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000-911 exam Dumps Source : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
Test Code : 000-911
Test Name : System and Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
Vendor Name : IBM
: 142 Real Questions
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July 05, 2007 12:00 ET
New Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 to enable swift Adoption of IDS eleven "Cheetah"
ARMONK, big apple and new york, new york--(Marketwire - July 5, 2007) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) and AGS Ltd., a privately held purveyor of management solutions for statistics servers, today introduced that the brand new Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 -- the principal suite of built-in equipment administration equipment for IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) -- is now accessible, with variants offered via each IBM and AGS.
The IDS information server is a strategic factor of IBM's assistance administration utility portfolio and the currently introduced IDS 11 -- code named Cheetah -- can provide improved performance, reliability and scalability, together with the skill to address large volumes of advanced facts at very high speeds. IDS 11 is additionally the trade's first records server to provide clustered information centers with continuous data availability and disaster restoration inspite of the geographic location or distance between backup records middle websites.
Server Studio and Sentinel together form a magnificent infrastructure of multi-platform tools that help both pro database specialists and learners alike control IBM Informix data server environments with an extraordinary ease and productiveness. Native assist of IDS 11 new functionality within the free up 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel further enhances skill to convey ultimate efficiency, availability and maintainability of Informix databases right through their entire operational lifestyles cycle.
"Our lengthy-term partnership with AGS underscores IBM's steadfast dedication to offering IDS purchasers with the performance optimization, availability and compliance administration options they want," talked about Bernie Spang, director IBM information servers. "the brand new liberate 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel will aid give protection to the funding that their valued clientele have made in their Informix data server infrastructures."
the versatility, wealthy functionality and ease-of-use supplied by means of Server Studio and Sentinel construct on the legendary reliability and easy administration of IDS. the new device set provided through AGS helps companies and organizations be sure that critical database applications remain up and function at height levels, permitting them to easily manage alternate, address regulatory compliance and guarantee availability of essential enterprise guidance.
bank of america lately selected Server Studio and Sentinel for its IDS environment -- one of the world's greatest dispensed information facilities processing online monetary transactions.
"The latest release of Server Studio and Sentinel deliver a group of integrated, enormously productive system administration equipment that builders and DBAs working with IBM's Informix information servers have been stressful and waiting for. Informix now has very powerful graphical tools that exceed the capabilities of native and third birthday celebration choices attainable for every other database platform. Couple this with magnificent technical aid and also you get products with amazing price and a quick ROI," spoke of Kevin Kleinhomer, vice president at financial institution of the usa. "In their enormous disbursed ambiance, Server Studio and Sentinel have simplified and automated many DBA tasks. With these additions, IBM's Informix information servers had been made drastically more convenient to administer and computer screen."
Server Studio gives a finished collection of effortless-to-use, proven equipment for DBAs and developers that enrich efficiency of performing regular database tasks akin to: SQL construction and debugging, schema management, configuration auditing and alter management, performance tuning, information storage management and reorganization, protection administration and greater -- all from an built-in graphical console that unites construction, administration and maintenance actions for a whole Informix infrastructure at a central element of manage.
Sentinel offers 24 × 7 operational monitoring, alerting, subject discovery, evaluation and autonomic response automation infrastructure for IBM Informix facts servers' atmosphere. it's handy to installation agent-much less structure equips DBAs with subtle diagnostics and remediation facilities which aid pinpoint and unravel the underlying explanations of efficiency bottlenecks and resources contention issues that adversely affect databases' availability and have an impact on end clients.
Smaller groups and corporations that wouldn't have huge IT staffs to manipulate big facts servers infrastructure have also benefited from the amazing software development and administration capabilities offered by using IDS and Server Studio.
"As a software developer and DBA, Server Studio is a device that i take advantage of every day, and it's precisely what I demand from my tools -- solid, respectable, and robust," said Sean Durity, manager of IT for CornerCap investment assistance. "Even the 'small' facets of Server Studio are big timesavers. I cannot imagine working with Informix and not the use of Server Studio. I won't work with anything less."
the relationship between AGS and IBM all started in 2000 when IBM began distributing AGS' Server Studio because the simple database building and administration tools suite with Informix statistics servers. Product management, engineering and QA groups of both agencies work closely on product direction, expertise building and QA trying out of Server Studio and Sentinel.
