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000-633 Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

Study Guide Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


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000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1
Vendor Name : IBM
: 105 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Object Oriented Analysis

Analyst enterprise Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant record | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

source: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, the big apple -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM today announced that Gartner, Inc. has positioned IBM in the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant record of the item Oriented evaluation and Design tools area. based on the record*, Gartner estimates that IBM has greater than 50 percent of the market share versus its two nearest competitors who combined grasp 30 p.c or more of the market.

mannequin-driven development helps software development groups remember, doc and talk the enterprise procedure of software and techniques development to demonstrate structure resilience earlier than making full scale development investments, and to outline a provider oriented structure roadmap leading to enterprise transformation.

IBM's management in the Object Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools market for 2H06-2H07 is the result of a finished portfolio of choices which help corporations use fashions or patterns to force their application building, including:

-- IBM Rational software Modeler, IBM Rational application Architect, and IBM Rational programs Developer -- IBM's award-profitable model-driven building tools, in line with Eclipse, to help building groups create effective applications; -- continued guide of Microsoft environments via IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's commitment to offering a utility development platform that pursuits a wide array of implementation technologies; -- IBM WebSphere business Modeler -- the outcomes of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- supports company procedure evaluation to close the gap between an firm's strains of company and their construction corporation's figuring out of the enterprise drivers; -- IBM Rational information Architect -- an commercial enterprise information modeling and database design tool that additionally helps users map data assets to each different to extra readily create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's assessment of the OOA&D positions IBM within the leaders quadrant which they consider confirms their strategy round model-pushed development," observed Danny Sabbah, usual supervisor, Rational software, IBM. "IBM's model-driven equipment assist geographically dispensed utility building groups to speak their designs and requirements visually, putting off the chance of assignment disasters as a result of mis-verbal exchange as a consequence of language and cultural barriers."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions vendors along two dimensions: completeness of imaginative and prescient, and means to execute on that vision. For 2006, Object Oriented analysis and Design equipment are neatly into mainstream use reaching 20 percent to 50 percent of the target audience: assistance architects, analysts and developers. in line with the record, most corporations have transformed to OOA&D methods and equipment in live performance with implementing carrier oriented architectures (SOAs), leading to a speedy explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

today's news builds on IBM's management in assisting purchasers govern their utility and techniques development. IBM turned into lately named the international market share chief in the software development and venture and portfolio administration software marketplace in response to total software profits for 2005 for the fifth consecutive yr, in accordance with independent analyst company Gartner Inc. in keeping with the independent report**, IBM was the leading market share vendor in total utility income with 25.four p.c market share, greater than double the proportion of its nearest competitor.

For extra guidance, visit http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

about the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 by means of Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical representation of a market at and for a selected time length. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how definite carriers measure towards standards for that marketplace, as defined through Gartner. Gartner doesn't suggest any vendor, product or provider depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and doesn't recommend expertise clients to select best those providers positioned in the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is supposed completely as a analysis device, and is not supposed to be a specific book to motion. Gartner disclaims all warranties, categorical or implied, with respect to this analysis, together with any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for Object Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools, 2H06-2H07 document became authored by Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market information file is entitled "Market Share: software development and project and Portfolio management, global, 2005" authored through Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.


IBM and Lightbend be a part of forces on business AI for Scala and Java developers | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Corp. announced a collaboration today with Lightbend Inc. in a bid to fire up the creation of artificial intelligence purposes in significant agencies.

Lightbend is the issuer of the area’s main construction platform for thus-known as “Reactive” purposes, which are enormously distributed, bendy and tolerant of screw ups. collectively, the two organizations seek to construct a complete toolchain for AI building for Java and Scala builders.

“Working with IBM on an built-in platform for cognitive development is a natural progression of their work to support advanced cognitive application building,” referred to Mark Brewer, president and chief government officer at Lightbend.

Lightbend expects that the alliance with IBM will bring publicity to potentially millions of developers that use Java and Scala within the commercial enterprise. For its half, IBM sees this as an opportunity to shape a developer community within the emerging AI and cognitive computing trade using Scala and Java.

“This [deal] brings us appropriate into the middle of the community they wish to construct,” referred to Bob Lord, IBM’s chief digital officer. “This now gives us a extremely interesting angle to help Scala and Java builders bring new functions into the commercial enterprise.”

