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000-077 xSeries Technical High Performance Servers V2

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000-077 exam Dumps Source : xSeries Technical High Performance Servers V2

Test Code : 000-077
Test Name : xSeries Technical High Performance Servers V2
Vendor Name : IBM
: 147 Real Questions

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IBM xSeries Technical High Performance

IBM brings Watson to any cloud | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM these days introduced that it is freeing its Watson-branded AI services — like the Watson Assistant for constructing conversational interfaces and Watson OpenScale for managing the AI lifestyles cycle — from its personal cloud and permitting enterprises to take its platform and working it of their own records facilities. In a way, that you can consider of this as Watson as a managed provider.

“shoppers are basically combating infusing AI into their purposes since the information is disbursed in assorted places,” IBM Watson’s CTO and chief architects Ruchir Puri instructed me after I asked him for IBM’s reasoning behind this circulation. “It’s in these hybrid environments, they’ve obtained distinctive cloud implementations, they have got information in their inner most cloud as well. they have been struggling because the suppliers of AI had been attempting to lock them into a specific implementation that isn't proper to this hybrid cloud ambiance.”

So with this decision of bringing Watson to any cloud, IBM desires to supply these groups the alternative to bring AI to their facts, which is enormously tougher and costlier to move, in any case. Puri also wired that many organizations have lengthy wanted to use AI to make their operations greater productive, but they vital to run their AI equipment in an atmosphere they manage and think relaxed with.

at the core of the technical necessities for running Watson of their public or private cloud is IBM Cloud inner most, the business’s deepest cloud platform that uses open-source technologies for working equipment and capabilities like Kubernetes and Cloud Foundry. That’s the platform that makes it possible for corporations to then run Watson, too (which itself runs on containers, too).

at this time, the center of attention of this fireplace launch is on Watson Assistant and Watson OpenScale. “The capabilities we're releasing at the moment are in accordance with their two flagship products. That addresses a really significant area of use cases that they come throughout,” noted Puri. “in the remaining part of the 12 months, they will carry the leisure of the capabilities [to the platform]. as an example, Watson skills Studio will come together with it as well, in addition to Watson’s herbal language understanding capabilities that they currently have obtainable in their public cloud atmosphere can be ported on to it as neatly.”

With that, Puri argues, IBM will present organisations a full spectrum of tools for setting up and working AI models the usage of structured and unstructured records, in addition to a full monitoring and existence cycle management suite.

moreover this, IBM also these days introduced that it's launching a brand new version of its Watson desktop researching Accelerator that brings excessive-performance GPU clustering to power methods and X86 methods and which guarantees to speed up AI performance as much as 10x.

The business additionally today announced IBM business Automation Intelligence with Watson, although it didn’t somewhat delve into the particulars. This new service, the enterprise says, will give enterprise leaders the skill “to practice AI at once to purposes, strengthening the group of workers, from clerical to knowledge laborers, to intelligently automate work from the mundane to the complex.” I’m now not definitely certain what that capability, but I’m certain the enterprise leaders who buy this provider will figure it out.


Slidecast: IBM high performance functions for Technical Computing within the Cloud | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in this slidecast, Chris Porter and Jeff Kamiol from IBM describe how IBM excessive efficiency services bring versatile, software-capable clusters in the cloud for groups that need to promptly and economically add computing means for high efficiency application workloads.

IBM excessive efficiency capabilities enables quickly deployment of technical computing, analytics or Hadoop workloads in the cloud. groups using the carrier can conveniently meet further useful resource demands without the can charge of deciding to buy or managing in-apartment infrastructure, minimizing their administrative burden and promptly addressing evolving enterprise wants. The functions consist of market-leading IBM Platform LSF and IBM Platform Symphony workload management application, IBM Spectrum Scale application defined storage, IBM excessive efficiency functions for Hadoop and the brand new IBM excessive performance services for EDA. The application is built-in, provisioned and deployed as part of finished, integrated services which contains bare-metal IBM SoftLayer infrastructure, non-compulsory InfinfiBand interconnects and aid from an skilled and dedicated cloud operations group. a world presence with the option of facts core place helps be sure that facts laws are met.

