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March 20, 2019 Alex Woodie
IBM i professionals who work greatly with info in the IFS should be happy to hear a new software utility has been ported to the IBM i PASE atmosphere that might save them a bunch of time. The open supply software, known as middle of the night Commander, gives builders and directors a convenient command line experience that may help pace up projects, notably when giving instructions to big variety of info kept on far flung machines.
dead night Commander turned into in the beginning developed in 1994 as a file utility for UNIX, which was beginning to emerge from utility labs to challenge minicomputer systems of the day, such as the AS/four hundred, as well as early windows operating programs. Miguel de Icaza, who’s widely used for founding the Mono venture (among others), is credited with developing nighttime Commander, but over the years development of the product has become a group effort.
The utility, which is dispensed via a GNU license from www.midnightcommander.org, become generally modeled off Norton Commander, an MS-DOS utility developed within the 1980s by means of Norton. but midnight Commander has advanced into its own component over the years, and the resemblance to that historical Norton product these days largely is barely in the name.
nighttime Commander items users with a two-panel, text-based interface that permits them to view the directories and information for the machines they’re related to. users can additionally pull up menus of obtainable commands and a history of recreation. What definitely sets nighttime Commander apart, besides the fact that children, is its command extension and subshell execution environments, which might be incredibly customizable.
clients are able to provoke a slew of primary directory features with midnight Commander, including developing, viewing, renaming, moving, and deleting directories. users can’t create information in middle of the night Commander (that’s the job for applications), but they can copy, stream, and delete particular person information — and even more suitable, businesses of data. built-in FTP and SFTP functionality makes it possible for clients to work with files throughout lots of systems.
hour of darkness Commander offers users a handful of particular instructions for coping with info or directories in bulk. they could use instructions like “%s” or “%t” to point out which files to execute a given command upon (during this case “the files below the cursor and all highlighted files in the lively panel” and ” all highlighted information within the active panel,” respectively).
The software lets clients set default classes to make use of for opening certain file kinds, which is achieved using the “enter” button. text information are opened in a default editor, and users can configure the application to automatically open up other sorts of information, reminiscent of HTML data, in a web browser.
dead night Commander makes huge use of characteristic keys, and these come in handy when the use of the command extensions. Command extensions allow the user to specific certain forms of instructions be utilized to particular person info or companies of information.
as an example, a user might configure middle of the night Commander to instantly archive information with one command, or to initiate file switch with an additional. urgent the F2 button pulls up a effortless reference of purchasable instructions, while F1 calls the aid monitors.
The richness of the command extension ambiance, together with the speed of the command line, are expected to supply midnight Commander an audience amongst builders and administrators who consider drag-and-drop GUIs are too cumbersome for some file operations. And whereas middle of the night Commander will attraction to people who want to retain their palms on the keyboard, the utility is additionally mouse-conscious, giving purchasers the alternative of navigating and issuing commands with the mouse.
middle of the night Commander will possible attraction to developers and administrators who discover themselves elbows deep in IFS folders, when a GUI approach is just too cumbersome.
middle of the night Commander helps Unix, Linux, MacOS, and other operating methods. Jack Woehr, the lead IBM i support tech for Absolute performance, and the IBM open supply group, headed by open source architect Jesse Gorzinski, are credited with completing the port of nighttime Commander to IBM i’s PASE AIX runtime ambiance in the core of 2018.
“i am a longtime (20+ years) user of MC on Linux, OpenBSD, Mac and windows and am thrilled to at last have succeeded in building it on IBM i PASE atmosphere!” writes the consumer “jax” on the hour of darkness Commander site.
Woehr additionally turned into worried in porting Ublu to IBM i, as well as porting Lynx, a text-only internet browser, to IBM i. “Jack also helped with exceptional assurance and labored with project homeowners to upstream all code changes,” Gorzinski wrote in his November 2018 column in IBM programs magazine. “definitely, the leading code circulate for nighttime Commander can now be developed for IBM i and not using a modifications.”
midnight Commander supports IBM i 7.3. The utility is RPM aware and is accessible for down load on the IBM i server the use of the brand new Yum distribution formulation that debuted currently.linked stories
RPM And Yum Are a big Deal For IBM i. right here’s Why
Open supply Is the long run, So where Does IBM i slot in?
It has taken just about 4 years for the low end, workhorse machines in IBM’s vigor methods line to be up-to-date, and the lengthy awaited Power9 processors and the bright new “ZZ” techniques had been unveiled. they have discovered fairly a little about these machines, lots of which aren't definitely supposed for the forms of IT agencies that The subsequent Platform is focused on. however a number of of the machines are aimed toward massive firms, service suppliers, and even cloud builders who desire whatever thing with a little more oomph on a lot of fronts than an X86 server can convey within the equal kind factor.
You should pay for every little thing during this world, and the ZZ systems, code-named after the rock band ZZ suitable in case you were questioning, pay for it with the volume of heat they expire when they are working. but IBM’s vigour chips have all the time run a bit hotter than the Xeon and Opteron competitors, and that they did so as a result of they were full of much more points and, generally speaking, delivered much more memory and that i/O bandwidth and therefore did extra work for the warmth generated and the bigger cost.
With the Power9 machines, IBM desires to tackle Intel’s hegemony within the datacenter, and that capacity attacking the midrange and excessive conclusion of the “Skylake” Xeon SP lineup and also taking over the new “Naples” Epyc processors from AMD for definite jobs. they will see how smartly or poorly IBM does at this when some efficiency benchmarks beginning coming out around the end of February and on into March, when IBM is hosting its think 2018 experience in Las Vegas and is making its new energy systems iron the megastar of the demonstrate. IBM has completed plenty to make vigor techniques greater mainstream, including reducing expenses for reminiscence, disk, flash, and that i/O adapters and, importantly, moving to unbuffered, trade average DDR4 main memory. IBM is also extending the energy structure with aspects now not seen on Xeon, Epyc, or ARM architectures, together with the primary PCI-specific 4.0 peripheral controllers, which interface with PCI-specific switches to offer legacy PCI-categorical 3.0 help in one of the vital ZZ programs. IBM is also offering its “Bluelink” 25 Gb/sec ports (which might be rejiggered to give NVLinks out to GPUs in certain machines, such as the “Newell” vigor AC922 that became introduced in December) for very fast links to peripherals and aiding its OpenCAPI protocol. The prior generations of coherence protocol, CAPI 1.0 and CAPI 2.0, run atop PCI-express networking. All of them offer a way of featuring reminiscence coherence between the Power9 chip’s caches and main memory and the reminiscence or storage-category reminiscence on exterior contraptions, akin to GPUs and, when networked correctly, NVM-express flash.
We aren't going to evaluation the entire features of the Power9 chip, which they went into tremendous aspect about back in August 2016 when massive Blue published them. They talked generally about the Power9 ZZ machines past this week, and gave a sense of the rest of the rollout which will occur this yr to complete the Power9 line. They already targeted the energy AC922 and its initial benchmarks on HPC and AI workloads. in this story we're going to focus on the feeds and speeds of the vigor techniques ZZ iron, searching at the guts of the techniques and what IBM is charging for them. eventually, when extra tips is obtainable, they can be in a position to do what they now have been desirous to do for a long time: see how they stack as much as the Xeon and Epyc iron for clusters running modern utility for various styles of data processing and storage.
whereas IBM has launched six distinct flavors of the ZZ techniques, basically there are only two actual machines, with some adaptations in packaging and pricing to differentiate them.