"we're proud of and tremendously cost their strategic partnership with IBM. option of AGS records servers' administration options by IBM is a testament to their industry-main know-how," noted Anatole Vishon, CEO of AGS Ltd. "We remember the a must have significance of Informix, exceptionally within the retail, financial, telecommunications, healthcare, govt and SMB sectors. AGS is dedicated to supporting current capabilities and developing new applied sciences for Informix facts servers so as to add price for IBM customers."
Pricing and Availability
The unencumber 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel can be found now via IBM and AGS worldwide. The Core version of Server Studio is equipped with the aid of IBM to Informix valued clientele at no additional can charge. Its basic functionality will also be prolonged by using buy of a considerable number of top rate versions accessible at once from AGS.
more information about Server Studio is attainable at: http://www.ibm.com/application/facts/informix/serverstudio/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/items/serverstudio/
additional info about Sentinel is purchasable at: http://www.ibm.com/application/statistics/informix/sentinel/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/sentinel/
more information about Informix Dynamic Server is accessible at: http://www.ibm.com/software/records/informix/ids/
AGS, Server Studio and Sentinel are trademarks or registered logos of superior international systems, Ltd. For a listing of extra AGS logos, please see http://www.ags.com
IBM, Informix Dynamic Server and the IBM e-business emblem are trademarks or registered trademarks of foreign company Machines employer. For an inventory of extra IBM trademarks, please see www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml
All different company, product or carrier names may be emblems or registered emblems of others. Statements regarding IBM's future construction plans and schedules are made for planning functions most effective, and are field to trade or withdrawal with out be aware. Reseller costs may additionally vary.
The Embedded Database management systems Market record comprises a complete analysis of the existing market. The report begins with the basic Embedded Database management methods Market overview and then goes into each and each element.
This press unencumber become orginally allotted with the aid of SBWire
Houston, TX -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/08/2019 -- The international Embedded Database management systems Market is explained in element during this record, beginning with a primary overview, which includes definitions and quite a lot of specifics regarding the raw materials used in manufacturing Market items. It includes a categorised big difference of primary and minor factors that have an impact on this international business. An embedded database device is a database administration equipment (DBMS) which is tightly integrated with an utility software that requires entry to stored statistics, such that the database system is hidden from the utility's conclusion-person and requires little or no ongoing protection.
The global Embedded Database administration methods Market is growth at a CAGR of +12% right through the forecast period 2019-2025.
The look at additionally examines the a large number of policies that modify strategies within the world industry, exactly, those that are currently energetic, together with an analysis of the exact information studies in regards to the Market. This record also presents a crucial analytical counsel on the trends and trends during this trade. The file also gives an expert and finished evaluation on the global Embedded Database administration techniques Market whereas articulating industry insights into its present situation.
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accurate Key providers in Market:Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, Centura software, software AG, Informix, PointBase , Boiler Bay, Inc, Embarcadero technologies, Raima, HSQLDB
It offers a polished view of the classifications, functions, segmentations, specifications and an awful lot greater for Embedded Database administration programs Market. fresh trends and policies with respect to this market are clarified with highest information. The record also examines the charge buildings and pricing concerning the suppliers, uncooked materials, labors, equipment's crucial, and a lot of different. This examine is a compilation of simple and secondary analysis, which makes it possible for the readers and avid gamers to have a powerful realizing of the average market.
The regions that are covered during this document are North america, Europe, Asia Pacific, core East & Africa and Latin the us. since the given forecast duration and precisely getting to know every and each yearly information, a report is been drafted to ensure the information is as anticipated by way of client. The research look at is a compilation of simple and secondary research, which makes it possible for the readers and players to have a powerful understanding of the usual Embedded Database management techniques Market.
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Market phase through classification:LinuxMacOS/iOSWindows
Market phase by way of utility:RetailHealthcareDefenseOil and gasManufacturing industries
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- to analyze international Embedded Database administration techniques popularity, future forecast, increase chance, key market and key players.- To present the Embedded Database administration techniques Market building in united states, Europe and China- To strategically profile the key avid gamers and comprehensively analyze their construction plan and strategies.- To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market and key areas.