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IBM Bets $2B looking for 1000X AI Hardware efficiency raise | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: shutterstock

For now, AI methods are ordinarily machine getting to know-based and “slim” – powerful as they're by latest requisites, they are constrained to performing a number of, narrowly-defined tasks. AI of the next decade will leverage the superior power of deep researching and develop into broader, fixing a better array of extra complex issues.  moreover, the everyday-intention applied sciences used today for AI deployments will get replaced by using a technology stack that’s AI-specific and exponentially sooner – and it’s going to take a lot of money.

in the hunt for to take center stage in AI’s unfolding, IBM – in aggregate with big apple state and several expertise heavies – is investing $2 billion within the IBM research AI Hardware core, focused on setting up subsequent era AI silicon, networking and manufacturing in an effort to, IBM pointed out, bring 1,000x AI efficiency effectivity improvement over the next decade.

IBM's Mukesh Khare

“today, AI’s ever-increasing sophistication is pushing the boundaries of the trade’s existing hardware systems as clients discover more methods to include a considerable number of sources of facts from the aspect, web of things, and greater,” mentioned Mukesh Khare, VP, IBM research Semiconductor and AI Hardware community, in a blog announcing the challenge. “…today’s systems have achieved improved AI efficiency by means of infusing desktop-discovering capabilities with high-bandwidth CPUs and GPUs, specialized AI accelerators and high-performance networking equipment. To retain this trajectory, new considering is required to speed up AI efficiency scaling to healthy to ever-increasing AI workload complexities.”

IBM talked about the core will be the nucleus of a new ecosystem of research and industrial partners collaborating with IBM researchers. companions announced these days include Samsung for manufacturing and research, Mellanox applied sciences for top-performance interconnect machine, Synopsys for utility platforms, emulation and prototyping, and IP for establishing high-efficiency silicon chips, and semiconductor equipment businesses applied materials and Tokyo Electron.

Hosted at SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, big apple, in collaboration with neighboring Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute center for Computational innovations, IBM mentioned the company and its companions will “enhance a number of technologies from chip level gadgets, substances, and architecture, to the software supporting AI workloads.”

IBM roadmap for 1,000x improvement in AI compute efficiency efficiency.

large Blue talked about analysis on the middle will center of attention on overcoming “present machine-getting to know limitations via procedures that include approximate computing through Digital AI Cores and in-memory computing via Analog AI Cores. These technologies will provide the thousand-fold increases in efficiency effectivity required for full cognizance of deep studying AI, the subsequent main milestone in AI evolution, based on IBM.

“A key area of analysis and building could be methods that meet the demands of deep learning inference and practising tactics,” Khare noted. “Such systems offer huge accuracy improvements over extra regularly occurring computer studying for unstructured information. these extreme processing calls for will develop exponentially as algorithms develop into more complex so as to convey AI programs with improved cognitive expertise.”

Khare referred to the research center will host R&D, emulation, prototyping, testing and simulation actions for brand spanking new AI cores principally designed for working towards and deploying advanced AI models, together with a look at various mattress by which members can demonstrate improvements in actual-world purposes. really good wafer processing for the center will be completed in Albany with some guide at IBM’s Thomas J. Watson research core in Yorktown Heights, new york.

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Scale the Datacenter with Windows Server SMB Direct | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

In-Depth

Scale the Datacenter with Windows Server SMB Direct

RDMA networking has enabled high-performance computing for years, but Windows Server 2012 R2 with SMB Direct is bringing it to the mainstream.

File-based storage has grown tremendously over the last several years, far outpacing block storage, even as both grow at double-digit rates. Cloud datacenters are deploying file-based protocols at an accelerating pace for virtualized environments, as well as database infrastructure deployed for Big Data applications. The introduction of Server Message Block (SMB) 3.0 with the efficiency and performance of the SMB Direct protocol, has opened new opportunities for file storage in Windows-based datacenters. SMB Direct, a key component of SMB 3.0, can utilize networking based on the Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) protocol to deliver near-SAN-level performance and availability with integrated data protection and optimized data transfer between storage and server (see Figure 1).

[Click on image for larger view.] Figure 1. RDMA networking allows high-speed client to file service data transfers.

RDMA is a specification that has long-provided a means of reducing latency in the transmission of data from one point to another, by placing the data directly into final destination memory, thereby eliminating unnecessary CPU and memory bus utilization. Used primarily for high-performance computing (HPC) for more than a decade, RDMA is now on the cusp of becoming a mainstream means of providing a scalable and high-performance infrastructure. A key factor fueling its growing use is Windows Server 2012 R2 offering several RDMA networking options. I'll review and compare those options within Windows Server 2012 R2 environments.