As AI analysis and computer studying construction proceed to make headway into commercial enterprise environments, more developers are turning to Scala for its skill to tackle advanced algorithms and streaming information at scale. as an example, up to date huge records frameworks similar to Spark, Kafka and Akka are written in Scala.

Java itself is an exceptionally regular language amid developers commonly, in addition to in business environments. The language ranked No. 2 in Redmonk’s June 2017 language rankings and has maintained a similarly excessive put up over the last few years. Java is also frequent in AI building on account of its versatility and ease of use as an object-oriented programming language.

Lightbend is specially smartly-located to help Scala builders when it involves AI building because the company’s founder, Martin Odersky, is the creator of the Scala programming language. The company specializes in proposing builders what it calls Reactive methods, described in element in the “Reactive Manifesto.” The core of Reactive methods is to help builders create application that’s extra bendy, scalable and tolerant to failure than legacy frameworks.

IBM intends to integrate Lightbend’s Reactive software construction Platform, which brings important capabilities to builders for reactive programming, records and microservices. With this integration, IBM will prolong its cloud portfolio of cloud services, including statistics analytics, cognitive and computing device studying, and collaborative information science equipment to use Lightbend’s structure.

The purpose is to supply business builders the equipment mandatory to abruptly install AI and cognitive systems the usage of Scala and Java. “Java and Scala are the languages of cognitive and AI development,” Lord said, “and cognitive construction is the future.”

With Lightbend’s platform and IBM’s knowledge in computing device discovering techniques – as considered with the building and deployment of IBM’s flagship AI Watson – builders should be able to prototype, verify and deploy new functions the use of cognitive programs greater quickly.

here’s a video explaining the deal:

photo: Pixabay since you’re here … … We’d want to tell you about their mission and how that you may help us fulfill it. SiliconANGLE Media Inc.’s company mannequin is according to the intrinsic price of the content material, now not promoting. unlike many online publications, they don’t have a paywall or run banner advertising, because they wish to preserve their journalism open, with out have an effect on or the deserve to chase site visitors.

The journalism, reporting and commentary on SiliconANGLE — along with reside, unscripted video from their Silicon Valley studio and globe-trotting video groups at theCUBE — take loads of challenging work, time and cash. keeping the first-class excessive requires the guide of sponsors who're aligned with their imaginative and prescient of ad-free journalism content.

if you just like the reporting, video interviews and different advert-free content right here, please take a moment to try a sample of the video content material supported with the aid of their sponsors, tweet your guide, and retain coming lower back to SiliconANGLE.


Innovation: A application That Works | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mary Jo Frederich and Peter Andrews describe IBM's First-of-a-kind (FOAK) application, which promotes innovation that gives you precise, ecocnomic business cost.

This chapter is from the publication 

if you were tripping over uncut jewels and precious steel ores, you would likely locate a means to take abilities of it. IBM analysis can consider like that some days. in the hallways, you hear conversations about computers that consider natural language, advanced evaluation of streaming facts, or "eco-friendly" concepts for reducing vigor and waste. round you are individuals who believe for a living, difficult at work—taking on intractable problems of securing bank data all through failures, optimizing give chains, or building methods that may simulate drug interactions. good issues are happening. wonderful things.

but for years, attaining out to the true world for innovation partnerships changed into no longer an evident choice for IBM analysis. IBM has always had good, artistic minds at work, helping purchasers and creating the next generation of elementary equipment for company and the public sector. but IBM stored the jewels to itself. Researchers (that really expert position emerged in 1945) labored in what seemed to be fabulous isolation. They managed to invent the disk force, random-entry memory, FORTRAN, RISC computing, and dozens of different technologies that helped create brand new digital world.

not incidentally, IBM made some huge cash throughout this duration. IBM had first-class questions it needed to answer, and it did not deserve to look backyard for expertise. just about every little thing turned into proprietary, and every thing that turned into vital for an entire solution came about within the business. besides, IBM research turned into modeled after Bell Labs, and the perception was that fabulous isolation become both acceptable and crucial. The real world, with its budgets, closing dates, and messy complications, would best distract the foremost and the brightest. Naturally, there have been concepts, problems, and relationships that stored IBM analysis crucial. It wasn't a very closed system, however that was the basic standpoint.