The entry laptop within the ZZ line, which is in reality geared toward small and midrange IBM i and AIX stores that use it to run their core databases and applications and that, frankly, should not have huge performance necessities for his or her transaction processing and analytical workloads. no longer as a minimum by means of comparison to colossal organizations or hyperscalers or HPC facilities. right here is the block diagram of this single-socket vigor S914 machine:
As which you can see, the vigor S914 has one Power9 processor and sixteen DDR4 memory slots placing off of the processor. The chip has 4 PCI-express 4.0 controllers, two of that are used to enforce PCI-categorical 4.0 slots with two x16 connections and two others which are used to link to PCI-categorical three.0 switches on the board that in flip put into effect a slew of legacy PCI-express 3.0 legacy slots. There are also two PCI-categorical 3.0 x8 storage controller slots that grasp off these pair of switches, and they can have RAID controllers or two M.2 kind element NVM-express flash boot drives plugged into them. The I/O backplane will also be break up for redundancy and additional RAID 10 insurance plan throughout the split (a pair of RAID 5 arrays mirrored, in reality). at last, perhaps with the Power9+ and maybe with the Power10 chips, it is going to not be indispensable to have this legacy PCI-express three.0 assist and the switches gained’t be fundamental. they will see. PCI-express 5.0 is due sometime in 2019, so by way of then, PCI-specific four.0 can be the legacy.
The energy S914 computing device comes in a 4U kind ingredient, because the identify suggests that’s S for scale out, 9 for Power9, 1 for one socket, and 4 for 4U chassis. That chassis may also be established in a rack or tipped up on its side and put into a tower case, like this:
As which you can see, there is a space on the right hand front of the device board the place there are two internal storage slots, and here's where on the vigor S924 and its related vigor H924 variant designed to run SAP HANA in-memory databases and their functions places a second processor. That added house in the back is used for the extra peripherals that hang off of the 2d Power9 processor it's brought to them. Take a look and see:
And here's what the vigor S924 really seems like implemented in metal with its covers off:
For the sake final touch, right here is the block diagram of the equipment board within the power S924:
On the two-socket energy S924, and in the vigour S922 and its H922 and L922 variations they are able to focus on in a 2nd, the two sockets are linked to each and every different in a glueless vogue the use of NUMA interconnects, in this case in response to a pair of X Bus hyperlinks that are running at 16 Gb/sec. sure, you see it. The buses for a lot of of the exterior interconnects used for OpenCAPI and NVLink are working quicker than the NUMA interconnects between the processors.
The leaves the more dense 2U version of the Power9 ZZ device, which is implemented because the vigour S922 for AIX, Linux, and IBM i; the energy L922 for Linux-handiest machines; and the energy H922 for SAP HANA nodes that may, if needed, aid some IBM i and AIX workloads as long as they don't take up more than 25 p.c of the mixture computing potential.
here is the mechanical drawing of the vigor S922 computing device and its derivatives:
And right here is the equipment board block diagram for these machines:
if you examine the vigor S924 and vigour S922 machines, you are going to see that the huge change is form element is that by squeezing down from 4U to 2U, IBM needed to reduce lower back on the native storage and additionally on the PCI-express slots. specially, two of the legacy PCI-express 3.0 x8 slots are sacrificed. That is not much to quit for a form factor that takes up lots less area. The smaller computing device has only eight 2.5-inch (Small kind aspect, or SFF) peripheral bays, compared to a optimum of 18 for the bigger computer. These are the main changes.
For those of you now not popular with IBM’s product naming conventions, a computer has a model designation (like vigour S924) and a product quantity (like 9009-41A) as well as function codes for each and each possible aspect that may also be part of that gadget, including reminiscence sticks, disk and flash drives, I/O adapters of all sorts, cables, and anything else. The desk under shows the models, product numbers, and processor characteristic cards with the salient characteristics of the Power9 chips in every feature card. IBM is offering three different Power9 processor function playing cards for every of the six machines. we've display their base and correct clock frequencies, as proven by using IBM to be the normal levels of their operations the usage of dynamic clock frequency scaling. we've taken their premier bet at matching the thermal design elements IBM has for numerous Power9 processors to the core counts and clock speeds accessible. (they are good guesses, intellect you.)
The next table indicates the memory, peripheral expansion, and in-chassis storage alternatives for every desktop; IBM enables for storage bays to be brought to the processor advanced over the PCI-categorical buses for extra enlargement past this.
One component that isn't obvious from the desk. whereas IBM is providing DDR4 reminiscence speeds of 2.13 GHz, 2.4 GHz, and 2.67 GHz, and in capacities of sixteen GB, 32 GB, sixty four GB, and 128 GB, on these machines, you can not just decide upon any ability and any speed and put them in these machines. On any computer that has reminiscence slots 10 through sixteen populated, the most effective component you could do is run 2.13 GHz memory, even with the means of the stick chosen. with the aid of doing this, you get the maximum one hundred seventy GB/sec of height memory bandwidth. if you need to run sooner reminiscence, then it could possibly best be used in machines with eight or fewer reminiscence slots populated. And the fastest 2.67 GHz memory is just purchasable for sixteen GB sticks. yes, here is a little weird. And it appears like IBM is gearing down the memory speeds, no longer transport distinct reminiscence speeds, when you consider that there are only 4 different reminiscence playing cards but eight distinctive speed/potential mixtures. It looks to us like IBM is gearing down 2.67 GHz or 2.4 GHz reminiscence sticks to 2.13 GHz speeds when the memory slots are greater thoroughly populated.
That’s the simple feeds and speeds of these machines. That leaves the closing, and perhaps most vital factor in the end, and that is pricing. the manner IBM’s pricing works, there's a value for the base gadget, and then the processor characteristic cards. in the past, the processor function card and memory means on it had two distinctive expenses, after which you needed to activate cores and 1 GB memory chunks one after the other for an further price. With the Power9 machines, you purchase the processor card and the memory and it is activated fully. As for memory pricing, IBM is charging $619 for the 16 GB sticks; $1,179 for the 32 GB sticks; $2,699 for the 64 GB sticks; and $9,880 for the 128 GB sticks.
within the desk beneath, the base chassis cost is proven, and subsequent to it's shown the can charge of every processor card. The gadget configuration pricing indicates the cost of adding 32 GB per core to the device plus four 600 GB SAS disk drives. a couple of vital elements, akin to cables and backplane alternate options, aren't protected in this simple gadget configuration price; they are trying to provide a way of what the core compute, memory, and storage charges for these machines. working techniques are not blanketed.
coming up next, they will do their top-rated to make comparisons to the Xeon and Epyc server traces to peer how these Power9 machines stack up, and give some thought to what the long run “Boston” two-socket and “Zeppelin” 4-socket Power9 machines might grasp in terms of competition.
In November 1979, Microsoft's widespread associate Seattle laptop products launched a standalone Intel 8086 motherboard for hardcore hobbyists and laptop producers looking to scan with this new and extremely potent CPU. The 8086 was carefully involving the 8088 that IBM selected for the computer; the latter became a cost-reduced edition of the previous, an eight-bit/sixteen-bit hybrid chip in preference to a pure sixteen-bit like the 8086.