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big Blue also discloses plans to combine its DB2 and Informix Dynamix Server product lines in future types of both items
IBM introduced the first beta of Stinger final fall, adopted in can also by a public beta preview. The ensuing DB2 eight.2 database—packing a bevy of efficiency and availability features, along with new autonomic capabilities—will turn into frequently accessible this Friday.
For the listing, big Blue ultimate delivered a big DB2 UDB replace (version eight.1) in November 2002—just weeks after it kicked off its eBusiness-On-Demand computing strategy.
In mild of IBM’s constant emphasis on utility or “on-demand” computing, then, it’s no longer mind-blowing that officials had been anxious to tout the autonomic credentials of the new database. “These [autonomic] capabilities are by a long way the main element [of the DB2 8.2 release],” says Jeff Jones, director of approach for IBM’s statistics management solutions. “The conception is that with these [autonomic] capabilities, fewer DBA substances are required, and the DBA is allowed to do other issues, like might be take part extra at design time, like larger order detective work.”
Jones says that the revamped database will make it easier for DBAs to install, configure, keep, and optimize DB2 databases on the fly. during this recognize, officials point to greater versions of tools reminiscent of DB2 Configuration guide and DB2 Design advisor, which supply DBAs a wizard-like interface to customise DB2 for distinctive utility and records warehousing requirements. Configuration marketing consultant, as an instance, asks questions about what sort of utility a DBA plans to roll out and how many clients she expects to aid, after which tunes DB2 therefore.
in a similar fashion, the new Design consultant lets DBAs more effortlessly tune DB2 because the database workload adjustments, automate adjustments to the database structure, and perform tasks similar to database backup and restoration. Jones says it may well be principally valuable in complicated-question environments.
one of the vital greatest new elements in the revamped DB2 is in response to technology IBM developed for its studying Optimization (LEO) analysis and development assignment. in keeping with Jones, LEO helps to automate, simplify, and accelerate queries devoid of requiring a DBA’s attention. The LEO technology additionally provides up-to-date question statistics about database use, storage, and efficiency.
nonetheless an additional new function is what IBM calls question Patroller, which introduces a question-based chargeback facility. “It permits you to in fact monitor [and] be aware the cost of queries, so you can do issues like chargeback. which you can really calculate how an awful lot query time these departments are the use of and cost them for it,” spoke of Paul Rivot, international director of database servers at IBM, in an interview this can also.
in other places, DB2 8.2 boasts a brand new function referred to as Autonomic Object renovation that immediately performs administration and preservation functions, equivalent to desk adjustments or facts backups.
possibly incredibly, IBM’s DB2 8.2 free up borrows heavily from technologies already blanketed in the Informix Dynamix Server, the object-relational statistics shop IBM obtained with the buy of Informix in 2001. for instance, says Jones, the new version of DB2 features a capacity known as Autonomic high-Availability-disaster-recovery (HADR) with autonomic customer reroute, which helps computerized high-availability, catastrophe recovery and client reroute for clustered environments.
“We’re vastly automating the assignment of setting up failover pairs, returned up methods, to fail to when a major device dies,” he explains. “This became achievable during the past with DB2, however become quite just a little greater guide. seems that Informix has a true rich, real powerful capacity, so they decided, let’s get this occurring DB2, as a result of this will vastly have an effect on DB2.”
HADR gives a wizard-like interface that lets DBAs “build and set up this [clustering] potential and additionally the automated customer re-route and the genuine mechanical failover capabilities which are very brief and very computerized once some thing fails,” says Jones.
On the BI entrance, Jones says, DB2 8.2 features an additional contribution from Informix Dynamix Server. “The other is the Geodetic Extender this is an present thing called the Geodetic records Blade,” he confirms. due to its Geodetic Extender part, DB2 eight.2 can save 3-dimensional geospatial statistics that's both vicinity- and time-and-space-aware. This feature may still attraction primarily to valued clientele in certain verticals (government, protection, and transportation, together with restaurant chains and retailers) that now and again use spatial information to establish new company alternatives, officers say.
in other places in BI additions, Jones says consumers can use DB2 dice Views to define OLAP-centric metadata—including hierarchies, dimensions, attributes, and business suggestions or formulas—and shop it as a transparent extension to DB2. within the revamped eight.2 free up, this know-how has been tweaked to enhance query performance.