IBM research had few formal ties past company headquarters except the Nineteen Seventies. at that time, other IBM divisions had been facing gigantic challenges, and that they became restive about making contributions to IBM analysis once they weren't getting any immediate advantages. based on this, so-known as "Joint classes" had been based. For the primary time, other divisions of IBM, folks that developed and bought and struggled with customer complications, began to at once have an impact on the IBM analysis agenda and its funding.

instead of securing a hundred% of its finances in the course of the service provider, now IBM analysis became allocated most effective a component of its annual funding. IBM research essential to relaxed the remainder of its funding directly from the IBM manufacturers. This became meant to align a portion of the analysis work with IBM manufacturer innovations, while nonetheless presenting IBM research with the freedom to pursue pure, unconstrained exploration.

This funding mannequin still exists nowadays. each year, each and every of the IBM manufacturers allocates a element of its price range to fund its Joint application with IBM research. For every dollar that a brand invests in its Joint application, IBM research matches it. This matching-of-money strategy has ensured that IBM analysis focuses some of its work on areas strategic to the IBM brands. It additionally has supplied a very good incentive for the brands to invest of their Joint programs, since it is a mechanism for the brands to boost the number of americans engaged on their products, whereas offering best half of the funding. virtually, they get extra support at a discount rate.

With the creation of Joint programs, a considerable and turning out to be number of IBMers begun to work shoulder to shoulder with colleagues from across IBM. The collaboration changed into deep, with company division employees working at, and even directing, tasks within the analysis labs. The duties of researchers extended to the products themselves, and it was no longer peculiar for the researchers to movement their offices to a producing or construction web site. And if a product did not come off the road with enough fine, or a client had a problem with an offering that a researcher had a hand in, that researcher may be called in. Firefighting and issue resolution grew to be a part of the job, and a lot of researchers became conventional with the motels in Burlington, Poughkeepsie, Endicott, Hursley, and Markham.

In 1993, IBM research took a different step toward becoming more externally concentrated with the introduction of the capabilities, applications, and solutions (SAS) application. SAS aimed to carry IBM analysis abilities and technologies to a much greater number of consumers who had been fighting enterprise challenges that had no off-the-shelf solutions.

SAS recognized that researchers lived within the state of the art in lots of areas of science and expertise. in the event that they could apply the very best of what IBM analysis needed to precise-world problems, they might power massive cost for customers and the IBM company.

past generating new revenue for IBM, SAS led researchers to confront many elaborate enterprise challenges. It additionally forced the researchers to consider more deeply and creatively concerning the capabilities affect of their work past the laboratory. looking returned, you'll see how SAS and the Joint classes drove IBM analysis to be more vital to IBM by using guiding the researchers into areas that they could now not have otherwise explored. figure 1.1 suggests the evolution of IBM analysis from being internally concentrated to externally focused.

Figure 1.1

figure 1.1 IBM research goes from isolation to ever deeper partnering with different IBM organizations and consumers.

besides the fact that children IBM analysis did not welcome these adjustments enthusiastically, the cloud had a silver lining. past management questions and economic pressures, it became clear that more and more of the action become going on the place individuals from distinctive agencies labored together. Synergies, new perspectives, and clean concepts drove advances such as parallel computing, object-oriented application, and every thing that came with the introduction of the internet. And with few exceptions, success in the industry depended on a complex array of partnerships. modern competitor is all the time, probably, tomorrow's collaborator.


000-633 Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

Study Guide Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 000-633 Dumps and Real Questions

100% Real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with High Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1
Vendor Name : IBM
: 105 Real Questions

Dumps modern day 000-633 exam are available now.
I additionally utilized a mixed bag of books, also the years of useful experience. Yet, this prep unit has ended up being exceptionally valuable; the inquiries are indeed what you see on the exam. Extremely accommodating to be sure. I passed this exam with 89% marks around a month back. Whoever lets you know that 000-633 is greatly hard, accept them! The exam is to be sure exceptionally difficult, which is valid for just about all other exams. killexams.com and Exam Simulator was my sole wellspring of data while get ready for this exam.