IBM opted for the much less powerful 8088 partly to handle costs, however also to allow the use of definite hardware that required the 8-bit exterior records bus discovered on the 8088. but perhaps the largest consideration stemmed, as occurs so frequently, from the advertising department instead of engineering. The 8086 was such a powerful chip that an IBM workstation so equipped could persuade some shoppers to choose it in lieu of IBM's personal higher techniques; IBM wanted to take business from other pc manufacturers, now not from their own different divisions.
enlarge / An Intel 8086 card produced by means of Seattle desktop products. S100 computer systems The important thing to take into account for their functions, even though, is that each chips shared the identical guideline set, and as a result may run the same utility. everyone desired to run CP/M on the SCP boards, however CP/M existed best for the Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80. therefore, SCP had the identical problem that Jack Sams and IBM would face months later. Digital research repeatedly promised an 8086/8088 edition of CP/M, but failed to bring. So, in April of 1980 Tim Paterson of SCP decided to write his personal 8086/8088 working device. He referred to as it QDOS—the "short and dirty operating device."
The ethicality or lack thereof of what Paterson did has been debated for years. Gary Kildall stridently claimed many times that he ripped off the exact CP/M source code, but this is a really frustrating statement. There isn't any proof that he even had access to the supply, which Digital, like most agencies then and now, guarded carefully.
nonetheless, Paterson freely admits that he pulled out his CP/M reference manual and duplicated each of its API calls one by one. On the other different hand, and whereas it will probably no longer have reflected a lot originality or inventive pondering, what he did turned into relatively obviously prison even by using the requirements of today. Courts have dominated time and again that APIs cannot be copyrighted, handiest specific implementations thereof, and that reverse engineering is for this reason allowed. (smartly, there's patent legislations, but it really is a swamp they will stay well far from...)
food for notion for open supply advocates and Microsoft haters: if QDOS changed into ethically incorrect, then Linux—mostly a reimplementation of the Unix requisites—have to be equally incorrect. Paterson claims that he had an excellent motive to copy CP/M so intently: he desired to make it as convenient as possible for programmers to circulate latest CP/M utility over to QDOS. He additionally claims that under the floor, where he could get away with it, he extensively greater upon his model, specifically in disk- and file-managing.extra studying The complete historical past of the IBM pc, half one: The deal of the century
meanwhile bill Gates turned into wondering how the hell he become going to get a hold of an operating gadget for IBM within the time frame they wanted. Then one day Paterson referred to as Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen to tell him about QDOS, simply in case Microsoft was attracted to writing some software for it or the usage of it in-house. Gates, simply the man to recognize an out-of-the-blue saviour when he noticed one, called Sams, asking, "Do you are looking to get [it], or do you need me to?" Sams' answer to that query would cost IBM billions and billions over the decades to return. "with the aid of all potential, you get it," he said.
Recognising that notebook software turned into removed from his realm of competencies, Sams had already relatively an awful lot thrown all of his techniques-utility problems into Microsoft's lap, and he saw no intent to change direction now. "We wanted this to be their issue," he later noted. Microsoft's "problem" would in just a few years develop into a large, big difficulty for IBM.Let there be easy! amplify / Steve Ballmer and bill Gates, on the computing device discussion board in 1986. Ann E. Yow-Dyson/Getty photographs
On September 30, Gates, Steve Ballmer, and Bob O'Rear—Microsoft’s seventh employee—flew right down to Florida to make their remaining concept to IBM. For Sams, who desired to pretty much foist the software problem on a person else, their plan sounded surest. Microsoft would take responsibility for offering an operating equipment, four programming languages (primary, COBOL, Fortran, Pascal), and more than a few different software to be purchasable at launch (including their historic buddy Microsoft adventure).
One aspect Gates cautiously stipulated: Microsoft would licence all of this to IBM, no longer outright sell it to them, and would are expecting to be paid on a per-replica royalty basis. IBM, feeling there became chance adequate for everybody to do well out of this and that it couldn't hurt to have Microsoft's personal fate tied so closely to that of the IBM computer, agreed. This large company, legendarily possibility-averse and conservative, elected to region the destiny of 1 of its greatest initiatives ever in the fingers of a 24-12 months-old. If Microsoft failed to come via, the IBM notebook itself could be stillborn.
On November 6, Microsoft and IBM officially signed the contract, which immediately paid Microsoft $seven hundred,000 to start porting all of this disparate application to the brand new architecture. satirically, IBM’s Lowe and Sams, who had played such fashionable roles in every little thing that got here before, had been transferred to different divisions. venture Chess may were an independent business Unit, nevertheless it surely wasn't utterly proof against the fickle ways of the IBM paperwork. Don Estridge took over leadership of the project.
while the software deal became being finalised, challenge Chess had not been idle. That same November Microsoft received its first two prototype machines. IBM, desperately involved about secrecy, demanded they keep them in a windowless vault secured with locks they themselves supplied. Microsoft and IBM's task Chess, practically as physically far apart as two firms can be and still be within the united states, then again developed a working relationship that looks akin to these of nowadays, when geography matters a long way much less. They communicated always through telephone and (in particular) a unique e-mail device they installation, shuttled applications back and forth by the use of an in a single day provider, and visited one a further commonly—and sometimes unexpectedly. (This became a specific challenge for Microsoft; IBM had a addiction of losing in unannounced to look if all of their byzantine security methods have been being practiced.)
The IBM crew of route had lots to keep them busy, but Microsoft were really up towards it. due to all the negotiations, they had been, in line with Gates, already "three months in the back of time table" the day the contract become finalised. everybody worked months of seven-day weeks. Most did not even take Christmas off.
the first purpose had to be to get the machine working in its two modes of operation: simple and the disk-based mostly operating gadget. Microsoft may handle the former on their own, however the latter left them stylish on Seattle computer items. at the same time as Microsoft had been finalising their take care of IBM and beginning to work, Paterson and SCP had been carrying on with their own work, refining QDOS from a "quick and soiled" hack into an working device they might promote. alongside the manner they renamed it, for evident reasons, to 86-DOS. As 1980 drew to a detailed, they at last had a version they felt was appropriate for the outdoor world.enlarge / bill Gates might now not look a coldblooded businessman, but it's precisely what he wants you to feel! Gijsbert Hanekroot/Redferns invoice Gates turns dangerous
except this element, invoice Gates has definitely behaved himself, acting like a tough-using however simple businessman. Now, however, they delivery to look a few of that legendary Gates shiftiness come out. He wanted for Microsoft a royalty-primarily based settlement that could let them share within the hoped-for success of the IBM notebook. however he wasn't able to share those fruits with SCP, who still had no idea that the IBM project become even going on or that their modest boy or girl-man-authored working system became key to the plans of one of the biggest agencies on this planet. Gates wanted to keep them at the hours of darkness, but he necessary 86-DOS, like, the day prior to this. He hence necessary to pry 86-DOS out of their fingers with out allowing them to comprehend why he desired it.
amplify / Paul Allen and bill Gates on the 1987 workstation discussion board, searching a little bit bored. Ann E. Yow-Dyson/Getty images Paul Allen negotiated an agreement with SCP owner Rod Brock in January, implying that Microsoft had an entire strong of purchasers wanting to run 86-DOS. The deal would virtually enable Microsoft to act as middleman—or, if you like, retailer—in these transactions. For each customer to whom they offered a licence for 86-DOS, they might pay SCP $10,000, or $15,000 if the license additionally blanketed the supply code. they'd also pay SCP an preliminary charge of $10,000 to start the contract. additional reading Is that bill Gates staring lower back at you from Outlook 2010? For SCP, a much smaller, hardware-focused company with out the attain or advertising abilities of Microsoft, the contract sounded amazing—peculiarly as a result of enterprise these days had no longer been mainly respectable. Microsoft seemed convinced that they might promote quite just a few licences, bringing in easy money for an operating gadget Paterson had begun very nearly on a lark.