DB2 and Informix Dynamix to Merge in Subsequent Revisions
IBM presently keeps separate development teams for DB2 UDB and Informix Dynamix, but Jones says large Blue has plans to merge both product traces in the future. “we have the luxurious of having two building groups innovating simultaneously and sharing their improvements with one yet another, with the choicest aim of having the subsequent edition of DB2 and the next edition of Informix Dynamix Server come to be being the same factor,” he asserts.
Jones points to IBM’s latest interoperability work with the two data shops, including go-statistics-type assist and SQL standardization, which, he says, will make it possible to migrate from side to side between both statistics shops. “The method then is to guide Informix Dynamix Server and raise it through person requirements, however do that with a continuous eye to getting closer and closer to common performance with DB2,” says Jones, who adds “that is a method off.”
within the near-term, says Jones, IBM will proceed to aid current Informix Dynamix customers. “Informix Dynamic Server is still turning out to be and being superior. we've the Informix crew nevertheless engaged on it, and we're supporting the Informix customer base,” he asserts.
IBM presents Public Preview of “Stinger” DB2http://www.esj.com/news/article.asp?editorialsId=954
IBM Database update activities BI-pleasant Featureshttp://www.esj.com/business_intelligence/article.asp?id=7058&t=y
Stephen Swoyer is a Nashville, TN-based mostly freelance journalist who writes about expertise.
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July 05, 2007 12:00 ET
New Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 to Enable Rapid Adoption of IDS 11 "Cheetah"
ARMONK, NY and NEW YORK, NY--(Marketwire - July 5, 2007) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) and AGS Ltd., a privately held purveyor of management solutions for data servers, today announced that the new Server Studio and Sentinel R. 6.1 -- the principal suite of integrated system management tools for IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) -- is now available, with editions offered by both IBM and AGS.
The IDS data server is a strategic element of IBM's Information Management software portfolio and the recently announced IDS 11 -- code named Cheetah -- delivers increased performance, reliability and scalability, along with the ability to handle massive volumes of complex data at very high speeds. IDS 11 is also the industry's first data server to provide clustered data centers with continuous data availability and disaster recovery regardless of the geographic location or distance between backup data center sites.
Server Studio and Sentinel together form a powerful infrastructure of multi-platform tools that help both seasoned database professionals and novices alike manage IBM Informix data server environments with an unprecedented ease and productivity. Native support of IDS 11 new functionality in the Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel further enhances ability to deliver optimal performance, availability and maintainability of Informix databases throughout their entire operational life cycle.
"Our long-term partnership with AGS underscores IBM's steadfast commitment to providing IDS clients with the performance optimization, availability and compliance management solutions they need," said Bernie Spang, director IBM data servers. "The new Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel will help protect the investment that their customers have made in their Informix data server infrastructures."
The versatility, rich functionality and ease-of-use provided by Server Studio and Sentinel build on the legendary reliability and simple administration of IDS. The new tool set offered by AGS helps companies and organizations ensure that critical database applications remain up and perform at peak levels, allowing them to effectively manage change, handle regulatory compliance and assure availability of vital business information.
Bank of America recently selected Server Studio and Sentinel for its IDS environment -- one of the world's largest distributed data centers processing online financial transactions.
"The latest release of Server Studio and Sentinel provide a collection of integrated, highly productive system management tools that developers and DBAs working with IBM's Informix data servers have been demanding and waiting for. Informix now has very powerful graphical tools that exceed the capabilities of native and third party offerings available for any other database platform. Couple this with outstanding technical support and you get products with excellent value and a quick ROI," said Kevin Kleinhomer, Vice President at Bank of America. "In their large distributed environment, Server Studio and Sentinel have simplified and automated many DBA tasks. With these additions, IBM's Informix data servers have been made significantly easier to administer and monitor."