All actual test questions ultra-modern 000-633 examination! Are you kidding?
Passing the 000-633 exam modified into in reality no longer possible for me as I couldnt manage my coaching time well. Left with only 10 days to go, I referred the exam through way of killexams.Com and it made my life smooth. Topics have beenpresented properly and turned into dealt well inside the test. I scored a suitable 959. Thank you killexams. I was hopeless but killexams.Com given me desire and helped for passing while i used to be hopeless that i cant end up an IT certified; my friend told me approximately you; I tried your online training tools for my 000-633 exam and become able to get a 91 bring about examination. I very own thanks to killexams.


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I searched for the dumps which satisfy my specific desires at the 000-633 exam prep. The killexams.com dumps definitely knocked out all my doubts in a short time. First time in my career, I in reality attend the 000-633 examination with only one instruction material and prevail with a fantastic score. im truly satisfied, however the purpose i am here to congratulate you on the outstanding assist you furnished inside the shape of look at fabric.


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Knowing very well approximately my time constraint, began searching for an clean manner out before the 000-633 exam. After an extended searh, discovered the question and solutions by way of killexams.Com which definitely made my day. Presenting all likely questions with their short and pointed answers helped grasp topics in a short time and felt satisfied to secure excellent marks inside the examination. The substances are also clean to memorise. I am impressed and satiated with my outcomes.


labored hard on 000-633 books, however the complete thing changed into in the .
It became sincerely very beneficial. Your accurate question monetary institution helped me easy 000-633 in first strive with seventy eight.75% marks. My rating modified into ninety% but because of bad marking it got here to 78.75%. First rateprocess killexams.Com organization..May additionally additionally you achieve all the fulfillment. Thank you.


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fantastic coverage of 000-633 examination ideas, so I learned precisely what I wanted during the 000-633 exam. I tremendously propose this education from killexams.com to anybody making plans to take the 000-633 exam.


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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

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Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Who does this thing? Does it have any benefit? If I do this, will my boss think that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? Have these thoughts ever come to your mind when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

It is also possible that you have tried designing some piece of software before, but you found that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might have had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and easy to read.

In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you have failed last time.

What Will You Learn?
  • Why your last design attempt failed
  • How to handle your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software development process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the difference between functions and variables
  • You will not be overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might say after reading the last line. "No object oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. They all know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not make you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not make you a good software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).

    Background

    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the same as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I learned about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just learned everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I also noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked like such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not solve it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I learned about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a cool thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will come up with code using your designs (which will make you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling tool that their class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and get rich like Bill Gates. Awesome.

    UML

    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, easy to extend, and easy to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a period of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I learned subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to fit all things together until very late.

    Still, I see people struggling with these concepts, unable to fit things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending all this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should be a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will share some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can use in your next project.

    Introduction to Software Development Process Models

    We all use some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I use is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and call them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software development process models that I have studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you do all the things in the same exact sequence as written above. First, all the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics tell us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may have heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not like the final product, then all the effort (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software development process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile development processes.

    The concept of iterative development is simple. Software development is organized into a series of small projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the end of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic difference between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now use iterative development process models, as the idea is to minimize waste (months vs. weeks).

    Why I Need to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something like that: I design everything in the beginning and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the end user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will have to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is important to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for all the requirements at the beginning. Make a detailed design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should use an iterative development process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not perfect and will be changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the importance of process models in object-oriented design. I also mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In part 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most important object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 advantage of OOP that every developer would love to have in his or her code

  • To learn more about object oriented programming visit here.


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Design Principles (Part 6) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Design Principles

    Programming is full of rules. When you learn a language, you spend a lot of time memorizing what can and can’t be done with that language, from syntax rules, keywords, and sometimes things like memory management.

    But in anyway, the situation is easy. If you do these things, you’ll have an obvious problem, your code won’t compile or your program will crash.

    With object oriented design, it’s not that straightforward.

  • If you have a situation where you could use inheritance and you don’t and instead create several classes that duplicate 90% of each other, the program won’t crash, there will be no error messages.
  • If you make every member of every class public and violate encapsulation having every object reach directly into every other object, again, the program will compile, and it will run.
  • If you combined every single concept in your application into one massive class that acted like a completely procedural program, well, you could do that and no alarm bells would ring.
  • But none of these would be good, and you’d be creating code that’s hard to read, code that breaks easily, that’s much harder to maintain, and you’ll hate adding a new feature or doing basic bug fixing, because you’ll have fragile software, and that one small modification could break the entire system.