Windows Scale-Out File ServicesWindows Server 2012 R2 provides massive scale to transform datacenters into an elastic, always-on cloud-like operation designed to run the largest workloads. The server OS provides automated protection and aims to offer cost-effective business continuity to ensure uptime. Windows Server 2012 R2 provides a rich set of storage features letting IT managers move to lower-cost industry-standard hardware rather than purpose-built storage devices, without having to compromise on performance or availability. A vital storage capability in Windows Server 2012 R2 is the Scale-Out File Server (SOFS), which allows the storage of server application data, such as Hyper-V virtual machine (VM) files, on SMB file shares. All files shares are online on all nodes simultaneously. This configuration is commonly referred to as an active-active cluster configuration.

A SOFS allows for continuously available file shares. Continuous availability tracks file operations on a highly available file system so that clients can fail over to another node of the cluster without interruption. This is also known as Transparent Failover.

The Role of SMB DirectThe SMB 3.0 protocol in Windows Server 2012 R2 utilizes the Network Direct Kernel (NDK) layer within the Windows Sever OS to leverage RDMA network adapters (see Figure 2). Using RDMA enables storage that rivals costly and infrastructure-intensive Fibre Channel SANs in efficiency, with lower latency, while operating over standard 10 Gbps and 40 Gbps Ethernet infrastructure. RDMA network adapters offer this performance capability by operating at a line rate with very low latency thanks to CPU bypass and zero copy (the ability to write directly to the memory of the remote storage node using RPCs). In order to obtain these advantages, all transport protocol processing must be performed in the adapter hardware, completely bypassing the host OS.

[Click on image for larger view.] Figure 2. RDMA Networking Configuration on Windows Server 2012 R2.

With NDK, SMB can perform data transfers direct from memory, through the adapter, to the network, and over to the memory of the application requesting data from the file share. This capability is especially useful for I/O-intensive workloads such as Hyper-V or SQL Server, resulting in remote file server performance comparable to local storage.

In contrast, in traditional networking, a request from an application to a remote storage location must go through numerous stages and buffers (involving data copies) on both the client and server side, such as the SMB client or server buffers, the transport protocol drivers in the networking stack, and the network card drivers.

With SMB Direct, the RDMA NIC transfers data straight from the SMB client buffer, through the client NIC to the server NIC, and up to the SMB server buffer, and vice versa. This direct transfer operation allows the application to access remote storage at the same performance as local storage.

Windows Server 2012 provides built-in support for using SMB Direct with Ethernet RDMA NICs, including iWARP (RDMA/TCP), and RoCE NICs (RDMA/UDP), to support high-speed data transfers. These NICs implement RDMA in hardware so that they can transfer data between them without involving the host CPU. As a result, SMB Direct is extremely fast with client-to-file server performance almost equaling that of using local storage.

RDMA NICs offload the server CPU, resulting in more efficient Microsoft virtualized datacenter installs. Windows Server 2012 SMB Direct 3.0 over RDMA provides higher performance by giving direct access to the data that resides on a remote file server, while the CPU reduction enables a larger number of VMs per Hyper-V server, resulting in CapEx and OpEx savings in power dissipation, system configuration and deployment scale throughout the life of the installation. Native system software support for RDMA networking in Windows Server 2012 R2 simplifies storage and VM management for enterprise and cloud IT administrators, with no network reconfiguration required.

Live migration is an important VM mobility feature and improving the performance of live migration has been a consistent focus for Windows Server. In Windows Server 2012 R2, Microsoft took these performance improvements to the next level. Live migration with RDMA is a new feature; it delivers the highest performance for migrations by offloading data transfers to RDMA NIC hardware.

iWARP: RDMA over TCP/IPiWARP is an implementation of RDMA using the ubiquitous Ethernet-TCP/IP networking as the network transport. iWARP NICs implement a hardware TCP/IP stack that eliminates all inefficiencies associated with software TCP/IP processing, while preserving all the benefits of the proven TCP/IP protocol. On the wire, iWARP traffic is thus identical to other TCP/IP applications and requires no special support from switches and routers, or changes to network devices. Thanks to the hardware offloaded TCP/IP, iWARP RDMA NICs offer high-performance and low-latency RDMA operation that's comparable to the latest InfiniBand speeds, and native integration within today's large Ethernet-based networks and clouds.