Server Studio provides a comprehensive collection of easy-to-use, proven tools for DBAs and developers that improve efficiency of performing common database tasks such as: SQL development and debugging, schema management, configuration auditing and change management, performance tuning, data storage management and reorganization, security administration and more -- all from an integrated graphical console that unites development, administration and maintenance activities for an entire Informix infrastructure at a central point of control.
Sentinel provides 24 × 7 operational monitoring, alerting, issue discovery, analysis and autonomic response automation infrastructure for IBM Informix data servers' environment. It's easy to deploy agent-less architecture equips DBAs with sophisticated diagnostics and remediation facilities which help pinpoint and resolve the underlying causes of performance bottlenecks and resources contention issues that adversely affect databases' availability and impact end users.
Smaller companies and organizations that do not have large IT staffs to manage large data servers infrastructure have also benefited from the robust application development and administration capabilities provided by IDS and Server Studio.
"As a software developer and DBA, Server Studio is a tool that I use every day, and it is exactly what I demand from my tools -- stable, reliable, and powerful," said Sean Durity, Manager of IT for CornerCap Investment Counsel. "Even the 'small' features of Server Studio are big timesavers. I can't imagine working with Informix and not using Server Studio. I won't work with anything less."
The relationship between AGS and IBM began in 2000 when IBM began distributing AGS' Server Studio as the primary database development and administration tools suite with Informix data servers. Product management, engineering and QA teams of both companies work closely on product direction, technology development and QA testing of Server Studio and Sentinel.
"We are proud of and greatly value their strategic partnership with IBM. Selection of AGS data servers' management solutions by IBM is a testament to their industry-leading technology," said Anatole Vishon, CEO of AGS Ltd. "We understand the vital importance of Informix, particularly in the retail, financial, telecommunications, healthcare, government and SMB sectors. AGS is committed to supporting existing capabilities and developing new technologies for Informix data servers to add value for IBM customers."
Pricing and Availability
The Release 6.1 of Server Studio and Sentinel are available now through IBM and AGS worldwide. The Core Edition of Server Studio is provided by IBM to Informix customers at no additional cost. Its basic functionality can be extended by purchase of various premium editions available directly from AGS.
Additional information about Server Studio is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/serverstudio/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/serverstudio/
Additional information about Sentinel is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/sentinel/, or http://www.serverstudio.com/products/sentinel/
Additional information about Informix Dynamic Server is available at: http://www.ibm.com/software/data/informix/ids/
AGS, Server Studio and Sentinel are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Global Systems, Ltd. For a list of additional AGS trademarks, please see http://www.ags.com
IBM, Informix Dynamic Server and the IBM e-business logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. For a list of additional IBM trademarks, please see www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml
All other company, product or service names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of others. Statements concerning IBM's future development plans and schedules are made for planning purposes only, and are subject to change or withdrawal without notice. Reseller prices may vary.
Nov 10, 2011Vaibhav Dantale
Although it is possible to develop an efficient Vehicle Tracking System using any database server, and many such solutions are already available in the market, Informix offers many advantages. Informix can reduce your disk space requirement, improve your query performance, and reduce your application development efforts, without special training or buying additional technology. The built-in technologies of Informix will reduce your total cost of ownership, so if these benefits are important to you, keep reading!
A Vehicle Tracking System (VTS) tracks vehicles and provides different analytics, such as the total distance travelled, the total fuel consumption, the best routes, and so on. Certainly having more and more different kinds of alerts improves the efficiency of system. This system encompasses three phases of implementation: instrumentation, integration, and intelligence.
Instrumentation: Each vehicle has a special device that records different parameters related to a vehicle, such as, speed, current location, fuel status, ignition status, and so on.
Integration: Devices implemented in the field transmit information through an integrated system that includes a GPRS system and stores the information in a database.
Intelligence: The intelligence on the information collected from the field is stored in a database, including different kinds of MIS reports, dashboards, current locations of vehicles, travel information, and reports of exceptions like geo-fence violations and fuel theft.
Some of the characteristics of a VTS are:
Now let's see the advantages of Informix built-in technologies over the traditional relational approach.Disk Space Saving (62%)
A vehicle tracking system collects the vehicle-related information, including a time stamp, with a specific frequency. Informix provides a data type that stores this type of time series information more efficiently than any traditional RDBMS approach. The following tables compare both approaches.