    So, good object orientation practices do not automatically get imposed, it’s up to us. They might not have enforced rules, but they do have guidelines, and they have principles that they can use.

    They are general principles, things to stay aware of, and occasionally check back with as you create and iterate through your class design and building your software.

    These principles aren’t as generic as just the concepts of abstraction, polymorphism, inheritance, and encapsulation. They use those ideas as a starting point and give you some more guidelines to have a better design.

    Now, we’re going to discuss some popular object-oriented design principles.

    KISS

    It’s stands for “Keep It Simple, Stupid”. You may notice that developers at the beginning of their journey tries to implement complicated, ambiguous design.

    What this principles states that “most systems work best if they are kept simple rather than making them complex; therefore simplicity should be a key goal in design and unnecessary complexity should be avoided”.

    If you tried to keep it simple as much as you can, you definitely will end up having a system that’s easier to maintain and debug, easier to test, easier to be documented, and negotiate if there is a problem.

    This is really important, because imagine yourself after some days, or some weeks, you figured out a problem, and you or one of your team is assigned to solve this problem. Now, Can you identify the problem and understand your code and know what it’s actually trying to do?.

    DRY

    “Don’t Repeat Yourself”. Try to avoid any duplicates, instead you put them into a single part of the system, or a method.

    Imagine that you have copied and pasted blocks of code in different parts in your system. What if you changed any of them?, You will need to change and check the logic of every part that has the same block of code.

    Definitely you don’t want to do that. This is an extra cost that you don’t need to pay for, all what you need to is to have a single source of truth in your design, code, documentation, and even in the database schema.

    YAGNI

    “You Ain’t Gonna Need It”. If you run into a situation where you are asking yourself, “What about adding extra (feature, code, …etc.) ?”, you probably need to re-think about it.

    Because you implement only what’s needed, even if you are sure that you’ll need it in the future. You implement only what’s needed at this moment, under the current requirements.

    This is a waste of time and efforts, who knows, maybe these features that you think you will need it, it will be changed then, or not needed at all.

    Adding extra features, means adding more code to write, to maintain, to test and debug.

    SOLID S — ingle Responsibility Principle

    An object should have one and only one responsibility.

    You don’t need to have an object that does different or many tasks. An object can have many behaviors and methods, but all of them are relevant to it’s single responsibility.

    So, whenever there is a change that needs to happen, there will be only one class to be modified, this class has one primary responsibility.

    O — pen/Closed Principle

    Software entities (classes, modules, functions, etc.) should be open for extension, but closed for modification.

    Whenever you need to add additional behaviors, or methods, you don’t have to modify the existing one, instead, you start writing new methods.

    Because, What if you changed a behavior of an object, where some other parts of the system depends on it?. So, you need to change also every single part in the software that has a dependency with that object, and check the logic, and do some extra testing.

    L — iskov Substitution Principle

    A super class can be replaced by any of it’s inheriting sub classes at any parts of the system without any change in the code.

    It means that the sub classes should extend the functionality of the super class without overriding it.

    That’s why we’ve mentioned ealier in Class Diagram that it’s not a good case practice to override the methods of the super class in inheritance.

    I — nterface Segregation Principle

    Interfaces should be specific rather than doing many and different things.

    That’s because any implementing class will only implement the specific needed interfaces rather than being forced to implement methods that it doesn’t need it.

    So, large interfaces should be decomposed into smaller, more specific ones.

    D — ependency Inversion Principle

    Try to minimize the dependency between objects by using abstraction.

    If for example you have a App class that depends on very specialized classes; Database and Mail (dependencies).

    Instead, they could have App object that deals with Service class, which is more abstract, rather than something very specific. So, now the App class is not dependent on the concrete classes, but on abstraction.

    And the benefit of that is they are able to replace and extend the functionality of Service class without changing the App class at all.

    Perhaps they can replace the Database and Mail classes, or add additional classes like Logger and Auth as well.

    A common design pattern that applies this principle is called Dependency injection. We’re going to discuss design patterns in a more detail in the next tutorial.

    GRASP

    General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP) is another set of design principles.

    The principles here take a slightly different perspective than the principles in SOLID, although there is certainly some crossover.

    GRASP tends to take a responsibility focus, like who creates this object, who is in charge of how these objects talk to each other, who takes care of passing all messages received from a user interface?, etc.