iWARP is able to dramatically improve upon the most common and widespread Ethernet communications in use today and deliver on the promise of a single, converged Ethernet network for carrying LAN, SAN, and RDMA traffic with the unrestricted routability and scalability of TCP/IP. Today, 40 Gbps Ethernet (40 GbE) iWARP controllers and adapters are available from Chelsio Communications, while Intel Corp. has also announced plans for availability of iWARP Ethernet controllers integrated within upcoming Intel server chipsets.

The iWARP protocol is the open Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard for RDMA over Ethernet. iWARP adapters are fully supported by the OpenFabrics Alliance Enterprise Software Distribution (OFED), with no changes needed for applications to migrate from specialized OFED-compliant RDMA fabrics such as InfiniBand to Ethernet.

Initially aimed at high-performance computing applications, iWARP is also now finding a home in datacenters thanks to its availability on high-performance 40 GbE NICs and increased datacenter demand for low latency, high bandwidth, and low server CPU utilization. It has also been integrated into server OSes such as Microsoft Windows Server 2012 with SMB Direct, which can seamlessly take advantage of iWARP RDMA without user intervention.

InfiniBandInfiniBand is an I/O architecture designed to increase the communication speed between CPUs, devices within servers and subsystems located throughout a network. InfiniBand is a point-to-point, switched I/O fabric architecture. Both devices at each end of a link have full access to the communication path. To go beyond a point and traverse the network, switches come into play. By adding switches, multiple points can be interconnected to create a fabric. As more switches are added to a network, aggregated bandwidth of the fabric increases.

High-performance clustering architectures have provided the main opportunity for InfiniBand deployment. Using the InfiniBand fabric as the cluster inter-process communications (IPC) interconnect may boost cluster performance and scalability while improving application response times. However, using InfiniBand requires deploying a separate infrastructure in addition to the requisite Ethernet network. The added costs in acquisition, maintenance and management have prompted interest in Ethernet-based RDMA alternatives such as iWARP.

Because it's layered on top of TCP, iWARP is fully compatible with existing Ethernet switching equipment that's able to process iWARP traffic out-of-the-box. In comparison, deploying InfiniBand requires environments where two separate network infrastructures are installed and managed, as well as specialized InfiniBand to Ethernet gateways for bridging between the two infrastructures.

RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE)The third RDMA networking option is RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE), which essentially implements InfiniBand over Ethernet. RoCE NICs are offered by Mellanox Technologies. Though it utilizes Ethernet cabling, this approach does suffer from deployment difficulty and costs due to requiring support for complex and expensive Ethernet "lossless" fabrics and Data Center Bridging (DCB) protocols. In addition, RoCE for the longest time lacked routability support, which limited its operation to a single Ethernet subnet.

Instead of using pervasive TCP/IP networking, RoCE relies instead on InfiniBand protocols at Layer 3 (L3) and higher layers in combination with Ethernet at the Link Layer (L2) and Physical Layer (L1). RoCE leverages Converged Ethernet, also known as DCB or Converged Enhanced Ethernet as a lossless physical layer networking medium. RoCE is similar to the Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) protocols in relying on networking infrastructure with DCB protocols. However, such support has been viewed a significant impediment to FCoE deployment, which raises similar concerns for RoCE.

The just-released version 2 of the RoCE protocol will get rid of the IB network layer, replacing it with the more commonly used UDP (connectionless) and IP layer to provide routability. However, RoCE v2 does not specify how lossless operation will be provided over an IP network, or how congestion control will be handled. RoCE v2 currently suffers from an inconsistent premise that continues to require DCB for Ethernet, while no longer operating within the confines of one Ethernet network.