One clause buried in the contract might have raised a crimson flag: "Nothing during this licensing settlement shall require Microsoft to establish its customer to Seattle computing device products." Brock later talked about, "That appeared atypical to us, but they agreed to move along." in reality, of direction, Microsoft had no reliable of keen licensees. that they had only one, the biggest fish of all: IBM. Microsoft bought only one license below the settlement, successfully buying the IBM pc’s working equipment for a grand complete of $25,000.First boot
In February, Bob O'Rear of Microsoft obtained 86-DOS besides for the primary time on one of the most prototype machines:
It changed into like the center of the nighttime. It became one of the most joyous moments of my life, to eventually in any case the instruction and work, and back and forth, to have that working equipment boot up and inform you that it’s able to settle for a command. That changed into an exhilarating second.
IBM become quickly inquiring for a number of alterations to 86-DOS. Microsoft accordingly found themselves in the awkward place of getting to move back to Paterson, who of path knew 86-DOS some distance improved than any one else and whom they'd signed to a consulting contract, to request changes devoid of telling him the place the requests had been in reality coming from. within the end they satisfied him to leave SCP and come to work for them full-time. "it be IBM!" they instructed him as quickly as he labored throughout the door on his first day as an worker.
A screenshot of 86-DOS (QDOS) working in an emulator. sarcastically for Paterson, who has spent decades struggling with critics who claim he ripped off CP/M, many of the changes IBM requested truly made 86-DOS appear much more like CP/M. for instance, the command on the spot showing the existing drive—i.e., "A>"—turned into the influence of one of IBM's requests, and a carbon reproduction of CP/M's. Paterson says it made him "are looking to throw up," however of direction on this task what IBM requested IBM frequently obtained.
IBM planned to announce the IBM laptop in August of 1981—as per the long-established plan, which gave assignment Chess exactly three hundred and sixty five days to comprehensive its work. They weren't attracted to postponing, so each person in Boca Raton and especially at Microsoft simply labored tougher as smaller closing dates were neglected, however the greatest one remained fastened.
IBM additionally begun confidentially drawing near builders of software comparable to VisiCalc and the be aware-processing kit handy author, to add to Microsoft's lineup of applications and games. They even arranged to make the USA Pascal P-system attainable for those that wanted to run it in lieu of 86-DOS or the Microsoft fundamental ambiance.
totally, given its expanding scope, the challenge remained an entire secret for somewhat a long time. but finally in June InfoWorld printed an in depth article that described the entire plan basically to the ultimate element, even citing that the working device would not be CP/M but can be "CP/M-like." InfoWorld overlooked most effective the deliberate announcement date, announcing it would turn up in July rather than August. The Datamaster, the prior "computer-like" mission that had provided technology and personnel to undertaking Chess, did make its personal belated debut that month. Many assumed that the assignment InfoWorld had scooped turned into the Datamaster, and as a result that the journal had gotten it all incorrect. these more desirable connected, youngsters, knew superior through this time.I drink your milkshake
magnify / A screenshot of a version of pc-DOS from around 1982. Then on July 27, 1981, barely two weeks earlier than the deliberate announcement, bill Gates made what has frequently been referred to as the deal of the century.
Rod Brock at SCP turned into a disappointed man. The legion of 86-DOS licensees he had predicted following the Microsoft deal hadn't materialised, and now he had misplaced Paterson, the one application guy at his hardware-concentrated company, to Microsoft. It turned into fairly obvious with the aid of now who the one 86-DOS sub-licensee should be, but SCP became strapped for cash and lacked the capacity to help an operating equipment. He begun to shop 86-DOS around slightly, trying to find someone willing to take over guide in return for an exclusive license to it. Gates pounced immediately, offering SCP a a lot-vital $50,000 for the deal—with one critical change. He stipulated that Microsoft would now not be buying an unique license, but would be purchasing the software itself, outright. they might then supply the exclusive license to SCP, essentially turning the deal on its head. Brock turned into unclear, but he truly did need the money, and he failed to be aware of what to do with 86-DOS himself anyway…
He signed the settlement, making Microsoft the sole owner of 86-DOS—or, as it become automatically renamed, MS-DOS. it be yet another example of the bad economic decision-making that was so endemic to the early microcomputer trade, as hackers who knew everything about bits and bytes but nothing about enterprise found themselves running companies. These were the types of blunders that Gates reputedly in no way made, but knew how to make the most and even engender in others. When dealing with innocents like Brock, it was as easy as main the proverbial lambs to slaughter. MS-DOS, bought for $50,000, become earning Microsoft more than $200 million per yr by means of 1991. even more importantly, it changed into the key constructing block in the Microsoft monopoly that might absolutely dominate business computing through the mid-Nineteen Eighties, and dominate just about all computing right through the Nineties. This determination, greater than every other, is the one that made Microsoft the big it nonetheless is these days.
however Microsoft (and IBM) had another prison hurdle to clear. by means of this time, with the IBM workstation fitting more and more of an open secret in the business, Gary Kildall had viewed a copy of 86-DOS/MS-DOS in action. He turned into satisfied that Paterson had stolen his working equipment, that he had by some means gotten a duplicate of the source code, made handiest those adjustments mandatory to get it operating on the Intel 8086/8088, filed off the digital serial numbers, and sold it to IBM. Now he all started to threaten legal action, and (in all probability of more challenge to IBM) to trigger a major stink within the press that could solid a cloud over the upcoming announcement.
Kildall and Gates met for lunch to try to hash issues out, however to no avail. "It become one of those meetings where everybody was quality to each other, then everybody shouted at each other, then each person was pleasant to each different, then all and sundry shouted at each other," recalled John Katsaros, a Digital analysis colleague who was also there. And so IBM stepped in to make a deal. they might also offer CP/M-86, the 8088-suitable edition of the working system which Digital have been nonetheless messing about with, on the IBM workstation just as soon as Kildall may supply them a completed version. Kildall, as a minimum slightly placated, accepted.
The IBM notebook, which IBM had from the delivery expected as a true "the rest computer," would now don't have any fewer than 4 obtainable operating paradigms: the ROM-hosted basic, MS-DOS, CP/M, or usa Pascal.
amplify / An usual IBM computing device 5150 print advert. adverts were distinct again then... IBM officially introduced the IBM computer on August 12, 1981, at the Waldorf Astoria resort in big apple. With 16KB of RAM and a single floppy force, the laptop had a recommended fee of $1,565; loaded, it may reach $6,000. those expenses acquired you Microsoft simple at no cost, hosted in ROM. MS-DOS, sold beneath IBM's licence as workstation-DOS, would cost you $40, whereas u.s. Pascal would can charge you over $500. IBM additionally introduced that CP/M-86 could be accessible—at some factor. in the end, it might be over six months earlier than Digital would finally carry CP/M-86. after they did, IBM dutifully put it in their catalogue, however at a cost of some $240.
Kildall, who remained satisfied until his death that MS-DOS changed into a rip-off of CP/M and every now and then claimed to be in a position to show it by the use of this secretly embedded message or that strange API attribute, believed that IBM deliberately priced CP/M six instances bigger than MS-DOS to be able to be certain nobody truly purchased it, accordingly honoring the letter of their settlement but not the spirit. IBM, for its half, simply claimed that Digital had demanded such excessive licensing charges that that they had no choice. Of the 4 operating paradigms, three of them—CP/M, Microsoft primary, and united states Pascal—ended up getting used so seldom that few today even remember they had been options in the first vicinity. MS-DOS, of route, went on to conquer the area.