    Now SOLID and GRASP don’t conflict with each other, they are not competing sets, you might choose to use one or both or neither.

    Information Expert

    When you assign a responsibility in form of a method, or fields, you assign it to the object that has the most information about it.

    Imagine that you have a class called customer and order.

    The customer tries to know all the orders placed by him, a common mistake is to assign this responsibility to the customer class, since the customer who will trigger this method.

    But, this is not the responsibility of the customer, the order class is the one which as all the information about the orders.

    Creator

    It tries to determine who is taking the responsibility of creating the objects.

    You try to answer these question:

  • Who is responsible for creating the objects?, or, how those objects are created in the first place?
  • Does one object contain another (composition relationship)?
  • Does one object very closely use another, or, Will one object know enough to make another object?
  • And if so, it would seem to make sense to nominate those objects as taking that creator role and making it obvious which objects are responsible for creating other objects.

    A common design pattern that applies this principle is called Factory Pattern.

    Low Coupling

    It means you try to reduce the dependency between your objects.

    If one object needs to connect tightly to five other objects and call 20 different methods just to work, you have a high coupling.

    Lots of dependencies meaning lots of potential for breaking things if you make a change to any of these objects.

    Now low coupling does not mean no coupling. Objects do need to know about each other, but as much as possible they should do what they can with the minimum of dependencies.

    High Cohesion

    The more you have a class that has relevant and focused responsibilities, the higher cohesion you will have.

    You try to make the responsibilities of your classes relevant, related as much as you can. You may need to break a class into some classes and distribute the responsibilities, instead of having a single class that does everything.

    Controller

    If, for example, they have a user interface and also some business related classes.

    We don’t want to have high coupling between them to actually tie them directly together, where the user interface object has to know about the business objects and the vice-versa.

    It’s very common to create a controller class just for the purpose of handling the connection between the user interface and the business related objects.

    It’s perfectly normal for object to exist that takes a role in a program that isn’t a real world object as long as it has a well defined responsibility.

    There is a common architectural design pattern called Model View Controller (MVC) which is an example of having a controller class.

    Pure Fabrication

    What if there’s something that needs to exist in the application that doesn’t announce itself as an obvious class or real-world object?. What if you have behavior that doesn’t naturally fit in existing classes?

    Well, rather than force that behavior into an existing class where it doesn’t belong, which means they are decreasing cohesion, they instead invent, they fabricate a new class.

    That class might not have existed in their conceptual model, but it needs to exist now. And there’s nothing wrong with creating a class that represents pure functionality as long as you know why you’re doing it.

    Indirection

    This is the idea that they can decrease coupling between objects.

    If you have multiple objects that need to talk to each other, it’s very easy to have high coupling between them, where there is a lot of dependencies.

    And what they can do instead is reduce those direct connections by putting an indirection object between them to simplify the amount of connections that each object has to make.

    Polymorphism

    Having an object that can take the shape of several different objects. This allows us to trigger the correct behavior.

    If, for example, they have an interface that’s implemented by several classes, you can assign or pass an instance of any of the sub classes to a reference variable that has the interface as it’s type. This will allow you to trigger the right methods, for the implementing class.

    // Animal class is a generic class where Dog, Duck, & Kangaroo inherits from.Dog shepherd = new Dog("Jack", "gold"); Duck mallard = new Duck("Daffy", "green"); Kangaroo rock = new Kangaroo("Steve", "red", 1.5); Animal animals [] = { shepherd, mallard, rock }; /* Now, you should notice they called the display() method, without knowing exactly what the type of object, and it did displayed the correct method for each animal object. */for(Animal animal: animals) { animal.display(); } Protected Variations

    How to design a system so that changes and variations have the minimum impact on what already exists.

    Identify the parts of the system that are more likely to change, separate them from what stays the same, and then, encapsulate every part that vary in the system.

    Most of the concepts they have been exploring are simply way of doing this, things like encapsulation and data-hiding, making your attributes private.

    Interfaces are another area where they can wrap the unstable parts with an interface, and using polymorphism to create various implementations of this interface.

    The Liskov substitution principle, where the child classes should always work when treated as their parent classes is another way.

    The open/closed principle that they can add, but they try not to change code that works already is yet another.

    Code Smell

    Code Smells are a great term for when reading code, the code may be valid, it may work, but there is something about it that just doesn’t smell right.