Ambassador: Building a Control Plane for an Envoy-Powered API Gateway on Kubernetes | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Key Takeaways
  • Developed by Datawire, Ambassador is an open source API gateway designed specifically for use with the Kubernetes container orchestration framework. 
  • At its core, Ambassador is a control plane tailored for edge/API configuration for managing the Envoy Proxy “data plane”. 
  • Envoy itself is a cloud native Layer 7 proxy and communication bus used for handling “edge” ingress and service-to-service networking communication.
  • This article provides an insight into the creation of Ambassador, and discusses the technical challenges and lessons learned from building a developer-focused control plane for managing ingress traffic within microservice-based applications that are deployed into a Kubernetes cluster.
  • Migrating Ambassador to the Envoy v2 configuration and Aggregated Discovery Service (ADS) APIs was a long and difficult journey that required lots of architecture and design discussions, and plenty of coding, but early feedback from the community has been positive.  
  • Developed by Datawire, Ambassador is an open source API gateway designed specifically for use with the Kubernetes container orchestration framework. At its core, Ambassador is a control plane tailored for edge/API configuration for managing the Envoy Proxy “data plane”. Envoy itself is a cloud native Layer 7 proxy and communication bus used for handling “edge” ingress and service-to-service networking communication. Although originating from Lyft, Envoy is rapidly becoming the de facto proxy for modern networking, and can be found with practically all of the public cloud vendors offerings, as well as bespoke usage by many large end-user organisations like eBay, Pinterest and Groupon. 

    This article provides an insight into the creation of Ambassador, and discusses the technical challenges and lessons learned from building a developer-focused control plane for managing ingress traffic within microservice-based applications that are deployed into a Kubernetes cluster.

    The Emerging “Cloud Native” Fabric: Kubernetes and Envoy

    Although the phrase “cloud native” is becoming as much of an overloaded term as “DevOps” and “microservices”, it is increasingly gaining traction throughout the IT industry. According to Gartner, the 2018 worldwide public cloud service revenue forecast was in the region of $175 Billion U.S. Dollars, and this could grow by over 15% next year. Although the current public cloud market is dominated by only a few key players that offer mostly proprietary technologies (and increasingly, and sometimes controversially, open source-as-service), the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) was founded in 2015 by the Linux foundation to provide a place for discussion and hosting of "open source components of a full stack cloud native environment". 

    Possibly learning from the journey previously undertaken by the OpenStack community, the early projects supported by the CNCF were arguably less ambitious in scope, provided clearer (opinionated) abstractions, and were also proven in real world usage (or inspired by real world usage in the case of Kubernetes). Two key platform components that have emerged from the CNCF are the Kubernetes container orchestration framework, originally contributed by Google, and the Envoy proxy for edge and service-to-service networking, originally donated by Lyft. Even when combined, the two specific technologies don’t provide a full Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) offering that many developers want. However, Kubernetes and Envoy are being included within many PaaS-like offerings.

    Many PaaS vendors, and also end-user engineering teams, are treating these technologies as the “data plane” for cloud native systems: i.e. the part of the system that does the “heavy-lifting”, such as orchestrating containers and routing traffic based on Layer 7 metadata (such as HTTP URIs and headers, or MongoDB protocol metadata). Accordingly, a lot of innovation and commercial opportunities are focused on creating an effective “control plane”, which is where the end-user interacts with the technology, specifies configuration to be enacted by the data plane, and observes any metrics or logging.

    The Kubernetes control plane is largely focused around a series of well-specified REST-like APIs (known simply as “the Kubernetes API”), and the associated ‘kubectl’ CLI tool provides a human-friendly abstraction over these APIs. The Envoy v1 control plane was initially based around JSON config loaded within files, with several loosely-defined APIs that allowed selective updating. These APIs have subsequently evolved into the Envoy v2 API, which provides a series of gRPC-based APIs that are strongly typed via the use of Protocol Buffers. However, initially there wasn’t an Envoy analogy to the Kubernetes kubectl tool, and this led to challenges in adoption by some teams. Where there are challenges, though, there are also opportunities within the implementation of a human-friendly control plane.

    “Service Mesh-all-the-things”...Maybe?

    If they focus on the networking control plane, it would be hard to miss the emergence of the concept of the “service mesh”. Technologies like Istio, Linkerd and Consul Connect are aiming to manage cross-cutting service-to-service (“east-west”) traffic within a microservices systems. Indeed, Istio itself is effectively a control plane that enables a user to manage Envoy Proxy as the underlying data plane for managing Layer 7 networking traffic across the mesh. Linkerd offers its own (now Rust-based) proxy as the data plane, and Consul Connect offers both a bespoke proxy and, more recently, support for Envoy.