Traditional RDBMS approach
This table shows the structure of the tracking table in a traditional RDBMS.
Informix TimeSeries data type approach
Informix stores time series data in a specialized data type, called TimeSeries, which stores all the time series data for a particular vehicle in the same row. Informix supports two different types of time series: regular time series that stores the data with a fixed frequency, and irregular time series that stores the data for arbitrary points in time. A regular time series is the most suitable for a VTS. In a regular time series, the time stamp is stored only once as the origin of the time series and the time stamps of the rest of the rows are calculated using the offset from the origin.
This table shows the structure of the tracking table in Informix, using the TimeSeries data type.
[(72.844060, 19.116280,85.00,40.00), (72.853800, 19.113470,84.90, 39.00)....]
[(72.855370, 19.116570, 100.00,45.00), (72.885120, 19.106000, 99.90, 45.00)..]
The data for each vehicle is stored in contiguous disk space on a page.
Traditional RDBMS approach
We create the traditional RDBMS table for storing vehicle tracking information, called vehicle_tracking:
create table vehicle_tracking
vehicle_number integer, - 4 (bytes)
timestamp datetime year to fraction(5) - 11(bytes)
longitude decimal(10,8), - 6(bytes)
latitude decimal(10,8) - 6(bytes)
speed decimal(5,2) - 4(bytes)
We create an index on the vehicle_number and timestamp columns.
Suppose they have 10,000 vehicles to be tracked every minute and they need to store information for 90 days. Let's calculate the storage requirements.
Record size = 4+11+6+6+4 = 31
Record/slot overhead = 4 bytes
Total size of record = 31 + 4 = 35 bytes
Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes per page
Total free space on 2 K page size = 2048-28 = 2020byte
Total records on each page = 2020/35=57
Total number of records = 10000*60*24*90 = 1296000000
Total number of pages used = 1296000000 / 57 = 22736842
Total space required for data = 22736842 * 2 KB = 43 GB
Total space required for the index = 34 GB
The total space required for the vehicle_tracking table = 43 + 34 = 77GB
Informix TimeSeries data type approach
We create a TimeSeries data type, named vehicle_tracking_rt, and then create a table, named vehicle_tracking_ts, that includes the vehicle_tracking_rt column:
create row type vehicle_tracking_rt
timestamp datetime year to fraction(5)
create table vehicle_tracking_ts
We create an index on only the vehicle_number column.
We store the vehicle number only once, hence the space required for the vehicle_number column = 10000*4 = 40000bytes=39 KB.
We create the index on only the vehicle_number column, hence the total space required for the index = 10000*4=40000 bytes = 39 KB.
We store the time stamp only once for each vehicle, hence the space required for the time stamp = 10000*11 = 110000 bytes = 107 KB.
The space required for all remaining columns is:
Record size = 6+6+4 = 16
Record/slot overhead = 4 bytes
Total size of record = 16 + 4 = 20 bytes
Page overhead for maintaining page information = 28bytes + 16 bytes slot overhead Total free space on 2 K page size = 2048-44 = 2004 bytes
Total records on each page = 2004/20=100
Total number of pages used per vehicle per day = 1440 / 100 = 15
Total pages used per day = 10000*15 = 150000
Total space required for data on first day = 150000 * 2 KB = 0.29 GB
Daily increment in data = 0.27 GB
Total space required for data of 90 days = 25 GB
The total space required for the vehicle_tracking_ts table = 25 GB +39 KB +29 KB+ 107 KB = 25 GB
This is a 68% disc space saving compared to a traditional RDBMS approach.Performance (up to 54 times faster)
Let's consider few use cases:
For all of these use cases, the application scans through the data for one day.
Traditional RDBMS performance
The report generation requires the following disk reads:
At least 5 disk reads through the index to reach to leaf nodes
Each vehicle has 60*24 records per day = 1440
Each vehicle needs 1440 non-cached disk reads
Total non-cached distributed disk reads = 1440 * 10000 = 14.4 million
Informix TimeSeries data type performance
Because the index is only 39 KB, the scan effort is minimal.