    It’s often a clue, a warning sign of a deeper problem, that there is a part in the code indicates violation of fundamental design principles and negatively impact design quality.

    And here are just a few examples of what they mean by a code smell.

    Long Method

    One would be the idea of a long method. They open up a method to read it, it has got many lines. This is the kind of thing that really needs to be split up into much smaller methods.

    Identifiers

    Working with very short or very long identifiers. Aside from using letters like ‘i’ for indexes and iteration, they shouldn’t be expecting to see variables called A and B and C in real code.

    Comments

    Another clue would be pointless comments. Yes, code should be commented and code should be well-written so that it’s readable and the code comments itself.

    We do want comments, but they don’t want comments where the comment is actually longer than the code that it’s describing.

    The God Object

    This is where you have one master object that tries to do everything in the program, or at least one object that seems to be doing very different responsibilities that have nothing to do with each other.

    It’s a clue that this needs to be revisited and broken apart into the right kind of objects.

    Feature Envy

    And then there’s feature envy. If a class seems to do very little except it uses all the methods of one other class, it’s another sign that you need to rethink the roles of one or the other.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 1 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Did you know...?

    LWN.net is a subscriber-supported publication; they rely on subscribers to keep the entire operation going. Please help out by buying a subscription and keeping LWN on the net.

    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad use of some techniques from the field of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to use these object-oriented techniques receive little support or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to do really cool things, and equally the flexibility to do really stupid things, and it isn't always clear at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must look to established practice to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established practice is not always as easy as one might like and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that effort on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional series on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which effect an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic knowledge of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to be found elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks they will look for patterns in just two areas: method dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their apparent simplicity they lead to some rich veins for investigation. This first article will focus on method dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The large variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to suggest that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit like "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you get down to details people can find they have very different ideas. While what it means to be "oriented" might not be clear, what they mean by an "object" does seem to be uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both state and behavior. An object is like a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members refer to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These function members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious way to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which take a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for method "foo" in object "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the dominant pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a little later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect all the methods for a particular class of objects into a separate structure, sometimes known as a "virtual function table" or vtable. The object then has a single pointer to this table rather than a separate pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to their first pattern - a pure vtable being a structure which contains only function pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the object type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two function pointers each of which take a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four function pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples display an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the object (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not all of which are vtables of some sort. There are also several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but do not have particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to look for interesting patterns. In particular they can look for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of object use in Linux.

    NULL function pointers

    The first observation is that some function pointers in some vtables are allowed to be NULL. Clearly trying to call such a function would be futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an explicit test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to justify is the incremental development reason. Because of the way vtable structures are initialized, adding a new function pointer to the structure definition causes all existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is possible to add a caller of the new method before any instance supports that method, and have it check for NULL and perform a default behavior. Then as incremental development continues those vtable instances which need it can get non-default methods.

    A recent example is commit 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent commit 42ab616afe8844 defines that method for a particular device. This is simply the most recent example of a very common theme.

    Another common reason is that certain methods are not particularly meaningful in certain cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an appropriate error when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() function in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically have NULL for the create() function (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final reason that vtables sometimes contain NULL is that an element of functionality might be being transitioned from one interface to another. A good example of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a new method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the big kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when all drivers and filesystems had been converted to use unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle example of this is read() and aio_read(), also in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to support asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to be no intention of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not relevant such as special filesystems like procfs and sysfs. So it is still the case that only one of each pair need be defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there seem to be several different reasons for a NULL function pointer, almost every case is an example of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful method case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to return an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would be to take the kernel lock and then call the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to indicate a default.

    With that in mind, a little reflection suggests that if the real goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would be to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C standard assures us that uninitialized members of a structure do get set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to be initialized multiple times with only the final value taking effect and that this allows easy setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the small cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any field can easily be chosen when the field is first created, and automatically included in every use of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults easy to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the function pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and branch rather than to make an indirect function call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not normal practice. In the more common case when the function pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a waste of code space and a waste of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can make all call sites a little bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a method can be seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the behavior of the lower level driver rather than simply giving the driver freedom to behave in whatever way is most suitable. This may not always be an expensive mistake, but it is still best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a clear pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes be NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the call sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will have noticed a hole in the above logic denouncing the use NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well be justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an example of such a case for their examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a name in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is separate from the inode because a single file can have multiple names (so an "inode" can have multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the name to guide the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems do not need this flexibility. They treat names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to handle case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations appear to be good candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might be appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a couple of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to indicate whether the common default should be used, or whether the function should be called. As the flag field is likely to be in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often be not needed at all, this avoids a memory fetch in a hot path.