    Istio architecture, showing the Envoy Proxy data plane at the top half of the diagram, and the control plane below (image courtesy of Istio documentation)

    The important thing to remember with a service mesh is that the assumption is that you typically exert a high-degree of ownership and control on both parties that are communicating over the mesh. For example, two services may be built by separate engineering departments but they will typically work for the same organisation, or one service may be a third-party application but it is deployed within your trusted network boundary (which may span multiple data centers or Virtual Private Clouds). Here your operations team will typically agree on sensible communication defaults, and service teams will independently configure inter-service routing. In these scenarios you may not fully trust each service, and you most certainly will want to implement protections like rate limiting and circuit breaking, but fundamentally you can investigate and change any bad behaviour detected. This is not true, however, for managing edge or ingress (“north-south”) traffic that originates from outside your network boundary.

    Cluster “ingress” traffic generally originates from sources outside of your direct control

    Any communication originating from outside your trusted network can be from a bad actor, with motivations that are intentional (e.g. cyber criminals) or otherwise (e.g. broken client library within a mobile app), and therefore you must put appropriate defenses in place. Here the operations team will specify sensible system defaults, and also adapt these in real-time based on external events. In addition to rate limiting, you probably also want the ability to configure global and API-specific load shedding, for example, if the backend services or datastores become overwhelmed, and also implement DDoS protection (which may also be time- or geographically-specified). Service development teams also want access to the edge to configure routing for a new API, to test or release a new service via traffic shadowing or canary releasing, or other tasks.

    As a quick aside, for further discussion on the (sometimes confusing) role of API gateways, Christian Posta has recently published an interesting blog post, “API Gateways Are Going Through an Identity Crisis”. I have also written articles about the role of an API gateway during a cloud/container migration or digital transformation, and how API gateways can be integrated with modern continuous delivery patterns.

    Although at first glance these service mesh and edge/API gateway use cases may appear very similar, they believe there are subtle (and not so subtle) differences, and this impacts the design of the associated inter-service and edge control planes. 

    Designing a Edge Control Plane 

    The choice of control plane is influenced heavily by the scope of control required, and the persona(s) of the primary people using it. My colleague Rafael Schloming has talked about this before at QCon San Francisco, where he discussed how the requirements to centralise or decentralise control and also the development/operation lifecycle stage in which a service is currently at (prototype, mission critical etc) impacts the implementation of the control plane. 

    As mentioned above, taking an edge proxy control plane as the example, a centralised operations or SRE team may want to specify globally sensible defaults and safeguards for all ingress traffic. However, the (multiple) decentralised product development teams working at the front line and releasing functionality will want fine-grained control for their services in isolation, and potentially (if they are embracing the “freedom and responsibility” model) the ability to override global safeguards locally.

    A conscious choice that was made by the Ambassador community was that the primary persona targeted by the Ambassador control plane is the developeror application engineer, and therefore the focus on the control plane was on decentralised configuration. Ambassador was built to be Kubernetes-specific, and so a logical choice for specifying edge configuration was close to the Kubernetes Service specifications that were contained within YAML files and loaded into Kubernetes via kubectl. 

    Options for specifying Ambassador configuration included using the Kubernetes Ingress object, writing custom Kubernetes annotations or defining Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs). Ultimately the use of annotations was chosen, as they were simple and presented a minimal learning curve for the end-user. Using Ingress may have appeared to be the most obvious first choice, but unfortunately the specification for Ingress has been stuck in perpetual beta, and other than the “lowest common denominator” functionality for managing ingress traffic, not much else has been agreed upon.

    An example of an Ambassador annotation that demonstrates a simple endpoint-to-service routing on a Kubernetes Service can be seen here:

    kind: Service apiVersion: v1 metadata: name: my-service annotations: getambassador.io/config: | --- apiVersion: ambassador/v0 kind: Mapping name: my_service_mapping prefix: /my-service/ service: my-service spec: selector: app: MyApp ports: - protocol: TCP port: 80 targetPort: 9376

    The configuration within the getambassador.io/config should be relatively self-explanatory to anyone who has configured an edge proxy, reverse proxy or API gateway before. Traffic sent to the prefix endpoint will be “mapped” or routed to the “my-service” Kubernetes service. As this article is primarily focused on the designing and implementation of Ambassador, they won’t cover all of the functionality that can be configured, such as routing (including traffic shadowing), canarying (with integration with Prometheus for monitoring) and rate limiting. Although Ambassador is focused on the developer persona, there is also extensive support for operators, and centralised configuration can be specified for authentication, TLS/SNI, tracing and service mesh integration.