Because the TimeSeries data type stores data in contiguous space on a page, for a 2 K page size each page contains at least 2004/20 = 100 rows.
Each vehicle needs 1440/100 = 15 pages = 15 disk reads.
Total non-cached distributed disk reads = (15+ 1) * 10000 = 160,000
Informix TimeSeries type
68% space saving
54 times faster
The advantages of using the Informix TimeSeries implementation are:
Because many operations in a VTS application are time based, the available built-in routines for the Informix TimeSeries data type makes development easy and fast.
If they want to see the average speed of vehicle every 30 minutes, the RDBMS approach requires a large programming effort and a performance challenge. Whereas, with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they use the simple AggregateBy function to roll-up the information to any required time frequency.
If they want to see the average speed of vehicle in last 30 days, the best method is to examine its running average (not its normal average). Again, showing the running average speed of vehicles with the RDBMS approach is a big programming and performance challenge. Whereas with the Informix TimeSeries data type, they use the simple TSRunningAvg function with the period and frequency that they want.
Another basic need of VTS is storing location-related information. Location information can be in the form of a point specifying the location of vehicle, a LineString specifying the route, or a Polygon specifying the geo-fence of the vehicle. The easiest way to handle this type of information is by using the Informix spatial data types. Informix spatial data types not only optimally maintain the data, but also provide built-in routines that improve the accuracy and ease the development of your solution.
Let's examine the use case of geo-fencing. Geo-fencing refers to the practice of limiting the vehicle movements to a specific geographical area by defining the latitude and longitude of the area in the form of a LineString or polygon.
A geo-fence system raises an alarm if one of the vehicles leaves the fenced area and deviates from its designated route. This might happen because of the personal interest of the vehicle driver or because the vehicle is stolen.
Traditional RDBMS approach
We identify the different locations on the route the vehicle is supposed to travel and insert multiple rows into a fence table, comprising information like the vehicle ID and its location (latitude and longitude) information. If they need to track 200 different locations on the designated route for a particular vehicle, they insert 200 rows for that vehicle. To check if the vehicle is outside the fence area, they develop their own logic and run the cursor through these 200 rows to check if the current location is within any two points.
To display the geo-fence on an online map, they create an XML file by running a cursor through all 200 records and then parse through the XML to display each point on the map.
Informix spatial data types approach
We define a column called geofence in the master table with a data type of either polygon or LineString. They store all 200 location co-ordinates in this single column.
To check if the vehicle is within the fence area, they use the SQL function ST_Within (curr_loc,geofence). If the function returns "True," the vehicle is within the fence area; if it returns "False," the vehicle is outside the fence area.
To display the geo-fence on an online map, they use SE_askml(geofence) function, which creates a KML file that they can import into the map.
Advantages of using Informix spatial data types
Systems like a Vehicle Tracking System can be developed using any kind of database as a back-end. But using by the Informix TimeSeries and spatial built-in data types, the same system can be many times more efficient. The disk space saving of 60% and up to 54 times faster performance compared to traditional relational approach can enable you to increase the frequency of data collection, which means better accuracy. The built-in functions for the TimeSeries and spatial data types makes the application development task easier and provides for increased accuracy.
About the author:
Vaibhav Dantale is a software engineer within IBM Information Management division. He has been working on Informix for last 12 years, in various development, QA and technical management roles. Currently, Dantale focuses on evangelizing Informix product in ASIA Pacific region. He is one of the Informix TimeSeries technical experts and has been involved in several customer engagements on Informix TimeSeries. He has patents under his name and is co-author of a red book on Informix security features.
Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.This chapter is from the book
One of the primary tasks associated with the job of DBA is the process of choosing and installing a DBMS. Unfortunately, many business executives and IT professionals without database management background assume that once the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the work is done. The truth is, choosing and installing the DBMS is hardly the most difficult part of a DBA’s job. Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very large players.
Yet, large and medium-size organizations typically run multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a large company to use IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install all these DBMSs and why?
Unfortunately, often the answer is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the decision to purchase and install a new DBMS is driven by a business need or a new application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a new DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a new application. Sometimes a new DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could be successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can be implemented using an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or support to reject a new DBMS proposal.