The hardware, in the meantime, is most suitable described as stolid and, neatly, kind of boring. For all of its bizarre (by way of IBM standards) construction method, the ultimate product basically wasn't some distance removed from what people had come to expect from IBM. There was no first-rate inventive flair about its design, but, from its keyboard that clunked satisfyingly anytime you pressed a key to its massive, substantial-searching case with a lot of metallic inner, it seemed and operated like a device you may rely on. And that wasn't just a floor influence. some thing else you could say about it, the IBM notebook become constructed to closing. possibly its most neglected innovation is its use of reminiscence with an extra parity bit to automatically detect failures. It become the primary mass-market microcomputer to be so outfitted, giving coverage from rare but notoriously complex to trace reminiscence error that could cause all types of unpredictable behaviour on different early PCs. RAM parity isn't actually the variety of issue that inflames the passions of hackers, however for a businessperson attempting to find a laptop to entrust with her livelihood, it be precisely the kind of component that made IBM IBM. They made you feel safe.
notwithstanding its lack of design imagination would just verify hackers' prejudices, for a number of businesspeople unclear about all these scruffy upstart organizations the IBM computer's arrival legitimised the microcomputer as a serious tool for a major goal. center managers rushed to buy them, because nobody ever obtained fired for buying an IBM—in spite of the fact that nobody became ever all that excited about buying one either. IBM bought some 13,500 PCs within the remaining couple of months of 1981 on my own, and the numbers just soared from there.amplify / Apple's full-web page ad within the WSJ.
With IBM within the computer game eventually—machines truly all started shipping forward of schedule in October—people that had been there all along had been left to ask yourself what it all supposed. Radio Shack's John Roach had essentially the most unfortunate response: "I do not think it's that gigantic." an additional Radio Shack executive became most effective a bit of less dismissive: "There in reality is a new youngster on the block, but there is nothing that IBM has introduced that would blow the trade away."
Apple, then as now a whole lot better at this public-members of the family stuff than practically any one else, took a full-web page commercial in the Wall road Journal announcing, "Welcome IBM. significantly." Like so a good deal Apple promoting, it changed into a masterful piece of rhetoric, managing to sound gracious while at the identical time making it clear that a) IBM is the latecomer and b) Apple intend to treat them as friends, nothing extra.
Years later it might be clear that the advent of the IBM computer turned into the third amazing milestone in computer history, following the primary microcomputer kits in 1975 and the Trinity (Apple II, PET, TRS-80) of 1977. It also marked the end of the first period of Microsoft's heritage, as a scrappy but revered purveyor of basics, other programming languages, and applications utility (in that order). in the wake of the IBM notebook's launch, Microsoft quite straight away reduce their ties to the older, more hacker-ish communities during which they'd grown up to affix their wagon firmly to the IBM and MS-DOS enterprise-computing instruct. a number of aesthetic, technical, and criminal ugliness waited for them down those tracks, however so did a whole bunch and a whole bunch of billions of dollars.
The different gamers during this little historical past had extra blended fates. Seattle laptop products straggled on for just a few more years, but at last went under in 1985. Rod Brock did, despite the fact, nevertheless have one thing of mammoth cost. you will be aware that Brock offered 86-DOS to Microsoft outright, but had got an exclusive license to it in return. together with his company failing, he decided to cash out by selling that license on the open market to the highest bidder. Microsoft, faced with seeing an incredible supplier like Radio Shack, Compaq, or even IBM themselves all at once capable of sell MS-DOS-equipped machines with out paying Microsoft the rest, decided retroactively that the license was nontransferable. The complete thing devolved into an advanced legal battle, some of the first of many for Microsoft. in the end Brock did not promote his license, however he did acquire a contract cheque for $925,000 to walk away and go away well sufficient alone.
Of course, the man history has immortalised as the really big loser in all here's Gary Kildall. That, despite the fact, is very plenty a count of diploma and interpretation. Digital research lost its position on the head of business computing, but persevered for years as a viable and intermittently profitable dealer of application and niche operating methods. Kildall also grew to be a family unit name to at least the nerdier conclusion of the tv demographic as the gentle-mannered, a bit rumpled co-host of PBS' computing device Chronicles sequence. Novell at last purchased Digital in 1991, allowing Kildall to retire a millionaire. For a loser, he did fairly neatly for himself within the end. Kildall, always more drawn to know-how than in enterprise, become never cut out to be invoice Gates anyway. Gates may also have received, however perhaps Kildall had greater enjoyable.
magnify / The Commodore sixty four would steer clear of the IBM notebook from dominating the domestic computing market... for a short while, at least. Sascha Steinbach/Getty images although the IBM computer marked the end (and beginning) of an era, eras are things which are extra glaring on reflection than in the moment. within the immediate aftermath of the launch, issues failed to truly change all that plenty for happy Apple, Commodore, Atari, and Radio Shack clients. IBM all the way through the building process had imagined the IBM notebook as a laptop adaptable for just about any goal, together with going toe to toe with those businesses' offerings—for this reason the simple in ROM, the cassette option, and even an insistence that it should be possible to hook one up to a television. IBM even made a deal to promote it through that bastion of mainstream Americana, Sears. nonetheless, the laptop changed into rather high priced in even its most simple configurations, and it lacked the bottom of informal utility (exceptionally games) and the dedicated clients of these opponents. Nor have been its images and sound capabilities, if most likely impressive for latest at all, above all tempting, above all when a brand new laptop known as the Commodore sixty four got here down the pipe in 1982.
So, whereas the enterprise neighborhood flocked to the IBM and MS-DOS in remarkably brief order, the realm of domestic, hobbyist, and academic computing would continue to be relatively divorced from that of the IBM computer for years to come back. ultimately, of direction, MS-DOS would win out—but that might take greater than a decade in its place of mere months, enabling area for one of the most vibrant and fun computing cultures to develop and thrive.
* * *
Jimmy Maher is the creator of The Digital Antiquarian, an ongoing historical past of interactive leisure and matters connected in blog form. this article, concerning the background of the IBM laptop, in the beginning looked there. in case you loved this article and the various others on his personal website, you can assist his ongoing work with the aid of fitting his Patreon buyer.
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In recent years, iSCSI has emerged as a viable, cost-effective alternative to its more expensive counterpart, Fibre Channel, and is now regularly used to connect servers and SANs over a wide area network. One of the attractions of IP-based storage options such as iSCSI is that they allow the existing IP-based infrastructure to be used, obviating the need to upgrade to more costly equipment and complex solutions such as Fibre Channel.
Since iSCSI uses the IP protocol, it therefore relies on IP security protocols. Unfortunately, basic IP transmissions lack security, allowing anyone with the know how and inclination to intercept or modify IP communications. One of the more popular methods used for securing IP communications is the IP Security Protocol (IPSec). IPSec is an IP layer-based security protocol, which is in contrast to other security protocols like SSL that operate at the application layer of the OSI model.
To create secure data transmissions, IPSec uses two separate protocols: Authentication Headers (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payloads (ESP). AH is primarily responsible for the authentication and integrity verification of packets. It provides source authentication and integrity for data communication but does not provide any form of encryption.