    Let’s now turn their attention back onto the evolution of Ambassador over the past two years.

    Ambassador < v0.40: Envoy v1 APIs, Templating, and Hot Restarts

    Ambassador itself is deployed within a container as a Kubernetes service, and uses the annotations added to Kubernetes Services as its core configuration model. This approach enables application developers to manage routing as part of their Kubernetes service definition workflow process (perhaps as part of a “GitOps” approach). Translating the simple Ambassador annotation config into valid Envoy v1 config is not a trivial task. By design, Ambassador’s configuration isn’t based on the same conceptual model as Envoy’s configuration -- they deliberately wanted to aggregate and simplify operations and config -- and herefore, a fair amount of logic within Ambassador translates between one set of concepts to the other. 

    Specifically when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:

  • Ambassador is asynchronously notified by the Kubernetes API of the change.
  • Ambassador translates the configuration into an abstract intermediate representation (IR).
  • An Envoy configuration file is generated from the IR.
  • The Envoy configuration file is validated by Ambassador (using Envoy in validation mode).
  • Assuming the file is valid configuration, Ambassador uses Envoy's hot restart mechanism to deploy the new configuration and properly drain connections.
  • Traffic flows through the restarted Envoy process.
  • There were many benefits with this initial implementation: the mechanics involved were fundamentally simple, the transformation of Ambassador config into Envoy config was reliable, and the file-based hot restart integration with Envoy was dependable. 

    However, there were also notable challenges with this version of Ambassador. First, although the hot restart was effective for the majority of use cases, it was not very fast, and some users (particularly those with large application deployments) found it was limiting the frequency with which they could change their configuration. Hot restart can also inappropriately drop connections, especially long-lived connections like WebSockets or gRPC streams.

    More crucially, though, the first implementation of the Ambassador-to-Envoy intermediate representation (IR) allowed rapid prototyping but was primitive enough that it proved very difficult to make substantial changes. While this was a pain point from the beginning, it became a critical issue as Envoy shifted to the Envoy v2 API. It was clear that the v2 API would offer Ambassador many benefits -- as Matt Klein outlined in his blog post, “The universal data plane API” -- including access to new features and a solution to the connection-drop problem noted above, but it was also clear that the existing IR implementation was not capable of making the leap.

    Ambassador Now: Envoy v2 APIs (with ADS), Intermediate Representations, and Testing with KAT

    In consultation with the Ambassador community, the Datawire team (stewarded by Flynn, lead engineer for Ambassador) undertook a redesign of the internals of Ambassador in 2018. This was driven by two key goals. First, they wanted to integrate Envoy’s v2 configuration format, which would enable the support of features such as Server Name Indication (SNI), label-based rate limiting, and improved authentication. Second, they also wanted to do much more robust semantic validation of Envoy configuration, due to its increasing complexity (which was particularly when configuring Envoy for use with large-scale application deployments).

    We started by restructuring the Ambassador internals more along the lines of a multipass compiler. The class hierarchy was made to more closely mirror the separation of concerns between the Ambassador configuration resources, the IR, and the Envoy configuration resources. Core parts of Ambassador were also redesigned to facilitate contributions from the community outside Datawire. They decided to take this approach for several reasons. First, Envoy Proxy is a very fast moving project, and they realised that they needed an approach where a seemingly minor Envoy configuration change didn’t result in days of reengineering within Ambassador. In addition, they wanted to be able to provide semantic verification of configuration. 

    As they started working more closely with Envoy v2, a testing challenge was quickly identified. As more and more features were being supported in Ambassador, more and more bugs appeared in Ambassador’s handling of less common but completely valid combinations of features. This drove to creation of a new testing requirement that meant Ambassador’s test suite needed to be reworked to automatically manage many combinations of features, rather than relying on humans to write each test individually. Moreover, they wanted the test suite to be fast in order to maximise engineering productivity.