There are other reasons for the existence of multiple DBMS platforms in a single organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not run on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the decision to buy a new DBMS is driven by the desire to support the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops moving from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.
Once a DBMS is installed, removal can be difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a new DBMS is installed, old applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The old DBMS remains and must continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.
So what should be done? Well, the DBA group should be empowered to make the DBMS decisions for the organization. No business unit should be allowed to purchase a DBMS without the permission of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. Business politics often work against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other business executives.Choosing a DBMS
The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to be supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, choose a default DBMS for the platform. Discourage deviation from the default unless a compelling business case exists—a business case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.
Most of the major DBMS products have similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to choose a DBMS based solely on its ability to support a specific feature.
When choosing a DBMS, it is wise to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot go wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are popular and support just about any type of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle run on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should be done only under specific circumstances.Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone: (650) 506-7000
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: (425) 882-8080
After the big three come MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. All of these offerings are quality DBMS products, but their installed base is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the Big Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may be solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the high performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors
Informix Dynamic Server
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)
Adaptive Server Enterprise
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone: (510) 922-3500
10000 Innovation Drive
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone: (937) 242-4030
MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)
Phone: (208) 338-8100
Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, certain predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might be viable options. If an object DBMS is important for a specific project, you might consider ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1
However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver sufficient functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with certain features that make them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. Refer to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.
I do not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will need a strategy and a plan for selecting the appropriate DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, be sure to consider each of these factors:
The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.
The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a business one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).
The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can perform per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:
Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can be found at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see Figure 2.1).
When choosing a DBMS, be sure to take into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very complex and is getting more complex with each new release. Functionality that used to be supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in Figure 2.2. You will need to plan for and support all the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for certain features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a reason to use just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to plan and be prepared than to allow features to be used without a plan for supporting them.
Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS softwareDBMS Architectures
The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very critical to the success of the database applications. One wrong choice or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can cause poor performance, downtime, or unstable applications.
When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of business and IT experts, rather than a single person or group, should make the final architecture decision. Business experts should include representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software contract issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should be included in this team.
Furthermore, be sure that the DBMS you select is appropriate for the nature and type of processing you plan to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.
An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and high performance. An enterprise DBMS must be capable of supporting very large databases, a large number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers all the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, support for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.
A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports small to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could be performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.
A personal DBMS is designed for a single user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors also market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to choose a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, do not be lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never be deployed for multiuser applications.
Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.
A DBMS designed for one type of processing may be ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too complex for single users. Be sure to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and choose the appropriate DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may need to choose multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each development project.
If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the same vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.DBMS Clustering
Clustering is the use of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering support to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names do a good job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a high level.
Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in Figure 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can be dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main advantage of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they do not interfere with one another—nothing is shared.
In a shared-disk environment, all the connected systems share the same disk devices, as shown in Figure 2.4. Each processor still has its own private memory, but all the processors can directly address all the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very large processors—are capable of processing enormous volumes of work. Great benefits can be obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would need to be clustered to achieve similar benefits.
Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with heavy data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures
Quick adaptability to changing workloads
Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware
Almost unlimited scalability
Performs best in a heavy read environment
Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment
Data need not be partitioned
Data is partitioned across the cluster
The major DBMS vendors provide support for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s Real Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.
For most users, the primary benefit of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can help an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can be used for load balancing and failover.DBMS Proliferation
As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must be followed before a new DBMS can be brought into the organization. Failure to do so can cause a proliferation of different DBMS products that will be difficult to support. It can also cause confusion regarding which DBMS to use for which development effort.
As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will be bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you need another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling reason is given and a short-term return on investment (ROI) can be demonstrated. Even when confronted with valid reasons and good ROI, be sure to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures do not take everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.
Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to perform similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing effective data management resources for your organization.Hardware Issues
When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only part of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will run will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in turn will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to say everything should run on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to be developed must be considered. The bottom line is that you must be sure to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.Cloud Database Systems
Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at small to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can be more cost-effective than building an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.
A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in return for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their business instead of their computing environment.
By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is possible to improve collaboration among partners, branch offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no need to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.
An example of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.
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CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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