AH is capable of ensuring that network communications cannot be modified during transmission; however, it cannot protect transmitted data from being read. AH is often implemented when network communications are restricted to certain computers. In such instances, AH ensures that mutual authentication must take place between participating computers, which, in turn, prohibits network communications from occurring between non-authenticated computers.https://o1.qnsr.com/log/p.gif?;n=203;c=204660765;s=10655;x=7936;f=201812281308090;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20400368;e=i
ESP is responsible for providing encryption services for the network data; however, it can also be used for authentication and integrity services. The difference between AH authentication and ESP authentication is that ESP includes only the ESP header, trailer, and payload portions of a data packet, whereas AH protects the entire data packet, including the IP header.
Used together, AH and ESP provide integrity, authentication, and encryption protection for IP-based communications. To make this happen, IPSec uses a variety of security protocols. To better understand the level of protection IPSec can provide, let’s take a look at each of these security protocols individually.
IPSec Integrity Protocols
When they refer to integrity verification, they are talking about hash algorithms that are used to verify that the information received is exactly the same as the information sent. A hash algorithm is essentially a cryptographic checksum used by both the sender and receiver to verify that the message has not been changed. If the message has changed in transit, the hash values are different and the packet is rejected.
When configuring IPSec integrity security, there are two options: Message Digest 5 (MD5) and Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1). Of the two, SHA1 is more secure than MD5, but it requires more CPU resources. MD5 offers a 128-bit hashing algorithm, while SHA1 uses an algorithm that generates 160-bit authentication.
Page 2: IPsec Authentication Protocols
IPsec Authentication Protocols
Before two systems can exchange secure data, they have to mutually agree on a security pact. This security agreement is called a security association (SA). For communication to happen, both systems must agree on the same SA.
The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) manages the SA negotiation process for IPSec connections. IKE is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)-established standard method of security association and key exchange resolution. IKE performs a two-phase operation: the first phase ensures a secure communications channel, while the second operation negotiates the use of SAs.
To establish IPSec communications, two hosts must authenticate with each other before SA negotiations can take place. Systems can be authenticated in three different ways:
IPSec Encryption Protocols
IPSec offers three primary methods of encryption. The one you should choose depends on the security needs of your organization.
IPSec Transport Modes
IPSec can operate in one of two separate modes: transport mode and tunnel mode. These modes refer to how data is sent and secured throughout the network. In transport mode, IPSec protection is provided all the way from the source to the destination. In this way, transport mode is said to provide end-to-end transmission security.
Tunnel mode secures data only between tunnel points or gateways. Tunnel mode provides gateway-to-gateway transmission security. When data is in transmission between the client and the server, it remains unprotected until it reaches the gateway. Once at the gateway, it is secured with IPSec until it reaches the destination gateway. At this point, data packets are decrypted and verified. The data is then sent to the receiving host unprotected. Tunnel mode is often employed when data must leave the secure confines of a local LAN or WAN and travel between hosts over a public network such as the Internet.
While iSCSI has emerged as an alternative to Fibre Channel, securing IP communications is an important consideration. IPSec provides a method to secure IP transmissions in a heterogeneous environment. In the next Storage Basics article, they will look at working with IPSec in a Windows 2003 environment and configuring IPSec with the NETSH command.
» See All Articles by Columnist Mike Harwood
If you are serious about computer/network security, then you must have a solid understanding of authentication methods. Debra Littlejohn Shinder takes a moment to lay out the role authentication plays in a security plan.Computer/network security hinges on two very simple goals:
Access permissions, however, work only if you are able to verify the identity of the user who is attempting to access the resources. That’s where authentication comes in. In this Daily Drill Down, they will look at the role played by authentication in a network security plan, popular types of authentication, how authentication works, and the most commonly used authentication methods and protocols.
Authentication and securityAuthentication is an absolutely essential element of a typical security model. It is the process of confirming the identification of a user (or in some cases, a machine) that is trying to log on or access resources. There are a number of different authentication mechanisms, but all serve this same purpose.
Authentication vs. authorizationIt is easy to confuse authentication with another element of the security plan: authorization. While authentication verifies the user’s identity, authorization verifies that the user in question has the correct permissions and rights to access the requested resource. As you can see, the two work together. Authentication occurs first, then authorization.
For example, when a user who belongs to a Windows domain logs onto the network, his or her identity is verified via one of several authentication types. Then the user is issued an access token, which contains information about the security groups to which the user belongs. When the user tries to access a network resource (open a file, print to a printer, etc.), the access control list (ACL) associated with that resource is checked against the access token. If the ACL shows that members of the Managers group have permission to access the resource, and the user’s access token shows that he or she is a member of the Managers group, that user will be granted access (unless the user’s account, or a group to which the user belongs, has been explicitly denied access to the resource).
Another example of authorization is the Dialed Number Identification Service (DNIS), which authorizes a dial-in connection based on the number called.
Logon authenticationMost network operating systems require that a user be authenticated in order to log onto the network. This can be done by entering a password, inserting a smart card and entering the associated PIN, providing a fingerprint, voice pattern sample, or retinal scan, or using some other means to prove to the system that you are who you claim to be.
Network access authenticationNetwork access authentication verifies the user’s identity to each network service that the user attempts to access. It differs in that this authentication process is, in most cases, transparent to the user once he or she has logged on. Otherwise, the user would have to reenter the password or provide other credentials every time he or she wanted to access another network service or resource.
IPSec authenticationIP Security (IPSec) provides a means for users to encrypt and/or sign messages that are sent across the network to guarantee confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity. IPSec transmissions can use a variety of authentication methods, including the Kerberos protocol, public key certificates issued by a trusted certificate authority (CA), or a simple pre-shared secret key (a string of characters known to both the sender and the recipient).
An important consideration is that both the sending and receiving computers must be configured to use a common authentication method or they will not be able to engage in secured communications.IPSec configurationIf IPSec policies have been configured to require that communications be secured, the sending and receiving computers will not be able to communicate at all if they do not support a common authentication method. Remote authenticationThere are a number of authentication methods that can be used to confirm the identity of users who connect to the network via a remote connection such as dial-up or VPN. These include:
It is especially important that remote users be properly authenticated, as they generally pose a greater security risk than on-site users.
Single Sign-On (SSO)Single Sign-On (SSO) is a feature that allows a user to use one password (or smart card) to authenticate to multiple servers on a network without reentering credentials. This is an obvious convenience for users, who don’t have to remember multiple passwords or keep going through the authentication process over and over to access different resources.
There are a number of SSO products on the market that allow for single sign-on in a mixed (hybrid) environment that incorporates, for example, Microsoft Windows servers, Novell NetWare, and UNIX.Details on SSOFor a more detailed discussion of SSO, see Single Sign-On Solutions in a Mixed Computing Environment. Authentication typesThere are several physical means by which you can provide your authentication credentials to the system. The most common—but not the most secure—is password authentication. Today’s competitive business environment demands options that offer more protection when network resources include highly sensitive data. Smart cards and biometric authentication types provide this extra protection.
Password authenticationMost of us are familiar with password authentication. To log onto a computer or network, you enter a user account name and the password assigned to that account. This password is checked against a database that contains all authorized users and their passwords. In a Windows 2000 network, for example, this information is contained in Active Directory.
To preserve the security of the network, passwords must be “strong,” that is, they should contain a combination of alpha and numeric characters and symbols, they should not be words that are found in a dictionary, and they should be relatively long (eight characters or more). In short, they should not be easily guessed.
Password authentication is vulnerable to a password “cracker” who uses a brute force attack (trying every possible combination until hitting upon the right one) or who uses a protocol “sniffer” to capture packets if passwords are not encrypted when they are sent over the network.