    So they find that the one case where using a NULL function pointer to indicate a default could be justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to indicate that the default method is requested.

    Members other than function pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel contain exclusively function pointers, there are a significant minority that have non-function-pointer fields. Many of these appear on the surface quite arbitrary and a few closer inspections suggest that some of them result of poor design or bit-rot and their removal would only improve the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides real value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most general form in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables have string names, some have numeric names, and it is often called something different like "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is still a name. In the present example there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while part of the same functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying idea here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to be usable, it must be registered in some way so that it can be found. Further, once it has been found it must be possible to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There seem to be nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding strong patterns there would be a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to be treated as the primary handle on a particular implementation of an interface and to have an "owner" pointer which can be used to get a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern they find here is that a structure of function pointers used as a "vtable" for object method dispatch should normally contain only function pointers. Exceptions require clear justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and possible other fields such as a name and a list pointer. These fields are used to support the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will be treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often be declared as a const structure and so could even be stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common deviation from the "pure vtable" pattern that they see in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the function is not always the same object type. In a pure vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each function is exactly that data structure. What reason could there be for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more interesting than others.

    The simplest and least interesting explanation is that, for no apparent reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For example all functions in struct fb_ops take a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this choice and it is unlikely to confuse developers. It is only a problem for data miners like your author who need to filter it out as an irrelevant pattern.

    A slight deviation on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions take a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily be defined to take a struct rfkill and simply to follow the ->data link itself. This deviation is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably confuse developers as well as data miners and so should be avoided.

    The next deviation in seen for example in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These take an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the object they belong to are singletons. There is only one active platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is part of the global state and so does not need to be included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very interesting they are left with two that do serve to tell us something about object use in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the apparent primary object (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these new structures add new operations. In each case the new operations form a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't all act on the same object simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the fit may not be perfect - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the idea of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very close to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once they know to be on the lookout for mixins like these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to be alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they found where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already have their own "operations" structure. When an object has a large number of operations that are relevant and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into separate vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a small set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often found in the kernel and appears to be quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The last pattern which explains non-uniform function targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops all appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a strong hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may have a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which all of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to be loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to do that, and it is probably the same mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to do in each case.

    In practice that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are also important differences and being able to encode those differences in separate vtables can be helpful. Sometimes small symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored like the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can make the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally true that the opposite extreme is not ideal either. The struct page in Linux does not have a vtable pointer at all - in part because they want to keep the structure as small as possible because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly possible to have operations structures attached to a parent of the target object - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so clear that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the benefit is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the benefit of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given function pointer could be stored, the actual choice is in many cases little more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to be largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For example in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to take a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to be in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to include them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not move them all there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are still a lot of them and removing the "d_op" field could save 5% of the memory used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every active filesystem only has a single dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations like "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one active per super-block. So it would seem that the operations in dentry_operations could be moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems use different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily be made in per-superblock versions of these operations. Do these cases justify the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded function pointers

    Finally it is appropriate to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where function pointers are stored directly in the object rather than in a separate vtable structure. This pattern can be seen in struct request_queue which has nine function pointers, struct efi which has ten function pointers, and struct sock which has six function pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an object (in most cases) so if more than one function pointer is needed, a vtable would save space. The cost of a vtable is an extra memory reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable also has a cost of flexibility. When each object needs exactly the same set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a need to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded function pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the comment with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of function pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded function pointers are used instead of a separate vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If they combine all the pattern elements that they have found in Linux they find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular type of object are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can also appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may be selectable independently of the base type of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" object when doing so avoids the need for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the object when there are few method pointers, or they need to be individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely contain anything other than function pointers, though fields needed to register the object class can be appropriate. Allowing these function pointers to be NULL is a common but not necessarily ideal technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they have found that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It also contains concepts not normally found in object-oriented languages such as delegating object methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence make it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second part of their examination of object oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to see where each is most appropriate.

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