanroom approach because they can’t have the new team that they’re building interface with the people who are working with their suppliers, or they may get sued down the road for IP contamination,” he said, noting that tech companies have their own issues to resolve. “The problem with Silicon Valley is this whole concept of ‘minimum viable product’ works when nobody’s life is at stake. It doesn’t work so much when it’s mission-critical. People can die, and we’re seeing that in Tesla. We’re seeing situations like Uber just barely getting off by a technicality when the company was sued over a wrongful death in an AV in Arizona. This is because they’re saying, ‘Let’s just put it out there.’ This bears resemblance to the Microsoft paradigm that says, ‘We can’t test it all. It’s too complex. Let’s throw it out there and let their customers test it.’ But here we’re talking about the thing that kills more people than guns.”
Other variablesThere are other dynamics at play here, such as the readiness of 7nm technology. Carmakers want to design automotive SoCs using the most advanced foundry processes for AI, in-vehicle-infotainment, in-vehicle networking. This is partly due to the performance and power benefits of these advanced finFET devices, and partly due to the long design cycle. So rather than using a 28nm chip that will be outdated in five years, many of these designs are starting at the bleeding edge.
It’s not clear how those chips will fare under harsh road conditions. It’s also not clear how any of these designs will be affected by the upcoming 2nd Edition of ISO 26262 Functional Safety Standards, which includes Part 11 to specifically address the needs for semiconductors and IP.
The challenge, according to Wong, is achieving quality, reliability and functional safety, which are the three pillars of automotive design.
Subject to changeThat’s just the starting point, too. Automotive requirements are constantly changing as more electronics are added into vehicles. For example, ML/AI chips likely will interface with GDDR6 memories as opposed to LPDDR4. Camera interfaces likely will stay at MIPI DPHY v1.2 for some time, but will likely migrate to newer MIPI A-PHY standards by 2021/2022. And sensor fusion likely will drive on-vehicle networking speed to above 1Gbps, so even Gigabit Ethernet performance may not be enough. Some designs are using 40Gbps speeds to support the bandwidth requirements needed for L3/L4 systems.
Also, L4/L5 SoCs for automotive likely will migrate to 7nm, while less complicated ADAS subsystems will remain in 16nm for awhile. Infotainment applications will require a migration from 28nm to 16nm, especially when the applications will move to full 4K display.
With the automotive semiconductor landscape going through rapid changes due to the disruptions taking place in the automotive industry, Wong expects traditional applications such as engine control unit (ECU), power electronics, ABS and active suspension to stay at more mature semiconductor process nodes. However, newer applications such as vision subsystems (e-mirror, forward camera, blind spot detection, automated parking, etc.), sensor fusion and other autonomous driving chips will require more advanced processes. Chips for autonomous driving (ML/AI) will require the most advanced and bleeding-edge process nodes, and designers will gravitate to the next finer geometry as soon as it becomes available.
This means that IP designed in 16nm will have to migrated to 7nm a lot sooner than in the past, and deployment of newer IP protocols will also be a lot quicker than in the past.
“All new high-performance ML/AI SoCs will have GDDR6 memory interfaces or HBM2 interfaces,” Wong said. “LPDDR4 will be replaced by LPDDR4x, and soon after that with LPDDR5. On top of that, automotive SoCs will remain in production for many years, and IP vendors will be expected to archive design bases for 10+ years and keep good documentation for that period of time to maintain design traceability. This is very different than designing IP for consumer applications. Your smartphone may last two to four years, but your car is expected to last at least 10 years. It may no longer be your car, but it will be someone else’s car. Currently, the average age of an automobile in the U.S. is 11.6 years.”
IP issuesChoosing IP adds its own set of problems. There are companies like Baidu developing their own chips, traditional semiconductor vendors, as well as Tier 1 companies such as Bosch.
“One of the things that all of these guys deal with is having evidence that the specifications are being followed, both from a process standpoint of how the IP is designed,” said Kurt Shuler, vice president of marketing at Arteris IP. “And then, does the IP meet the technical safety requirements that are being claimed?”
This requires the IP customer to look closely at their different IP providers. “If I’m licensing some IP, I want to understand in pre-sales what do you have, how did you build it,” said Shuler. “What evidence and work products do you have to prove any claims that you make? Things may go quiet for a while until the design team gets closer to the end of the chip design project and starts doing the work where they have to calculate the diagnostic coverage and FMEDA, maybe some fault injection to validate, some of the assumptions they make in the FMEDA, among other activities.”
It is imperative for the IP consumer to make sure the right people are having those early conversations.
“If their customer or prospect has somebody who doesn’t understand functional safety or the specification, and is just going blindly through a checklist, it slows things down,” Shuler said. “So the right subject matter experts must be there.”
Also needed is a willingness to share information about diagnostic coverage during verification and schedules. IP integrators, meanwhile, need to understand the assumptions for using IP, because unless it’s custom that IP is considered a safety element out of context (SEooC).
“Whether it’s Arm or Imagination or Synopsys or Cadence or Arteris IP, when they deliver some IP that has functional safety claims, they have assumptions of use for the customer,” Shuler said. “For example, with a piece of soft IP — like a network on chip (NoC) — it generates RTL with an assumption of use that says, ‘You’re going to calculate your own FIT rate.’ It sounds obvious, but they don’t know what semiconductor you’re going to use.”
That kind of detail is essential. Automotive OEMs want to see specifics about what they are buying for their systems.
“This goes through the whole food chain and it’s all controlled through ISO 26262, in which they’ve already established all the rules and the documentation,” said John Swanson, Ethernet product line manager for Synopsys IP. “The first automotive chips I worked on, nobody even asked about this stuff. They had to certify the chip, but they didn’t have to certify the IP. That’s obviously changed. You put more and more IP on the chip and it makes sense.”