Smart card authenticationSmart cards are credit card-sized devices that hold a small computer chip, which is used to store public and private keys and other personal information used to identify a person and authenticate him or her to the system. Logging onto the network with a smart card requires that you physically insert the card into (or slide it through) a reader and then enter a Personal Identification Number (PIN) in much the same way that you use an ATM card to access an automatic teller machine.
Smart cards use cryptography-based authentication and provide stronger security than a password because in order to gain access, the user must be in physical possession of the card and must know the PIN.
For more detailed information about how smart cards work, see my TechProGuild Daily Drill Down “Enhancing security with the use of smart cards.”
Biometric authenticationAn even more secure type of authentication than smart cards, biometric authentication involves the use of biological statistics that show that the probability of two people having identical biological characteristics such as fingerprints is infinitesimally small; thus, these biological traits can be used to positively identify a person.
In addition to fingerprints, voice, retinal, and iris patterns are virtually unique to each individual and can be used for authentication purposes. This method of proving one’s identity is very difficult to falsify, although it requires expensive equipment to input the fingerprint, voice sample, or eye scan. Another advantage over smart cards is that the user does not have to remember to carry a device; his or her biological credentials are never left at home.BiometricsFor more information about biometrics, see this article at Network Computing. How does authentication work?In theory, authentication is relatively simple: A user provides some sort of credentials—a password, smart card, fingerprint, digital certificate—which identifies that user as the person who is authorized to access the system. There are, however, a multiplicity of methods and protocols that can be used to accomplish this. Regardless of the method, the basic authentication process remains the same.
The authentication processIn most instances, a user must have a valid user account configured by the network administrator that specifies the user’s permissions and rights. User credentials must be associated with this account—a password is assigned, a smart card certificate is issued, or a biometric scan is entered into the database against which future readings will be compared.
When the user wants to log on, he or she provides the credentials and the system checks the database for the original entry and makes the comparison. If the credentials provided by the user match those in the database, access is granted.
Advantages of multilayered authenticationIn a high-security environment, multilayered authentication adds extra protection. In other words, you can require that the user provide more than one type of credential, such as both a fingerprint and a logon password. This further decreases the chances of an unauthorized person circumventing the security system.
Authentication methods and protocolsThere are a large number of authentication methods and protocols that can be used, depending on the application and security requirements. In the following sections, they will discuss:
KerberosKerberos was developed at MIT to provide secure authentication for UNIX networks. It has become an Internet standard and is supported by Microsoft’s latest network operating system, Windows 2000. Kerberos uses temporary certificates called tickets, which contain the credentials that identify the user to the servers on the network. In the current version of Kerberos, v5, the data contained in the tickets is encrypted, including the user’s password.
A Key Distribution Center (KDC) is a service that runs on a network server, which issues a ticket called a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT) to the clients that authenticates to the Ticket Granting Service (TGS). The client uses this TGT to access the TGS (which can run on the same computer as the KDC). The TGS issues a service or session ticket, which is used to access a network service or resource.The nameKerberos derives its name from the three-headed dog of Greek mythology (spelled Cerberus in Latin) that guarded the gates to Hades. Kerberos likewise stands guard over the network to ensure that only those who are authorized can enter. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)The SSL protocol is another Internet standard, often used to provide secure access to Web sites, using a combination of public key technology and secret key technology. Secret key encryption (also called symmetric encryption) is faster, but asymmetric public key encryption provides for better authentication, so SSL is designed to benefit from the advantages of both. It is supported by Microsoft, Netscape, and other major browsers, and by most Web server software, such as IIS and Apache.
SSL operates at the application layer of the DoD networking model. This means applications must be written to use it, unlike other security protocols (such as IPSec) that operate at lower layers. The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Internet standard is based on SSL.
SSL authentication is based on digital certificates that allow Web servers and clients to verify each other’s identities before they establish a connection. (This is called mutual authentication.) Thus, two types of certificates are used: client certificates and server certificates.SSL overviewAn excellent overview of how SSL works, Introduction to SSL, can be found at Netscape. Microsoft NTLM (NT LAN Manager)NTLM authentication is used by Windows NT servers to authenticate clients to an NT domain. Windows 2000 uses Kerberos authentication by default but retains support for NTLM for authentication of pre-Windows 2000 Microsoft servers and clients on the network. UNIX machines connecting to Microsoft networks via an SMB client also use NTLM to authenticate. Native modeIf you convert your Windows 2000 domain’s status to native mode, NTLM support will be disabled. NTLM uses a method called challenge/response, using the credentials that were provided when the user logged on each time that user tries to access a resource. This means the user’s credentials do not get transferred across the network when resources are accessed, which increases security. The client and server must reside in the same domain or there must be a trust relationship established between their domains in order for authentication to succeed.
PAPPAP is used for authenticating a user over a remote access control. An important characteristic of PAP is that it sends user passwords across the network to the authenticating server in plain text. This poses a significant security risk, as an unauthorized user could capture the data packets using a protocol analyzer (sniffer) and obtain the password.
The advantage of PAP is that it is compatible with many server types running different operating systems. PAP should be used only when necessary for compatibility purposes.
SPAPSPAP is an improvement over PAP in terms of the security level, as it uses an encryption method (used by Shiva remote access servers, thus the name).
The client sends the user name along with the encrypted password, and the remote server decrypts the password. If the username and password match the information in the server’s database, the remote server sends an Acknowledgment (ACK) message and allows the connection. If not, a Negative Acknowledgment (NAK) is sent, and the connection is refused.
CHAP and MS-CHAPCHAP is another authentication protocol used for remote access security. It is an Internet standard that uses MD5, a one-way encryption method, which performs a hash operation on the password and transmits the hash result—instead of the password itself—over the network.
This has obvious security advantages over PAP/SPAP, as the password does not go across the network and cannot be captured.CHAP specsThe specifications for CHAP are discussed in RFC 1994. The hash algorithm ensures that the operation cannot be reverse engineered to obtain the original password from the hash results. CHAP is, however, vulnerable to remote server impersonation.
MS-CHAP is Microsoft’s version of CHAP. MS-CHAPv2 uses two-way authentication so that the identity of the server, as well as the client, is verified. This protects against server impersonation. MS-CHAP also increases security by using separate cryptographic keys for transmitted and received data.
EAPEAP is a means of authenticating a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connection that allows the communicating computers to negotiate a specific authentication scheme (called an EAP type).
A key characteristic of EAP is its extensibility, indicated by its name. Plug-in modules can be added at both client and server sides to support new EAP types.
EAP can be used with TLS (called EAP-TLS) to provide mutual authentication via the exchange of user and machine certificates.RFCEAP-TLS is defined in RFC 2716. EAP can also be used with RADIUS (see below).
RADIUSRADIUS is often used by Internet service providers (ISPs) to authenticate and authorize dial-up or VPN users. The standards for RADIUS are defined in RFCs 2138 and 2139. A RADIUS server receives user credentials and connection information from dial-up clients and authenticates them to the network.
RADIUS can also perform accounting services, and EAP messages can be passed to a RADIUS server for authentication. EAP only needs to be installed on the RADIUS server; it’s not required on the client machine.
Windows 2000 Server includes a RADIUS server service called Internet Authentication Services (IAS), which implements the RADIUS standards and allows the use of PAP, CHAP, or MS-CHAP, as well as EAP.
Certificate servicesDigital certificates consist of data that is used for authentication and securing of communications, especially on unsecured networks (for example, the Internet). Certificates associate a public key to a user or other entity (a computer or service) that has the corresponding private key.