    This meant that as part of the Ambassador re-architecture, they also created the Kubernetes Acceptance Test (KAT) framework. KAT is an extensible test framework that:

  • Deploys a bunch of services (along with Ambassador) to a Kubernetes cluster
  • Run a series of verification queries against the spun up APIs
  • Perform a bunch of assertions on those query results
  • KAT is designed for performance -- it batches test setup upfront, and then runs all the queries in step 3 asynchronously with a high performance HTTP client. The traffic driver in KAT runs locally using one of other open source tools, Telepresence, which makes it easier to debug issues.

    With the KAT test framework in place, they quickly ran into some issues with Envoy v2 configuration and hot restart, which presented the opportunity to switch to using Envoy’s Aggregated Discovery Service (ADS) APIs instead of hot restart. This completely eliminated the requirement for a process restart upon configuration changes, which previously they had found could lead to dropped connections under high loads or long-lived connections. They decided to use the Envoy Go control plane to interface to the ADS. This did, however, introduce a Go-based dependency to the previously predominantly Python-based Ambassador codebase.

    With a new test framework, new IR generating valid Envoy v2 configuration, and the ADS, the major architectural changes in Ambassador 0.50 were complete. Now when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:

    Just before release they hit one more issue. On the Azure Kubernetes Service, Ambassador annotation changes were no longer being detected. Working with the highly-responsive AKS engineering team, they were able to identify the issue -- namely, the Kubernetes API server in AKS is exposed through a chain of proxies that was dropping some requests. The proper mitigation for this was to support calling the FQDN of the API server, which is provided through a mutating webhook in AKS. Unfortunately, support for this feature was not available in the official Kubernetes Python client. They therefore elected to switch to the Kubernetes Golang client -- introducing yet another Go-based dependency.

    Key Takeaways from Building an Envoy Control Plane (Twice!)

    As Matt Klein mentioned at the inaugural EnvoyCon, with the current popularity of the Envoy Proxy in the cloud native technology domain, it’s often easier to ask who isn’t using Envoy. They know that Google’s Istio has helped raise the profile of Envoy with Kubernetes users, and all of the other major cloud vendors are investing in Envoy, for example, within AWS App Mesh and Azure Service Fabric Mesh. At EnvoyCon they also heard how several big players such as eBay, Pinterest and Groupon are migrating to using Envoy as their primary edge proxy. There are also several other open source Envoy-based edge proxy control planes emerging, such as Istio Gateway, Solo.io Gloo, and Heptio Contour. I would argue that Envoy is indeed becoming the universal data plane of cloud native communications, but there is much work still to be done within the domain of the control plane.

    In this article we’ve discussed how the Datawire team and Ambassador open source community have successfully migrated the Ambassador edge control plane to use the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs. We’ve learned a lot in the process of building Ambassador 0.50, and they are keen to highlight their key takeaways as follows:

  • Kubernetes and Envoy are very powerful frameworks, but they are also extremely fast moving targets -- there is sometimes no substitute for reading the source code and talking to the maintainers (who are fortunately all quite accessible!)
  • The best supported libraries in the Kubernetes / Envoy ecosystem are written in Go. While they love Python, but they have had to adopt Go so that we’re not forced to maintain too many components ourselves.
  • Redesigning a test harness is sometimes necessary to move your software forward. Often the real cost in redesigning a test harness is often in porting your old tests to the new harness implementation.
  • Designing (and implementing) an effective control plane for the edge proxy use case has been challenging, and the feedback from the open source community around Kubernetes, Envoy and Ambassador has been extremely useful.
  • Migrating Ambassador to the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs was a long and difficult journey that required lots of architecture and design discussions, and plenty of coding, but early feedback from results have been positive. Ambassador 0.50 is available now, so you can take it for a test run and share your feedback with the community on our Slack channel or on Twitter. 

    About the Author

    Daniel Bryant is leading change within organisations and technology, and currently works as a freelance consultant, of which Datawire is a client. His current work includes enabling agility within organisations by introducing better requirement gathering and planning techniques, focusing on the relevance of architecture within agile development, and facilitating continuous integration/delivery. Daniel’s current technical expertise focuses on ‘DevOps’ tooling, cloud/container platforms and microservice implementations. He is also a leader within the London Java Community (LJC), contributes to several open source projects, writes for well-known technical websites such as InfoQ, DZone and Voxxed, and regularly presents at international conferences such as QCon, JavaOne and Devoxx.


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