Hard vs. soft IPThe OEMs only go so far, though. They don’t distinguish between hard and soft IP, for example.
“That’s the semiconductor company’s problem,” Swanson said. “They give requirements to the Bosches and the Densos and companies like that, and some of them are very involved in driving standards. Take Continental, for example. They’ve been pushing the high speed networking, so I don’t think [the OEMs] care. It’s a question for the semiconductor provider of whether they can certify all the different pieces.”
Nevertheless, there are different requirements for hard IP and soft IP. “I would argue hard IP is easier because it’s not configurable, but it’s still a lot of work to make an ASIL-D-ready PHY, for example,” Swanson said.
This is a significant issue for the IP provider, Shuler noted, because if you’re providing hard IP, “you have the option to provide more information. For example, FIT rates. This is impossible to do with soft IP. You can provide all the ingredients required, and if you’re delivering a hard IP, you also can provide assumptions of use for how this particular block is going to be placed. For instance, if I have a rectangular block and it’s a hard macro and somebody is going to duplicate it, I can put in the assumptions of use such that if you do duplication, you’re going to have the skinny end running east-west for one of them, and the skinny end for the other one running north-south. All those things go into assumptions of use.”
The SEooC approach grew out of the use of soft IP, Swanson said. “Bosch or Denso, or whoever would invent some sort of basic infotainment system with software features, wanted to put that in as many different cars as possible so they could certify it in a system as a SEooC such that, ‘We know it’s basically going to go in and do this, but they don’t know details, and you as the manufacturer have to certify the details.’ That’s still true of IP. They certify the IP, and the semiconductor companies have to certify the chips. The Tier 1s have to certify the systems, and the OEMs have to certify the cars, and ISO 26262 documents the whole process. So if something does go wrong, you can go back and trace it, find out where it went wrong, and fix it.”
Related to this is the interaction of different pieces of IP integrated into an automotive SoC. According to ISO 26262, the individual pieces would be certified, and when integrated into a subsystem, that subsystem would need to be certified, as well.
Fortunately, the description for exactly how to do this is covered in the second edition of ISO 26262. “Realizing that you are going to have IP from a whole bunch of different vendors, and it’s not just your own created IP, from a micro level, there’s guidance for the individual IP vendors,” Shuler said. “At the macro level, that integrator is responsible for looking at things from the system level. They need to make sure that each IP is implemented according to the assumptions of use, because we’re not going to know what the system level is and the functionality that they’re trying to go after. One of the things that is important, coming from a technical standpoint, is that IP at the RTL level connects through transactional interfaces.”
More complexityAll of this adds cost and complexity. “They have to match the stringent specifications from the OEM, which sits on top of the tiered structure of suppliers, in addition to meeting the different functional safety aspects and the reliability standards,” said Ranjit Adhikary, vice president of marketing at ClioSoft. “Companies targeting the automotive industry have to be prepared to invest 30% to 40% more R&D cost toward creating the SoCs and IPs.”
On top of that, auto IP developers need to meet standards that will help in shortening the SoC design cycles, and ensure that it works in subsystems, and software the OEM is bringing in. That includes considerations such as latency, power dissipation, area, high reliability and continuous operation, along with process-related design challenges for advanced nodes, Adhikary said. “The IPs developed specifically for the automotive industry also need to be able to withstand the extreme conditions such as higher voltages, higher temperatures, higher electrostatic discharge, and higher test coverage targets.”
Keith Witek, senior vice president of corporate development & strategy at SiFive, said that IP blocs and SoCs need to be tested an analyzed at each design step and phase, including architecture, RTL, netlist, physical design, validation, place-and-route-and tapeout for faults. If there fault, it also has to be determined how dangerous that fault is.
“As these defects in the design are detected, they must be iterated, fixed, and documented. This is needed to get ASIL ratings and comply with ISO 26262,” Witek said. ” The problem with this certification is that ‘after the design,’ testing and compliance is often not possible. The process has to start with auto grad qual/validation/verification in mind and cannot often be fixed at the end at the component level (although a software or system level compliant fix can sometimes be applied). These procedures have been known to add up to two years to some semiconductor designs.”
Fundamentally, from the perspective of both IP vendor and IP consumer, it is imperative to track the usage of the IPs and ensure all the design collateral is maintained, Adhikary said. “For an IP developer, keeping track of the IP and its variants, associated issues for each variants and their resolutions, environments used for testing, and results, becomes a necessity. For an IP consumer, they need to keep track of where the IP was used, identifying equivalent IPs if needed for substitution, process nodes used to develop the IP, and open issues, if any. For both the IP developer and the vendor, it becomes necessary to have an exhaustive IP ecosystem which can manage a complex matrix of design information and attributes.”
ConclusionDeveloping IP in the automotive industry is a complex and arduous undertaking. Standards are changing, buyers are from mixed backgrounds, and even then it’s not certain how quickly that IP will be adopted or where it will be used.
This is not a trivial undertaking, and while the auto market can pay significant dividends for companies that get it right, it’s not always clear how to get there—or what it will take to stay there.
Related StoriesAutonomous Vehicle Design Begins To Change DirectionIt’s unrealistic to road-test every corner case, so the automotive supply chain is shifting gears.Making Autonomous Vehicles SaferWhat needs to be tested, and what’s the best way to make that happen?Connected Cars: From Chip To CityTomorrow’s vehicle-to-infrastructure network will require a coordinated effort between standards bodies, infrastructure providers, and technology developers.AV Testing Advances Without StandardsWhile U.S. struggles to make rules for self-driving cars, industry works on streamlining validation.Who Will Regulate Autonomous Vehicles Best?How one state is approaching regulation of driverless cars—without addressing whether they are safe.
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