Certificates are issued by certification authorities (CAs), which are trusted entities that “vouch for” the identity of the user or computer. The CA digitally signs the certificates it issues, using its private key. The certificates are only valid for a specified time period; when a certificate expires, a new one must be issued. The issuing authority can also revoke certificates.
Certificate services are part of a network’s Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Standards for the most commonly used certificates are based on the X.509 specifications.Information on certificate servicesWindows 2000 includes support for certificate services. For more information, see this page on Microsoft’s support site. ConclusionAuthentication is a vital part of a network’s security scheme, as it is the mechanism for ensuring that the identity of a user, computer, or service is valid. There are a number of ways that authentication can be accomplished, depending on network operating system and connection type. In this Daily Drill Down, I have provided an overview of some of the most common authentication methods, under what circumstances each is used, and how they work.
VirtualBox 6.0 is the no-cost, open-source virtualization app that may be all you need for running Windows or Linux apps on your Mac, especially if you're willing to get your hands dirty. Compared with the subscription-based Parallels Desktop and the buy-once use-forever VMware Fusion, Oracle's VirtualBox offers fewer automated conveniences, uses less elegant menus, and lacks as many deep integration features. That said, this free utility makes up for these shortcomings with speedy performance, access to a vast third-party library of prebuilt VirtualBox emulated systems, and all the flexibility that advanced users could want.Price and Platforms
Like VMware Fusion, Virtual Box is available in Mac, Windows, and Linux versions, and supports almost any Intel-based emulated system you could want, including ancient ones like DOS and OS/2. As mentioned earlier, it's free to use. A license for Parallels Desktop, by comparison, costs $79.99 per year. VMWare Fusion also costs $79.99 (for the least expensive Basic version), but that gets you a permanent license to the software.VirtualBox Basics
Like other virtualization apps, VirtualBox lets you run one or more guest systems from its VirtualBox Manager menu. You can run a guest machine in a window, so that a full Windows desktop appears in a window on your Mac or you can run a Windows desktop full-screen on a Mac, almost as if your Mac was a true Windows machine. Alternatively, you can run a single Windows application in what VirtualBox calls Seamless mode. In this mode, the Windows desktop becomes invisible and that single Windows app lives in its own frame.
At least, this is the way VirtualBox is designed to work and how it works with older Windows versions and the Linux versions that I tried. At the time of this review, however, some VirtualBox features weren't working correctly with Windows 10 and the workarounds that I found on the web didn't solve the problems. The problems, which I describe later in this story, were more annoying than fatal, but until Oracle solves them, you should probably choose a commercial alternative if you want to run Windows 10 on your Mac.VirtualBox Set Up and Use
You can get started with VirtualBox by downloading any of the dozens of prebuilt Linux and Unix guest systems from the OSBoxes site. If you want to run Windows in VirtualBox, the safest method is to install Windows from an installer disk image that you can download from Microsoft. Unlike Parallels or VMware, VirtualBox doesn't automatically install Windows for you if have an activation code. Instead, you have to go through the same manual installation procedure that you would on a real hardware system. If your Mac uses a retina screen, you'll be frustrated by the unreadably tiny size that VirtualBox displays by default while you're installing Windows. You can solve this problem by going to the Display tab on the Settings dialog for your emulated system and increasing the scale factor to 200 percent—this is a typical example of VirtualBox's do-it-yourself methods. Parallels and VMware automatically adjust for Retina screens.
Parallels and VMware both make it easy to install an emulated Mac system on your Mac, which you might want to have for testing or development. Users can install macOS either from their Mac's recovery partition or from an installer downloaded from the Mac App Store. It's possible to run an emulated Mac in VirtualBox, but it isn't easy and you'll need to search the web for detailed instructions.
Unlike Parallels and VMware, VirtualBox won't automatically install the guest-system tools that let you drag and drop files between your Mac host and an emulated Windows or Linux guest. To install these, you have to click the "Insert Guest Additions CD Image" item on the Device menu—not exactly an intuitive choice—and then figure out how to find the setup program on the emulated CD in the guest system, and which of three different versions of the tools to install. Expert users will find this easy, but unskilled users will be mostly lost.
I am impressed by VirtualBox's performance. It needed only 35 seconds to boot an emulated Windows 10 system, about the same as Parallels Desktop, and almost twice as fast as VMware Fusion. I am also impressed by VirtualBox's smooth operations with an emulated Windows 7 system. I found it simple to switch instantly among VirtualBox's three display modes: full-screen, windowed (which VirtualBox calls "Scaled Mode"), and single-application-window mode (which VirtualBox calls "Seamless Mode"). The same view options in a Windows 10 emulated system mostly didn't work. For example, when I tried to switch Windows 10 to Seamless Mode, it continued to display the Windows desktop, only without a frame. Parallels and VMware keep their software tools updated for current Windows systems, but VirtualBox users are doomed to wait.Emulation Features
VMware and Parallels automatically provide bidirectional clipboard support for text and images, and bidirectional support for dragging and dropping files between the Windows or Linux guest and the Mac host desktop. VirtualBox offers the same feature, but you need to turn it on manually. However, VirtualBox offers more fine-tuned control over bidirectional sharing than its commercial rivals. In all these virtualization apps, you can turn off clipboard sharing and drag-and-drop, but only VirtualBox lets you configure the clipboard or drag-and-drop features to operate one-way only, either from the host to guest, or vice versa. This can enhance security if you're experimenting with potentially harmful software on the guest, but you want to be able to import files or other items from the host system.
If you want to print from a guest system, your host Mac system will need to be set up to print to a networked printer, not a printer connected via USB cable. You may very well need to search for help on the web before you can start printing. Briefly, use the VirtualBox settings dialog to switch from the networking method from NAT to Bridged (and also make sure that networking is enabled). Then, inside your guest Windows system, use the Settings app to search for a networked printer. You may need to install the Windows driver from the manufacturer's website if Windows doesn't have a driver already available.
Another potential problem is that VMware sets up networking through one specific network interface on your Mac, and won't switch automatically between interfaces if (for example) you plug an Ethernet cable into your MacBook when you don't have access to fast Wi-Fi. If you do this, you'll have to go to the VirtualBox settings window and switch the network adapter setting to match your Mac's networking. Parallels and VMware make the switch automatically and invisibly.
A similar glitch got in the way of shutting down Windows guest systems. Like Parallels and VMware, VirtualBox has a top-line menu item that lets you shut down the guest machine smoothly and easily, as if you had clicked on the Start menu and chosen Shut Down from the power options. In VirtualBox, this menu item does nothing until you dig into the Windows guest settings and set the option that tells Windows to shut down when the Power button is pressed. As with so much else in the freeware VirtualBox, you don't get conveniences that you don't pay for.
One integration feature that VirtualBox lacks is the ability to open files on your Mac system with Windows applications or open files on your emulated Windows system with Mac apps. In Parallels or VMware, this means you don't need to buy a Mac version of high-powered software that you already own for Windows. Instead, you can tell your Mac to use the Windows app in your emulated machine to open any files on your Mac that you would otherwise need to edit in a Mac-based copy of the software.Virtualization Freedom
Although oftentimes annoying to use, VirtualBox is an impressive app that shares enough features with its commercial rivals to make it worth considering—especially in security-conscious settings that insist on open-source software instead of proprietary apps. If want to run the latest Windows 10 apps on a Mac, then Parallels Desktop is your best choice and VMware Fusion is a good second option. However, if you only need Windows or Linux from time to time and you're willing to put up with minor inconveniences and limitations, then VirtualBox can be an indispensable tool.Oracle VM VirtualBox (for Mac)
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